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Sample records for analysis naa radioisotope

  1. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  2. An endogenous standard, radioisotopic ratio method in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.

    1997-01-01

    A derivative form of NAA is proposed which is based on the use of an endogenous internal standard of already known concentration in the sample. If a comparator with a known ratio of the determinand and endogenous standard are co-irradiated with the sample, the determinand concentration is derived in terms of the endogenous standard concentration and the activity ratios of the two induced nuclides in the sample and comparator. As well as eliminating the sample mass and greatly reducing errors caused by pulse pile-up and geometrical differences, it was shown that in the radiochemical mode, if the endogenous standard is chosen so that the induced activity is radioisotopic with that from the determinand, the radiochemical yield is also eliminated and the risk non-achievement of isotopic exchange greatly reduced. The method is demonstrated with good results on reference materials for the determination of I, Mn and Ni. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. It is suggested that it may be of application in quality control and in extending the range of certified elements in reference materials. (author)

  3. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, J.R. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  4. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  6. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  7. Multielement analysis of foods and related materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents FDA's use of prompt- and delayed-gamma thermal neutron activation analysis (PGAA and INAA, respectively), collectively referred to here is NAA, for the analysis of foods. Several elements of nutritional or toxicological importance can be simultaneously determined at levels ranging from trace to percent. Concentrations of aluminum, boron, bromine, calcium, chlorine, hydrogen, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen, sodium, and sulfur can be determined in < 1 day in most foods. For INAA, after a few weeks of decay following irradiation, cobalt, cesium, iron, rubidium, scandium, and zinc can also be determined. Other elements that are detectable in only some food types include cadmium, chromium, copper, iodine, phosphorus, antimony, selenium, titanium, and vanadium

  8. The position of NAA among the methods of inorganic trace analysis in the past and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    A short review of the possibilities and significance of the reactor based neutron activation analysis (NAA) over the past 60 years is presented on the background of development of other techniques of inorganic trace analysis. Some unique features of NAA which still make this method important and attractive are emphasized. (author)

  9. Workbook on reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) of airborne particulate matter (APM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2000-01-01

    This publication presents general aspects of reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to measurement of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter. It presents an introduction to the NAA, its' basic principles and brief history of the method and discusses its' advantages and disadvantages. This publication also presents experimental procedures of NAA including sampling and sample preparation; preparation of calibration standard samples; reactor neutron irradiation; gamma-spectroscopy of the irradiated samples; quantification and presentation of analytical results. The publication pays attention to the quality assurance and quality control procedures including internal quality control, analysis of certified reference materials, and interlaboratory and multi-method comparison studies, control charts

  10. Bronze analysis by k0-NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, G.; Waetjen, U.; Ingelbrecht, C.; Robouch, P.

    2003-01-01

    Five copper alloys were prepared with modern powder metallurgical processes in the frame of the European project 'Improvement of Means of Measurement on Archaeological Copper-Alloys for Characterisation and Conservation (IMMACO)' and certified for As, Pb, Sn and Zn mass fractions. Similar in their composition to archaeological bronze alloys, these Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are to be used for calibration of XRF instruments for characterization of archaeological samples either in the laboratory or in the field. Successful contribution of non-destructive analytical methods (k 0 -NAA and PIXE) to the IMMACO project and to the certification of the five reference materials is presented. (author)

  11. Analysis of Ca and Mg in blood of golden hamster using NAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo O.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rodrigoaguiar@usp.br, e-mail: czamboni@ipen.br, e-mail: jageiros@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine simultaneously Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood of Golden Hamster. The reference values for Ca (0.17 - 0.29 gL{sup -1} ) and Mg (0.042 - 0.074 gL{sup -1} ) can be used to performed biochemistry investigation using whole blood. (author)

  12. The k0-based neutron activation analysis: a mono standard to standardless approach of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) uses neutron flux parameters, detection efficiency and nuclear constants namely k 0 and Q 0 for the determination of concentration of elements. Gold ( 197 Au) or any other element having suitable nuclear properties is used as external or internal single comparator. This article describes the principle of k 0 -NAA and standardization of method by characterization of reactor irradiation sites and calibration of efficiency of the detector and applications. The method was validated using CRMs obtained from USGS, IAEA and NIST. The applications of method includes samples like gemstones (ruby, beryl and emerald), sediments, manganese nodules and encrustations, cereals, and medicinal and edible leaves. Recently, a k-o-based internal mono standard INAA (IM-NAA) method using in-situ relative efficiency has been standardized by us for the analysis of small and large samples of different shapes and sizes. The method was applied to a new meteorite sample and large size wheat samples. Non-standard size and shape samples of nuclear cladding materials namely zircaloy 2 and 4, stainless steels (SS 316M and D9) and 1S aluminium were analysed. Standard-less analysis of these cladding materials was possible by mass balance approach since all the major and minor elements were amenable to NAA. (author)

  13. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  14. The analysis of geological samples using NAA methods in RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina Mulyaningsih, Th.

    2002-01-01

    Because of irradiation facilities usage and development of NAA method in P2TRR, the geological samples was analyzed by NAA method. The aim of this research is to know the elements contain in geological samples. The samples were irradiated in the RSG-GAS's rabbit system. Samples pasca irradiation were measured by gamma spectrometer. The results of analysis showed that the stone samples contained different elements : Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, La, Lu, Na, Np, Pd, and Sm. The sand samples contained: Bi, Cd, Cs, Co, Fe, Eu, K, Pd, La, Lu, Na, Sc, Sm, Th, and Yb elements. There was a variation in elements concentration between 1.34 ppm Cr (lowest) and 179.06 ppm Sr (highest)

  15. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-29

    Nov 29, 2017 ... Chemistry, 219(1): 99 – 103. Win, D.T. (2004): Neuron activation analysis. Assumption University Journal of. Technology, 8(1): 8 – 14. Yalwa, I.R. (2002): Proximate and Amino Acid composition of Vigna dekindtiana. Unpublished M.Sc. Analytical Chemistry. Thesis (BUK). Yruela, I. (2005): Copper in plants.

  16. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de

    2011-01-01

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg -1 ) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg -1 ) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg -1 ). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  17. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  18. Safety Analysis for a Radioisotope Stirling Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William D. Richins; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Stephen R. Novascone; Barbara H. Dolphin

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory INL is conducting safety analyses of Radioisotope Stirling Generators for the Department of Energy (NE-50) to support the use of these devices as terrestrial power sources. These systems are electrical power generators converting thermal energy from plutonium (238Pu) decay to electrical energy via a Stirling cycle generator. The design and function are similar to the RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) used in space missions since the early 1960's, with a more efficient Stirling cycle generator replacing the proven thermoelectric converter. The subject generator is the product of a collaborative effort by Lockheed Martin, Infinia, and the Glenn Research Center. This paper discusses the methods the INL is employing in the safety analysis effort, along with the software tools, lessons learned, and results. The overall goal of our safety analyses is to determine the probability of an accidental plutonium release over the life of the generator. Historical accident rates for various storage and transportation modes were investigated using event tree methods. Source terms were developed for these accidents including primarily impact, fire, and creep rupture. A negative result was defined as rupture of the tantalum alloy containment vessel surrounding the encapsulated plutonia pellet. Damage due to identified impact accidents was evaluated using non-linear finite element software tools. Material models, gathered from a wide variety of sources, included strain-rate and temperature dependencies on yield strength, strain hardening, and rupture. The overall simulation results predicted by our software tools will be validated by impact testing. Results from deterministic impact, fire, and creep rupture analyses were integrated into the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment by correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. This approach presented challenges, which are addressed. Other significant issues

  19. Comparison of NAA XRF and ICP-OES Methods on Analysis of Heavy Metals in Coals and Combustion Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Taftazani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in the samples of coals and combustion residues (bottom ash and fly ash from Pacitan coal-fired power plant (CPP have been identified by using NAA, XRF, and ICP-OES methods. This research was aimed to understand the analysis results correlation coefficient (R and determine the enrichment ratio (ER value of the samples by using three analysis methods. The results showed 10 elements have been simultaneously detected in all samples. The correlation coefficient of analysis results of metals content in coals by using NAA-XRF, XRF-ICP OES and with ICPOES-NAA methods gives R2£1 respectively. The correlation coefficient of analysis results of metals content in bottom ash and fly ash by using the methods of NAA-XRF, XRF-ICPOES, and ICPOES-NAA gained R2»1 respectively. ICP-OES method was most satisfactory in this study. The value of ER for identified metals by using the three methods in the samples of bottom ash and fly ash yielded the value over one, and ER value of fly ash was greater in comparison to the bottom ash.

  20. Studies on computer analysis for radioisotope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi

    1977-01-01

    A hybrid type image file and processing system are devised by the author to file and the radioisotope image processing with analog display. This system has some functions as follows; Ten thousand images can be stored in 60 feets length video-tape-recorder (VTR) tape. Maximum of an image on the VTR tape is within 15 sec. An image display enabled by the analog memory, which has brightness more than 15 gray levels. By using the analog memories, effective image processing can be done by the small computer. Many signal sources can be inputted into the hybrid system. This system can be applied many fields to both routine works and multi-purpose radioisotope image processing. (auth.)

  1. Composition analysis of Ta-W alloy using NAA and EDXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Chavan, Trupti A.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Tantalum-Tungsten (Ta-W) alloy is a high strength alloy and is used in corrosion resistant chemical process equipment's including heat exchangers, condensers, heating and cooling coils and reaction vessels. Ta-W alloy is also used as ion extraction plate during laser Isotope separation of uranium and hence the composition is critical for its optimal application. The composition of the alloy was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) techniques. Ta-W alloy sample was received from Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad. For NAA, samples (50 - 500 mg) were sealed in polyethylene. High purity Ta foil (30 - 40 mg) and W foil (10 - 20 mg) were packed and used as comparators. Samples and standards were irradiated in the graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai for 4 hours. After suitable decay period, radioactivity assay was carried out using a 45% relative efficiency high purity germanium (HPGe) detector coupled to MCA with 8 k conversion gain

  2. Analysis of some herbal plants from India used in the control of diabetes mellitus by NAA and AAS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Pardeshi, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the control of diabetes has been done by the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ca, Zn and Hg are found to be present in different plants in various proportions. (Author)

  3. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  4. PIXE: early NAA revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    A short, comparative evaluation of the methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA), and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is given based on the Proc. of the 2nd international conference on PIXE and its analytical applications. The conference took place June 9-12, 1980, Lund, Sweden. 'The PIXE people have paralleled NAA people - in work, problems and mistakes, summarises the author, but PIXE was proved and established as a standard analytical method.' The method has proved extremely valuable in microprobe applications. (Sz.J.)

  5. Analysis of ZDDP Content and Thermal Decomposition in Motor Oils Using NAA and NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, S.; Johnson, J.; Gonzales, D.; Hobbs, C.; Allen, C.; Williams, S.

    Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) are one of the most common anti-wear additives present in commercially-available motor oils. The ZDDP concentrations of motor oils are most commonly determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). As part of an undergraduate research project, we have determined the Zn concentrations of eight commercially-available motor oils and one oil additive using neutron activation analysis (NAA), which has potential for greater accuracy and less sensitivity to matrix effects as compared to ICP-AES. The 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectra were also obtained for several oil additive samples which have been heated to various temperatures in order to study the thermal decomposition of ZDDPs.

  6. Determination of iodine in biological samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, P.V.; Karunakara, N.; Prabhu, Ujwal; Yashodhara, I.; Ravi, P.M.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    During normal operating conditions of a nuclear reactor, the release of radionuclides to the environment will be extremely low and well within the limits. Radioiodine ( 131 I) is one of the radionuclides likely to get released into the atmosphere in case of a reactor accident. During the short initial phase of release of radioactivity, 131 I is rapidly transferred to milk, leading to significant thyroid dose to those consuming milk, especially infant and children. Hence, studies on Iodine transfer through grass-cow-milk is very important. Extensive studies on transfer for 131 I through grass-cow-milk pathway after Chernobyl accident has been reported. But, under normal operational conditions of the power reactor, 131 I is not present in measurable concentration in environmental matrices of a nuclear power generating station. Stable iodine is present in all environmental samples and from the concentration of stable iodine in grass and milk, one can estimate the transfer factor. The measurement of stable iodine in environmental sample is very challenging because of its extremely low concentration. Neutron activation analysis can be used for estimation of stable iodine in the environment after suitably optimizing the condition to minimize interferences. A method has been developed based on thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to estimate the iodine concentration present in grass and cow milk

  7. Study of bioavailability of Mn in soil manured with bio solids using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This work evaluated, using neutron activation analysis (NAA), the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus manured with bio solids. Manganese is an important micro nutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxy reduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. Its lack causes a decrease in photosynthesis, which reduces growth and productivity. In alkaline soils there is manganese deficiency. The critical level of Mn is 675 μg:g -1 , above this value manganese is toxic to the plant, but the bio solids applied had a concentration of 300 μg:g -1 , below the critical level. 16 samples were analyzed, and various elements were detected. But the interest in this work was to evaluate the behavior of Mn with increasing the amount of bio solids used as manure. Three different concentrations of bio solids: 10 kg:ha -1 ; 20 kg:ha -1 and 40 kg:ha -1 were applied. Alkaline bio solids provides an increase of the soil pH, which cause the reduction of the manganese availability. The bio solid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown into sanitary lands. The level of pH above 5.5 causes the Mn reduction. The values obtained showed this reduction of Mn phytoavailability with the bio solids increase. (author)

  8. The evaluation of accuracy of NAA method used by P2TRR laboratory with food standard reference material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina M, Th.; Sri-Wardhani; Sunarko

    2003-01-01

    The NAA method is the analysis method with high precision and accuracy level. The precision and accuracy of NAA laboratory in P2TRR had been evaluated with SRM 1573a Tomato Leaf and CRM No.9 Sargasso. Samples were irradiated in RSG-GAS's rabbit system and counted with gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from this research are for the SRM 1573a sample the test could analyze 17 elements of the 40 certified elements, and for CRM No.9 sample the test could analyze 16 elements of the 30 certified elements. The result of quantitative analysis indicate the different deviation of each element between 2 -10.5 % compared to the certificate data. This deviation value <15%, this value shows that the precision and accuracy level is good enough

  9. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah [Division of Waste and Environmental Technology, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Nadiah Binti [Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, UiTM Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  10. Determination of rare earth contents in plant and soil by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafka, B.; Lin, X.L.; Henkelmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The results presented are typical analytical results for Bavarian soils and plants. Plants and soils collected from identical sites are used to quantify the ratios of rare earth contents. This work has been in close cooperation with several governmental institutions, who are responsible for the protection and surveillance of agricultural sites and wooded areas. Routine sampling takes place on selected areas in the federal state of Bavaria, and the samples (soil and plants as wheat, corn or needles) are analysed with use of AAS, ICP-OES or ICP-MS techniques. INAA as an alternative method is in this context very interesting because it does not involve any sample pretreatment, prior to irradiation. It could be shown for chosen elements (K, Cr, Zn etc.), that incomplete digestion can lead to results which are remarkably lower than the total content in the sample. INAA also is an excellent technique to analyse rare earth elements. The advantage of analysing the original material, which only needs to be dried and homogenized, allows the determination of total values for most of the elements, independent of the chemical binding state of the atoms. Due to this reason, INAA is often called 'independent of matrix'. Only when the g-spectroscopy after activation is carried out, the main components may disturb the determination of trace elements. In soils, the matrix allows the pure instrumental determination of 9 rare earth elements (Ce, Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb). In plant material, the rare earth concentrations are much lower, so a chemical separation is needed in order to remove or reduce the main interferences like Na, K, Br etc. This combination of NAA with radiochemical separation is called Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) and allows to determine the same elements as in soils, except Dy

  11. Lead shielded cells for the spectrographic analysis of radioisotope solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.; Cruz, F. de la

    1967-01-01

    Two lead shielded cells for the spectrochemical analysis of radioisotope samples are described. One of them is devoted to the evaporation of samples before excitation and the other one contains a suitable spectrographic excitation stand for the copper spark technique. A special device makes it possible the easy displacement of the excitation cell on wheels and rails for its accurate and reproducible position as well as its replacement by a glove box for plutonium analysis. In order to guarantee safety the room in which the spectrograph and the source are set up in separated from the active laboratory by a wall with a suitable window. (Author) 1 refs

  12. Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases by NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Damame, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the ayurveda for curing of cardiovascular diseases has been performed using the techniques of neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of elements Mn, Na, K and Cl has been estimated by NAA using a 252 Cf neutron source and a high purity germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer, while the elements, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were analysed by ASS using a Perkin Elmer 3100 instrument. (author)

  13. Analysis of Angolan human hair samples by the k0-NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, P.C.D; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2006-01-01

    There is personal difference in concentrations of trace elements in the human hair according to human life or history such as occupation, sex, age, food, habit, social condition and so on. It is also found that the individual's deviation of elemental concentrations reflecting the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to the human body, intakes of food and metabolism. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on research reactor has been recommended by WHO and IAEA as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multi-element and routine. This report presents the results of determination of about 20 elements in 23 human hair samples, which have been collected from different places in Angola by using k 0 -NAA technique on Dalat nuclear research reactor. Accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of two human hair certified reference materials (CRMs), i.e. NIES-5 and GBW-09101 and assessed by the deviation of experiment to certified values generally within 10% and U-score values mostly lower 2. (author)

  14. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  15. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - Development of the precise analysis method for plastic materials by the use of NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Sim, Sang Kwan; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The demand for inorganic analysis of plastics has significantly increased in the fields of microelectronic, environmental, nuclear and resource recycling. The difficulties of chemical analysis methods have led to the application of NAA which has great advantages of non-destructivity, freedom from blank, high sensitivity. The goal of the present work is to optimize and to develop the NAA procedures for the inorganic analysis of plastics. Even though NAA has unique advantages, it has two problems for plastics. One is the contamination by metallic utensils during sample treatment and the other is destruction of sample ampule due to pressure build-up by hydrogen and methane gas formed from oxyhydrogenation reaction with neutrons. For the first problem, large plastics were cut to pieces after immersion in liquid nitrogen. And the second problem has been solved by making an aperture on top side of sample ampule. These research results have been applied to analysis of various plastic materials which were used in food, drug containers and toys for children. Moreover, korean irradiation rabbit could be produced by the application of the results and standard reference materials of plastics which were used for the analysis in XRF and ICP could be produced. 36 refs., 6 figs., 37 tabs (Author)

  16. Analysis of toxical element in the whitening cream cosmetic samples using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th Rina M; Sunarko

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been done to analyze of toxical elements that is not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. These samples have been randomly selected from the cosmetic market. The samples were irradiated at thermal neutron flux of 10 13 3n.cm -2 s -1 in the irradiation facility of rabbit system in the RSG-GAS reactor Serpong. Counting of irradiated samples have been done by a high resolution HPGe detector couple to multichannel analyzer. Data have been analyzed by GENIE 2000. The sample have been qualitatively determined up to 19 elements. These elements are: As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Rb, Th, IV, and Zn. The result of qualitative analysis showed that the toxical elements present in the samples are Hg, As, Cr and Sb with the following concentration ranges in μg/g 25.2-65.1, 1.0-6.3, 30.5-89.1 and 2.9-5.3, respectively and these element not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. Besides that, the others elements have been detected in the samples are Br, Fe, Zn, Sc and Co, with concentration ranges, 13.1-36.4, 65.6-159.3, 0.79-77.1, 0.5-19.5, and 6.8-31.7 μg/g, respectively, in the sample whitening cream cosmetic. (author)

  17. Application of k0-based internal monostandard NAA for large sample analysis of clay pottery. As a part of inter comparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Shinde, A.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of inter comparison exercise of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project on large sample neutron activation analysis, a large size and non standard geometry size pottery replica (obtained from Peru) was analyzed by k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). Two large size sub samples (0.40 and 0.25 kg) were irradiated at graphite reflector position of AHWR Critical Facility in BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. Small samples (100-200 mg) were also analyzed by IM-NAA for comparison purpose. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40 % relative efficiency HPGe detector. To examine homogeneity of the sample, counting was also carried out using X-Z rotary scanning unit. In situ relative detection efficiency was evaluated using gamma rays of the activation products in the irradiated sample in the energy range of 122-2,754 keV. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na of small size (100 mg mass) as well as large size (15 and 400 g) samples were used to check the homogeneity of the samples. Concentration ratios of 18 elements such as K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf and Th with respect to Na (internal mono standard) were calculated using IM-NAA. Absolute concentrations were arrived at for both large and small samples using Na concentration, obtained from relative method of NAA. The percentage combined uncertainties at ±1 s confidence limit on the determined values were in the range of 3-9 %. Two IAEA reference materials SL-1 and SL-3 were analyzed by IM-NAA to evaluate accuracy of the method. (author)

  18. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  19. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  20. Analysis of status of radiation/radioisotopes utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Kon Wuk [Business Innovation Office, Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The use of radiation and radioisotopes in Korea has been increasing each year, and its impact on economy and industry is expected to be increasing progressively following the development of industrial technology and the expansion of their usage. To establish and supporting policies for industries using radiation and radioisotopes, it is necessary to check the status of related industries accurately, as well as to gather data required to establish plans for industrial development by studying both revenues and economic scale (contributing to revenue). o analyze the status of utilization, surveys were carried out on 6,621 organizations engaged in nuclear operations handling radiation and radioisotopes pursuant to the Nuclear Safety Act as of end 2014, on 33,471 medical institutions using radiation generators for medical and diagnostic purposes pursuant to the Medical Service Act, and on 2,218 organizations using radiation generators for animal diagnostics pursuant to the Veterinary License Act. he overall status of the domestic radiation market including the number of user organizations, that of employees, and the size of distributions (imports, productions, and exports) with which the scale of domestic radiation market can be judged showed a growth trend compared to the previous year, though the number of employees for radiation operation in industrial sector, research sector, education sector, military sector, and power plants (nuclear power plants) and the size of imports was reduced somewhat. t is expected that data acquired through periodic surveys on the status of utilization would be utilized practically in establishing governmental policies related to the promotion of usage of radiation and radioisotopes, and also be utilized widely in cultivating and developing the industry efficiently to invigorate the related industries.

  1. Application of radioisotope techniques in analysis of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is tabulated of the use of radioisotope techniques, giving the detected pollutant and the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. The most frequently used principle is the substoichiometric variant of isotope dilution which may be divided into the method of isotope dilution and the radio-reagent method. Both methods are described and examples are given of the determination of pollutants. (J.P.)

  2. Analysis of status of radiation/radioisotopes utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Kon Wuk

    2017-01-01

    The use of radiation and radioisotopes in Korea has been increasing each year, and its impact on economy and industry is expected to be increasing progressively following the development of industrial technology and the expansion of their usage. To establish and supporting policies for industries using radiation and radioisotopes, it is necessary to check the status of related industries accurately, as well as to gather data required to establish plans for industrial development by studying both revenues and economic scale (contributing to revenue). o analyze the status of utilization, surveys were carried out on 6,621 organizations engaged in nuclear operations handling radiation and radioisotopes pursuant to the Nuclear Safety Act as of end 2014, on 33,471 medical institutions using radiation generators for medical and diagnostic purposes pursuant to the Medical Service Act, and on 2,218 organizations using radiation generators for animal diagnostics pursuant to the Veterinary License Act. he overall status of the domestic radiation market including the number of user organizations, that of employees, and the size of distributions (imports, productions, and exports) with which the scale of domestic radiation market can be judged showed a growth trend compared to the previous year, though the number of employees for radiation operation in industrial sector, research sector, education sector, military sector, and power plants (nuclear power plants) and the size of imports was reduced somewhat. t is expected that data acquired through periodic surveys on the status of utilization would be utilized practically in establishing governmental policies related to the promotion of usage of radiation and radioisotopes, and also be utilized widely in cultivating and developing the industry efficiently to invigorate the related industries

  3. Experience with NAA and radionuclides in an industrial laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossus, D.A.W.; Sluijs, R. van

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used in a wide variety of industrial applications since the early 1950s. At DSM, a Dutch chemicals and materials group, the first applications were introduced around 1955. These applications mainly concerned on-line density measurements for process-control purposes. Besides process control, the following main applications of radioisotopes can be distinguished: (i) Column scanning: a technique using sealed 60 Co, 137 Cs and 252 Cf sources for on-line troubleshooting in distillation columns and other process equipment; this technique allows investigations to be performed at very short notice, saving production time and therefore money. (ii) The radiotracer technique: used as a tool for troubleshooting, for flow measurements, for determining process parameters and for in-line corrosion studies. Short-lived radionuclides typically used in this field are 56Mn, 24Na, 82Br, 113mIn, 81mKr and 99mTc; (iii) Neutron activation analysis based on the k 0 -standardization method. The NAA technique, which was originally introduced for trace element analysis in high-purity silica, has evolved into a key analytical technique at DSM Research besides ICP-MS, ICP-AES and other sophisticated in-house methods

  4. A study of air monitoring at an urban region in Korea and a comparative analysis by the three k0-NAA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Sam; Cho, Hyun-Je; Moon, Jong-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    For the study on air pollution, airborne particulate matter (APM) for the fine ( 2.5 ) and coarse particle (2.5-10 μm EAD: PM 2.5-10 ) fractions were collected using the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters. Air samples were collected twice a month at two regions (suburban and industrial site of Daejeon city in the Republic of Korea) from January to December 2002. Monthly mass concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 were measured and the concentrations of 10 elements such as Al, Sc, Ti (indices for silicates); Na, Cl (sea salts); As, V, Sb, Br, Se (pollutants) were determined by an Instrumental NAA at the HANARO research reactor, Korea. Analytical quality control was carried out using three certified reference materials (CRM). Enrichment factors were also calculated from the monitoring data to classify the anthropogenic and crustal origins. A comparison of the analytical data determined by the three K 0 -NAA software was carried out using a part of the air monitoring sample and the CRM of the air filter to evaluate the accuracy as well as the convenience and simplicity of analysis. The k 0 -NAA method of three countries, Korea, China and Vietnam were used for the comparative analysis. The results obtained from this project can be used to investigate the source identification and its trends, and to establish a more cost-effective method for national air quality management. (author)

  5. Analysis of wear of antifriction bearing using radioisotope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejcek, V.

    1986-01-01

    The time course was studied of the wear of one type of antifriction bearing in dependence on the thickness of lubricating film for five types of lubricating oil. The theory is described of the development of lubricating film, the experiment and its evaluation, and a detailed list is given of numerical results and practical conclusions. Briefly mentioned is the principle of the radioisotope method which has been described elsewhere: prior to the experiment the balls of the bearing were activated with a neutron beam from a nuclear reactor and the wear was determined from the activity of the worn material carried away by the lubricant. (A.K.)

  6. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  7. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  8. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  9. Determination of trace elements in small water samples by total reflexion X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieser, K.H. (Fachbereich Chemie, Eduard Zintl-Inst., Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany)); Flakowski, M. (Fachbereich Chemie, Eduard Zintl-Inst., Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany)); Hoffmann, P. (Fachbereich Chemie, Eduard Zintl-Inst., Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    The problems encountered in the determination of trace elements in small sample volumes of the order of 1 to 10 [mu]l (e.g. in droplets of water) are discussed. Total reflexion X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) are applied for the determination of Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu in concentrations of 0.01 to 10 mg/L in 1 to 10 [mu]L of water. The applied methods are described, the results are discussed and the advantages of TXRF are brought forward. (orig.)

  10. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  11. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang

    2003-01-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  12. Analysis of noble metal on automotive exhaust catalysts by radioisotope-induce x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgart, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A technique was developed for the in-situ analysis of noble metals deposited on monolithic automotive exhaust catalysts. This technique is based on radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence, and provides a detailed picture of the distribution of palladium and platinum on catalyst samples. The experimental results for the cross section of a monolithic exhaust catalyst, analyzed in increments of 0.2 cm 3 , are compared with analyses for palladium and platinum obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis

  13. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. O' Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  14. Radioisotopic neutron transmission spectrometry: Quantitative analysis by using partial least-squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Jung, Sung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry, based on the scattering of high energy fast neutrons from a radioisotope and slowing-down by the light hydrogen atoms, is a useful technique for non-destructive, quantitative measurement of hydrogen content because it has a large measuring volume, and is not affected by temperature, pressure, pH value and color. The most common choice for radioisotope neutron source is (252)Cf or (241)Am-Be. In this study, (252)Cf with a neutron flux of 6.3x10(6)n/s has been used as an attractive neutron source because of its high flux neutron and weak radioactivity. Pulse-height neutron spectra have been obtained by using in-house built radioisotopic neutron spectrometric system equipped with (3)He detector and multi-channel analyzer, including a neutron shield. As a preliminary study, polyethylene block (density of approximately 0.947g/cc and area of 40cmx25cm) was used for the determination of hydrogen content by using multivariate calibration models, depending on the thickness of the block. Compared with the results obtained from a simple linear calibration model, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method offered a better performance in a quantitative data analysis. It also revealed that the PLSR method in a neutron spectrometric system can be promising in the real-time, online monitoring of the powder process to determine the content of any type of molecules containing hydrogen nuclei.

  15. Casting analysis of the shipping container for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. S

    2003-03-01

    Technology standard for shipping containers of radioactive materials becomes strict by IAEA Regulation 'regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material ST-1' and the domestic regulations. Development of the RI shielding casks having high efficiency is needed. To design a mold for casting the shielding cask, computer simulation was introduced. Purpose of this study is to investigate optimum casting conditions for manufacturing a sound shipping container without defects by the melt filling and solidification analysis using computer code Z-cast. As a result of analysis, although two molds have the same temperature gradient, the mold having higher temperature could reduce the shrinkage defects of a product. When there is no temperature gradient in mold whose riser size is 60mm or 70mm respectively, the shrinkage defects existed in the casting. The temperature gradient of a mold is needed to make a sound product without shrinkage defects. When we are going to reduce the shrinkage defects, the riser size and temperature gradient of the mold is more effective factor than the melting temperature.

  16. Fast neutron activation analysis and radioisotope X-ray fluorescence study on KALEWA and NAMMA coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naing-Win

    1981-07-01

    Kalewa coal was studied with Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) technique, employing KAMAN A-710 neutron generator and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 30 MCA. Sequential irradiation and dual aluminium foil monitoring method was employed. Simultaneous multielement analysis was carried out. Namma Coal was studied with radioisotope X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique, employing Co-57 exciter source and HP(Ge) detector coupled to ''Canberra'' series 40 MCA. In both FNAA and XRF study, the results obtained were compared to that obtained with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Finally, the results were reviewed together with those obtained from similar work on coal with FNAA and XRF techniques. (author)

  17. Sourcing archaeological obsidian by an abbreviated NAA procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M.D.; Neff, H.; Stryker, K.S.; Jonhson, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    An abbreviated NAA procedure has been developed to fingerprint obsidian artifacts in the Mesoamerican region. Despite the large number of available sources, an NAA procedure, which relies on producing short-lived isotopes, has been applied with a success rate greater than 90 percent. The abbreviated NAA procedure is rapid and cost competitive with the XRF technique more often applied in obsidian sourcing. Results from the analysis of over 1,200 obsidian artifacts from throughout Mesoamerica are presented. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Rapid growth, maturity, current problems, future prospects of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The early rapid growth, the attainment of maturity, current problems, and future prospects of NAA (neutron activation analysis) are discussed, each in reasonable detail. In particular, the nature and causes of its current problems are examined, and suggestions are presented for the solution of these problems. The author believes that vigorous action in suggested areas of concentration can reinvigorate the status of NAA as an important method of elemental analysis. (author)

  19. Inorganic, Radioisotopic, and Organic Analysis of 241-AP-101 Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, S.K.; Bredt, P.R.; Campbell, J.A.; Farmer, O.T.; Greenwood, L.R.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hoopes, F.V.; Lumetta, G.J.; Mong, G.M.; Ratner, R.T.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Steele, M.J.; Swoboda, R.G.; Urie, M.W.; Wagner, J.J.

    2000-10-17

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids.

  20. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewgoy, Hugo R.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  1. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  2. Basic study on neutron activation analysis measuring short-lived nuclides (half-lives 0.7 to 100 s) using JRR-3M NAA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-11-01

    Analytical basis for neutron activation analysis (NAA) measuring nuclides of second order half-life produced by (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron activation analysis facility of JRR-3M. Basic experimental conditions such as high count rate gamma-ray measurement, effects of irradiation capsule material and stability of neutron flux were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclides have half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, Hf, Dy and In were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, of which determination by other methods is difficult, can be detected in more than 530 ng. Determination of ppm levels of F in silicon nitride powder using a single and cyclic activation methods were performed. Accuracy and precision for F determination were verified by analyzing reference materials of Opal Glass (NIST SRM91) and Oyster Tissue (NIST SRM1566a). The relationship between the detection limit of F and Al contents was also clarified. Analytical applications of high sensitive elements such as Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials, were also examined and the accuracy, precision and detection limits of the present method were evaluated. (author)

  3. The use of hogdahl convention k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) standardization method and atomic absortion spectroscopy (ASS) for determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiamadie, H.

    2008-06-01

    Copper, cadmium, tin, chromium, arsenic, antimony, vanadium and mercury contents were determined in various foodstuffs (Mussa paradisiaca (plantains), Manihot esculentus (cassavas), Vantosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam). Vantosoma sagittifolium leaves (kontomire), Lycopersicum esculentus (tomatoes), Capsicum species (peppers), Solanum melongena (garden eggs), Nbelmoschus esculentus (okro), and Colocasia esculenta (kooko or taro)) produced in the Wassa West District, Ghana. These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. These elements were determined using Hogdahl convention k 0 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Standardization Method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements in the various foodstuffs and their concentration ranges were Cu (16.87-180.06) mg/kg, As (2.68-9.84) µg/g, Cd (0.63-5.64) µg/g, Hg (0.01-67) ng/g, Cr (0.03-3.66) µg/g, Sb (1.1- 18.6) ng/g, Sn (3.4-58.4) ng/g, and V (12-99) ng/g. The study showed that there are high levels of toxic elements in the foodstuffs grown in the mining areas as compared to that of the non-mining area (i.e., control area). This could be attributed to gold mines pollution. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible levels of toxic elements in foods, Cu, Cr and Hg were above the permissible levels whereas the concentrations of As, Cd. Sb, Sn and V fall within the permissible levels. (au)

  4. A program for evaluation of NAA spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, P.

    1994-01-01

    A program for qualitative and quantitative analysis of spectra obtained by comparative NAA method is described. It includes peak search, calculation of essential peak parameters, isotope identification and estimation of concentrations and/or detection limits of nuclides, corrected for cooling time and decay during measurement. Corrections for blank samples and peak interference are performed as well. Uncertainties estimation or final results are performed according to the error propagation law. The program is aimed to help an experienced user to calculate the results of analysis but the possibility for automatic mode for routine analysis is provided as well. (author) 3 refs

  5. Elimination of eight interfering radioisotopes in the determination of uranium by activation analysis with epithermic neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requejo, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    The total or parcial elimination interfering radioisotopes in activation analysis of uranium by epithermic neutrons, has been made. It was possible to determine uranium, after chemical separation, from samples of organic and mineral matrixes, which had mercury, selenium, bromine, antimony, gold, barium, molybden and tungsten. Mineral samples were analysed giving results between 0.2 to 5.0 ppm of uranium. The same mineral were ground in agate mortar and in tungsten carbide mill. In the first sample is has been found 0.2277 +- -+ 0.0474 ppm U. The second which had tungsten, at level of 150 ppm, after radiochemical separation, it has been found 0.2465+- -+0.0326 ppm U. These results are considered statistically the same [pt

  6. Failure analysis of radioisotopic heat source capsules tested under multi-axial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Stacy, E.; Burgan, C.E.

    In order to qualify small radioisotopic heat sources for a 25-yr design life, multi-axial mechanical tests were performed on the structural components of the heat source. The results of these tests indicated that failure predominantly occurred in the middle of the weld ramp-down zone. Examination of the failure zone by standard metallographic techniques failed to indicate the true cause of failure. A modified technique utilizing chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis was employed and dramatically indicated the true cause of failure, impurity concentration in the ramp-down zone. As a result of the initial investigation, weld parameters for the heat sources were altered. Example welds made with a pulse arc technique did not have this impurity buildup in the ramp-down zone

  7. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1976-01-01

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including 75 Se, 192 Ir, 43 K, 130 I, and 82 Br. Data processing methods are also described

  8. Study of the levels of air pollution by heavy metals on an urban site of Algiers using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Z.; Nedjar, A.; Azli, T.; Zergoug, Z.; Mouhouche, F.; Belamri, M.; Omari, L.; Lakhdar, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Today, the high threshold reached by air pollution makes us become aware of the importance of the problem and the dangers which it represents for the health of the living beings and man in particular. The list of the atmospheric pollutants is long. To traditional usual but always real pollutants such as dust, SO 2 , Nox, CO, heavy metals, etc came to be added gradually to other substances such as gases for greenhouse effect: C0 2 , the CH 4 , the N 2 0, CFC, HFC, PFC and SF 6 and other substances such as ozone, the organochlorinated ones (dioxanes and furans), the HAP (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), etc. In Algeria, the lack of relative data to air quality makes that the impact of this form of pollution on the environment very badly known. The sources of pollution are numerous and the harmful effects are already perceived, but their direct relationship or indirect with the environmental pollution is not established. It is in this context and in continuity with work under development at the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers that we propose by this study the levels of air pollution by the fine particles and more particularly by heavy metals on the level of an urban site of Algiers with force directly exposed population density with the transmitting sources of pollution. We have used a nuclear method: neutron activation analysis technique (NAA), for the detection of traces of heavy metals in our samples of filters collected throughout one year at a rate of approximately a sample per week. One will note that this pollution varies considerably according to the components, in particular for Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg) and Cobalt (Co). The results were compared with other results obtained with other techniques and show a better sensitivity.

  9. How to calculate uncertainties of neutron flux parameters and uncertainties of analysis results in k(0)-NAA?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 293, č. 1 (2012), s. 87-94 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0363; GA ČR GD202/09/H086 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * K(0) standardization * uncertainty * kragten approach Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  10. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  11. Analysis of mineral elements and its correlation in the blood of hypertension patients and normal by NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theresia Rina Mulyaningsih; Wahyu Sugiarto

    2013-01-01

    Mineral imbalance in the body may contribute to the development of hypertension. This paper has attempted to search differences of trace elements level in normal and hypertensive and the correlation between mineral elements in hypertension and normal blood. The research samples was composed of hypertensive patients (n= 34 ) aged 29-55 years and the normal controls (n = 52) aged 28-55 years. Analysis of trace elements was conducted using neutron activation analysis. To determine the significance of differences in levels of mineral elements in the blood hypertension and normal, t-testing of mean concentration and correlations between these elements is determined by the correlation coefficient. The results showed that there were differences in levels of elements in normal and hypertensive blood: <10% for the elements of K, Br, Zn, Rb and Cl; 10 - 30% for the elements Na, Se, Cr and Fe and difference > 30% for the elements Co, Cs and Cu. There are significant differences in Fe (P = 0.039) and Cu (P = 0.01) in the blood. There is a positive correlation between Fe and Cu in the blood hypertension (r = 0.218) and negative correlation in normal (r = -0.173). Between mineral elements there are positive correlation and there are also a negative correlation in hypertension and normal blood. So the possibility of changes in the blood levels of trace elements and inter-element correlation is a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (author)

  12. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2011-01-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL -1 ), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL -1 ), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL -1 ), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL -1 ), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL -1 ), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL -1 ) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL -1 ). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few μL) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  13. Elemental analysis by neutron inelastic scatter gamma rays with a radioisotope neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of proton γ-rays from neutron inelastic scattering is a promising technique for the bulk analysis of samples in the mineral industry. Applications will probably involve the use of radioisotope neutron sources and scintillation detectors. With scintillation detectors, it is important to be able to predict the effect of inter-element interferences. The photopeak intensities of 81 γ-rays from 21 elements have been measured using a Ge(Li) detector and 238 Pu-Be source. These intensities have been used to calculate the photopeak intensities in the more industrially suitable Nal(Tl) detectors. The calculated Nal(Tl) photopeak intensities have been checked by measurement on prominent γ-rays from some elements. Examples are given of the applications of the present data to the prediction of γ-ray yields, and inter-element interferences in potential industrial applications. The technique is best suited to the analysis of elements of concentration > 1 wt.% and preferably > 5 wt.% in samples of about 10-100 kg. Preliminary results are presented of the application of the neutron inelastic scattering technique to the analysis of Pb/Zn ores. (orig.)

  14. k0-NAA quality assessment by analysis of different certified reference materials using the KAYZERO/SOLCOI software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.; Bucar, T.; Stegnar, P.; Smodis, B.

    2003-01-01

    A suite of natural matrix reference materials (RMs) were used to assess the quality of analytical results obtained by k 0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA) at the Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS). Five certified reference materials (CRMs) from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), two standard reference materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), three RMs from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and one RM from IJS were analyzed. Altogether, results for twenty-four elements in inorganic matrices and twenty-nine elements in organic matrices, obtained by k 0 -INAA, were compared to certified values. Results obtained show good agreement with certified or assigned values except for Fe, La, Nd, Sm and U in inorganic matrices, and Ag, Al and Cr in organic matrices. (author)

  15. Preconcentration NAA for simultaneous multielemental determination in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Environment concerns with water, air, land and their interrelationship viz., human beings, fauna and flora. One of the important environmental compartments is water. Elements present in water might face a whole lot of physico-chemical conditions. This poses challenges to measure their total concentrations as well as different species. Preconcentration of the elements present in water samples is a necessary requisites in water analysis. For multi elements concentration measurements, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of the preferred analytical techniques due to its sensitivity and selectivity. In this talk preconcentration NAA for multielemental determination in water sample determination will be discussed

  16. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood

    1999-01-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  17. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, 3 H, 14 C, 60 Co, 79 Se, 90 Sr, 99 Tc as pertechnetate, 106 Ru/Rh, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 152 Eu, 154 Eu, 155 Eu, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 243+244 Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for 237 Np, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 99 Tc, 126 Sn, 129 I, 231 Pa, 233 U, 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, 238 U, 241 AMU, 242 AMU, 243 AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO 2 , NO 3 , PO 4 , SO 4 , acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all contract limits (molar ratio of analyte to sodium or ratio of becquerels of analyte to moles of sodium) defined in Specification 7 for Envelope A. Except for a few cases, the

  18. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 79}Se, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc as pertechnetate, {sup 106}Ru/Rh, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 243+244}Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 241}AMU, {sup 242}AMU, {sup 243}AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all

  19. Study on x-ray spectroscopic analysis by the use of nuclear radiations from radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Hiroshi

    1977-02-01

    The basis and practice of analytical application of the characteristic X rays of low atomic number elements excited by mainly alpha rays from radioisotopes were studied. Some alpha emitters were proved to be advantageously usable to those elements, in particular, very low atomic number elements, despite their accompanying radiations. Operating characteristics of gas flow proportional counters were fully investigated, and besides, the characteristics of pulse-height distribution continuum in those counters and semiconductor detectors were comparatively studied as the detector for the low energy X rays. For calibration in quantitative analysis by the X-ray spectroscopy, a new simple semitheoretical method for thin specimens is proposed and on the other hand general formulae for matrix correction in thick specimens was derived. An industrial X-ray analyzer to simultaneously analyze four main elements of cement raw material mixtures was constructed with the use of a 210 Po alpha-ray source and gain-controlled proportional counters. Problems in practical analysis for the process control were solved and the analyzer has been used routinely in the process for more than ten years. Another analytical application to airborne dust is described as a typical example of application of the proposed calibration method for thin specimens. (auth.)

  20. Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analyses of the trace element concentrations of the rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T.; Bassari, A.; Bolcal, C.; Sener, E.; Yildiz, M.; Kucer, R.; Kaplan, Z.; Dogan, G.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    The muscles and livers of the ten rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss; N, 1752) obtained from Sapanca, Aquaculture Facility of Aquatic Products Faculty, The University of Istanbul (Turkey), have been analysed quantitatively for some minor elements using the radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods. It was found that samples contain Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cs, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Au, La and Ce in different amounts. Comparison of the results with those of reference river fish samples indicated that agricultural rainbow trout samples from Sapanca region have higher Fe level. (author)

  1. Radioisotope X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analyses of the trace element concentrations of the rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, T.; Bassari, A.; Bolcal, C.; Sener, E.; Yildiz, M.; Kucer, R.; Kaplan, Z.; Dogan, G.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    The muscles and livers of the ten rainbow trouts ( Oncorhynchus mykiss; N, 1752) obtained from Sapanca, Aquaculture Facility of Aquatic Products Faculty, The University of Istanbul (Turkey), have been analysed quantitatively for some minor elements using the radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods. It was found that samples contain Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cs, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Au, La and Ce in different amounts. Comparison of the results with those of reference river fish samples indicated that agricultural rainbow trout samples from Sapanca region have higher Fe level.

  2. Stable Isotope Ratio Measurement by NAA for Environmental Source Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gone, Jeckong; Olmez, Ilhan; Ames, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of applying neutron activation analysis to the study of isotopic ratios is to examine whether ratios could be measured that are difficult to determine by other means and that could be used to distinguish between materials from different types of sources. The NAA is a sensitive analytical method for many elements that are typically present in levels too low to measure by other techniques, and because NAA is based on nuclear rather than chemical or physical reactions, the analytical signals from the two isotopes are readily distinguishable

  3. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  4. Automated detection of radioisotopes from an aircraft platform by pattern recognition analysis of gamma-ray spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Brian W; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark J; Stapleton, Jeff; Kroutil, Robert T; Miller, David; Curry, Timothy; Small, Gary W

    2018-03-08

    A generalized methodology was developed for automating the detection of radioisotopes from gamma-ray spectra collected from an aircraft platform using sodium-iodide detectors. Employing data provided by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) program, multivariate classification models based on nonparametric linear discriminant analysis were developed for application to spectra that were preprocessed through a combination of altitude-based scaling and digital filtering. Training sets of spectra for use in building classification models were assembled from a combination of background spectra collected in the field and synthesized spectra obtained by superimposing laboratory-collected spectra of target radioisotopes onto field backgrounds. This approach eliminated the need for field experimentation with radioactive sources for use in building classification models. Through a bi-Gaussian modeling procedure, the discriminant scores that served as the outputs from the classification models were related to associated confidence levels. This provided an easily interpreted result regarding the presence or absence of the signature of a specific radioisotope in each collected spectrum. Through the use of this approach, classifiers were built for cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and cobalt-60 ( 60 Co), two radioisotopes that are of interest in airborne radiological monitoring applications. The optimized classifiers were tested with field data collected from a set of six geographically diverse sites, three of which contained either 137 Cs, 60 Co, or both. When the optimized classification models were applied, the overall percentages of correct classifications for spectra collected at these sites were 99.9 and 97.9% for the 60 Co and 137 Cs classifiers, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  6. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  7. Software for NAA sample changer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra Neto, Aimore; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.

    2015-01-01

    In CDTN/CNEN laboratories, the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique routinely employed. The irradiation is performed in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor. After irradiated, the samples depend of an operator to be changed, creating a bottle neck in the process. To optimize the whole process, an automation of the changing samples is necessary. In order to achieve this goal, it was developed a software to control a sample changer under construction at CDTN laboratories. Two programs, running in two different environments, manages the entire acquisition process and performs all activities necessary to move the motors to positioning the samples and control the vacuum to grip the vials. The high level routine communicates with Genie 2000 software to control a Canberra Multiport II, while a low level program controls the physical assemble. (author)

  8. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua

    1987-01-01

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  9. Comparative analysis of taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors by metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    , and their relationships with the metabolic patterns. The present study used metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis to assess the taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors operated under various conditions treating either sludge or manure. Results...

  10. The NAA method at Polytechnique Montreal. An efficient alternative way to use the k0 NAA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilian, C.; Kennedy, G.

    2014-01-01

    At Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, the philosophy in performing neutron activation analysis (NAA) is long-term and application oriented. Thinking long-term implies a good understanding of the fundamentals of the method, of the samples, of the tools, reactor and detectors, and there must be constant innovation that is experimentally validated with extensive measurements. Application oriented means a NAA method developed to provide users with fast, sensitive, accurate and reliable analyses for various types of materials. This philosophy dictates the manner in which the developments in the areas of NAA software, peak-area calculation, dead-time correction, detection efficiency model, k 0 and Q 0 values, neutron moderation and neutron self-shielding are carried out. This paper presents a survey of the Laboratory’s methodology, reviewing a few of its unique features such as detector efficiency calibration and sample related perturbations of the neutron activation. These features are used as examples to provide the reader with an understanding of the philosophy and the evolution of the NAA method at Ecole Polytechnique. (author)

  11. Determination of elements in bone of tuberculous-arthritis patients by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuez, T.; Bassari, A.; Akyuez, S.

    1998-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of the human femoral bone of 17 tuberculosis-arthritis (Koch-arthritis) patients (9 males and 8 females) in the age range of 45-65, for Ca, P, Zn, Sr, Ba, La and Ce were performed by using radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and the results were compared with those of 12 healthy control groups (8 males and 4 females) in the range of 37-58. The results indicate that the concentrations of P, Ca and Sr in the control group are higher than those in the patient group, while the concentrations of Zn, Ba, La and Ce are not significantly different. (author)

  12. Ultratrace analysis and isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radioisotopes by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N; Passler, G; Wendt, K D A

    2004-01-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) is a sensitive and selective method for ultratrace analysis of long-lived radioisotopes and isotope ratio measurements. It provides extremely high isobaric suppression and good overall efficiency. The experimental limits of detection are as low as 10(6) atoms per sample and isotopic selectivities of 5x10(12) have been obtained. The widespread potential of RIMS, using different experimental arrangements, is demonstrated for the determination of the radiotoxic isotopes Pu-238 to Pu-244 and Sr-89/Sr-90 in various environmental samples as well as for Ca-41 in nuclear reactor components and biomedical samples.

  13. Comparative analysis of 11 different radioisotopes for palliative treatment of bone metastases by computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Liberal, Francisco D C; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2014-11-01

    Throughout the years, the palliative treatment of bone metastases using bone seeking radiotracers has been part of the therapeutic resources used in oncology, but the choice of which bone seeking agent to use is not consensual across sites and limited data are available comparing the characteristics of each radioisotope. Computational simulation is a simple and practical method to study and to compare a variety of radioisotopes for different medical applications, including the palliative treatment of bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate and compare 11 different radioisotopes currently in use or under research for the palliative treatment of bone metastases using computational methods. Computational models were used to estimate the percentage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct DNA repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and the radiation-induced cellular effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) post-irradiation with selected particles emitted by phosphorus-32 ((32)P), strontium-89 ((89)Sr), yttrium-90 ((90)Y ), tin-117 ((117m)Sn), samarium-153 ((153)Sm), holmium-166 ((166)Ho), thulium-170 ((170)Tm), lutetium-177 ((177)Lu), rhenium-186 ((186)Re), rhenium-188 ((188)Re), and radium-223 ((223)Ra). (223)Ra alpha particles, (177)Lu beta minus particles, and (170)Tm beta minus particles induced the highest cell death of all investigated particles and radioisotopes. The cell survival fraction measured post-irradiation with beta minus particles emitted by (89)Sr and (153)Sm, two of the most frequently used radionuclides in the palliative treatment of bone metastases in clinical routine practice, was higher than (177)Lu beta minus particles and (223)Ra alpha particles. (223)Ra and (177)Lu hold the highest potential for palliative treatment of bone metastases of all radioisotopes compared in this study. Data reported here may prompt future in vitro and in vivo experiments comparing

  14. Comparative analysis of 11 different radioisotopes for palliative treatment of bone metastases by computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Liberal, Francisco D. C., E-mail: meb12020@fe.up.pt, E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S., E-mail: meb12020@fe.up.pt, E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, João Manuel R. S., E-mail: tavares@fe.up.pt [Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica e Gestão Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, Porto 4200-465 (Portugal)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Throughout the years, the palliative treatment of bone metastases using bone seeking radiotracers has been part of the therapeutic resources used in oncology, but the choice of which bone seeking agent to use is not consensual across sites and limited data are available comparing the characteristics of each radioisotope. Computational simulation is a simple and practical method to study and to compare a variety of radioisotopes for different medical applications, including the palliative treatment of bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate and compare 11 different radioisotopes currently in use or under research for the palliative treatment of bone metastases using computational methods. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the percentage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct DNA repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and the radiation-induced cellular effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) post-irradiation with selected particles emitted by phosphorus-32 ({sup 32}P), strontium-89 ({sup 89}Sr), yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y ), tin-117 ({sup 117m}Sn), samarium-153 ({sup 153}Sm), holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho), thulium-170 ({sup 170}Tm), lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu), rhenium-186 ({sup 186}Re), rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re), and radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra). Results: {sup 223}Ra alpha particles, {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles, and {sup 170}Tm beta minus particles induced the highest cell death of all investigated particles and radioisotopes. The cell survival fraction measured post-irradiation with beta minus particles emitted by {sup 89}Sr and {sup 153}Sm, two of the most frequently used radionuclides in the palliative treatment of bone metastases in clinical routine practice, was higher than {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles and {sup 223}Ra alpha particles. Conclusions: {sup 223}Ra and {sup 177}Lu hold the highest potential for palliative treatment of bone metastases of all

  15. Testing the applicability of the k 0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k 0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA (k 0 -NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k 0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k 0 -NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters (α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k 0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k 0 -NAA method at the MINT

  16. FISH analysis of translocations induced by chronic exposure to Sr radioisotopes: second set of analysis of the Techa River Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozilova, Alexandra V; Shagina, Natalia B; Degteva, Marina O; Moquet, Jayne; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Darroudi, Firouz

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis of stable translocations was performed for 26 residents living along the Techa River (Russia), who were predominantly (95%) exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes ((89)Sr and (90)Sr) resulting in exposure of their red bone marrow (RBM). Analysis was conducted at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Public Health England and Leiden University Medical Center. Each laboratory scored 1000 cells per donor, which resulted in ∼1000 genome equivalents (GE) per donor. The age-dependent spontaneous level of translocations for each donor was evaluated on the basis of data published by Sigurdson et al. (International study of factors affecting human chromosome. Mutat. Res. 2008;652: :112-121). Reconstruction of doses was performed with the 'Techa River Dosimetry System' developed in 2009. In the studied donors, the range of individual cumulated RBM dose was from 0.3 to 3.7 Gy. Analysis of the yield of stable translocations dependent on the individual RBM dose from (89,90)Sr showed a linear dose-response relationship of 0.007 ± 0.002 translocation/GE cell/Gy (R = 0.61, p = 0.001). This set of results was in a good agreement with the previous data reported for 18 donors by Vozilova et al. (Preliminary FISH-based assessment of external dose for residents exposed on the Techa River. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Suitability of NAA for certification of reference materials for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    2000-01-01

    Certifications of trace elements in existing CRMs, especially biological CRMs, are far from satisfactory. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) for its inherent advantages combined with newly established parametric standardization, may contribute to improve this situation. The continuing progress of the hybrid extended k 0 -relative NAA technique developed in our laboratory is discussed. Examples are given to show the reliability of the method in certification of multielements. RNAA is still one of the best methods, or even the method of choice, in analysis at sub-μg/g concentration levels. The suitability of the technique for this purpose has been studied through the determination of rare earth elements at ng/g concentration level in two Chinese biological CRMs using both RNAA and ICPMS. Sampling behaviors of multielements in CRMs have been studied by INAA in an effort to develop CRMs suitable for analysis with small sample sizes. (author)

  18. Optimized data evaluation for k0-based NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sluijs, R.; Bossus, D.A.W.

    1999-01-01

    k 0 -NAA allows the simultaneous analysis of up-to 67 elements. The k 0 method is based on calculations using a special library instead of measuring standards. For an efficient use of the method, the calculations and resulting raw data require optimized evaluation procedures. In this paper two efficient procedures for nuclide identification and gamma interference correction are outlined. For a fast computation of the source-detector efficiency and coincidence correction factors the matrix interpolation technique is introduced. (author)

  19. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  20. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  1. Comparative PGAA and NAA results of geological samples and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeling, K.; Simonits, A.; Sziklai, L.I.; Parkanyi, D.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of major and trace elements in volcanic rock and soil samples, including geological standard reference materials, were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA), both using the k 0-standardization method. The paper highlights the different experimental procedures, such as sample preparation, data collection and spectrum evaluation. In geological samples, PGAA gives precise results for major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K and - as a unique method - for H), for some of the light trace elements as B and Cl, as well as for Sc, S, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, Nd, Sm and Gd. NAA is sensitive for the rare earth elements, and for many major (Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K) and trace elements (e.g.: Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, As, Sb, Ce, Ba, Hf, Ta, W). For most major elements the results obtained by the two methods show good agreement. The comparison of the results obtained for trace elements is not always possible, since PGAA is less sensitive and concentrations are often below its detection limits. Nevertheless, the complementarity of NAA and PGAA allows nearly panoramic analysis of geological materials. (author)

  2. Analysis of the radioisotopes contained in nuclear waste drums by a tomography assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifler, P.; Kroth, K.; Odoj, R.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes into a repository requires a detailed specification of the radioisotopic inventory of the waste containers. This paper describes an advanced tomography assay system capable of identifying and localizing all detectable radioactive nuclides contained in Low-Level-Waste-drums (LLW) and quantitatively determining their activities. The assay system uses a combined transmission and emission tomography technique. Whereas transmission computerized tomography is applied to examine the contents of the drums in respect of inhomogeneous fillings (density distribution), emission computerized tomography is used to inspect the radionuclide inventory (activity distribution). The paper describes in detail the tomography assay system including its major components. Measurements on LLW-drums as well as reconstructed images of the density and activity distribution of the drums' contents are a special subject of the paper

  3. Theoretical analysis of heat transfer in, and electrical performance of, a milliwatt radioisotopic powered thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biver, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified, theoretical model has been made for a radioisotope-powered milliwatt thermoelectric generator (RTG). Calculations of unit heat transfer and electrical performance characteristics are made in two ways: (a) using discrete values of input physical parameters for an individual unit; and (b) using a statistical simulation (Monte Carlo) approach for estimating the variation in performance in a group of N-units. The statistical simulation approach is useful in: (a) estimating the allowable range of input parameters conducive to the production design meeting specifications in a group of N-units; and (b) determining particular parameters that must be significantly restricted in variation to achieve desired performance. The available experimental data, as compared with the discrete value calculations, are in quite good agreement (within 5 percent generally). (U.S.)

  4. An analytical software for NAA by using K0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Jingye; Chen Da; Tu Jing; Chenweishi; Zhang Wenshou; Wang Daohua

    2003-01-01

    An analytical software has been designed for a personal computer in DOS environment to do reactor NAA by using K 0 -method. The system has functions of radionuclide identification, f and α calculation, K 0 -value calculation, quantitative calculation of elemental concentrations, nuclides' data management, experiment design, computer simulation etc. The analytical methods used in this system include absolute method, relative method and K 0 -method. Using this system, three gamma-ray spectra for NAA of Au, Zr samples and GBW07107 rock standard sample have been analyzed. The analysis results are in agreement with the certified results in the scope of uncertainties and the f and α values at the irradiation site in the UZrH pulse reactor are 36.6 and 0.044 respectively. (author)

  5. Environmental baselines by NAA of tree-ring samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Harris, W.F.; Reichle, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    A collaborative effort has been made between two ORNL divisions at gaining information about environmental baselines and trace contamination levels in the Oak Ridge--Knoxville area. Instrumental, absolute, multielement neutron activation is currently providing data both on pristine conditions of a century ago and on gradual atmospheric contamination by analysis of rings from trees grown in a relatively unpolluted area and in a city. Experience on absolute NAA at ORNL's High Flux NAA Laboratory is discussed in detail, as well as multielement results corresponding to years 1872-76 (Increment No. 20) to 1968-72 (Increment No. 1), for two cores, on each of two trees studied. Concentrations were determined for 13 elements simultaneously in each of 12 different samples. Results show the great potential of this technique in the determination of environmental baselines and trace contamination levels

  6. Validation of NAA Method for Urban Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Muhayatun; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques have been applied in many countries for determination of environmental pollutant. Method of NAA (neutron activation analysis) representing one of nuclear analytical technique of that has low detection limits, high specificity, high precision, and accuracy for large majority of naturally occurring elements, and ability of non-destructive and simultaneous determination of multi-elemental, and can handle small sample size (< 1 mg). To ensure quality and reliability of the method, validation are needed to be done. A standard reference material, SRM NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter, has been used to validate NAA method. Accuracy and precision test were used as validation parameters. Particulate matter were validated for 18 elements: Ti, I, V, Br, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Al, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Ag, La, Cr, and Sm,. The result showed that the percent relative standard deviation of the measured elemental concentrations are found to be within ranged from 2 to 14,8% for most of the elements analyzed whereas Hor rat value in range 0,3-1,3. Accuracy test results showed that relative bias ranged from -11,1 to 3,6%. Based on validation results, it can be stated that NAA method is reliable for characterization particulate matter and other similar matrix samples to support air quality monitoring. (author)

  7. Uncertainty budget for k0-NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Eguskiza, M.; Etxebarria, N.

    2000-01-01

    The concepts of the Guide to the expression of Uncertainties in Measurements for chemical measurements (GUM) and the recommendations of the Eurachem document 'Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Methods' are applied to set up the uncertainty budget for k 0 -NAA. The 'universally applicable spreadsheet technique', described by KRAGTEN, is applied to the k 0 -NAA basic equations for the computation of uncertainties. The variance components - individual standard uncertainties - highlight the contribution and the importance of the different parameters to be taken into account. (author)

  8. Quantitative analysis of education effect by the number of contamination in an unsealed radioisotope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Okumura, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    The educational program for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. However, there appears no distinct criterion for quantitative evaluation of the education effect on radiation safety. The effectiveness of education was assessed by the number and the frequency (number of contamination/number of users) of contamination, a major incident involving radioactive materials, based on the long-term contamination surveillance data from 1996 to 2001 in Nagasaki University Radioisotope Center. Facility staffs monitored contamination in the facility every day. In 1996 and 1997, the yearly total number and the frequency of contamination found in a molecular biology room, a most frequently-used laboratory, were 150 and 1.21, respectively. The improvement of education program, including introduction of technical procedures to avoid contamination in molecular biological experiments, pre-entry instruction for fresh workers to demonstrate radiation safety practices on site, and spreading the new concept 'contamination happens by all means' through the radiation workers, markedly reduced both the number and the frequency of contamination to 33 and 0.48, respectively. This reduction seemed to be attributable for two different reasons; improvement of skills to avoid contamination, and thorough execution of monitoring and decontamination. These results suggested that contamination was a possible criterion for evaluating effectiveness of education program for radiation workers. (author)

  9. Application of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analysis for determination of heavy metals impurities in Kufic silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stos-Fertner, Z.; Florkowski, T.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using radioisotope sources for excitation of characteristic X-ray lines and solid state silicon detector for analysis of X-ray spectra is a valuable method for non-destructive, rapid and sensitive analysis of elemental composition. This method has been used not only for silver determination in various coins but also for determination of metallic impurities such as Pb, Bi, Hg and Au in pure silver coins. Presence and concentration of these impurities is of great interest as indication of origin of silver ore. Two hundreds dirhams originating from early middle ages hoards found in Poland, minted in the period of 95 A.H. to 387 A.H. (713/14-997/8 A.D.) in the North Africa, Near East and Asian Arabian mints have been analysed. Differences in heavy metals concentration have been found which correlate with the origin of coins minted in various parts of the Arabian imperium. Such information may be of importance for identification of Arabian mints and silver mines. (author)

  10. Identification of unknown sample using NAA, EDXRF, XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, Aditi A.; Swain, K.K.; Chavan, Trupti; Remya Devi, P.S.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) receives samples from law enforcement agencies such as Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs for analysis. Five unknown grey powdered samples were received for identification and were suspected to be Iridium (Ir). Identification of unknown sample is always a challenging task and suitable analytical techniques have to be judiciously utilized for arriving at the conclusion. Qualitative analysis was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer at ACD, BARC. A SLP series LEO Si (Li) detector (active area: 30 mm 2 ; thickness: 3.5 mm; resolution: 140 eV at 5.9 keV of Mn K X-ray) was used during the measurement and only characteristic X-rays of Ir (Lα: 9.17 keV and Lβ: 10.70 keV) was seen in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results indicated that the Ir was in the form of metal. To confirm the XRD data, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out by irradiating samples and elemental standards (as comparator) in graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After suitable decay period, gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. Characteristic gamma line at 328.4 keV of the activation product 194 Ir was used for quantification of iridium and relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. NAA results confirmed that all the samples were Iridium metal. (author)

  11. Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué I Figuls, Marta; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José; Scott-Brown, Martin; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2011-07-06

    This is an update of the review published in Issue 4, 2003. Bone metastasis cause severe pain as well as pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression. Treatment strategies currently available to relieve pain from bone metastases include analgesia, radiotherapy, surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radioisotopes and bisphosphonates. To determine efficacy and safety of radioisotopes in patients with bone metastases to improve metastatic pain, decrease number of complications due to bone metastases and improve patient survival. We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the PaPaS Trials Register up to October 2010. Studies selected had metastatic bone pain as a major outcome after treatment with a radioisotope, compared with placebo or another radioisotope. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies by their sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of study participants, researchers and outcome assessors, and incomplete outcome data. Two review authors extracted data. We performed statistical analysis as an "available case" analysis, and calculated global estimates of effect using a random-effects model. We also performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) sensitivity analysis. This update includes 15 studies (1146 analyzed participants): four (325 participants) already included and 11 new (821 participants). Only three studies had a low risk of bias. We observed a small benefit of radioisotopes for complete relief (risk ratio (RR) 2.10, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.35; Number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) = 5) and complete/partial relief (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.63; NNT = 4) in the short and medium term (eight studies, 499 participants). There is no conclusive evidence to demonstrate that radioisotopes modify the use of analgesia with respect to placebo. Leucocytopenia and thrombocytopenia are secondary effects significantly associated with the administration of radioisotopes (RR 5.03; 95% CI 1.35 to

  12. Radioisotopes production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Application of radioisotopes for both medical and industrial applications constitutes one of the most important peaceful uses of atomic energy. The striking diffusion and the exciting perspective of radioisotope for a plethora of medical and industrial applications are mainly attributable to the penetrating and ionization properties of radiation emanating from radioisotopes. The revolutionary medical applications of radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of a multitude of diseases are causing a rapid expansion of the nuclear medicine field. While the industrial uses of radioisotopes are not expanding as quickly, also require large amounts of radioisotopes. Production of radioisotopes is not only the first step, but also the most crucial for the success as well as sustainable growth of radioisotope applications. With the rapid growth and expanding areas of applications, the demands for isotopes have increased several folds. A number of radioisotopes of different physical half-life, energy of the particle or gamma emission, specific activity and chemistry are now regularly produced both at commercial centers as well as at selected nuclear science research institutes utilizing reactors and cyclotrons to meet the ever growing need

  13. NAA of organohalogens in air particles and precipitation in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinnian; Yu Tailiu; Guo Junpeng; Xiong Youyou; Luo Wenyun

    2006-01-01

    Organohalogens are ubiquitous pollutants which are especially controlled in many countries and their behaviors in environment become the hot topic in environment science. By the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) combined with chemical separation, the extractable organohalogens (EOX) in environmental samples were determined. NAA is a nuclear analysis method, which has high sensibility and high precision. The detection limits were 50ng, 8ng, 3.5ng for Cl, Br, I, respectively. The principle is that when the sample was irradiated by thermal neutron, the energies and the intensities of γ ray of halogen nuclides ( 38 Cl, E γ =1642keV, t 1/2 =37.24min; 80 Br,E γ =617keV, t 1/2 =17.68min; 128 I, E γ =443keV, t 1/2 =24.99min)produced by nuclear reaction can be measured. Total content of halogens were analyzed and the organochlorines, organobromines and organoiodines in the samples were detected. In this paper, NAA and gas chromatography (GC) were used to determine organohalogens in air particles and precipitation samples in Jiading District, Shanghai, collected between December 2004 and August 2005. Extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs) in atmosphere were analyzed. The effect of preference for absorbance of organohalogens in fine air particles has been found. The sources for organochlorines in atmospheres are miscellaneous, while organobromine unitary and its possible souce is PBDEs. The contamination levels of HCH and DDT that are forbidden from 1983 in our country are coming down every year, but still being affected by transfusing of pesticides. The migration of lower chloro-diphenyls and HCH in ecosphere is larger than higher chloro-diphenyls, DDT and its metabolites. This work is supported by Foundation of Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. K117). (authors)

  14. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  15. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2007-07-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented. (c) 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. ANALISIS DAN PENGUKURAN PARAMETER REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK PENERAPAN METODE K0-NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murniasih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metode k0-NAA merupakan metode analisis yang banyak digunakan dengan berbagai keunggulan. Dalam penerapan metode k0-NAA diperlukan nilai parameter reaktor (f dan α, maka tujuan penelitian ini adalah akan dilakukan pengukuran nilai parameter f dan α di fasilitas Lazy Susan reaktor Kartini. Metode yang digunakan meliputi metode Cd-ratio dan triple bare. Telah diukur nilai parameter tersebut pada tiga lubang iradiasi di fasilitas Lazy Susan. Diperoleh perbedaan hasil pengukuran nilai parameter yang signifikan pada setiap lubang iradiasi, nilai ƒ berkisar 13,713 - 22,128 dan α berkisar -0,060 – 0,068. Hasil pengukuran f dan α dengan metode Cd-ratio, memberikan nilai yang lebih stabil dibandingkan metode triple bare. Nilai f dan α yang diperoleh dapat dijadikan basis data pada penerapan metode k0-NAA untuk analisis sampel di laboratorium AAN – PSTA. Kata kunci: parameter reaktor, reaktor Kartini, k0-NAA, fluks neutron   The k0-NAA method is an analysis method that widely used by many of the advantages. In the application of k0-NAA method needed valuea of reactor parameters (f and α, then the purpose of the research would be conducted meaasurement parameter values f and α in the Lazy Susan Kartini reactor facilities. The methods used include Cd-ratio and triple bare methods. The parameter value has been measured in three channels in the irradiation facilities Lazy Susan. Differences of measurement results obtained parameter values are significant in each channel irradiation, the value of ƒ ranged from 13.713 to 22.128 and the value of α ranged from -0.060 – 0.068. The results of measurements for the f and α with the Cd-ratio method, providing more stable value than the triple bare method. The value of f and α obtained can be used a database for the application of k0-NAA method for sample analysis in the laboratory NAA – CAST. Keywords: reactor parameter, Kartini reactor, k0-NAA, neutron flux

  17. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  18. Radioisotopes: Today's Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Radioisotopes are useful because of their three unique characteristics: (1) radiation emission; (2) predictable radioactive lives; and (3) the same chemical properties as the nonradioactive atoms of that element. Researchers are able to "order" a radioisotope with the right radiation, half-life, and chemical property to perform a given task with…

  19. Industrial radioisotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioisotope-based technology is playing an increasing role in investigating problems. The main benefit of the technology is that investigations can be carried out with no disruption to the operating process of the plant. Some of the radioisotope-based technology available from the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is presented. 3 figs., 1 ill

  20. Cum grano salis - NAA of selected salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J.H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trace element concentrations of salt samples from different regions, in particular Austria, Germany, Pakistan, Poland, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Investigated types of salt were Rock-, Sea-, Lake-, and Evaporated Salt. The main objective was to find out whether the consumption of salt can contribute significantly to the daily human requirements of trace elements. Therefore, trace element concentrations in the untreated samples were compared to those of specially treated samples, simulating digestive uptake using a simple model. Salt is a non-trivial matrix for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) because of very high background activities from 38 Cl and 24 Na, as well as the bremsstrahlung of 32 P (originating from 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P). Because of this fact, detection limits in salt are higher compared to other matrices. Nevertheless, several elements could be detected, namely Al, Ba, Br, (Ca), Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, and Zn, some of them only in single samples. In most samples the concentrations of trace elements in salt were too low to show biological effects. Salt can therefore only significantly contribute the essential elements sodium, chlorine, and, if added on purpose, fluorine and iodine to human nutrition. The contribution of all other traces in salt to the average daily human requirements can be neglected. Thus, from an analytical point of view, there is no health reason to use unpurified salt. There are, however, a few drawbacks to the use of unpurified salt, as hygroscopic compounds like MgCl 2 , and even toxic heavy metals like chromium or thorium. Especially rare earth element (REE) concentrations can often be used to obtain a chemical fingerprint, which can be used to identify the origin of an unknown sample. In the case of this study, the sample number from each region was too small to collect significant data. Therefore more analytical information is needed

  1. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.

    1967-01-01

    , surface and mass labelling (with particular reference to the problem of silting), immersion and detection equipment, and problems of navigation and topographical reference points. In the section dealing with the application of the results, the problem of obtaining quantitative results is discussed and the proposed methods described. The author also refers to the current, highly commendable attempts to relate the numerous sediment transport theories to measurements carried out in situ with radioactive tracers. The author also goes into some aspects of the safety question. The methods described may also be applied to related problems of considerable importance (soil erosion, soil stabilization and the movement of sand dunes) and brief references are made to these problems. Finally, the author reviews the current possibilities of using radioisotopes in sedimentology, their limitations and the improvement which should be made in their application. Continuous turbidity measurements. Since the transport of suspended solids is generally much more significant than bed-load movement, continuous measurements are of great importance. A number of examples are given of the value of information obtained by such measurements. Measurements of this kind can be carried out by means of gauges described in the literature. The author describes the principles and operation of such gauges, giving bibliographical references. The author also shows what information concerning turbidity can be obtained by measuring the natural radioactivity of suspended sediment and compares the two methods. Other measurements. Other radioisotope techniques which may also be used in sedimentology are touched on: dating, analytical studies (either continuous analysis of core samples by means of X-ray fluorescence or the detection of trace elements by activation analysis), use of tracers, for example for the study of particle movements when affected by freezing of the soil or for the study of the formation and

  2. Determination of U, Th and K for optically stimulated luminescence dating by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yali; Chen Zhe; Wu Weiming

    2010-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques have been widely used in northern Loess ancient soil series and recorded climate environment change, ancient earthquake, the ancients site and archaeology research. The determination of U, Th and K using neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been optimized for the samples related to OSL dating research. The procedure for determination of U, Th, K in loess have been fixed by using Miniature neutron source reactor. This procedure of NAA will provide a reliable data base for optically stimulated luminescence dating research. (authors)

  3. The use of high accuracy NAA for the certification of NIST botanical standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Greenberg, R.R.; Stone, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). NAA competes favorably with all other techniques because of it's unique capabilities for high accuracy even at very low concentrations for many elements. In this paper, instrumental and radiochemical NAA results are described for 25 elements in two new NIST SRMs, SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and SRM 1547 (Peach Leaves), and are compared to the certified values for 19 elements in these two new botanical reference materials. (author) 7 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -Studies on application of neutron activation analysis-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Sam; Jung, Yung Joo; Jung, Eui Sik; Lee, Sang Mee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Bae [Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    To apply Neutron activation analysis to routine analysis of environmental samples utilizing the research reactor (TRIGA MK-III), improving effects of analytical sensitivity have been investigated using both of thermal and epithermal neutron irradiating technique. Identification and development of analytical procedure was carried out using three kinds of standard reference materials (urban particulate matter, coal fly ash, soil). In addition, the confidence of this method was established by participation in collaborative research for the training and apply of international credit of analytical procedure. Practical studies on air dust samples have also been carried out regionally and seasonally. For the investigation on emission source of special element, enrichment factor was calculated in urban and rural area. Besides, a suitable process of biological sample (pine needle) analyses has been established by carrying out identification of uncertainty using standard reference material. The concentration of elements in practical samples were also determined regionally and seasonally. 14 figs, 26 tabs, 67 refs. (Author).

  5. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  6. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-03-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  7. k0-NAA implementation and application at IPEN neutron activation laboratory by using the k0-IAEA software: application to geological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Davi Brigatto

    2011-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples such as rocks, soils and sediments, for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k 0 -standardization method at LAN - IPEN, for geological sample analysis, by using the program k 0 - IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor α of the epithermal flux distribution of the IPEN IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'are triple-monitor' method with 197 Au- 96 Zr- 94 Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST - BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned values, with bias less than 10% except for Zn in AGV-1 (11.4%) and Mg in GS-N (13.4%). Three different scores were used to evaluate the results: z-score, zeta-score and Uscore. The z-score showed that the results can be considered satisfactory (z 3) for Mn in BE-N, Mg, Ce and La in GS-N, Mg in JB-1, and Th and Eu in Buffalo River Sediment. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, were within 95% confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geological samples analysis in geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

  8. Rapid Method for the Radioisotopic Analysis of Gaseous End Products of Anaerobic Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    A gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous analysis of 14C-labeled and unlabeled metabolic gases from microbial methanogenic systems is described. H2, CH4, and CO2 were separated within 2.5 min on a Carbosieve B column and were detected by thermal conductivity. Detector effluents were channeled into a gas proportional counter for measurement of radioactivity. This method was more rapid, sensitive, and convenient than gas chromatography-liquid scintillation techniques. The gas chromatography-gas proportional counting procedure was used to characterize the microbial decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic lake sediments and to monitor 14CH4 formation from H2 and 14CO2 by Methanosarcina barkeri. PMID:4854029

  9. The study of in vivo quantification of aluminum (Al) in human bone with a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Mostafaei, Farshad; Liu, Yingzi; Blake, Scott P; Koltick, David; Nie, Linda H

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility and methodology of using a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis system to measure aluminum in hand bone has been investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate the moderator, reflector, and shielding assembly and to estimate the radiation dose. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to detect the Al gamma ray signals. The minimum detectable limit (MDL) was found to be 11.13 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm). An additional HPGe detector would improve the MDL by a factor of 1.4, to 7.9 ppm. The equivalent dose delivered to the irradiated hand was calculated by Monte Carlo to be 11.9 mSv. In vivo bone aluminum measurement with the DD generator was found to be feasible among general population with an acceptable dose to the subject.

  10. Lead shielded cells for the spectrographic analysis of radioisotope solutions; Descripcion de un equipo, con recintos blindados, para el analisis espectrografico de soluciones de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.; Cruz, F. de la

    1967-07-01

    Two lead shielded cells for the spectrochemical analysis of radioisotope samples are described. One of them is devoted to the evaporation of samples before excitation and the other one contains a suitable spectrographic excitation stand for the copper spark technique. A special device makes it possible the easy displacement of the excitation cell on wheels and rails for its accurate and reproducible position as well as its replacement by a glove box for plutonium analysis. In order to guarantee safety the room in which the spectrograph and the source are set up in separated from the active laboratory by a wall with a suitable window. (Author) 1 refs.

  11. Economical Radioisotope Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power to...

  12. Studies on renal function in the elderly by analysis of radioisotope renal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko

    1990-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of radionuclide renal imagings for examining senile renal function in a total of 178 subjects. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-DMSA) was performed in the senile group (60-87 years) and in the adult group to determine renal uptake rate of Tc-DMSA and renal volume. Renography studies with I-131 hippuran (n=100) and Tc-99m diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) (n=20) were also performed for deconvolution analysis. Mean transit time (MTT) was mainly assessed as one of the retention function parameters. Blood residual rates (R15%) at fifteen minutes were also investigated. Renal volume and renal uptake rate for healthy persons were significantly lower in the senile group (n=17) than the adult group (n=24), 205±50 ml vs 225±27 ml; and 22±5% vs 26±2%. I-133 hippuran renography in healthy persons (n=35) showed a tendency toward higher MTT values with aging; however, there was no significant difference among age groups. R15%, obtained by I-133 hippuran renograms, tended to be higher with aging in age groups of persons younger than 70 years. A decreased number of effective nephrons was considered to result in higher R15% values even when aged persons had normal MTT values of I-131 hippuran. Split renal function values for healthy persons, calculated by the two radionuclide imagings, were lower in the senile group than the adult group, suggesting the usefulness of radionuclide imagings in renal function examination. (N.K.)

  13. Radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popple, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  14. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-10-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the (19)F(n,γ)(20)F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10(8) n s(-1) and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure.

  15. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  16. Naa Technique for Clinical Investigation of Mice Immunized with BOTHROP Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Aguiar, R. O.; Kovacs, L.; Suzuki, M.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  17. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H.

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  18. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  19. An Organellar Nα-Acetyltransferase, Naa60, Acetylates Cytosolic N Termini of Transmembrane Proteins and Maintains Golgi Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Aksnes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available N-terminal acetylation is a major and vital protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs. NatF, or Nα-acetyltransferase 60 (Naa60, was recently identified as a NAT in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we find that Naa60 differs from all other known NATs by its Golgi localization. A new membrane topology assay named PROMPT and a selective membrane permeabilization assay established that Naa60 faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes. An Nt-acetylome analysis of NAA60-knockdown cells revealed that Naa60, as opposed to other NATs, specifically acetylates transmembrane proteins and has a preference for N termini facing the cytosol. Moreover, NAA60 knockdown causes Golgi fragmentation, indicating an important role in the maintenance of the Golgi’s structural integrity. This work identifies a NAT associated with membranous compartments and establishes N-terminal acetylation as a common modification among transmembrane proteins, a thus-far poorly characterized part of the N-terminal acetylome.

  20. The provenance investigation on ancient chinese Ru porcelains by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua

    1997-01-01

    The 28 samples of glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelains are analyzed by neutron activation. The 36 element contents in each sample are determined. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) data are analyzed by fuzzy cluster. The trend cluster diagram is obtained. The result shows that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelains were most probably from the same raw material source though they were from different time, fired in different kilns and in different colors. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. The two modern Ru porcelains approximate to ancient Ru porcelains, one becomes estranged from ancient Ru porcelains. Jingdezhen porcelain is unconcerned with Ru porcelains

  1. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  2. Study on Hongzhou kiln porcelains of successive dynasties by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangqian; Feng Songlin; Quan Kuishan

    2005-01-01

    400 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln covering 8 periods from Eastern Han to Late Tang Dynasty/the Five Dynasties and their bodies were analysed by NAA. The results show that the elemental contents in different samples are quite distinct, even for those in the same period. It means no single element can be used as 'fingerprint' to distinguish the period. The curves of the contents of Na, Rb, Ba and Fe varying with time are very similar, like 'U' shape. As a colorant element, the content of Fe is consistent with the color of the body. The higher content of Fe is, the more dark of the body is. The outcome of principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that most of the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (authors)

  3. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  4. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  5. Performance of NAA methods in an International Interlaboratory Reference Material Characterization Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihnat, M.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database of analytical results from a recent biological matrix Reference Material Characterization Campaign permitted an intercomparison of the performances of various methods among each other and with 'true' best estimate concentration values established for these materials. Six different variants of neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods were employed including: instrumental neutron activation analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis with acid digestion, neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation, neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis, epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis, and neutron activation analysis with preconcentration. The precision and accuracy performance of NAA-based analytical methods are compared with three other major techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and mass spectrometry (MS) for 28 elements in 10 natural matrix materials. (author)

  6. Radioisotopic cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.

    1982-01-01

    In addition to the increase in dependability of conventional radioisotopic studies (gamma angio encephalography, gamma encephalography), the use of a tomography unit with emitted gamma photons allows improved use of newly developed radioactive tracers, such as 123 I iodoamphetamine. Its lipid solubility permits a true parenchymatous brain image to be obtained. The importance of these new easily diffusing tracers depends on the fact that they are able to provide information concerning the physiology and physiopathology of the brain, non invasively. The availability of metabolically active molecules marked with 11 C, 15 O or 13 N has pemitted the non invasive in vivo study of detailed physiological, biochemical and pharmacological mechanisms. Future development of radioisotopic investigations in the diagnosis of neurological problems must take into consideration computed tomography currently available and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the near future. Data obtained from dynamic, metabolic and functional studies will increase the diagnostic application of radioisotopic examinations, especially in etiological investigations [fr

  7. New opportunities for the enhanced NAA services through the research reactor coalitions and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danas Ridikas; Pablo Adelfang; Kevin Alldred; Marta Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of research reactors (RRs) is steadily decreasing, more than half of the operational RRs are still heavily underutilized, and in most cases, underfunded. The decreasing and rather old fleet of RRs needs to ensure the provision of useful services to the community, in some cases with adequate revenue generation for reliable, safe and secure facility management and operations. Enhancement of low and medium power research reactor (RR) utilization is often pursued by increasing the neutron activation analysis (NAA) activities. In this paper we will present the strategy and concrete actions how NAA as one of the most popular RR applications can contribute to the above goals in particular through (a) RR coalitions and networks, (b) implementation of automation in different stages of NAA, (c) QA/QC, including skills improvement of involved personnel, (d) dedicated proficiency tests performed by a number of targeted analytical laboratories. We also show that despite the IAEA's efforts, some of the NAA laboratories still perform badly in proficiency tests, do not have formal QA/QC procedures implemented, have not implemented automation to process large number of samples or lack of clear marketing strategies. Some concrete actions are proposed and outlined to address these issues in the near future. (author)

  8. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1981-10-01

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Radioisotope applications in nephrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    A short review of renal physiology and arterial vessels of the kidney is done, and the concept of renal filtration fraction is discussed. A table shows the main radioisotopes used in nephrological studies. The investigation methods for renal study involving the use of radioisotopes are treated, such as: isotopic nephrogram, with characteristic graphs for some renal diseases; renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, with a curve of radioactive decay for the blood, after orto-hippurate I.V. injection, a table describing the biological compartiments of hippuran and a curve for the calculus of the glomerular filtration; renal scintigraphy, with renal scintiscanning and nephrogram using a scintillation chamber [pt

  10. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  11. k0-NAA past the turn of the century: problems, concepts, insights, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, F. De

    2002-01-01

    For the k 0 -standardization of NAA, the transition to the 21st century was marked by two important events. In 2000: MARC-V (Kona, HI, USA), which offered the opportunity to present a retrospective lecture on 'The standardization of standardless NAA'; and, in 2001: the 3rd International k 0 Users Workshop (Bruges, Belgium), providing a survey of recent and ongoing projects related to both fundamental developments and applications. These two turn-of-the-century happenings paved the way to gain a broader and deeper insight in the past, present and future developments of the k 0 -standardization, thus allowing to make in the present paper an evaluation of the path that the k 0 -method is expected to follow in the years to come. Topics highlighted are: (i) the elimination of a few but important inaccuracies observed (as a feedback from actual analysis results) in the nuclear data library; (ii) the refinement to be made in the calibration of the irradiation facility, especially in the characterisation of the epithermal neutron flux shape factor alpha; (iii) the continuation of the development and use of the k 0 -concept in prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis; (iv) the increased communication and interaction of (k 0 ) NAA-users via the re-born k 0 -website; (v) the dissemination (via IRMM, EC, Geel, Belgium) and use of the recently issued SMELS materials, synthetic multi-element standards for QC/QA and validation of k 0 -NAA after its implementation in a laboratory; and (vi) the further growth of the use of the k 0 -calibration in NAA, with emphasis on the developing countries. (author)

  12. Alpha spectrometry Analysis of radioisotopes of thorium and uranium in the soil (IAEA soil reference ground 375 and the natural region of Utique (Bizerte))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Mouna

    2008-01-01

    Since the formation of the terrestrial crust, the primordial radionuclides are present in the minerals. The main are the radioactive elemnts of the Uranium 238, of Uranium 235, of the Thorium 232 chains, Potassium 40 and the Ribidium 87. In this survey, we will present the methodology of analysis of the natural radioisotopes of uranium ( 238 U, 235 U and 234 U) and those of the thorium ( 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th) presents to the state of tracers in the natural soils. The method of measurement used is the alpha spectrometry. This technique is very important in the radiometric analysis, especially for the pure alpha emitters or for the low levels of radioactivity analysis. The results if analysis of the Thorium are compared to those gotten by the ICP - AES ( t he Atomic Emission Spectrometry Coupled to an inductive Plasma ) . (Author)

  13. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  14. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B.; Foerster, B.; Li, L.M.; Covolan, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate

  15. Cyclotron Production of Medical Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A.; Zárate-Morales, A.; Flores-Moreno, A.

    2010-08-01

    The cyclotron production of radioisotopes for medical applications is gaining increased significance in diagnostic molecular imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT. In this regard, radioisotope production has never been easier or more convenient until de introduction of compact medical cyclotrons in the last few decades, which allowed the use of short-lived radioisotopes in in vivo nuclear medicine studies on a routine basis. This review outlines some general considerations about the production of radioisotopes using charged particle accelerators.

  16. Radio-isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamins, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    A device is claimed for interrupting an elution process in a radioisotope generator before an elution vial is entirely filled. The generator is simultaneously exposed to sterile air both in the direction of the generator column and of the elution vial

  17. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  18. Artificial radioisotopes in hydrological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Bedmar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have an important part in hydrological investigations. Sealed radiation sources have been used for measurements of sediments transported by river water, of thickness and density of sediment layers. X-ray fluorescence analysis and well-logging are widely applied in hydrological research. Tracer techniques have been useful in flow rate and river dynamics research, sediments tracing, irrigation and ground water problems, infiltration rate evaluation etc. The IAEA is supporting several projects involving the use of radioactive tracers in hydrological investigations p.e. in Guatemala, Romania, South East Asia, Brazil, Chile and Nicaragua

  19. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  20. Elemental analysis of the ancient bronze coins by x-ray fluorescence technique using simultaneously radioisotope source and x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Quynh; Truong Thi An; Tran Duc Thiep; Nguyen Dinh Chien; Dao Tran Cao; Nguyen Quang Liem

    2004-01-01

    The results on elemental analysis of the Vietnamese ancient bronze coins during the time of the Nguyen dynasty (19th century) are presented. The samples were provided by the vietnam National Historical Museum and the elemental analysis was performed on the home-made model EDS-XT-99-01 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the Institute of Materials Science, NCST of Vietnam. The samples exited simultaneously by radioisotope source and X-ray tube. The analytical results show the similarity in the elemental composition of the coins issued by different kings of the Nguyen dynasty, but there is the difference in the concentration of the used elements. Another interesting point is that all the coins have zinc (Zn) in their composition, which shows clearly the influence of the occidental metallurgical technology on the money-making technique in Vietnam during the 19th century. (author)

  1. Radioisotope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical applications of activation analysis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Design modifications in radioisotope scanners are discussed. Studies on the radiation dose distribution in patients from /sup 90m/Tc-albumin microspheres in the lungs, 59 Fe-citrate, 131 I-hippuran in kidney transplants, and /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphates are reported. Data on the levels of fallout 137 Co in normal individuals during 1975, as measured by whole-body counting, are reported. Results of studies on iodine metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism and with T 3 -thyrotoxicosis during 131 I therapy with activities up to 17 mCi showed that the apparent volumes of distribution for different iodine compounds do not change appreciably during therapy in this dose range. Methods are described for measuring the content of Ca alone and Ca and P in bone tissues by transmission scanning using a 252 Cf neutron source for activation of Ca and P

  2. Rapid qualitative determination of main components in archeological samples by radioisotope-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenberg, C.; Boazi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Archeological specimen were examined by the radioisotope-excited X-ray method to determine their chemical composition. Individual K and L X-rays of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, Ag, In, Sn and Ba were induced by using 241 Am - I and 241 Am- Tm source- target assemblies. A lithium drifted silicone diode coupled to a 400-channel analyzer was used for detection. No sample preparation was required and all the elements were measured simultaneously in 40 min counting time. The use of different targets coupled with only one primary source makes this technique simple, versatile and economical. The target materials are suitable for exciting K and L X-rayd from potassium to uranium. In addition, the targets, as monoenergetic secondary sources, minimize the background effect. (T.G.)

  3. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.St.

    1985-01-01

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  4. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TUNAS EKSPLAN TANAMAN PISANG CAVENDISH (Musa paradisiaca L. MELALUI KULTUR IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find the optimized combination micropropagation technique of Pisang “Cavendish” using Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Benzylaminopurin (BAP on culture in vitro. The research was conducted in Balai Benih Induk Hortikultura laboratorium (270 m upper sea level Salaman, Magelang, Central Java from November 2008 - Januari 2009. Design used was Complete Randomized Design. Experimental factor were concentration of NAA and BAP. NAA concentration comparised four levels (0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm. BAP concentration comparised four levels (0, 3, 6, and 9 ppm. Obtained data was analyzed by F test, when significantly different then followed by LSD test with 5% level. Observed variables is longest roots, total of buds, and total of roots. Statistic analysis result showed that concentration of BAP have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 0 ppm of BAP (B0 yielding optimalized on longest root ( 8,3 cm. Concentration of NAA have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 2 ppm of NAA (N2 yielding optimalized on longest root (6,0 cm. Concentration of BAP have significant effect on total buds. Concentration 9 ppm of BAP (B3 yielding optimalized on total of buds (2,5.

  5. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  6. NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letule, T.

    2017-01-01

    NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA). Supplies around 20% of the world's medical radioisotopes used. NTP is a pioneer in the introduction and growth of nuclear medicine as in South Africa. Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that involves the use of radioactive isotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nuclear medicine contributes to enhancing the lives of the society. There is a compelling need for nuclear medicine to be promoted and utilized in the rest of Africa, due to the increasing prevalence of cancer. Cancer is rapidly becoming a public health crisis in low-income and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, patients often present with advanced disease

  7. Radioisotope programme in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owlya, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Centre of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran has taken up a program for the production of short-lived radioisotopes. The initial purpose of this program was to give service to isotope users, mainly researchers, who were importing radioisotopes. With the commissioning of the reactor and installation of handling facilities at the temporary isotope laboratories at NRC the scope of the production program elaborated. Meanwhile the application of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine was actively encouraged. The production of radioisotopes in medicine is one of the prime objectives. The development of Tc-99m technology in NRC of AEOI will not only meet the demands of existing nuclear medicine centres, but also help the country to develop know-how in this important area. The output of this project will be the production and supply of Tc-99m generator, which is a primary objective with the technical assistance of IAEA. At the present moment the Tc-99m is processing using Mo-99 produced in the NRC reactor by irradiation Mo03. In view of the easier availability of fission product Mo-99 from several suppliers, now the NRC is seriously considering the preparation of Tc-99m generators using imported fission Mo-99. We are also working on the production of high specific activity Cr-51, P-32, S-33 and Au-198 colloid and some other short-lived radioisotopes in milicurie level. Iodine-131 is processed using the wet distillation method with good recovery. The iodine-131 is tested for radiochemical purity tellurium content and radionuclide purity and is found to be satisfactory. With these studies the processing and quality control of I-131 can be considered complete and batches of one curie activity can be planned. Specifications have been standardized for I-131 labelled formulations radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  8. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  9. Role of NAA in determination and characterisation of sampling behaviours of multiple elements in CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    2002-01-01

    Taking the advantage of high precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis (NAA), sampling constants have been determined for multielements in several international and Chinese reference materials. The suggested technique may be used for finding elements in existing CRMs qualified for quality control (QC) of small size samples (several mg or less), and characterizing sampling behaviors of multielements in new CRMs specifically made for QC of microanalysis. (author)

  10. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Medeiros, J A G; Zamboni, C B; Kovacs, L; Lewgoy, H R

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population. (paper)

  11. NAA using the photoneutrons of a Linac as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera P, E.; De Leon M, H. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Soto B, T.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2012-10-01

    Linear accelerators working above 8 MV produce photoneutrons that represent a radiological risk in the patient and hospital staff. In this work a moderator has been designed in the aim to use the photoneutron field to perform neutron activation analysis (NAA) of small samples. The moderator has been designed using Monte Carlo methods, here the photoneutron spectrum is modified by the moderator having the maximum thermal neutron flux in the moderator cavity where the sample to be analyzed is located. (Author)

  12. NAA of an egyptian ceramic electric insulator sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASHMAWY, L.S.; EISSA, E.A.; ROFAIL, N.B.; HASSAN, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work a sample of a ceramic electric insulator material used in Egypt in the production of transformers and indoor electric equipment has been elementally analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The Pneumatic Rabbit Transfer System (PRTS) of the 10 MW Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) was used, for short time irradiation of 120 s. Long time irradiation was performed at the reactor core periphery for 24 hours, The thermal neutron fluxes at full reactor power in both cases were 6 x 1013 n/cm 2.s and 3 x 1013 n/cm 2 .s, respectively. The gamma-ray spectra obtained have been measured for several times by means of the Hyper Pure Germanium Detection System (HPGe). The ko computer programs were used for data analysis. A total of 42 elements have been identified as: Na, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Au, Th and U

  13. The role of NAA in nuclear chemistry education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Vivier, A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the missions of our Institute is the promotion of basic nuclear teaching for students as well as professional teaching for workers in nuclear industry and research. For nuclear chemistry education, we present here a one day teaching course on radioactive decay and nuclear reactions, and a two or three days course based on reactor irradiation of uranium oxide, instrumental and radiochemical analysis of fission products. In the first experiment, the neutron capture is presented as an example of nuclear reaction; the neutron activation of a silver coin with a Am-Be neutron source, followed by γ-ray spectrometry, is used to identify three radionuclides of silver and to calculate their half-lives. In the second experiment, our teaching reactor is used as a neutron source with a flux about 10 10 n x cm -2 x s -1 at a low thermal power (10 kW). This low flux allows us to irradiate a small uranium sample which is usable for spectrometry after a short cooling time of about two hours. The first day is reserved for instrumental analysis of the fission products and a second day for the radiochemical separation of a fission radionuclides. With these experimental results, the students have to calculate the number of fissions in the irradiated sample. On optional third day for postgraduate students is devoted to the presentation of NAA and some applications as uranium determination by the fission product spectrometry. (author)

  14. Application Of NAA And AAS In Environmental Research In Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Meresova, J.; Sykora, I.; Frontasveva, M. V.; Ermakova, E.E.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mankovska, B.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in Bratislava. The obtained results confirm the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities, including Cairo. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. Results on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements in the whole territory Slovakia using the moss bio monitoring technique are presented, too. The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian moss. The marginal hot spots were revealed near nonferrous ores processing and factories and dumps of stone chips. The trans-boundary contamination by Hg through dry and wet deposition from Czech Republic and Polish is evident in the bordering territory in the north-west part of Slovakia (The Small Black Triangle), known for metallurgical works, coal processing and chemical industries

  15. WITHDRAWN: Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué I Figuls, Marta; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José; Scott-Brown, Martin; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2017-03-23

    This is an update of the review published in Issue 4, 2003. Bone metastasis cause severe pain as well as pathological fractures, hypercalcaemia and spinal cord compression. Treatment strategies currently available to relieve pain from bone metastases include analgesia, radiotherapy, surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radioisotopes and bisphosphonates. To determine efficacy and safety of radioisotopes in patients with bone metastases to improve metastatic pain, decrease number of complications due to bone metastases and improve patient survival. We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the PaPaS Trials Register up to October 2010. Studies selected had metastatic bone pain as a major outcome after treatment with a radioisotope, compared with placebo or another radioisotope. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies by their sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of study participants, researchers and outcome assessors, and incomplete outcome data. Two review authors extracted data. We performed statistical analysis as an "available case" analysis, and calculated global estimates of effect using a random-effects model. We also performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) sensitivity analysis. This update includes 15 studies (1146 analyzed participants): four (325 participants) already included and 11 new (821 participants). Only three studies had a low risk of bias. We observed a small benefit of radioisotopes for complete relief (risk ratio (RR) 2.10, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.35; Number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) = 5) and complete/partial relief (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.63; NNT = 4) in the short and medium term (eight studies, 499 participants). There is no conclusive evidence to demonstrate that radioisotopes modify the use of analgesia with respect to placebo. Leucocytopenia and thrombocytopenia are secondary effects significantly associated with the administration of radioisotopes (RR 5.03; 95% CI 1.35 to

  16. Production of radioisotopes using accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator produced radioisotopes find applications in many fields. Most of them are ideally suited for in-vivo studies of physiological functions. A brief review of various types of accelerators used for radioisotope production is given. The 'state of art' technology relevant to the production of radioisotopes is briefly discussed. Some of the recent advances in nuclear data measurements, target development, chemical processing and quality control are described. There appears to be a definite shift from multipurpose accelerators to dedicated machines, and greater emphasis is placed now on the production of radioisotopes with high radionuclidic purity by choosing a suitable nuclear reaction in a proper energy range. (author)

  17. Radioisotopes and vertebral augmentation: dosimetric analysis of a novel approach for the treatment of malignant compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Medich, David C; Rosenstein, Barry S; Martel, Christopher B; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2008-04-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), a major cause of morbidity and debilitating pain, often results from secondary tumor metastases to the skeleton. Vertebral augmentation is a palliative technique developed to treat VCFs and involves the injection of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to augment the fractured vertebral body. The authors investigate the feasibility of radionuclide therapy coupled with vertebral augmentation to treat both the tumor metastases and VCFs. Six therapeutic radioisotopes, uniformly mixed in a PMMA bolus, were investigated for their dosimetric properties. The MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code was used to characterize the therapeutic dosimetric distribution within a cortical bone phantom for a 1 mm radial bolus of isotope-infused PMMA. Based on these data, the minimum activity required for a therapeutic treatment was calculated. The dosimetry from beta emitting Y-90, P-32, and Ho-166 decreased to 10% of its maximum therapeutic dose (R10%) after traveling 1.20 mm, 1.03 mm, and 0.97 mm, respectively, through cortical bone. Low photon energy I-125 had a slightly larger calculated R10% of 1.32 mm. Although F-18 and Tc-99m exhibited a more uniform distribution (R10%=1.72 mm and 1.94 mm, respectively), the lower dosimetric gradients resulted in significantly greater therapeutic implant activities relative to the other isotopes studied in this report. Radionuclide therapy coupled with vertebral augmentation is shown to be a feasible technique for the treatment of secondary skeletal metastases and its resulting side effects. Future studies will include a full clinical investigation to determine optimal treatment isotope(s).

  18. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  19. Administration of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  20. Determination of reactor and detector parameters for K0-NAA at MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Abd Khalik Wood; Wee Boon Siong; Md Suhaimi Elias; Ho Munh Dung

    2004-01-01

    Currently quantitation of elemental content in sample analyzed by NAA has been done using comparative method in which standard of known amount are co-irradiated with sample prior to counting of induced activity in sample on gamma spectrometer. However, there is no requirement for standard by applying the K 0 NAA standardization technique, which has been proved applicable to any sample matrices with comparable analytical precision and accuracy. The quantitation by K 0 require complicated mathematical calculation making use many parameters such as neutron shielding factor, efficiency of detector, exact flux both for thermal and epithermal neutron, neutron flux comparator and others that can be performed via computer software. K 0 standardization method for NAA was first introduced in the mid-70s at INW (Gent, Belgium) and KFKI (Budapest, Hungary). In this presentation we will discussed the development of K 0 standardization applying software from NRI, Vietnam. The K 0 NAA procedure software containing γ-ray spectrum processing, calculation of detector efficiency, α (correction due to deviation of epithermal neutron flux from IIE neutron distribution function) and f (ratio of thermal to epithermal neutron flux) factors of the MINT TRIGA reactor, neutron fluxes, interference reactions, concentrations and uncertainties etc. First step in developing the capabilities is to determine α and f reactor parameters. Both reactor parameters were determined using neutron irradiated zirconium foil quantified using bare and cadmium cover method. Whilst the detector efficiency calibration was performed using the standard sources 57 Co, 241 Am, 133 Ba, 13 7Cs, 60 Co, and 22 Na. Aluminum wire consisting of 0. 11% gold purchased from IRMM was used as flux monitor that shall be co-irradiated with the sample in the reactor. The applicability of the method was evaluated by analyzing several types of Certified Reference Material (CRM). Accuracy and precision of the analysis applying the

  1. IRMM Certified Reference Materials and k0-NAA: an important role for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Pauwels, J.; Pomm, S.

    1998-01-01

    The k 0 -Neutron Activation Analysis method was introduced at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) and the Belgian nuclear research centre (SCK CEN) in 1994. This analytical technique is routinely used at IRMM for the production control, homogeneity and stability tests and/or for certification of metallic, biological and environmental reference materials. The successful implementation of k 0 -NAA was proven at several certification exercises - such as ISS Antarctic Sediment, BCR Mussel Tissue and BCR Bovine Liver, SMU Bovine Blood - where all our results were accepted for certification. Responding to regulatory and/or scientific demands, IRMM is collaborating with national institutes to develop new high quality reference materials: (i) in the field of Neutron dosimetry: high purity nickel, Al-Ag or Zr-Au-Lu alloys; (ii) for environmental and industrial monitoring: Antarctic krill, doped plastics or catalytic converters; (iii) synthetic multi-element standard for the accreditation of k 0 -NAA laboratories. Far from being exhaustive, this list highlights the important role that k 0 -NAA will play in the certification of reference materials in the years 2000. (author)

  2. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  3. Support housing for radioisotope generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A support housing for on-site radioisotope generation is disclosed in which the formation of a short-lived daughter radioisotope from its longer-lived parent features countercurrent batch flow of the eluting reagent interior of the housing. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  4. Application of NAA in study of rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wenfeng

    2003-01-01

    Based on the principle and method of rare earth elements (REE) tracer and NAA for the study of soil erosion, the changeable process of rill erosion on loess sloping surface was researched in runoff scouring experiments. The results showed that the REE tracer and NAA method can be used not only quantitatively to determine soil erosion amounts on different slope sections, but also to reveal the changeable trend of relative erosion amounts. The relative errors are mostly less than ±20% for the tracing elements, which is considered satisfactory in the soil erosion studies

  5. Al behavior in tobacco cells by NAA and staining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iikura, H.; Tanoi, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    To study aluminum toxicity for plant, it is important to analyze the behavior of Al in cells. The way how Al is taken up by tobacco cells through lumogallion staining method developed is presented. The fluorescence intensity from the cell was increased rapidly between 4 and 8 hours of 1 mM Al treatment. To calibrate the fluorescence intensity from Al-lumogallion complex, Al amount in the cell was determined by NAA. When the same sample was analyzed by ICP-AES, Al amounts in all the samples were 13% lower than those measured by NAA. (author)

  6. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  7. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  8. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1994-09-01

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  9. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriss, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99 /sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  10. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  11. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  12. Generation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek-Finda, H.

    1984-01-01

    A method of producing radioisotopes for radiopharmaceutical applications is claimed. A physiological solution is used to elute a radioactive daughter isotope from a fission-produced parent isotope adsorbed on an adsorbent. The eluate containing the daughter isotope is purified with a cation-exchange material. In separate claims: the parent isotope is molybdenum-99; aluminium oxide which contains fully or partly hydrated manganese dioxide is used as the adsorbent for the parent isotope; a resin is used as the cation-exchange material; a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been neutralized is used as a resin; and a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been converted into the Na + , K + or NH 4 + form is used as a resin; an isotope generator system is also claimed

  13. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  14. A strategy for the survival and enrichment of NAA in a wider context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the current trends in NAA, its applications and the use of research reactors for NAA is given. A case is made for a more versatile, interdisciplinary approach towards NAA, operating in the context of a larger national or regional nuclear analytical center where other nuclear and non-nuclear analyses can be combined. (author)

  15. The application of spectrographic analysis to the radioisotope production control. II. Analysis of calcium-45, scandium-46, nickel-63, and copper-64 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    Semi-quantitative and quantitative determinations of both the radioactive and the target element in each radioisotope are described. The copper-spark technique was used except for Cu determinations, that need silver or.graphite electro des. Inter-element effects and their compensation through the use of Bi, 6a, In, Ho, Pd, TI and Y as reference elements was examined. For the determination of Ca in Ca-45 samples, Ba, La, Li and Sr were also tested. Good results are achieved with Li for Ca, Y for Sc,Ti and Ni, and either In or Y for Cu and Zn. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Sartorius, Alexander; Welzel, Helga; Walter, Sigrid; Skopp, Gisela; Ende, Gabriele; Mann, Karl

    2007-06-01

    Cannabinoids present neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties in in vitro studies, inconsistent alterations in human neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological deficits, and an increased risk for psychotic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), neuropsychological testing, and hair analysis for cannabinoids was performed in 13 male nontreatment-seeking recreational cannabis users and 13 male control subjects. A significantly diminished N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) ratio in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was observed in cannabis users (p = .0003). The NAA/tCr in the putamen/globus pallidum region correlated significantly with cannabidiol (R(2) = .66, p = .004). Results of the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Trail making Test, and D2 test for attention were influenced by cannabinoids. Chronic recreational cannabis use is associated with an indication of diminished neuronal and axonal integrity in the DLPFC in this study. As chronic cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, these results are interesting because diminished NAA/tCr ratios in the DLPFC and neuropsychological deficits were also reported in schizophrenia. The strong positive correlation of NAA/tCr and cannabidiol in the putamen/globus pallidum is in line with neuroprotective properties of cannabidiol, which were also observed in in vitro model studies of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Radioisotope Applications and the Evolution of the Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, C.

    2006-01-01

    A time of commemoration like the present is ideal for making and analysis of radioisotope applications and the evolution which the techniques employed in their use have undergone over the last 25 years. This article analyses the different practices using radioisotopes highlighting those which re no longer used, those that have been progressively abandoned and those which have been emerging during these past few years. The article also indicates when-ever possible the reason for the change and their associated advantages. (Author)

  18. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  19. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  20. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hi-Z Technology has designed, built and tested a small thermoelectric module that is well suited to use the 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as a heat source....

  1. Short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture held in Pretoria, South Africa, 22-24 April 1981. The following topics were discussed: principles of nuclear physics and radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; regulatory control of radioisotopes; basic radiation protection procedures; radiation detectors and counting instrumentation; statistics of radioactive observations; use of the neutron moisture meter in soil moisture determinations; soil moisture content and soil density measurements by the gamma soil moisture meter; trace element analysis; application and use of radioisotopes as tracers in soil studies; applications of isotopes in plants for the study of absorption and transportation of mineral elements; applications of radioisotopes in zoological studies

  2. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  3. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  4. Study of organohalogen contaminants in yogurt by NAA and GC-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Shenzen Univ.; Sun, H.B.; Zhang, J.L.; Ouyang, H.; Xin, L.; Chuai, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of total halogen (TX), extractable organohalogen (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogen (EPOX) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Chinese supermarkets using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatography equipped with a 63 Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that the halogens in yogurt mainly existed as non-extractable organohalogen compounds. About 25-30% of EOX was EPOX. EOCl and EPOCl were the main organohalogen species in yogurt. The average concentration of the identified organochlorine, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was below 4% of EPOCl. (author)

  5. A Web tool for calculating k0-NAA uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, N.; Robouch, P.

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of uncertainty budgets is becoming a standard step in reporting analytical results. This gives rise to the need for simple, easily accessed tools to calculate uncertainty budgets. An example of such a tool is the Excel spreadsheet approach of Robouch et al. An internet application which calculates uncertainty budgets for k 0 -NAA is presented. The Web application has built in 'Literature' values for standard isotopes and accepts as inputs fixed information such as the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio, as well as experiment specific data such as the mass of the sample. The application calculates and displays intermediate uncertainties as well as the final combined uncertainty of the element concentration in the sample. The interface only requires access to a standard browser and is thus easily accessible to researchers and laboratories. This may facilitate and standardize the calculation of k 0 -NAA uncertainty budgets. (author)

  6. A simple NAA process for multielement determination of spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling; Tian Weizhi

    1998-01-01

    Forty elements in NIST 1570a (or IAEA-331), an intercomparison material, spinach, have been determined using the NAA techniques. Among them, 31 elements, i.e. Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Re, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, V, Zn and Zr, were determined by employing INAA. A series of simple and quantitative radiochemical separation procedures were established for the determination of 9 additional elements. Among them, Cd, Lu, Mo, Sm, Yb and U were determined by removing the major interfering nuclide 82 Br; Cu by 0.048 mol/L NaDDTC/CHCl 3 extraction from 1 mol/L HCl medium; and As and P by using an inorganic exchange column of acid aluminum oxide (AAO). The interferences from fission products and γ spectrum of 235 U have been corrected by the NAA software, ADVNAA

  7. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN / CNEN - SP) - Centro do Reator de Pesquisas Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242 - 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenco, T. F.; Macedo, D. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP - Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970 - Campinas, SP Brazil - Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  8. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41 Ar, 79 Kr or 85 Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products, 140 La and 24 Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  9. Large sample NAA facility and methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, C.; Gugiu, D.; Barbos, D.; Datcu, A.; Aioanei, L.; Dobrea, D.; Taroiu, I. E.; Bucsa, A.; Ghinescu, A.

    2013-01-01

    A Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) facility has been developed at the TRIGA- Annular Core Pulsed Reactor (ACPR) operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti, Romania. The central irradiation cavity of the ACPR core can accommodate a large irradiation device. The ACPR neutron flux characteristics are well known and spectrum adjustment techniques have been successfully applied to enhance the thermal component of the neutron flux in the central irradiation cavity. An analysis methodology was developed by using the MCNP code in order to estimate counting efficiency and correction factors for the major perturbing phenomena. Test experiments, comparison with classical instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods and international inter-comparison exercise have been performed to validate the new methodology. (authors)

  10. Hygienic efficiency of radioisotope instruments application in motor-car industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, M.I.; Lev, M.Ya.; Liberman, A.N.; Chictov, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    At the Moscow Automobile Works named after I.A. Likhachev, an analysis was made of the hygienic and technologic-economic benefits from use of radioisotope instruments. Radioisotopic sources of radiation are used for research and measuring purposes in various automatic control and monitoring systems, and in evaluating the effectiveness of cleaning facilities. The application of radioisotopic instruments contributes to achieving the maximum possible efficiency of the equipment, to the improvement of working conditions, and to the prevention of environmental pollution

  11. Application of NAA in diffusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Jha, S.; Gokarn, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion of Mn 2+ ions in CoSO 4 , NiSO 4 and ZnSO 4 containing 1% agar gel as well as that of MnSO 4 in 1% agar gel was studied at 25 deg C. The diffusion coefficients at selected concentrations were determined by the zone diffusion technique and by measuring the concentration of diffusing ions using neutron activation analysis. (author)

  12. Heavy element concentration determination by the x-ray fluorescence analysis using radioisotope γ-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, S.

    1968-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study has been made on the fluorescence analysis of high atomic number element, using γ-ray sources for excitation and characteristic K X-rays for the measurement. The choice of the proper γ-ray energy according to the conditions of the determination is considered. The author has studied the usefulness of using the backscattered γ-rays as a correction mean for matrix and grain-size effects. Sources of 153 Gd, 57 Co, 137 Cs have been used for excitation using collimated geometries. Concentration measurements of tungsten in steel, tungsten and lead in aqueous solution, PbS in SiO 2 -PbS powder mixtures have been done, as well as thickness evaluation of gold layers on copper. A precision of about 0.2 per cent (abs.) is obtained for lead determination in light matrixes. A probe design is proposed for the continuous determination of lead in aqueous solutions. (author) [fr

  13. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  14. THINNING OF ‘GALA’ AND 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES WITH BA, NAA AND THEIR COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M STOPAR

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees, eight-year-old ‘Gala’/M.9 and four-year-old ‘Golden Delicious’/M.9 have been thinned with 6- benzyladenine (BA 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm, with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 5 ppm, 10 ppm and 20 ppm, and with the tank mix combinations of BA 50 ppm + NAA 5 ppm or BA 20 ppm + NAA 5 ppm, all at 9-10 mm fruitlet diameter. All applied concentrations of BA and NAA thinned both cultivars significantly and no significant difference was found between BA or NAA thinning action. No concentration response on thinning was observed with neither BA nor NAA application. All BA or NAA separate treatments caused yield of fruit to shift to bigger size class. The only concentration response effect was found on evaluation of mean fruit weight data on ‘Golden Delicious’. The higher concentration of BA was used, the higher was the weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit. On the opposite, the higher concentration of NAA was used, the lower was the weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit (not significantly. When BA and NAA were sprayed on ‘Gala’ or ‘Golden Delicious’ as a tank mix combination, similar effect on thinning or fruit growth occurred comparing to BA or NAA when sprayed alone. Return bloom was enhanced on all thinned ‘Gala’ trees while flower formation of ‘Golden Delicious’ was better in the case of BA 200 ppm, NAA 5 ppm, NAA 20 ppm or tank mix spraying of BA 20 ppm + NAA 5 ppm.

  15. Multielement determination in environmental NAA using MONSTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, J.F.; Dyer, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    MONSTR is a computer program for the resolution and isotopic identification of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra. There are over 20 commands for energy and detector efficiency calibration, spectral resolution data analysis and input/output. The photo peaks are automatically located and fitted by least squares to a gaussian function that is capable of resolving multiplets containing up to four photo peaks. A maximum of 71 photo peaks are stored for isotope identification. Spectra are automatically corrected for the main amplifier dead time, and decay during the count interval for short half life nuclides. The table used in isotope identification contains over 1200 gamma-rays and 320 nuclides. These tables can be expanded to over 1000 nuclides. MONSTR, written in FORTRAN IV runs on a 8192 word PDP15/20 computer interfaced to a 4096 word multichannel analyzer

  16. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  17. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  18. Radioisotope techniques in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Prabuddha

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques are quite useful in oil exploration and exploitation. Nuclear logging offers a way of gathering information on porosity, permeability, fluid saturations, hydrocarbon types and lithology. Some of the interesting applications in well drilling are determining depth of filtrate invasion, detection of lost circulation, drill-bit erosion control; primary cement measurements and well completions such as permanent tubular markers, perforation position marking, detection of channeling behind casing and gravel pack operations. Radioisotopes have been successfully used in optimizing production processes such as production profiling injection profiling, corrosion measurements and well to well tracer tests. (author)

  19. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  20. Originating relation studies on ancient porcelains of chines Ru and Jun by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Weijuan; Xie Jianzhong; Gao Zhengyao; Li Guoxia; Li Rongwu; Zhang Bin

    2002-01-01

    50 samples of glazes and bodies of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, Jun porcelain and imitative ancient ceramics were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The contents of 36 elements in each sample were measured. The NAA data were statistically treated by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram was obtained. Their classes and raw material sources were determined. The results show that although these samples spanned hundreds of years, came from different kilns and had different glazes colors, the bodies of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain belong to the same kind, the glazes of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain is similar to the glazes of the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain. The originating places of the body raw material were concentrated, and that of the glaze raw materials were scattered, the source of the glaze raw material covered that the body raw material. The ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain have basically the same raw material sources and the sources of raw material are stable in long time. It is found that most modern Jun porcelain samples are similar to the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain. Two modern Ru porcelain samples are similar to the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, but another one drifts apart from the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain. Jingdezhen porcelain has no relation to Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain

  1. Neutron self-shielding with k0-NAA irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilian, C.; Chambon, R.; Kennedy, G.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of SMELS Type II reference material was mixed with powdered Cd-nitrate neutron absorber and analysed by k 0 NAA for 10 elements. The thermal neutron self-shielding effect was found to be 34.8%. When flux monitors were irradiated sufficiently far from the absorbing sample, it was found that the self-shielding could be corrected accurately using an analytical formula and an iterative calculation. When the flux monitors were irradiated 2 mm from the absorbing sample, the calculations over-corrected the concentrations by as much as 30%. It is recommended to irradiate flux monitors at least 14 mm from a 10 mm diameter absorbing sample.

  2. NAA of two deep sea manganese nodule RMs for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Yu Zhanqin

    2002-01-01

    Mn-nodule is one of the most important deep sea mineral resources to be explored and exploited in the next century. Analytical quality control based on these kinds of CRMs is therefore necessary. In present work, nearly 30 elements in two Chinese Mn nodule RMs, GSPN-2 and GSPN-3, were determined using extended K 0 -relative comparison NAA technique, developed in our laboratory. The unique features of this work include: i) high accuracy obtained by the internal-validation function of our technique; ii) extensive determinable elements obtained by the hybrid nature of our software; and iii) neutron flux self-shielding corrections. (author)

  3. NAA of two deep sea manganese nodule RMs for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangfa Ni; Zhanqin Yu; Gaokui He; Pingsheng Wang; Weizhi Tian

    1997-01-01

    Mn-nodule is one of the most important deep sea mineral resources to be explored and exploited in the next century. Analytical quality control based on this kind of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) is therefore necessary. In the present work, nearly 30 elements in two Chinese Mn nodule Reference Materials (RMs), GSPN-2 and GSPN-3, were determined using extended K 0 -relative comparison NAA technique, developed in our laboratory. The unique features of this work include: (1) high accuracy obtained by the internal validation function of our technique; (2) extensive determinable elements obtained by the hybrid nature of our software and (3) neutron flux self-shielding corrections. (author)

  4. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, E. A. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  5. How to Handle Radioisotopes Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulcoski, John W.

    This booklet is one in a series of instructional aids designed for use by elementary and secondary school science teachers. The various units and forms of radioactive materials used by teachers are first considered. Then, the quantities of radioisotopes that a person may possess without a license from the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) are…

  6. Radioisotopes point the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Oldham, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radiochemicals as tracers in medicine is discussed, with particular reference to the choice of radioisotope to be used, its properties, quality control and its detection and measurement in tracer experiments. The development of autoradiography is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Realistic Specific Power Expectations for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being considered for a wide range of future NASA space science and exploration missions. Generally, RPS offer the advantages of high reliability, long life, and predictable power production regardless of operating environment. Previous RPS, in the form of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), have been used successfully on many NASA missions including Apollo, Viking, Voyager, and Galileo. NASA is currently evaluating design options for the next generation of RPS. Of particular interest is the use of advanced, higher efficiency power conversion to replace the previous thermoelectric devices. Higher efficiency reduces the quantity of radioisotope fuel and potentially improves the RPS specific power (watts per kilogram). Power conversion options include Segmented Thermoelectric (STE), Stirling, Brayton, and Thermophotovoltaic (TPV). This paper offers an analysis of the advanced 100 watt-class RPS options and provides credible projections for specific power. Based on the analysis presented, RPS specific power values greater than 10 W/kg appear unlikely.

  8. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.; Menossi, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  9. Analysis of the elementary composition of the phytoterapics Espinheira Santa and eggplant by the method of Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Luan M.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines has become quite popular in Brazil due to its vast flora and the belief that everything that is natural does not present harmful effects to human health. However, these products may contain toxic or excessively harmful to the human organism. The objective of this work was to analyze herbal medicine Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia) and Eggplant (Solanum melongena) by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Phytotherapeutic samples were obtained from drugstores in the form of capsules, and their contents were removed from the capsules for analysis. The NAA procedure consisted of irradiate phytotherapeutic aliquots and the synthetic neutron element patterns of the nuclear reactor IEAR-1 followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes formed were identified by half lives and gamma ray energies and the concentrations of the elements were calculated by the comparative method. For analytical quality control, the certified reference materials were analyzed and the results presented good accuracy and precision. In the phytoterapics, the elements K and Ca were found in higher concentrations, in the order of mg g -1 , Br, Fe, Rb and Zn of the order of μg g -1 and the elements Co, Cr, Cs, La and Sc of the order of ng g -1 . Results obtained in this work demonstrated the feasibility of applying the NAA procedure in the determination of the elemental composition of phytoterapics

  10. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  11. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.; Yoon, B. M.; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Park, C. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Suh, C. H.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Hong, S. B.; Jun, S. S.; Min, E. S.; Jang, K. D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Suh, K. S.; Goo, J. H.; Chung, S. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, J. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Bang, K. S.

    1997-09-01

    To produce radioisotopes utilizing the research reactor `HANARO`, development of RI production process, target fabrication, preparation of devices and tools for RI process, preparation of production facility for radiopharmaceuticals, test production for the established process, etc. have been carried out, respectively. Production processes for various kinds of radionuclides were developed and the settled methods were applied to test production using `HANARO`. The results of developed process are as follows: (1) I-131 dry distillation method. (2) Large scale production of Ir-192 sources (3) P-32 production process by distillation under reduced pressure (4) Cr-51 production process using enriched target. To irradiate the target for RI production in `HANARO`, target for neutron irradiation, loading/unloading devices, working table in service pool, remote handling tools, shield cask for irradiated target transfer, etc. were designed and fabricated. The function test of prepared targets and the safety analysis of shielding casks were carried out. License for practical use of the prepared casks were obtained from Ministry of Science and Technology. For production of medical radioisotopes, their production facilities were designed in detail and were installed in RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility), with full reflection of the basic concept of the good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The constructed GMP facilities have started to be operated after authorization since Jun., 1997. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes in `HANARO` and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Concentrations of ions in blood or athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Loureno, Thiago F.; Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Macedo, Denise V.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K) are widely distributed in the body and are the mainly of body fluids electrolytes. K is the major intracellular ion. Na and Cl are the major extracellular ions. Therefore, Na and Cl can be regarded as the most important osmotically active electrolytes. The concentrations of these ions in body fluids are very tightly controlled. These electrolytes play central roles in electrolytic balances and current, in osmotic control, in the transport of organic metabolites by cells, and stabilization of poly electrolytes in cells. In this study Na, Cl and K levels were investigated in blood of athletes submitted to physical exercise at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP - Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The blood samples were collected from six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, before and after the physical training. These results were compared with the rest condition (before start the physical exercise), as well as with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities), for checking the performance of the athletes during and after the exercise. The nuclear procedure adopted as NAA, it can be an alternative procedure to perform biochemistry analyses in blood, mainly when the biological material is scarce. (author)

  13. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Sakda

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131 I (solution and capsule), 131 I-MIBG, 131 I-Hippuran, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-HA, and 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  14. Trace element analysis of water using radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence (Cd-109) and a preconcentration-internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cano, W.

    1986-10-01

    Radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence using Cd-109 was used for the determination of iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and mercury in water. These metals were concentrated by precipitation with the chelating agent APDC. The precipitated formed was filtered using a membrane filter. Cobalt was added as an internal standard. Minimum detection limit, sensitivities and calibration curves linearities have been obtained to find the limits of the method. The usefulness of the method is illustrated analysing synthetic standard solutions. As an application analytical results are given for water of a highly polluted river area. (Author)

  15. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  16. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, G.B.; Lazor, C.J.

    1976-10-01

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author) [es

  17. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  18. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, Meera

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30 P, by bombardment of 27 Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  1. Clinical evaluation of Proscillaridin-A with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.D.A.; Cordovil, I.L.; Rocha, A.F.G.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty patients with cardiac insufficiency were evaluated under the use of Proscillaridin-A. The analysis was based on classic clinical parameters and 11 patients through the circulation time with the radioisotopic technique. The results obtained are analysed and discussed about the absence of side effects, considering as well the therapeutic use of the drug [pt

  2. Study of provenance properties on ancient celadon of different kilns with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Fan Dongyu; Feng Xiangqian; Xu Qing; Cheng Lin; Lei Yong; Shen Yueming; Zhang Wenjiang; Zhua Zhenxi

    2005-01-01

    Provenance characteristic is an important scientific parameter to identify ancient porcelain wares unearthed from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln of Zhejiang Province, Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiangxi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shanxi Province have been analyzed with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was able to be identified. The body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiangxi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference. (authors)

  3. Standard reference material certification: contribution of NAA with a TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvini, E.; Speziali, M.; Salvini, A.; Herborg, C.

    2002-01-01

    Pavia has cooperative links with the major international agencies devoted to the certification of SRMs or CRMs as the Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR), the European Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM), the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). During these cooperative works, a large amount of analytical data obtained with NAA has been compared, and meaningful methodological information achieved with respect to accuracy and precision in the analysis of several elements at different concentrations in various matrices. Analytical data on As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Cs, Fe, Zn, K, Sc, U, Th, Al, Sb, Mn, V, Hg, Sr, Rb, Se,Pt, all the Rare Earths and halogens Br, Cl, I, have been obtained and contributed for the final certification

  4. Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewgoy, H.R.; Zamboni, C.B.; Sabrina Metairon; Medeiros, I.M.M.A.; Medeiros de, J.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

  5. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA); Identificacion de procedencia para obsidianas de Cantona, Puebla, por el metodo de analisis por activacion neutronica (AAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-07-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  6. Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    controllable and varied to access reactions of interest (primarily (n,n’) inelastic scattering). Theory and analysis using Monte Carlo codes (MCNPX) is still...performance and p-7Li neutron production: The Mercury pulsed power generator was operated in positive polarity at 2/3 Marx charge. Positive polarity...was achieved by reversing the normal Marx charging polarity, which can be easily done at the lower 50 kV (out of 75 kV) charge. The ion diode produced

  7. Neutron activation analysis: recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of major to trace elemental concentrations in diverse matrices. NAA is associated with high analytical sensitivities and low detection limits (ppm to ppb) due to utilization of high neutron flux from research reactors and high efficiency high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Elemental concentrations are determined either by conventional NAA using relative method or by single comparator method of NAA (k 0 -NAA). Since 1994, Radiochemistry Division is actively engaged in developments and applications of k 0 -based NAA and Prompt Gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) methods for compositional characterization of materials, in addition to conventional instrumental NAA (INAA) and chemical NAA (CNAA) methods for total as well as speciation studies. The article briefly summarizes developments of k 0 based method of NAA using an external single comparator (k 0 -NAA) and an internal monostandard (lM-NAA) and PGNAA and their applications to small as well as large size samples. The article also briefly highlights the application of INAA and chemical NAA (CNAA) for speciation studies of arsenic and iodine in environmental and food samples respectively and bioaccesibility of selenium in food samples and trace elements wheatgrass samples

  8. Determination of selenium in biological material by instrumental neutron activation analysis using {sup 77m} Se radioisotope; Determinacao de selenio em materiais biologicos por analise por ativacao com neutrons instrumental usando o radioisotopo {sup 77m} Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Maria B.A.; Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Tokura, Alexandra M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    1999-11-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diet due to its relation to the protection against carcinogenic substances, heart disease, hypertension, sexual performance enhancement, and others. In this work Se concentration in samples of the biological certificate reference materials Human Hair BCR-CRM 397, Spiked Human Hair IAEA-085, Unspiked Human Hair IAEA-086; Dogfish Liver DOLT-1 and Dogfish Muscle DORM-1 were determined in order to improve the instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, method using {sup 77m} Se radioisotope. The application of this method allows the analysis of a large number of samples of samples with reduced time of experimental and cost. the best results were obtained with the reactor operating at 5 MW and time of irradiation between 10 and 20 s. In these experimental conditions the relative standard deviation and error were generally lower than 10%. (author) 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  10. Radioisotopes in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A number of advances in diverse fields of science and technology and the fruitful synchronization of many a new development to address the issues related to health care in terms of prognosis and diagnosis resulted in the availability of host of modern diagnostic tools in medicine. Nuclear medicine, a unique discipline in medicine is one such development, which during the last four decades has seen exponential growth. The unique contribution of this specialty is the ability to examine the dynamic state of every organ of the body with the help of radioactive tracers. This tracer application in nuclear medicine to monitor the biological molecules that participate in the dynamic state of body constituents has led to a whole new approach to biology and medicine. No other technique has the same level of sensitivity and specificity as obtained in radiotracer technique in the study of in-situ chemistry of body organs. As modem medicine becomes oriented towards molecules rather than organs, nuclear medicine will be in the forefront and will become an integral part of a curative process for regular and routine application. Advances in nuclear medicine will proceed along two principal lines: (i) the development of improved sensitive detectors of radiation, powerful and interpretable data processing, image analysis and display techniques, and (ii) the production of exotic and new but useful radiopharmaceuticals. All these aspects are dealt with in detail in this talk

  11. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  12. Research reactor operations for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tv'ehlov, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA Special Manual devoted to quality control during neutron activation analysis (NAA) on research and test reactors is discussed. Three parts of the publication involve presentation of common rules for performance of NAA, quantitative and qualitative analyses, statistic and systematic errors, safety regulations and radioactive waste management. Besides, the publication contains practical manual for the performance of NAA, and examples of different NAA regulating registration forms are presented [ru

  13. The industrial application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the two main fields of the industrial application of radioisotopes are introduced. In the field of process controlling device and control first about the transmission and the backscattering methods is reported. Then the x-ray fluorescence method and the moisture gauging with neutrons are mentioned. Also the measuring of depth of charge. In the field of tracer investigations about all kinds of flow and intermixture measurements is reported. And investigations of corrosion, wear and lubrication and precise location of nonmetallic pipe lines are mentioned. (Author)

  14. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  15. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  16. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA and foliar fertilizer concentration on the growth of ornamental plants Anthurium ‘wave of love’ (Anthurium plowmanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARNITA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Warnita, Herawati N. 2017. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA and foliar fertilizer concentration on the growth of ornamental plants Anthurium ‘wave of love’ (Anthurium plowmanii. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 7: 50-55. One species of ornamental plants which much in demand because of the shape of its leaves that beautiful and attractive is Anthurium ‘wave of love’. Anthurium wave of love (Anthurium plowmanii has unique characteristics with the wavy leaf edge. To enhance the growth of this plant can be done with NAA and foliar fertilizer. The purpose of this study was to obtain the best concentration of NAA and foliar fertilizer for growing the ornamental plant of Anthurium wave of love. The study started from March to July 2015 in the Housing Unand, Ulu Gadut, Padang. The materials used in the form of seedlings of the ornamental plant of Anthurium wave of love, the growing media consisted of soil, sand and manure in the ratio of 1:1:1 (v/v. The experiment was a factorial with two factors which in a completely randomized design (CRD with four replications. The first factor was NAA concentration consisted of 0 and 20 ppm, while the second factor was the concentration of foliar fertilizer consisted of 0, 1, 2, and 3 g/L. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by HSD test at a test level of 5%. The parameters observed included plant height, leaf number, the length of the longest leaf, the width of the widest leaf, the number of roots and the length of the longest root. The results showed NAA treatment with a concentration of 20 ppm and foliar fertilizer 1 g/L is the best for the growth of plant height, the length of the longest leaf, the width of the widest leaf, and the length of the longest root.

  17. Application of radiation and radioisotopes in life science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation and Radioisotopes have been played an important role in the wide range of life science, from the field study, such as fertilizer or pesticide development or production of new species, to gene engineering researches. Many mutants through radiation have been provided to the market and the usage of radioactive tracers was an effective tool to study plant physiology. It has been granted that the contribution of radioisotopes has been accelerated the development of the gene engineering technology, which is now overwhelming all the other usages of radiation or radioisotopes. However, because of the difficulty to get social acceptance for gene modified plants, the orientation of the life science is now changing towards, so called ''post genome era''. Therefore, from the point of radiation or radioisotope usage, new application methods are needed to develop new type of researches. We present how (1) neutron activation analysis, (2) neutron radiography and (3) positron emission tomography are promising to study living plant physiology. Some of these techniques are not necessarily new methods but with a little modification, they show new aspects of plant activity. (author)

  18. Present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Tian

    1986-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in China started almost thirty years ago. At present there are 20 units producing more than 700 radioisotope products. This report outlines the present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in some major areas. Remarkable achievements have been made in agriculture using nuclear technology. More than 70 new varieties or strains of cultivated plants have been bred by inducing mutation through irradiation. A new variety of silkworm bred by irradiation has unique characteristics such as high and stable yield. Application of radioisotopes in medical research and clinical practice began in 1956 and radionuclides have been progressively used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The most common radionuclide used in therapy is iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism. Isotope-tracer technique and activation analysis play an important role in the study of traditional Chinese medicine. Isotope methods in China have been used in many industrial branches, such as textile, plastic and printing, but not very widely now. The nation has produced more than 2,000 sets of nuclear radiation measuring instruments, which become important parts of industrial automation control. The radiation processing research started in the end of 1950's. Food irradiation research has been going on in a good cooperation of different branches. Now China is planning to set up some plants to produce gamma irradiated disposal syringes and other medical devices. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jae Jo; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Don Soon; Choi, Byung Jong; Jang, Dong Soon; Kim, Hye Sook

    2007-06-01

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  1. Power from Radioisotopes, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.; Mead, Robert L.

    This 1971 revision deals with radioisotopes and their use in power generators. Early developments and applications for the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are reviewed. Present uses in space and on earth are included. Uses in space are as power sources in various satellites and space…

  2. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Radmaneche, R.; Schlegel, H.

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  3. Elementary concepts of the radioisotopes uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, Mario A.

    2004-01-01

    Endocrinology has been one of the specialties earlier benefited for the radioisotopes uses in the diagnosis and treatment of different affections. These applications are based on the radioisotopes property of biochemical behaving as non- radioactive molecules, and at the same time, radiations emitting that can be detected by suitable means (diagnostic utility) or that have effects on biological systems (therapeutic action). (author) [es

  4. Studies on radioisotope mutagenesis in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddi, O.S.; Naidu, N.V.; Reddy, P.P.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on radioisotope mutagenesis are important from the point of view of the possible genetic hazards of their increasing use in medical and industrial applications and their concentration in man through environmental contamination. This paper reviews a series of studies undertaken on the genetic consequences of internal administation of certain selected radioisotopes, namely, 32 P, 131 I and 90 Sr in mammalian systems. (author)

  5. Monitoring of exposure to selected metals in workers of a ferroalloy production plant using NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Havranek, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bencko, V.; Fabianova, E.; Sysalova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Advantages and pitfalls of direct and biological monitoring of occupational exposure are briefly mentioned and a project aimed at evaluating exposure to chromium (and possibly manganese) in workers of a ferro-alloy production plant using both the above approaches is outlined. Facilities for NAA and PIXE at the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez to be used in the project are described. Results of quality assurance of INAA method for analysis of workplace air born particulate matter and blood sampling are presented. Results from previous work relating to this Co-ordinated Research Programme - studying exposure of workers of a vanadium pentoxide production plant are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  6. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, L F F Lopes; Zamboni, C B; Bahovschi, V; Metairon, S; Suzuki, M F; Sant' Anna, O A; Rizzutto, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [H III line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms. (paper)

  7. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  8. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected and compiled on radioisotopes produced and sold by Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and on services rendered by DOE facilities. Compiled data were published and distributed in the document list of DOE Radioisotope Customers with Summary of Radioisotope Shipments, FY 1986, PNL-6361, October 1987. The DOE facilities that supplied information for the compilation were Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Savannah River Plant, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. (Hanford). The data provided were reported in several different ways: (1) a list of radioisotopes and services provided by each facility; (2) a list of radioisotope customers, the supplying DOE facility, and the radioisotope or service provided to each customer; and (3) a list of the quantity and value of each radioisotope or service sold by each DOE facility. The sales information covered foreign customers, domestic private customers, and domestic DOE customers

  9. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69m Zn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59 Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co

  10. Status of NAA in Slovenia: Achievements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Benedik, L.; Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Fajgelj, A.; Falnoga, I.; Jacimovic, R.; Jeran, Z.; Stegnar, P.; Stibilj, V.; Stropnik, B.; Slejkovec, Z.

    1994-01-01

    During past decades the accurate determination of trace element concentrations has been a subject of enormous interest for many fields such as nutrition, clinical chemistry and biochemistry, veterinary science, agriculture, environmental sciences, etc. Among reliable analytical methods for determination of very low concentration levels of essential and toxic elements NAA in both its forms, RNAA and INAA, is very useful, and is also well-known as a reference method. When using INAA the matrix usually has a negative influence on the ratio between the signal and background. This results in poorer accuracy and higher limits of detection. Such difficulties may be avoided in most cases through application of RNAA methods which, on the basis of carefully chosen experimental conditions, offer selective isolation of the desired radionuclide(s). Further, the addition of carriers and/or radiotracers enables the determination of the chemical yield for each analyzed sample. In using the Institute's 250 kW TRIGA MARK II Reactor for determination of ultra trace quantities of different elements various radiochemical methods have been developed which are briefly presented in the text below, and have been used to study their levels in human and biological samples, environmental samples and SRMs. (author)

  11. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B.; Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de

    2010-01-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated 42 K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  12. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated {sup 42}K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  13. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Sedaghathoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1. Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55% was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA. Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively. Keywords: auxin; rooting; Pinus mugo; vegetative propagation.

  14. Analysis of the elementary composition of the phytoterapics Espinheira Santa and eggplant by the method of Neutron Activation Analysis; Análise da composição elementar dos fitoterápicos espinheira santa e berinjela pelo método de análise por ativação com nêutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luan M.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: luan.pereira@usp.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The use of herbal medicines has become quite popular in Brazil due to its vast flora and the belief that everything that is natural does not present harmful effects to human health. However, these products may contain toxic or excessively harmful to the human organism. The objective of this work was to analyze herbal medicine Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia) and Eggplant (Solanum melongena) by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Phytotherapeutic samples were obtained from drugstores in the form of capsules, and their contents were removed from the capsules for analysis. The NAA procedure consisted of irradiate phytotherapeutic aliquots and the synthetic neutron element patterns of the nuclear reactor IEAR-1 followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes formed were identified by half lives and gamma ray energies and the concentrations of the elements were calculated by the comparative method. For analytical quality control, the certified reference materials were analyzed and the results presented good accuracy and precision. In the phytoterapics, the elements K and Ca were found in higher concentrations, in the order of mg g{sup -1}, Br, Fe, Rb and Zn of the order of μg g{sup -1} and the elements Co, Cr, Cs, La and Sc of the order of ng g{sup -1}. Results obtained in this work demonstrated the feasibility of applying the NAA procedure in the determination of the elemental composition of phytoterapics.

  15. Kajian Adsorpsi Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Naphthalene Acetic Acid (Naa) Terhadap Bentonit Alam

    OpenAIRE

    Lailatussoimah, Nura; Artsanti, Pedy; Nugraha, Irwan

    2014-01-01

    The study of adsorption of plant growth regulators naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using natural bentonite aims to investigate the purification process of bentonite, determine the parameters that affect the ability of optimum adsorption and adsorption interactions of bentonite to NAA. Bentonite purification process is done by adding 30% H2O2 to oxidize organic compounds in the pores of the bentonite. Adsorption parameters in this study include the influence of the mass of adsorb...

  16. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems - Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Mccallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan and implement content to enable planetary exploration where such systems could be needed, and to prepare more advanced RPS technology for possible infusion into future power systems. The 2014-2015 period saw significant changes, and strong progress. Achievements of near-term objectives have enabled definition of a clear path forward in which payoffs from research investments and other sustaining efforts can be applied. The future implementation path is expected to yield a higher-performing thermoelectric generator design, a more isotope-fuel efficient system concept design, and a robust RPS infrastructure maintained effectively within both NASA and the Department of Energy. This paper describes recent work with an eye towards the future plans that result from these achievements.

  17. Radioisotope tracer applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have many advantages in industrial trouble-shooting and studies on process kinetics. The applications are mainly of two types: one leading to qualitative (Yes or No type) information and the other to quantitative characterisation of flow processes through mass balance considerations and flow models. ''Yes or No'' type methods are mainly used for leakage and blockage locations in pipelines and in other industrial systems and also for location of water seepage zones in oil wells. Flow measurements in pipelines and mercury inventory in electrolytic cells are good examples of tracer methods using the mass balance approach. Axial dispersion model and Tanks-in-Series model are the two basic flow models commonly used with tracer methods for the characterisation of kinetic processes. Examples include studies on flow processes in sugar crystallisers as well as in a precalcinator in a cement plant. (author). 18 figs

  18. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  19. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Johnson, Richard R. [Best Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7-8765 Ash Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6P 6T3 (Canada); Gelbart, W. Z. [Advanced System Designs Inc., 5295 Bear Bay Road, Garden Bay, BC, V0N 1S1 (Canada)

    2013-04-19

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 {mu}A to 1000 {mu}A, depending on the cyclotron energy and application.

  20. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  1. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  2. Radioisotopic Studies of Brain Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldendorf, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the brain tissues after their administration by injection or inhalation provide an a traumatic approach to the study of blood flow and metabolic processes in the brain. This paper reviews the anatomical,physiological and physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain. The factors governing the passage of various classes of substances through the brain capillaries and their transport through the brain tissues are first considered. The physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain are then discussed. The main difficulties in such measurements is shown to arise from the contribution to the observed counting rate from radioactivity in the scalp and skull. This contribution can be minimized by the use of special collimators designed to view only a part of the brain but to include in their field of view a minimum of non-neural tissue. A further possibility arises with radioisotopes such as 113 In m which emit characteristic X radiation as well as y radiation since the contribution of the former to the total observed counting rate is almost entirely due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues whereas that of the latter is due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues and the brain. By recording the counting rates in appropriate channels of the photon spectrum it is thus possible to correct the results for radioactivity in the scalp and skull. With radioisotopes such as 75 Sc which emit two or more photons in cascade, coincidence counting techniques offer still a further possibility to minimize the contribution from radioactivity in the superficial tissues. Various potential applications of these techniques are described. (author)

  3. A study on provenance relation between Jiaotanxia ancient Guan porcelain and Qingliangsi ancient Ru porcelain by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongwu; Feng Songlin; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin

    2004-01-01

    11 samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain from Qingliangsi kiln, 23 samples of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain from Jiaotanxia kiln and 4 samples of modern archaized Guan porcelain were obtained to determine the contents of elements in each of them by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the fuzzy cluster trend diagrams for the bodies' samples and the glazes samples respectively. The analysis shows that the raw material origins of the Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain bodies samples are very concentrated; those of the Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies samples are a little dispersed; those of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are relatively concentrated; those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples are dispersed; and the origins of the raw material of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are obviously different from those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples. The bodies samples and glazes samples of Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain and those of Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain have some difference but can be compared with each other. (authors)

  4. Air pollution studies in Bulgaria using the moss biomonitoring technique, NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, S.; Karadzhinova, A.G.; Yurukova, L.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Strelkova, L.P.; Marinov, A.; Steinnes, E.

    2009-01-01

    The moss biomonitoring technique was used to study trace element atmospheric deposition in four areas of Bulgaria (the western Thracian-Rhodope, the eastern Thracian-Rhodope, the south-eastern and the northern central regions) during the European moss survey in 2005. A total of 41 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rd, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) in 97 samples of terrestrial moss. The moss species used was Hypnum cupressiforme. Principal component analysis (factor analysis)was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural crust, marine, and vegetation components as well as to anthropogenic sources: ferrous (Plovdiv, Haskovo) and non-ferrous industries (Plovdiv, Kardzhali, Burgas); and central heating stations (Plovdiv, Haskovo, Stara Zagora, Burgas). Comparison of the medians of the elemental concentrations in moss samples collected in Bulgaria with those in the Balkan and other European countries reveals that the Balkan countries show considerably higher concentrations of most elements in moss than observed in other European countries where moss sampling has been employed

  5. Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling Alex Lodge INSTITUTE FOR...E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-8048 Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling Alex Lodge This page is intentionally blank...representative of the highest typical activ- ity of that radioisotope , the amount of radioactive material found with that practice (Activ- ity of Practice

  6. The production and application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolution of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop. (author)

  7. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  8. Determination of multi-element in marine sediment samples collected in Angola by the k0-NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Vuong Huu Tan

    2006-01-01

    The marine sediment samples were designed to collect in Angola for marine environmental pollution study. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on Dalat research reactor has been developed to determine of multi-element in the Angola marine sediment samples. The samples were irradiated in cell 7-1 for short- and middle-lived nuclides and rotary specimen rack for long-lived nuclides. The irradiation facilities were characterized for neutron spectrum parameters and post-activated samples were measured on the calibrated gamma-ray spectrometers using HPGe detectors. The analytical results for 9 marine sediment samples with 27 elements: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce,Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in term of mean concentration, standard deviation and their content range are shown in the report. The analytical quality assurance was done by analysis of a Japan's certified reference material namely marine sediment NMIJ-CRM-7302a. These preliminary results revealed that the k 0 -NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor is a good analytical technique for determination of multi-element in the marine sediment samples. Some heavy metals and trace elements determined in this work possibly connected to the human activities at the sampling region. (author)

  9. Multielement atmospheric deposition study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring, NAA, AAS and GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiric, Z.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Stafilov, T.; Enimiteva, V.; Steinnes, E.; Bukovec, D.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique and two complementary analytical techniques - neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to study multielement atmospheric deposition in the Republic of Croatia. Moss samples were collected during the summer 2006 from 98 sites evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention - ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. Conventional and epithermal neutron activation analyses made it possible to determine concentrations of 41 elements including key heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cu determined by AAS. Principal component analysis (factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation) was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values for Croatia are consistent with the corresponding values for all Europe for most elements. It was shown that the Adriatic coastline of Croatia may be considered as an environmentally pristine area. This study was conducted for providing reliable assessment of air quality throughout Croatia and producing information needed for better identification of pollution sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Croatia associated with toxic metals

  10. Pengaruh Kombinasi Intensitas Naungan Dengan Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Indole Butiric Acid (Iba), Naphthalene Acetic Acid (Naa), Dan Vitamin B1 Dalam Aklimatisasi Pertumbuhan Bibit Gaharu (Aquilaria Beccariana)

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyono, Daru

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to know the optimal formula of Indole Butiric Acid (IBA), Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), Vitamine B1 and the combination with shading intensities to the acclimatization of Gaharu stump (Aquilaria beccariana). This research used Factorial Design with basic analysis of Complete Randomized Design in order to know theeffect of treatment. The research was carried out in Agroindustry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Ciampea, Bogor, from July to September 2007. The res...

  11. PENGARUH KOMBINASI INTENSITAS NAUNGAN DENGAN ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH INDOLE BUTIRIC ACID (IBA), NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID (NAA), DAN VITAMIN B1 DALAM AKLIMATISASI PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT GAHARU (Aquilaria beccariana)

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyono, Daru

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to know the optimal formula of Indole Butiric Acid (IBA), Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), Vitamine B1 and the combination with shading intensities to the acclimatization of Gaharu stump (Aquilaria beccariana). This research used Factorial Design with basic analysis of Complete Randomized Design in order to know theeffect of treatment. The research was carried out in Agroindustry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Ciampea, Bogor, from July to September 2007. The res...

  12. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986

  14. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Azuddin Ali; Abdul Rahman Mohamad Ali.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm -2 S -1 ) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 10 13 n.cm -1 S -1 ). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  15. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupon, Michel.

    1978-09-01

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles [fr

  16. Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studies of potential space missions have highlighted the need for very small electric power supplies for a variety of applications. The light weight radioisotope...

  17. Software ASPRO-NUC. Gamma-ray spectrometry, routine NAA, isotope identification and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotov, V.P.; Atrashkevich, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The software ASPRO-NUC is based on new improved algorithms suggested and tested in the laboratory and intended for routine analysis. The package consists of the program ASPRO for gamma-ray spectra processing (peak search, multiplets deconvolution by means of method of moments, computation of correction coefficient for geometry and material of radioactive source), a program for isotope identification and a program for NAA by means of relative standardization. All output information is loaded into a data base (Paradox v.3.5 format) for supporting of queries, creation of reports, planning of routine analysis, estimation of expenses, supporting of network of analytical survey, etc. The ASPRO-NUC package also includes a vast nuclear data base containing evaluated decay and activation data (reactor, generator of fast neutrons, Cf-252 source). The data base environment allows for easy integration of a gamma spectrometer into a flexible information shell and the creation of a logical system for information management. (author) 15 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Investigation of selected trace elements in Sudanese patients with leukemia using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, M. M. M.

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Se, Zn in the serum of 103 adult patients with newly diagnosed of leukemia (before treatment) were studied. Samples were collected from Radiation of Isotopes Center-Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology-Aljazeera State. Samples were freeze-dried and analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Serum levels of these elements were compared with the contents found in healthy group samples. The patients were divided into 4 groups: 1- Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL), 2- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 3- Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL), 4- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The control group was formed of 40 healthy subjects, data analysis was performed using the T-tests. partial correlation was used to study a relationship between two variables. It was found that, In group I (ALL ): higher concentration of Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Zn, were found in the serum of patients with significant difference as compared to healthy group (p 0.05), the level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p 0.05). Similar result was obtained in Co. The level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p< 0.05). (Author)

  19. Cost-benefit aspects of radioisotope methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The cost-benefit relations in the complex application of radioisotpe techniques increased in the last years to up to 1/10 to 1/15. The most essential cause of this trend is the increase of the capacity of production processes, controlled and automatized by means of radioisotopes, and the solution of qualitatively new technological problems of a high economic relevance. A collection of statistical data about the expediture and benefit of different radioisotopes techniques is presented. (author)

  20. Production of radioisotopes with BR2 facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallais, C.J.; Morel de Westfaver, A.; Heeren, L.; Baugnet, J.M.; Gandolfo, J.M.; Boeykens, W.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief account on the isotopes production evolution in the industrialized countries the irradiation devices and the types of standardized capsules used in the BR2 reactor are described as well as the thermal neutron flux. Production of most important radioisotopes like 131 Iodine, 60 Cobalt, 192 Iridium and 99 Molybdenum and their main utilizations (uses)are described. The mean specific activities and the limit of use for different radioisotopes are reported. (A.F.)

  1. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  2. Radioisotope applications in petroleum and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, U.

    1974-01-01

    The principal radioisotopic technique used for studying and /or controling the drilling, completion, treatment and oil well secondary recovery operations are described. In this cases the radioisotopes are employed almost exclusively as 'markers', in the form of localized and dispersed tracers. The growing acceptance of these techniques is essentially, a consequence of the confidence in the reliability of the data and conclusions derived from their application

  3. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  4. Towards an international authoritative system for coordination and management of a unique recommended k0-NAA database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the database in k 0 -standardized neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA), ranging from its full supervision by the founders of the k 0 -method at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences (INW)/Gent and the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI)/Budapest (from about the mid 1970s up to the early 1990s), to the present situation (roughly speaking starting with the first k 0 Users Workshop in 1992) where an increasing number of researchers from institutes allover the world are reporting on their experimental work aiming at the improvement and extension of the existing database. Although these individual contributions are undoubtedly commendable, the resulting fragmentary data sets leave behind important questions with respect to interpretation, evaluation, integration and recommendation, as illustrated with the (extreme) example of 131 Ba. This situation urgently calls for establishing and managing an international authoritative system for the coordination and quality control of a unique database with recommended data for k 0 -NAA, considering such parameters as accuracy, traceability and consistency. In the present paper, it is proposed to entrust this task to a standing 'Reference k 0 -Data Subcommittee' of the k 0 -ISC (k 0 International Scientific Committee).

  5. An Organellar Nα-Acetyltransferase, Naa60, Acetylates Cytosolic N Termini of Transmembrane Proteins and Maintains Golgi Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Henriette Aksnes; Petra Van Damme; Marianne Goris; Kristian K. Starheim; Michaël Marie; Svein Isungset Støve; Camilla Hoel; Thomas Vikestad Kalvik; Kristine Hole; Nina Glomnes; Clemens Furnes; Sonja Ljostveit; Mathias Ziegler; Marc Niere; Kris Gevaert

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a major and vital protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). NatF, or N alpha-acetyltransferase 60 (Naa60), was recently identified as a NAT in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we find that Naa60 differs from all other known NATs by its Golgi localization. A new membrane topology assay named PROMPT and a selective membrane permeabilization assay established that Naa60 faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes. An Nt-acetylome ana...

  6. Radioisotope Power Systems for Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of the Department of Energy's (DOE) capabilities and ongoing program efforts to develop and provide radioisotope power systems to support space exploration missions will be presented. The Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (DOE/NE) within DOE is responsible for the development, assembly, testing, acceptance, and delivery of radioisotope power systems to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). To that end, DOE/NE is maintaining a program and facility infrastructure at various DOE laboratories and production sites ensuring the viability of future missions that will require radioisotope power systems. This infrastructure includes facilities to manufacture key components, process and encapsulate plutonium-238, and assemble, test, and accept the systems. DOE also pursues a low level technology program committed to the continued evolution of energy conversion technologies with applicability to radioisotope power systems. In addition, DOE recently made a decision to pursue re-establishing the domestic capability to produce plutonium-238 as part of DOE's commitment to maintaining the infrastructure necessary to produce and deliver radioisotope power systems. The currently available US inventory of plutonium-238 is sufficient to provide one radioisotope power system of roughly the same power level as each of the three units used on the Cassini spacecraft. Until the domestic production is realized, plutonium-238 requirements can be met through an existing contract with Russia.

  7. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  8. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  9. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F.

    1991-10-01

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  10. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  11. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  12. Efek NAA dan BAP terhadap Pembentukan Tunas, Daun, dan Tinggi Tunas Stek Mikro Nepenthes ampullaria Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heti Sartika Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know the interaction between NAA and BAP as well as to obtain the best combination of both treatments in promoting the growth of Nepenthes ampullariamicrocutting.An experiment arranged in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD wasapplied. Stem segments were used as blocks, where block I was the first segment followed by the next two segments as block II and III respectively. Two factors, i.e. NAA concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 µM and BAP concentrations (0, 9, 18, 27 µM were employed giving rise to 16 combination of treatments. Each treatment combination was replicated threetimes resulting in 48 experimental units. The parametersmeasured were date of shoot initiation, date of root initiation, shoot number, leaf number, root number, length of longest leafand shoot height. The results showed that interactionbetween NAA and BAP in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth was observed.  Combination between NAA of 0 µM and BAP of 18 µMwas found to be the best in promoting N. ampullariamicrocutting growth.Meanwhile, combination between NAA 0 µM and BAP 27 µM was recommended to promote shoot number of N. ampullaria.

  13. Use of NAA to determine nutritive elements in immature and mature soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the maturation of soybeans, several changes in the chemical composition take place. However, data available relating mineral and vitamin content to maturation stage are limited and show a wide range of values. There are several factors that affect the mineral content of soybeans. These factors include, but are not limited to, soil composition, application of fertilizers, environmental conditions, and genetic factors. For the samples examined in this study all the aforementioned factors, except genetic, were kept unchanged. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in three soybean varieties at three maturation stages. Samples from three soybean varieties were investigated. The three maturation stages were defined as immature, green mature, and dry mature. The concentration of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in the three soybean varieties at different maturation stages are shown. The concentration of some nutritive elements (for example, calcium, iron, manganese, and zinc) in soybeans are much higher than in other grain cereals such as wheat and corn. However, it is questionable whether too much nutritional importance be given to these elements in soybeans since phytate content in soybeans is much higher than that of wheat or corn, and it has been postulated that low bioavailability of the aforementioned elements are related to phytate content

  14. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  15. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo) cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghathoor, S.; Kayghobadi, S.; Tajva, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (Ia) and naphthaleneacetic acid (Naca) hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA) were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1). Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55%) was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA). Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively). (Author)

  16. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  17. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed. PMID:24955358

  18. k0-NAA past the turn of the century: problems, concepts, insights, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.

    2003-01-01

    Based on experiences gained during two scientific meetings (MARC-V, Kona, HI, 2000 and 3rd k 0 Users Workshop, Bruges, 2001) that were marking the transition to the 21st century, a survey is given of recent and ongoing activities related to both fundamental developments and applications of k 0 -assisted NAA. Topics highlighted are: the nuclear data library, the calibration of the irradiation facility, the k 0 -concept in PGAA and the development of synthetic multi-element standards (SMELS) for QC/QA/validation of k 0 -NAA implemented in a laboratory. (author)

  19. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program began formal implementation in December 2010. The RPS Program's goal is to make available RPS for the exploration of the solar system in environments where conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS system development and RPS technologies. The current keystone of the RPS Program is the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This generator will be about four times more efficient than the more traditional thermoelectric generators, while providing a similar amount of power. This paper provides the status of the RPS Program and its related projects. Opportunities for RPS generator development and targeted research into RPS component performance enhancements, as well as constraints dealing with the supply of radioisotope fuel, are also discussed in the context of the next ten years of planetary science mission plans.

  20. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  1. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Terry Lee [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Boulware, Charles H. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Hollister, Jerry L. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Jecks, Randall W. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Mamtimin, Mayir [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  2. Influence of GA3 and NAA on certain carbohydrate fractions in corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil K. Chrungoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 and napthaleneacetic acid (NAA to corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. markedly influenced degradation of reserve carbohydrates in the corm tissues. GA3 stimulated the breakdown of starch and promoted the accumulation of soluble sugars, especially sucrose. Although NAA treatment stimulated starch breakdown for the first 14 days after the treatment, the effect was less pronounced as compared to that of GA3. NAA treatment promoted the accumulation of reducing sugars but suppressed accumulation of non reducing sugars in the corm tissues. Corms treated with GA3 showed an increased accumulation of total pentoses and total ketoses. In NAA treated corms, accumulation of total pentoses was stimulated but that of total ketoses was suppressed. The effects of GA3 and NAA on carbohydrate changes in the corm tissues are discussed in the light of their effects on bud development.

  3. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1976-12-01

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982. (MHR)

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983.

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  7. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and proteins in chromium-rich brewer's yeast by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.J.; Qian, Q.F.; Hou, X.L.; Feng, W.Y.; Chai, Z.F.

    2000-01-01

    The content of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results show that the extracted relative amounts and concentrations of DNA, RNA and proteins have no significant difference for two types of yeast, but the chromium content in DNA, RNA and proteins fractions extracted from the chromium-rich yeast are substantially higher than those from the normal. In addition, the concentration of chromium in DNA is much higher than that in RNA and proteins. It is evident that the inorganic chromium compounds can enter the yeast cell during the yeast cultivation in the chromium-containing culture medium and are converted into organic chromium species, which are combined with DNA, RNA and proteins. (author)

  8. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of Central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Khageshwar Singh

    2002-01-01

    The environmental and atmospheric samples i.e. surface water, ground water, surface soil, sediment, rain and fog from various sites of contaminated environments of central India were collected in year, 2000-2001. The concentration levels of total-Hg in these samples were analyzed by using techniques i.e. cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer XFS). Further, the data base of total Hg in the environmental samples would be validated in other laboratories i.e. Prof Dr. Klaus Heumann (Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany), David Amouroux (University of Pau, France) and Dr Joerg Feldmann (University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK) for exploration of the Hg-contaminated environments by using techniques i.e. ICP-MS/GC, gas chromatography-induced couple atomic emission spectrophotometer (GC-ICP-AES), neutron activation analysis (NAA). (author)

  9. PENGARUH NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP EKSPLAN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L. Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. representing one of theplant which good of as drug. Plantof pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. good of  to launch the urine, degrading blood pressure and quicken to heal the hurt. Ready of the seed for the crop of drug which require to be paid attention by quality from itself seed. One of the alternative to get the uniform seed and a flash in the pan is with the technique of tissue culture. Tissue culturelaboratory research was conducted Researchand Development Center for Medicinal Plantsand Traditional MedicineTawangmangu. Research Method use the Random Device of Complete Group at MS (Murashige Skoog media with the treatment ofplant growth regulator the NAA concentration 0, 1, 3 and 5 mg / l and BAP concentration 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg / l. Result of research show the combination of  giving of NAA 1 until 3 mg / l and BAP 1 until 5 mg / l of is condition of explan experience of the change become the callus. Treatment of combination NAA 3 mg / l and BAP 4 mg / l give the best result to callus forming with the quicker callus forming time that is 25 day. Keywords : Pegagan, Centella asiática (L. Urb., tissue culture, NAA, BAP

  10. Synthesis of zeolite NaA membrane from fused fly ash extract

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ameh, AE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite-NaA membranes were synthesized from an extract of fused South African fly ash on a porous titanium support by a secondary growth method. The influence of the synthesis molar regime on the formation of zeolite NaA membrane layer...

  11. Fluoxetine increases cerebral white matter NAA/Cr ratio in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, JP; Sijens, PE; Oudkerk, M; De Keyser, J

    2006-01-01

    Axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction and is associated with decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as measured with H-1-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Fluoxetine stimulates astrocytic glycogenolysis, which serves as an energy source

  12. Emulsion-based synthesis of NaA zeolite nanocrystals and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. NaA zeolite nanoparticles (seed crystals) of size 50–65 nm were synthesized using water-in-oil. (w/o) type emulsions at a considerably low temperature of 65 ± 1°C in a short duration of 2 h. The emulsions were stabilized using non-ionic surfactants e.g. sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), sorbitan monolaurate (Span.

  13. Radioisotopes present in building materials of workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Claro, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Corrêa, J. N.; Denyak, V.; Kappke, J.; Perna, A. F. N.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, T. O.; Rocha, Z.; Schelin, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    The isotope 222Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population. The decay products of 222Rn interacting with the cells of biological tissue of lungs have very high probability to induce cancer. The present survey was focused in the evaluation of activity concentration of 222Rn and other radioisotopes related to the building materials at workplaces at Curitiba - Paraná State. For this purpose, the instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used to measure the average concentrations of 222Rn in building materials, which were also submitted to gamma spectrometry analysis for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radionuclides present in samples of sand, mortar, blue crushed stone (Gneissic rock), red crushed stone (Granite), concrete and red bricks. The main radionuclides evaluated by gamma spectrometry in building material samples were 238U/226Ra, 232Th and 40K. These measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN - CNEN). The results of the survey present the concentration values of 222Rn related to construction materials in a range from 427±40.52 Bq/m³ to 2053±90.06 Bq/m³. The results of gamma spectroscopy analysis show that specific activity values for the mentioned isotopes are similar to the results indicated by the literature. Nevertheless, the present survey is showing the need of further studies and indicates that building materials can contribute significantly to indoor concentration of 222Rn.

  14. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 4. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs and challenges ... Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment ...

  15. Characterizations and ion-exchange properties of zeolite NaA synthesized in a continuous process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Thieu Quang Quoc; Nhung, Tran Dinh; Long, Nguyen Quang

    2017-09-01

    Synthesis of zeolite through hydrothermal process has been commonly used for decades. However, slow crystallization kinetics and a limited thermo-dynamical stability of the target crystal phase are characteristic to zeolite formation, representing some of the key obstructions for fast zeolite synthesis. In this paper, the possibility of accelerating Zeolite NaA synthesis in a continuous flow reactor (CFR) was designed and installed. The CFR reduces the thermal lag by improving the crystallization rates of Zeolite NaA and decreasing the zeolite synthesis time. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of Zeolite NaA in the CFR were determined as a gel composition of Na2O:SiO2:Al2O3:H2O = 3.17 : 2 : 1 : 128, aging the gel mixture in 48 hours at ambient temperature. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, SEM. The results showed that the complete crystallization of typical cubic synthesized by the CFR was achieved at a synthesis temperature of 120°C during 5.5 mins with about 1 wt.% zeolite NaA seed, much faster than conventional hydrothermal synthesis (about 24 hours). The final zeolite powder with the addition of other additives (bentonite, Polyethylene glycol - PEG) and moisture was manufactured into cylindrical pellet by the methods of cold press and sintered pellets. The size of the pellet was 5mm in length and 2mm in diameter. The synthesized pellet was proved to show an equivalent cation exchange capacity (CEC) to commercial Zeolite NaA.

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1982-09-01

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  19. Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in the various aspects of biological research. The following topics were presented: labelled compounds; conformation-function relationships of hormonal polypeptides and their spectroscopic study; neutron scattering and neutron diffraction for biological studies; high resolution autoradiography; radioimmunoassay; nuclear medicine; transfer of excitation energy in photosynthesis; radioagronomy; radiation preservation of food [fr

  20. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auyong Tingkun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  1. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  2. ILLUSTRATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES--DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS COMPOSED OF OVER 150 PAGES OF BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS DEALING WITH RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR USES. THESE ILLUSTRATIONS CONSIST OF CHARTS, GRAPHS, AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS WHICH COULD BE PREPARED AS HANDOUTS, TRANSPARENCIES FOR OVERHEAD PROJECTION, OR WHICH COULD BE USED IN A NUMBER OF OTHER WAYS FOR PRESENTING SUCH…

  3. Radioisotopes in management of metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Amar; Dan, Tu D; Williams, Noelle L; Pridjian, Andrew; Den, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Over the last decade, the treatment landscape for patients with castrate-resistant disease has drastically changed, with several novel agents demonstrating an improvement in overall survival in large, multi-institutional randomized trials. Traditional treatment with radioisotopes has largely been in the palliative setting. However, the first in class radiopharmaceutical radium-223 has emerged as the only bone-directed treatment option demonstrating an improvement in overall survival. Medline publications from 1990 to 2016 were searched and reviewed to assess the use of currently approved radioisotopes in the management of prostate cancer including emerging data regarding integration with novel systemic therapies. New positron emission tomography-based radiotracers for advanced molecular imaging of prostate cancer were also queried. Radioisotopes play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the definitive and metastatic setting. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer and theranostics are currently being investigated in the clinical arena. The use of modern radioisotopes in selected patients with mCRPC is associated with improvements in overall survival, pain control, and quality of life.

  4. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  5. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, A.

    1988-06-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author) [pt

  6. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  7. The industrial application of radioisotopes in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has conducted a wide-ranging program of radioisotope applications to solve industrial problems of local, regional or national importance. Most of the investigations have been concerned with the behaviour of large complex systems. Broadly, the work covers such economically important fields as flow studies, environmental studies and coastal engineering studies. (author)

  8. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E.G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  9. NAA for studying detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.; Mosulishvili, L.; Kirkesali, E.; Murusidze, I.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Zinicovscaia, I.I.

    2010-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study accumulation of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) ions in Arthrobacter globiformis 151B, a gram-positive, Cr(VI)-reducer aerobic bacterium isolated from basalt sample taken from the most polluted region in the Republic of Georgia (Kazreti). Experiments were focused on (1) accumulation of Hg(II) in bacterial cells; (2) accumulation of Cr(VI) in A. globiformis 151B in the presence of Hg(II) and (3) effects of Hg(II) and mixture of Cr(VI)-Hg(II) on the elemental composition of bacteria. It was shown that this bacterial strain possesses uptake mechanisms by which mercury toxicity can be reduced in environment and that accumulation of Cr(VI) in A. globiformis 151B is much higher in the presence of Hg(II) ions. Accumulation of Hg(II), similar to the Cr(VI) accumulation, follows well the Lengmuir-Freundlich model. NAA measurements showed increased content of Fe in bacteria under Hg and Cr action, suggesting that Fe-containing biomolecules play a decisive role in detoxifying of heavy metals by A. globiformis 151B. A concentration of 5000 μg/L of Hg(II) was found to be critical for A. globiformis 151B. At this concentration of Hg(II) the concentrations of both essential (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Mn, Zn) and some non-essential elements (Rb, Sb, Sc, As) changed drastically along with a decrease of the biomass of bacteria by a factor of two. One may assume that under this high exposure to Hg(II) the structure of the bacterial cell wall was destroyed. (author)

  10. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  11. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  12. Industrial application of radioisotopes in South Africa: a bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jesus, A.S.M.; Smith, S.W.; Van As, D.; De Wet, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1963 considerable strides have been made concerning the application of nuclear radiation, in most cases provided by radioisotopic sources, in the South African industry. South Africa has moved from a phase where the emphasis was on experimenting and learning to a phase where the technologies developed over the years are being put to work in a productive manner by exploiting them, largely complementary to other non-nuclear technologies. Classification in terms of application areas includes subjects such as process control, elemental analysis, industrial processes, mining exploration and prospecting, environmental applications and radiation processing

  13. Radioisotope method researches of pharmaceutical preparates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Sultanov, A.; Aliev, Kh.; Nazarov, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The development of modern stage of nuclear medicine is characterized by the increasing role of methods using radionuclides. Radioactive nuclides used in nuclear medicine may be divided into 2 groups. Radionuclides used for diagnostic researches and radionuclides used for therapeutic purposes. These two directions are considered to be the main ones in usage of radionuclides in medicine. However there is one more direction in the research of new medical products where it is possible to use radionuclides to study their pharmacological kinetics. In these researches radionuclide is applied as a radioactive label at the stage of studying pharmacological kinetics of a new medical product. In Institute of Nuclear Physics AS RU the works are being carried out in the recent years focused on studying pharmacology of some new medical preparations, which are synthesized in Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute. Syntheses these preparations are based on use microelements. Its compounds are possessed expressed biological activity and be of great importance in the pharmaceutical science of Uzbekistan. Introducing a radioisotope at the stage of synthesis carried out reception of labeled connections of all preparations. The output of the final product reached the yield of no less than 80 percent in all cases of synthesis. This work presents the results of research on synthesis and study of pharmacology of radioactively labeled preparations - Piracin, labeled by radioisotope Zn 6 9I; Cobavit, labeled by radioisotope Co 57; NI 101, labeled by radioisotope Co 57. Received radioisotope - labeled compounds of medical preparations were used in the study of their pharmacological kinetics. In all cases, preliminary irradiation of corresponding nuclear targets in the nuclear reactor and cyclotron, radiochemical procedures on separation, purification and concentration of radioactive isotopes, and reception of its radioactive solution for synthesis of labeled compounds of preparations

  14. Application of radioisotopes for the studies of glucoconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, Akira

    1987-01-01

    The report summarizes features of various radioisotope labeling techniques that are currently used in the field of research on glucoconjugates. Monosaccharide composition analysis is the basic techniques to study the chain structures of glucoconjugates. The author has recently developed a new technique for monosaccharide composition analysis by applying HPLC to separation of sugar-alcohols. NaB 3 H 4 reacts with certain oligosaccharides to convert their residue groups into sugar-alcohols quantitatively and therefore, the NaB 3 H 4 reducing technique can be applied to structural analysis of such oligosaccharides. The galactose oxidase-NaB 3 H 4 process and NaIO 4 -NaB 3 H 4 process are available for glucoconjugate studies. These methods are deigned to label glucoconjugates after forming the aldehyde group in their chains. Analysis of mucin-type structures is performed after converting them into oligosaccharine alcohols with alkali and BaB 3 H 4 . When a monosaccharide labeled with an isotope is added to cultured cells or tissue, it will be incorporated in the glucoconjugate chain after being converted into sugar nucleotide. This process has been used widely for studies of glycoproteins. Radioisotopes have also been applied to investigation of saccaride converting enzymes. Such enzymes provide a tool to analyze partial chain structures of saccharides. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Novel Radioisotope Applications in Industry Promoted by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Presently, there is a lively activity in further development and use of radioisotope technology. Novel radioisotope applications in industry are promoted by the IAEA. Radioisotope technology is contributing significantly to improving and optimising process performance bringing an annual economic benefit to world-wide industry of several billion US$. Probably, an average benefit to cost ratio of 40:1 is reasonably representative of radioisotope applications in industry. There are few short-term investments, which will give a return of this magnitude. The cost effectiveness of radioisotope applications should be widely promulgated to encourage industrialists to take full advantage of the technology. (author)

  16. Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Medicine. Proceedings of the Symposium on Dynamics Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    Observations on the temporal patterns of uptake, metabolism, clearance or excretion of administered radioactive materials form the basis of many important applications of radioisotopes in clinical medicine and research. Such applications include studies of organ function, of regional blood flow and of the turnover of various substances in the human body. Newly available radioisotopes, new instruments such as gamma came ras, new techniques and new methods of data analysis based on the use of analogue and digital computers are continually enlarging the scope of the applications. Progress in these matters was discussed at the Symposium on Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research, organized by the lnternational Atomic Energy Agency and held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, from 31 August to 4 September 1970. A total of 315 participants nominated by 39 countries and 4 international organizations attended, and the 70 papers presented cove r the theoretical aspects of dynamic studies, the development of techniques and instruments for such studies, and specific applications in studies of thyroid, renal, hepatic and splenic function, mineral metabolism, regional blood flow, and cardiac and pulmonary function. The proceedings include the full texts of all the papers presented together with the edited discussions. Invited review papers deal with the general aspects of the various main groups of applications covered. Many of the applications described have already reached the stage of routine use; others are still in the developmental stage. Of particular note in the latter connection are applications based on the quantitative analysis of scintillation camera data. The many papers presented on these topics and the ensuing discussions indicate the great interest now shown in this promising area of development. It is hoped that the proceedings will provide a valuable guide to the present status of the subject

  17. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  18. Radioisotope implantation with a new facility at the Australian Defence Force Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, S.K.; Chaplin, D.H.; Edge, A.V.J.; Hutchison, W.D.; Timmers, H.; Byrne, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    A 50 - 155 keV ion implanter is being developed on the campus of the University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy for the implantation of radioisotopes as part of a UNSW/ANU collaboration. The facility employs a versatile SNICS II negative ion source. Commissioning tests have shown the facility to efficiently produce, mass-select, and transport negative ion beams of various stable isotopes. The mass resolution has been demonstrated to be better than 1 amu and the implantation of stable isotopes was verified with Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) analysis. Recently, the first implantation of radioactive 111 In has been performed successfully. The routine implantation of this and other radioisotopes is envisaged to support analytical techniques in the material sciences, such as Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Oriented Nuclei (NMRON), and to possibly study the controlled activation of medical implants and the diffusion of radioisotopes in materials

  19. Determination of trace elements in electronic materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    Trace amounts of elements in electronic materials were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), re-activation analysis and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis using gamma-ray spectrometry. Ten elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, Ir, Sb, Sc, Tb) in gallium arsenide single crystal were determined by INAA and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. Trace level of chromium (10 13 atoms/cm 3 ) and zinc (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) in gallium arsenide single crystal were determined by INAA. The chromium concentrations in horizontal Bridgmangrown semi-insulating gallium arsenide ingot were ranged from 1.2 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 at seed end to 3.5 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 at tail end. The trace determinations of iron (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) and copper (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) in silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phoshide single crystals were carried out by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. The reactivation analysis for the multielement determination of indium phosphide single crystal was carried out and nineteen elements were determined simultaneously by gamma-ray spectrometry. Eleven elements (Ag, As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Sb, Sc, Zn) in four NIES standard reference materials (Pond Sediment, Chlorella, Mussel and Tea Leaves) and seven elements (Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Sc, Tb, Yb) in two NBS glasses (SRM-615 and SRM-613) were determined by INAA and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis and the analytical results obtained by the methods were in good agreement with certified values by NIES and NBS. (author)

  20. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron; Blancos solidos para produccion de radioisotopos con ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Direccion de Investigacion Tecnologica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  1. Actual conditions of radiation control in radioisotope utilization field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihara, Koji

    1980-01-01

    It may be said that the actual conditions on radiation safety are being improved in utilizing radioisotopes or radiation in Japan. It depends greatly on the results of the voluntary effort of users and the regulations by the ''radiation injury prevention law'' and its relevant ordinances. However, the actual conditions of the strict observation of the law are much insufficient. According to the results of official inspection in 1978, 60% of whole enterprises concerned and 73% of educational and medical organizations were judged as incomplete. Such tendency should not be left as it is, but it should also be noticed that there are realities that critical accidents or injuries have not occurred even in such conditions as many violations mentioned above. Since the existing law has not been subjected to essential revision in the past two decades, it might be said that the law does not properly fit to the present conditions because the progress of related techniques was made during this period. Meanwhile, difficulties exist in measuring the low level concentration in the use of low energy radioisotopes or tracer experiments such as in the process analysis in factories or in the analysis of the movement of trace constituent in soil. Further, there is a problem on the necessity of securing the chief technicians handling radiation, and there is the contradiction that the chief technicians are useless in normal condition but are powerless in case of accidents. This situation should be improved as soon as possible. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Application state of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tomoyoshi

    1979-01-01

    Application of unsealed radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals has been increasing year by year with the development of nuclear medicine. As for the radioisotopes for in vivo use which are internally administered and are detected by external scanning, the consumption of Tc-99 m drugs has increased rapidly. The sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo use including 131 I, etc. amounted to four billion Yen in 1977. The consumption of the isotopes used in vitro for radioimmunoassay has made more rapid increase, and the sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vitro use amounted to seven billion Yen in 1977. Radiopharmaceuticals have been used in 1,134 institutes all over Japan in 1978. 534 among them have applied radiopharmaceuticals to both in vivo and in vitro uses. Radioactive wastes have been increasing with the application of these unsealed radiopharmaceuticals, and their disposal method should be examined as there is a limit in their storage. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  4. Radioisotopes technology used to probe process problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the move to a greater degree of sophistication in industrial processes has come a need for improved measurement control methods as well as for efficient techniques for investigating process problems. Radioisotope-based technology, because of its unique benefits, is playing an increasing role in assisting mining and industry to satisfy the critical needs for efficiency in investigating process problems. More than twenty years of experience in the application of radioisotope and radiation techniques to the practical problems of industry has resulted in the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa having accumulated both extensive expertise and the facilities to carry out wide-ranging investigations, and to provide a large variety of cost effective services. Some of these are described. 2 figs., 2 ills

  5. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  6. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  7. Radioisotopes for nuclear medicine: the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine occupies an important niche in the spectrum of medical capability. Since its initial application on a routine basis over 30 years ago its importance has continued to grow. For example, it is expected that over 430,000 Australians will have a nuclear medicine procedure in 1998. Current procedures using nuclear medicine are mainly concerned with diagnosis of oncology, cardiology and neurology. The main radioisotope used in nuclear medicine is Tc 99m, which is produced by a 'so called' Mo-Tc 99m generator. Other isotopes which currently find routine use are Ga-67, Th-201 and I-131. The selective uptakes by particular organs or structures is facilitated by the use of 'cold kits' which after the chemistry of the radioisotope many of the recent advances have been concerned with increasing the selectivity for a particular organ structure. Several of these new agents show increased selectivity using antibody a peptide recognition units

  8. Contents of trace elements in meadow mushrooms as results of PIXE, NAA and AAS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, J.; Sieniawski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Contents of heavy elements in mushrooms from the Dresden area and from some parts of Poland, by use of three methods of measurement (PIXE, AAS and NAA) were determined, with the special interest focused on wild growing and cultivated meadow mushrooms. The ability for accumulation of Se, Cu, Ag and Cu was established. In some wild growing mushrooms the values of Cd, Hg, As and Pb exceeded allowed limits for human nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C 14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Visualization of Radioisotope Detectability Over Time.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Brady [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A radioactive isotope is an atom that has an unstable nucleus. The isotope can undergo radioactive decay, the process in which excessive nuclear energy is emitted from the nucleus in many different forms, such as gamma radiation, alpha particles, or beta particles. The important thing to note is that these emissions act as a signature for the isotope. Each radioisotope has a particular emission spectrum, emitting radiation at different energies and at different rates.

  11. Alternate methods for the production of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Metzger, J.D.; Smith, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic clinical applications has increased in the past decade. The growth has been in two areas: the use of 99m Tc for gamma-ray imaging and the use of 18 F in positron emission tomography (PET). The 99m Tc (6.01 h) is a daughter of the longer-lived precursor 99 Mo (65.9 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors. Conversely, the isotopes for PET have been produced using cyclotrons at centralized hospital complexes. The economic potential of the radioisotope market has been demonstrated by the major producers of 99 Mo this past year when they announced their plans to purchase two MAPLE reactors for the dedicated production of 99 Mo. This market potential, coupled with the efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy to encourage the private, commercial production of radioisotopes that the government currently supplies, has provided motivation to investigate innovative technologies to produce both 99 Mo and PET isotopes. Incentives for looking at alternate production methods include life-cycle cost and source portability for short-lived radioisotopes. This paper presents alternative production methods that could provide unique advantages for the production of 99 Mo and tremendously higher availability of PET isotopes. We have examined the use of an existing high-current, linear accelerator for the production of 99 Mo from the fission of depleted uranium and the production of short-lived isotopes used in PET using a portable source of low-energy antiprotons

  12. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  13. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  14. Conventional hydrothermal synthesis of Na-A zeolite from cupola slag and aluminum sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anuwattana, Rewadee [Environmental Technology Division, School of Energy and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Khummongkol, Pojanie, E-mail: Pojanie.khu@kmutt.ac.th [Environmental Technology Division, School of Energy and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-07-15

    Na-A type zeolites were prepared from two industrial wastes: the solid by-product of cupola slag and aluminum sludge from an aluminum plating plant. Two preparation methods using the same starting material compositions were carried out. In the first method, alkaline fusion was introduced, followed by the hydrothermal treatment to obtain sodium aluminosilicate which was then crystallized in NaOH solution under the condition of 90 {+-} 3 {sup o}C for 1-9 h with different H{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratios. The result shows that higher H{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio increases the rate of crystallization. The largest amount of crystallinity for Na-A was found at 3 h. In the second method, alkaline hydrothermal treatment without fusion was carried out in the same condition as the first method. No Na-A zeolite was obtained by this method. The changes of the dissolved amounts of Si{sup 4+} and Al{sup 3+} in 3 M NaOH were investigated during the hydrothermal reaction.

  15. Conventional hydrothermal synthesis of Na-A zeolite from cupola slag and aluminum sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuwattana, Rewadee; Khummongkol, Pojanie

    2009-07-15

    Na-A type zeolites were prepared from two industrial wastes: the solid by-product of cupola slag and aluminum sludge from an aluminum plating plant. Two preparation methods using the same starting material compositions were carried out. In the first method, alkaline fusion was introduced, followed by the hydrothermal treatment to obtain sodium aluminosilicate which was then crystallized in NaOH solution under the condition of 90+/-3 degrees C for 1-9h with different H(2)O/SiO2 ratios. The result shows that higher H(2)O/SiO2 ratio increases the rate of crystallization. The largest amount of crystallinity for Na-A was found at 3h. In the second method, alkaline hydrothermal treatment without fusion was carried out in the same condition as the first method. No Na-A zeolite was obtained by this method. The changes of the dissolved amounts of Si(4+) and Al(3+) in 3M NaOH were investigated during the hydrothermal reaction.

  16. Conventional hydrothermal synthesis of Na-A zeolite from cupola slag and aluminum sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuwattana, Rewadee; Khummongkol, Pojanie

    2009-01-01

    Na-A type zeolites were prepared from two industrial wastes: the solid by-product of cupola slag and aluminum sludge from an aluminum plating plant. Two preparation methods using the same starting material compositions were carried out. In the first method, alkaline fusion was introduced, followed by the hydrothermal treatment to obtain sodium aluminosilicate which was then crystallized in NaOH solution under the condition of 90 ± 3 o C for 1-9 h with different H 2 O/SiO 2 ratios. The result shows that higher H 2 O/SiO 2 ratio increases the rate of crystallization. The largest amount of crystallinity for Na-A was found at 3 h. In the second method, alkaline hydrothermal treatment without fusion was carried out in the same condition as the first method. No Na-A zeolite was obtained by this method. The changes of the dissolved amounts of Si 4+ and Al 3+ in 3 M NaOH were investigated during the hydrothermal reaction.

  17. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Ryohei; Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  18. Present status of radioisotope production in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    1994-01-01

    Since 1962, the technology for producing a wide variety of processed radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources has been developed by using the reactors, JRR-1, JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR, and the products have been offered to domestic users. At present, 31 products of 29 nuclides are on the list of processed radioisotopes. Some of those isotopes such as P-32, S-35, Cr-51 and short lived nuclides are produced for regular distribution, but the rest are produced upon request. The radiation sources of Co-60 needles for industrial use, Ir-192 pellets for the nondestructive inspection of pipelines, Gd-153 pellets for the diagnosis of born mineral and seven kinds of brachy therapy Ir-192 and Au-198 grains are produced and distributed regularly. The organic compounds labeled with H-3 and C-14 are widely used. In fiscal year 1992, 34 batches and total amount 12 TBq of processed radioisotopes and 100 batches, 1.2 PBq of radiation sources were produced as scheduled. The development of the techniques for producing the sources emitting high energy β ray used for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is in progress. The method of producing new isotopes is developed. (K.I.)

  19. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  20. NAA work in chemistry at Sri Venkateswara University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna Naidu, G.

    2006-01-01

    Toxic elements are the consequences of the increasing industrialization, modernization of urban communities and consumption of fossil fuels. Large quantities of heavy elements have been released to the environment and this might lead to imbalances in the concentration of elements in various spheres of environment. The neutron activation analysis work focused on trace metal analysis in marine and fresh water, medicinal and vegetable leaves, cereals and pulses, food samples, different kinds of soils and in biological samples such as nails, blood and hair. Macro and micro nutrients were determined and their effects are discussed

  1. Monte Carlo generated spectra for QA/QC of automated NAA routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackman, K.R.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    A quality check for an automated system of analyzing large sets of neutron activated samples has been developed. Activated samples are counted with an HPGe detector, in conjunction with an automated sample changer and spectral analysis tools, controlled by the Canberra GENIE 2K and REXX software. After each sample is acquired and analyzed, a Microsoft Visual Basic program imports the results into a template Microsoft Excel file where the final concentrations, uncertainties, and detection limits are determined. Standard reference materials are included in each set of 40 samples as a standard quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) test. A select group of sample spectra are also visually reviewed to check the peak fitting routines. A reference spectrum was generated in MCNP 4c2 using an F8, pulse-height, tally with a detector model of the actual detector used in counting. The detector model matches the detector resolution, energy calibration, and counting geometry. The generated spectrum also contained a radioisotope matrix that was similar to what was expected in the samples. This spectrum can then be put through the automated system and analyzed along with the other samples. The automated results are then compared to expected results for QA/QC assurance. (author)

  2. Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taure, I.; Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Latvia began to develop after 1961 when nuclear reactor in Salaspils started to work. It provided a powerful neuron source, which is necessary for this analytical method. In 1963 at Institute of Physics of the Latvian Academy of Sciences the Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis was formed. At the first stage of development the main tasks were of theoretical and technical aspects of NAA. Later the NAA was used to solve problems in technology, biology, and medicine. In the beginning of the 80-ties more attention was focussed to the use of NAA in the environmental research. Environmental problems stayed the main task till the closing the nuclear reactor in Salaspils in 1998 that ceased the main the existence of the laboratory and of NAA, this significant and powerful analytical method in Latvia and Baltic in general. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake in micropterus salmoides (Largemouth Bass) of Lake Austin, TX by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.; Wilson, W.H.; Biegalski, S.R.F.; O'Kelly, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to investigate and quantify the level of heavy metal uptake in the marine environment of Lake Austin in Austin, TX. Specifically, the samples studied were largemouth bass, or micropterus salmoides. The presence of heavy metals in the food chain presents multiple hazards, mostly as a food hazard for those species that ingest the fish, namely humans. To measure the concentrations of heavy metals in various fish samples, the nuclear analytical technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. Both epithermal and thermal irradiations were conducted for the NAA to look for short and long-lived radioisotopes, respectively. The samples themselves consisted of liver and tissue samples for each of the fish caught. Each sample was freeze-dried and homogenized before irradiation and spectrum acquisition. The results showed that all levels of heavy metals were not sufficient enough to make the fish unsafe for eating, with the highest levels being found for iron and zinc. Gold was found to be at much higher concentrations in the younger fish and virtually non-existent in the larger of the samples. (author)

  4. The supply of medical radioisotopes - The Path to Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99 Mo-producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have recently created global supply shortages. This report provides the findings and analysis of two years of extensive examination of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It puts forth a comprehensive policy approach that would help ensure long-term supply security of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, detailing the essential steps to be taken by governments, industry and the health community to address the vulnerabilities of the supply chain, including its economic structure. (authors)

  5. Technology development for a Stirling radioisotope power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Qiu, Songgang; White, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA Glenn is addressing key technology issues through the use of two NASA Phase II SBIRs with Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, WA. Under the first SBIR, STC demonstrated a synchronous connection of two thermodynamically independent free-piston Stirling convertors and a 40 to 50 fold reduction in vibrations compared to an unbalanced convertor. The second SBIR is for the development of an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will essentially eliminate vibrations over the mission lifetime, even in the unlikely event of a failed convertor. This paper presents the status and results for these two SBIR projects and also discusses a new NASA Glenn in-house project to provide supporting technology for the overall Stirling radioisotope power system development. Tasks for this new effort include convertor performance verification, controls development, heater head structural life assessment, magnet characterization and thermal aging tests, FEA analysis for a lightweight alternator concept, and demonstration of convertor operation under launch and orbit transfer load conditions

  6. Determination of platinum in biological samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji; Sakurai, Hiromu; Haraguchi, Hiroki.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, a Pt compound, Cisplatin (cis-dichlorodiamine platinum) has been used therapeutically as an effective anti-malignant-cancer drug. However, since this drug has a harmful aftereffect on kidney, an urgent study of how to reduce its toxicity without influencing the therapeutic effect is needed. We have to understand the behavior of Pt in biological organs in order to elucidate the mechanism of its toxicity reduction. In this study, the analytical conditions for the determination of Pt in biological samples by neutron activation analysis, such as cooling time, counting time and sample weight, are optimized. Freeze-dried samples of the liver, kidney and whole blood of a rat treated with Cisplatin were prepared to evaluate the precision of the analysis and the lower limit of determination. 199 Au (t 1/2 = 3.15 d) produced from 199 Pt (n, γ, β - ) was selected as the analytical radionuclide. A concentration of ca. 1 ppm Pt was determinable under the optimal conditions: a cooling time of 5 d and a counting time of 1 h. Pt in the respective organs of the control rat was not detected under the same analytical conditions. The concentrations of Pt in the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and lung of a rat treated with both Cisplatin and sodium selenite were higher than those of a rat treated only with Cisplatin. (author)

  7. Preparation of the Nanostructured Radioisotope Metallic Oxide by Neutron Irradiation for Use as Radiotracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ei Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallic oxides manganese dioxide (MnO2, samarium oxide (Sm2O3, and dysprosium oxide (Dy2O3 with nanorod-like structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal synthesis method, respectively. Subsequently, the nanostructured radioisotopes MnO2 with Mn-56, Sm2O3 with Sm-153, and Dy2O3 with Dy-165 were prepared by neutron irradiation from the HANARO research reactor, respectively. The three different elements, Mn, Sm, and Dy, were selected as radiotracers because these elements can be easily gamma-activated from neutrons (activation limits: 1 picogram (Dy, 1–10 picogram (Mn, 10–100 picogram (Sm. Furthermore, the synthesized radioisotopes can be used as radiotracers in Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis as the rare earth metals Dy and Sm were not present in the Korean environment. The successful synthesis of the radioisotope metallic oxides was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, and gamma spectroscopy analysis. The synthesized nanostructured radioisotope metallic oxides may be used as radiotracers in scientific, environmental, engineering, and industrial fields.

  8. Establishment of regulation for managing the spent radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    Along with the increasing finding of the radiation contaminated residential buildings and roads in Taiwan, the appropriate management of the radioisotopes became popular issues recently among the public. This paper described the current situation and inventory of the radioisotopes with traceable records. The author addressed the importance of integrating various regulations to manage the radioisotope during its entire life cycle. A new fee-collecting system was also proposed to implement the generator-pays principle

  9. HAC and production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews different methods for the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds that make use of hot atom reactions. Subsequently he discusses the production of radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals; enrichment of (n,γ) products, recoil labelling and related methods (neutron reaction products, cyclotron production, excitation labelling, radiation and discharge induced labelling). The final section offers a survey of radioisotope production using accelerators. Only a selection of the various conditions used in practical RI production is considered. (Auth.)

  10. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  11. Determination of elements in blood of golden hamster by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo Oliveira de

    2009-01-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of golden hamster. The normal range for Br, Ca, Cl K, Mg, Na and S considering 2 σ (Two Standard deviations) was 0.011 0.047 gL -1 (Br); 0.11 0.35 gL -1 (Ca); 2.11 3.75 gL -1 (Cl); 1.35 2.79 gL -1 (K), 0.026 0.090 gL -1 (Mg), 1.03 2.51 gL -1 (Na) e 0.97 2.01 gL -1 (S). The knowledge of these limits became possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood. The comparison with the results from human being whole blood estimation (Hamster and human) became possible to check the similarities or physiologic differences, an important data for animal experimentation. (author)

  12. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  13. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  14. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  15. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  16. NAA study on characteristics and sources of raw materials of celadon bodies from Qingliangsi kiln and Zhanggongxiang kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhanjun; Zhao Weijuan; Lu Xiaoke; Li Guoxia; Guo Min; Xie Jianzhong; Qiu Xia; Feng Songlin

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies unearthed from Qingliangsi kiln (containing 32 Ru official porcelain bodies and 5 Ru folk porcelain bodies), thirty-two samples of ancient celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln, and fourteen samples of modern mineral, were selected and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. Twenty-three elements were measured. The data of these elemental contents were processed by scatter analysis and principle component analysis methods in order to determine the characteristics and sources of the raw materials of the celadon porcelain bodies from the foregoing two kilns. The results show that Fe, Ce, Ba, Ta, Th, La, Sm and Cr are the fingerprint elements to distinguish the ancient Ru official porcelain bodies from ancient celadon bodies of Zhanggongxiang kiln. The sources of the raw material of the ancient Ru official porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln are more concentrated and stable than those from Zhanggongxiang kiln. The Ru folk porcelain bodies and the Ru official porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln have the same provenance, both sources of which are local. The raw material origins of the ancient celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln is a little dispersed and the compositions of the raw material are different from the Ru porcelains, but the distance is not far away from each other. (authors)

  17. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  18. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlock, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m 2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  19. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  20. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  1. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlison, J.S.; Laidler, R.I.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  2. Bronchographic and radioisotopic studies of bronchial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducousso, R.; Girerd, E.; Nolibe, D.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.

    1974-01-01

    Bronchograms were performed on monkeys and rats after insufflation of iodinated contrast powders. The clearance kinetics of the contrast media were followed radiographically and by radioisotopic whole body and excreta counting. Because of the product's solubility their elimination through the kidney is augmented with increasing deposition in the peripheral airways. Our attempts to slow down clearance by inducing experimental bronchitis or by previous inhalation of plutonium oxide were unsuccessful. Only insufflation of particles with wounding edges was followed by much longer retention than usual. As opposed to tantalum, the slight solubility of the product allows their elimination with time [fr

  3. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  4. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  5. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  6. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Tassiane Cristina Martins

    2011-01-01

    detection. The analysis of CRM indicated that the accuracy and precision of the results depend on the type of matrix analyzed, its concentration in the sample, radioisotope measured and of the decay time used for the measurements. The analysis of the components that contribute to the uncertainty of the Sb concentration indicated that the largest uncertainty contribution is given by statistical counting of the sample. The findings also showed that the value of combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotopes of Sb measured and the decay time used for counting. This study showed that NAA is a very adequate method for Sb determinations in environmental samples furnishing results with low uncertainty values. (author)

  7. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  8. Inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with snake venom using NAA and XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Suzuki, M.F.; Lopes da Silva, L.F.F.; Rizzutto, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest diversity of snakes in the world and a large portion of them are venomous. Nowadays, Instituto Butantan (research center, at Brazil) produces various types of antivenom to meet the large number of incidences. In this investigation, mice were immunized with different species of Bothrops snake venom to evaluate the inorganic elements concentration in their blood by using NAA and XRF techniques. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human estimative. The data allows to evaluate the toxicity of these elements, important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy. (author)

  9. Tracking inorganic elements in GRMD blood dogs submitted to hASCs investigated by NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Suzuki, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation in blood of specific elements concentration are an important step in the development of new treatments. Recently, studies with human adipose derived from stromal cells injected systemic (medication that affects the entire body) into a golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs shown to be able to express improvements in skeletal muscle. To check the alterations that this cell therapy may cause in the dogs, elements concentration in blood of treated dogs were investigated using NAA. These results were compared with the control and affected (untreated) dogs groups showing an improvement in Ca and Fe blood levels in treated dogs. (author)

  10. Diffusion and decay chain of radioisotopes in stagnant water in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Juan; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Escarela-Pérez, Rafael; Vargas, Raúl Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of the diffusion of radioisotopes in stagnant water in saturated porous media is important to validate the performance of barrier systems used in radioactive repositories. In this work a methodology is developed to determine the radioisotope concentration in a two-reservoir configuration: a saturated porous medium with stagnant water is surrounded by two reservoirs. The concentrations are obtained for all the radioisotopes of the decay chain using the concept of overvalued concentration. A methodology, based on the variable separation method, is proposed for the solution of the transport equation. The novelty of the proposed methodology involves the factorization of the overvalued concentration in two factors: one that describes the diffusion without decay and another one that describes the decay without diffusion. It is possible with the proposed methodology to determine the required time to obtain equal injective and diffusive concentrations in reservoirs. In fact, this time is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. In addition, the proposed methodology allows finding the required time to get a linear and constant space distribution of the concentration in porous mediums. This time is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. In order to validate the proposed methodology, the distributions in the radioisotope concentrations are compared with other experimental and numerical works. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F.

    2006-01-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  12. Development of stable isotope separation technology for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Park, Kyung Bae

    2003-05-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to construct the domestic production system of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 used as target materials in accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes F-18 and Tl-201, respectively. In order to achieve this goal, diode laser spectroscopic analytical system was constructed and automatic measurement computer software for the direct analysis of H 2 16 O/H 2 18 O ratio were developed. Distillation process, laser process, and membrane diffusion process were analyzed for the evaluation of O-18 production. And electromagnetic process, plasma process, and laser process were analyzed for the evaluation of Tl-203 production. UV laser system, IR laser system, and detailed system Tl-203 production were designed. Finally, current and future worldwide demand/supply of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 were estimated

  13. Report of Radioisotope Inspection Technical Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, H.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of unifying the method of performance test for the routine management of the performance of RI equipments, the check-up of performance at the time of purchasing the equipments or research works, the Committee has continued the investigation on the method of performance test on RI equipments. Now, the definite plans have been decided regarding the method of performance test on radioisotope monitoring instruments and the measuring instruments for RI samples, therefore they are reported hereinafter. As for the radioisotope monitoring instruments, Curie meter, area monitor, water monitor, gas monitor and hand, foot and cloth monitor were taken up, and the items of inspection, the purposes, the testing methods, the expression of measured results and their evaluation were discussed. The accuracy of measurement of absolute radio-activity is important in Curie meter, the stability of continuous monitoring is important in general monitors, and the limit of measurement is important in the hand, foot and cloth monitor. As for the measuring instruments for radioactive materials, the efficiency of counting, linearity and stability were taken up as the items of performance test, and other matters to which attention should be paid were added. These were described, dividing into well type scintillation counter and liquid scintillation counter. (Kako, I.)

  14. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, E.H.

    1961-01-01

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias

  16. Actinium radioisotope products of enhanced purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David Herbert; Todd, Terry Allen; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2010-06-15

    A product includes actinium-225 (.sup.225Ac) and less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) of iron (Fe) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225. The product may have a radioisotopic purity of greater than about 99.99 atomic percent (at %) actinium-225 and daughter isotopes of actinium-225, and may be formed by a method that includes providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one of uranium-233 (.sup.233U) and thorium-229 (.sup.229Th), extracting the at least one of uranium-233 and thorium-229 into an organic phase, substantially continuously contacting the organic phase with an aqueous phase, substantially continuously extracting actinium-225 into the aqueous phase, and purifying the actinium-225 from the aqueous phase. In some embodiments, the product may include less than about 1 nanogram (ng) of iron per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225, and may include less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) each of magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225.

  17. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hercik, F.; Jammet, H.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  18. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, G.J.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.

    1960-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  19. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  20. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  1. RADIOISOTOPE EXPERIMENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL BIOLOGY, AN ANNOTATED SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HURLBURT, EVELYN M.

    SELECTED REFERENCES ON THE USE OF RADIOISOTOPES IN BIOLOGY ARE CONTAINED IN THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. MATERIALS INCLUDED WERE PUBLISHED AFTER 1960 AND DEAL WITH THE PROPERTIES OF RADIATION, SIMPLE RADIATION DETECTION PROCEDURES, AND TECHNIQUES FOR USING RADIOISOTOPES EXPERIMENTALLY. THE REFERENCES ARE LISTED IN…

  2. Application of radioisotope technique for investigation of pumps seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoszewski, B.; Zorawska, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope method of measuring the wear of rings of the face mechanical seals, bush in soft seals, and leakage in double mechanical seals is described. The examples are given. It is found that radioisotope technique can be used for investigation of the seals. (author)

  3. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-01

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 °C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2/Al 2O 3, H 2O/Na 2O and Na 2O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4+-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ˜3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously.

  4. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    radionuclides in suitable radiochemical form, its facile detection and elegant tracer concepts are responsible for their unprecedented use. Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of variety of dis ...

  5. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  6. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  7. Developments in radioisotope production and labelling of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in both reactor and accelerator production of radioisotopes finding applications in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research are summarised. The priorities for the production of 48 different cyclotron radioisotopes; and for 42 reactor produced radioisotopes finding biomedical applications are identified. Each includes 5 generator systems. The rapid expansion of cyclotron based radioisotope production and automated synthesis of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals with the position-emitting radionuclides continues to gain momentum. Recent feasibility studies of the cyclotron production of 186 Re, 99m Tc and of 99 Mo are cited as examples of motivation to develop accelerator alternatives to use of nuclear reactors for medical radioisotope production. Examples of SPET and PET radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 131 I, 123 I, 124 I, 18 F, and with therapeutic radionuclides are highlighted. (author)

  8. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmdmdx/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMD mdx /J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmd mdx /J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  9. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A.

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  10. A compact DD neutron generator–based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H.

    2015-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator–based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*109 neutrons/second was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R2 = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg/g dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans. PMID:25154883

  11. A compact DD neutron generator-based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-09-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*10(9) neutrons s(-1) was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R(2) = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans.

  12. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A 1 and A 2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A 2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A 2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  13. The improvement of the education courses on radiation protection and radioisotope handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Han Suk; Kim, Woong Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    About 48,000 nuclear personnel and 10,000 radioisotope personnel have participated in the KAERI-NTC's education and training programs. For the needs of personnel in radioisotope and radiation handling, KAERI-NTC has operated a class-room based full-time course for 4 weeks for applicants of a general license and 6 weeks for applicants of supervisor license. These courses educated almost 3,908 trainees for general radioisotope handling and 1,856 trainees for supervisors of radiation handling. Since the Korean Association for Radiation Application (KARA) was established in 1985 and the Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety (KANS) was established in 2002, KARA and KANS have operated with a non-classroom based correspondence course. According to this role separation in training radioisotope handling personnel, KAERI-NTC tried to improve the classroom based courses. The number of applicants of general radioisotope handling in recent years is increasing around 3,000 - 4,000 in a year. The real participants in an general license test are 2,105 to 2,841 in 2013 and 2014. The ratio of successful applicants in general isotope handling are just the 23% in 2013 and 4.2% in 2014. Addressing this low ratio of successful applicants, several proactive measures in KAERI-NTC were considered to enhance these courses for general users and supervisors. The purpose of this paper is to provide. For the further development of these courses, our measures were classified the measures in the Implementation stage of the ADDIE model. In addition to this Implementation stage, it is recommended that these actions should be applied to the other stages of ADDIE such as Analysis, Design, Development and Evaluation.

  14. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  15. Low thalamic NAA-concentration corresponds to strong neural activation in working memory in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vigren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kleine Levin Syndrome (KLS is a rare disorder of periodic hypersomnia and behavioural disturbances in young individuals. It has previously been shown to be associated with disturbances of working memory (WM, which, in turn, was associated with higher activation of the thalamus with increasing WM load, demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In this study we aimed to further elucidate how these findings are related to the metabolism of the thalamus. METHODS: fMRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied while performing a WM task. Standard metabolites were examined: n-acetylaspartate (NAA, myo-inositol, choline, creatine and glutamate-glutamine. Fourteen KLS-patients and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients with active disease were examined in asymptomatic periods. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant negative correlation between thalamic fMRI-activation and thalamic NAA, i.e., high fMRI-activation corresponded to low NAA-levels. This correlation was not seen in healthy controls. Thalamic levels of NAA in patients and controls showed no significant differences between the groups. None of the other metabolites showed any co-variation with fMRI-activation. CONCLUSION: This study shows negative correlation between NAA-levels and fMRI-activity in the left thalamus of KLS-patients while performing a WM task. This correlation could not be found in healthy control subjects, primarily interpreted as an effect of increased effort in the patient group upon performing the task. It might indicate a disturbance in the neuronal networks responsible for WM in KLS patients, resulting in higher effort at lower WM load, compared with healthy subjects. The general relationship between NAA and BOLD-signal is also discussed in the article.

  16. The activation analysis of gold in small refractory pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, D.M.; Chaix, R.P.

    1975-08-01

    The gold content of a suite of small pebbles, residual to the milling and leach of a gold bearing ore, has been investigated by means of neutron activation analysis (NAA). An NAA technique presenting a sensitivity of 0.02μgm gold, was used as being appropriate to the samples under investigation. An alternative NAA technique developed with the same sample suite showed a sensitivity of the order of 10 -4 to 10 -5 μgm gold. The NAA techniques developed, are appropriate to the determination of gold in small samples of ore not normally amenable to milling and/or dissolution

  17. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k 0 -standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  18. Radioisotopes for the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiotherapy can be, in some favourable cases, entirely successful in the treatment of cancer. One method of treatment - teletherapy - is to implant a compact source of radiation on or within the tumour. Artificial radioisotopes are used as sources of radiation for this purpose. Several sources may be combined so that the resultant radiation field is matched to the shape and size of the tumour. An important example of such treatment is the radiotherapy of cancer of uterus cervix, which commonly occurs in young women. Recently, a loading technique has been developed which gives the therapist very little exposure to radiation. The feasibility of this technique in developing countries is being jointly studied by IAEA and WHO

  19. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  20. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  1. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; de Leon-Martinez, Héctor Asael; Rivera-Perez, Esteban; Luis Benites-Rengifo, Jorge; Gallego, Eduardo; Lorente, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    When linacs operate above 8MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  3. Development of leakage monitoring system using radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Lee, D. S. [Seoil College, Seoul (Korea); Cho, Y. S. [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea); Shin, S. K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This study is to development the potable neutron back-scattering gauge for leakage and detecting liquid interface of an oil and liquid tank, using a radioisotopes. For this purpose, small sized, light weight potable gauge is to be designed as to develope neutron shielding mechanism, low power supply circuit, high voltage circuit, measurement circuit, and operating handle etc. The user will be able to set the duration of the time interval, the scale, the high voltage, the threshold, the channel window, the selection whether the data storage or not, the selection whether the scale, high voltage, threshold and window fix or not at any time. The counted pulse will be displayed with the numerical value and the line bar. The gauge will be able to connect to an IBM compatible PC via a serial port, power will be supplied by internal battery. 9 refs., 28 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  4. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivers, R.W.; Murray, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  5. Radioisotope scanning in inflammatory muscle disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.B.; Swift, T.R.; Spies, S.M.

    1976-06-01

    Fourteen whole-body rectilinear bone scans using technetium 99m-polyphosphate were done in nine patients with well-documented inflammatory myopathy (either polymyositis or dermatomyositis). In all nine patients the scans showed evidence of increased muscle labeling. Muscle uptake was markedly increased in one patient, moderately increased in two patients, and minimally increased in six patients. The degree of muscle labeling correlated with the severity of the muscle weakness at the time the scan was done. In four patients, who received high-dose corticosteroid treatment, muscle uptake was decreased following therapy. These findings suggest that radioisotope scanning may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with inflammatory muscle diseases.

  6. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.

    1987-01-01

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  7. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, J.

    1986-01-01

    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  8. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1977 (plus the transition quarter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1978-07-01

    The thirteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list gives ERDA's (now DOE) FY-1977 and transition quarter radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and United Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into four sections. Sect. I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Sect. II is an alphabetical list of isotopes that are cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into the domestic and foreign categories. Sect. III is an alphabetical list of states and countries, and is also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Sect. IV summarizes the FY-1977 radioisotope shipment activities of laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities, and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the domestic, foreign, and project (ERDA facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided

  9. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  10. Production of medical radioisotopes with linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoitova, Valeriia N; Tchelidze, Lali; Wells, Douglas P

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we discuss producing radioisotopes using linear electron accelerators and address production and separation issues of photoneutron (γ,n) and photoproton (γ,p) reactions. While (γ,n) reactions typically result in greater yields, separating product nuclides from the target is challenging since the chemical properties of both are the same. Yields of (γ,p) reactions are typically lower than (γ,n) ones, however they have the advantage that target and product nuclides belong to different chemical species so their separation is often not such an intricate problem. In this paper we consider two examples, (100)Mo(γ,n)(99)Mo and (68)Zn(γ,p)(67)Cu, of photonuclear reactions. Monte-Carlo simulations of the yields are benchmarked with experimental data obtained at the Idaho Accelerator Center using a 44MeV linear electron accelerator. We propose using a kinematic recoil method for photoneutron production. This technique requires (100)Mo target material to be in the form of nanoparticles coated with a catcher material. During irradiation, (99)Mo atoms recoil and get trapped in the coating layer. After irradiation, the coating is dissolved and (99)Mo is collected. At the same time, (100)Mo nanoparticles can be reused. For the photoproduction method, (67)Cu can be separated from the target nuclides, (68)Zn, using standard exchange chromatography methods. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed and the (99)Mo activity was predicted to be about 7MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h) while (67)Cu activity was predicted to be about 1MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h). Experimental data confirm the predicted activity for both cases which proves that photonuclear reactions can be used to produce radioisotopes. Lists of medical isotopes which might be obtained using photonuclear reactions have been compiled and are included as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Guidebook on radioisotope tracers in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The idea of using tracers (chemical, dyes, etc.) in the investigation of complex physical phenomena has always attracted the attention of scientists and engineers. When radioactive isotopes became available it was immediately recognized that they offered an almost ideal solution to tracer selection. This book is devoted to reviewing the present status of the tracer method as such and to its applications to those branches of industry which have derived large benefits from the use of this modern technology. The main objectives of the IAEA's Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section is to help Member States in introducing to their own industries the different isotope and radiation techniques which have become available as a result of developments in the nuclear sciences. This section proposed the preparation of this guidebook, putting together various radiotracer methods and the experience obtained so far in their industrial use. Chapters 2 to 4 cover the general concept of tracers, technology and safety aspects, as well as data evaluation and interpretation. In chapter 5, therefore, general applications are discussed. In chapter 6, specialists in selected fields discuss their experience in radiotracer applications in various types of industrial activity. Most case studies are illustrated by at least one detailed example of an experiment carried out at an industrial installation. Current trends in the development of radiotracer methods are discussed in chapter 7, from both a theoretical and a practical viewpoint. Some possible new RTT applications in the future are also discussed here. Sealed radioactive sources are used almost as often as radioisotope tracers in industrial measurements. Annex I gives a short review of these techniques. Readers who are interested in the basic principles of radioisotope production will find the necessary information in Annex II. Annexes III, V and VI provide a demonstration of fundamental relations and properties; useful

  12. Depletion of histone N-terminal-acetyltransferase Naa40 induces p53-independent apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, Demetria; Kirmizis, Antonis

    2016-03-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes implicated in various fundamental cellular and biochemical processes. This modification is catalysed by evolutionarily conserved N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) whose deregulation has been linked to cancer development and thus, are emerging as useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Naa40 is a highly selective NAT that acetylates the amino-termini of histones H4 and H2A and acts as a sensor of cell growth in yeast. In the present study, we examine the role of Naa40 in cancer cell survival. We demonstrate that depletion of Naa40 in HCT116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells decreases cell survival by enhancing apoptosis, whereas Naa40 reduction in non-cancerous mouse embryonic fibroblasts has no effect on cell viability. Specifically, Naa40 knockdown in colon cancer cells activates the mitochondrial caspase-9-mediated apoptotic cascade. Consistent with this, we show that caspase-9 activation is required for the induced apoptosis because treatment of cells with an irreversible caspase-9 inhibitor impedes apoptosis when Naa40 is depleted. Furthermore, the effect of Naa40-depletion on cell-death is mediated through a p53-independent mechanism since p53-null HCT116 cells still undergo apoptosis upon reduction of the acetyltransferase. Altogether, these findings reveal an anti-apoptotic role for Naa40 and exhibit its potential as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancers.

  13. Utilization of radioisotopes and irradiation in crop protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    There is a growing realization of the benefits which may be derived from the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in the different disciplines of crop protection research. Many investigations which might only be carried out with extreme difficulty or not all by conventional methods, could be pursued with relative ease. Radioisotopes and irradiation have been utilized in understanding the physiology and behaviour of pests and their biochemical processes and in consequence, have contributed beneficially to the development of better control techniques and more effective pesticides. On the environmental aspects, radioisotopic techniques have provided a useful tool in understanding the behaviour, metabolism and residues of pesticides in the environment. (author)

  14. Life atomic a history of radioisotopes in science and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Creager, Angela N H

    2013-01-01

    After World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) began mass-producing radioisotopes, sending out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to scientists and physicians by 1955. Even as the atomic bomb became the focus of Cold War anxiety, radioisotopes represented the government's efforts to harness the power of the atom for peace-advancing medicine, domestic energy, and foreign relations.             In Life Atomic, Angela N. H. Creager tells the story of how these radioisotopes, which were simultaneously scientific tools and political icons, transformed biomedicine and ecolog

  15. Production and application of radioisotopes - a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.P.; Evans, D.J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the historical evolutions of radioisotopes from first concepts and discoveries to significant milestones in their production and the development of applications throughout the world. Regarding production, it addresses the methods that have been used at various stages during this evolution outlining the important findings that have led to further developments. With respect to radioisotope applications, the paper addresses the development of markets in industry, medicine, and agriculture and comments on the size of these markets and their rate of growth. Throughout, the paper highlights the Canadian experience and it also presents a Canadian view of emerging prospects and a forecast of how the future for radioisotopes might develop

  16. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  17. Study of provenance character on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Silongkou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jihao Zhu; Songlin Feng; Dongyu Fan; Xiangqian Feng; Qing Xu; Yueming Shen; Zhenxi Zhuo; Wenjiang Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition is an important information of studying the provenance character of ancient pottery and porcelain. The ancient celadon samples produced in Later Tang (850-907 A.D.) to Former Southern Song (1127-1279 A.D.) have been analyzed with NAA. Its provenance characteristic was compared with that of Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province and Yaozhou Kiln of Shanxi Province in this paper. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results indicated that the chemical compositions of ancient porcelain body samples made in three kilns were different. The difference is able to be identified. The porcelain body materials of both Silongkou Yue Kiln and Hongzhou Kiln were similar. The samples of Yaozhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference. (author)

  18. Determination of the REE in environmental samples near a coal power station based on k0-standardized NAA with counting in a LEPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M.C.; Decorte, F.; Gouveia, M.A.; Prudencio, M.I.; Cabral, J.M.P. (Institute of Science and Nuclear Engineering, Sacavem (Portugal))

    1993-03-01

    The rare earth element (REE) contents in lichens and plants determined by k0-standardized neutron activation analysis (NAA) with LEPD and high purity Ge detection (HPGe) are compared. Similar values were obtained from Sm, Eu, Tb and Yb and better values for Ce and Nd by using LEPD. LEPD allows the determination of Gd, Tm and Lu. The study of REE concentrations in the neighbourhood of two coal power stations show that: (1) in the station under construction (C.T. Pego), the index of accumulation of each REE by the lichens and olive tree leaves is identical in two sampling loci where the soils have different REE concentrations; and (2) in the station in operation (C.T. Sines), the REE contents in the soils are identical and the differences observed in the lichens and wild terrestrial plants are most probably due to the fly-ash emissions from the station.

  19. Determination of trace elements in cigarette tobacco with the k0-based NAA method using Es-Salam research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidatou, L.A.; Khaled, S.; Akhal, T.; Hamidatou, L.A.; Ramdhane, M.

    2009-01-01

    The k 0 -standardization method of NAA is known as one of the most remarkable progress of NAA with its many advantages. Recently, our laboratory is highly involved in various areas of application of k 0 -NAA. This paper focuses on the application of the k 0 -NAA method in Nutritional and Health-Related Environmental field. Tobacco holds a leading position among different commodities of human consumption. The adverse health effects of toxic and trace elements in tobacco smoke on smokers and non-smokers are a special concern. In the present study, the concentration of 24 trace elements in cigarette tobacco of five different brands of Algerian and American cigarettes have been determined by k 0 -based INAA method. The results were compared with those obtained for samples from Iranian, Turkish, Brazilian and Mexican cigarettes tobacco. To evaluate the accurate of the results the SRM IAEA-140/TM was executed. The analytical results showed that the relative error of most of the elements was less than 10%. (author)

  20. Depletion of the human N-terminal acetyltransferase hNaa30 disrupts Golgi integrity and ARFRP1 localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starheim, Kristian K; Kalvik, Thomas V; Bjørkøy, Geir; Arnesen, Thomas

    2017-04-30

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus (GA) is tightly regulated. Golgi stack scattering is observed in cellular processes such as apoptosis and mitosis, and has also been associated with disruption of cellular lipid metabolism and neurodegenerative diseases. Our studies show that depletion of the human N-α-acetyltransferase 30 (hNaa30) induces fragmentation of the Golgi stack in HeLa and CAL-62 cell lines. The GA associated GTPase ADP ribosylation factor related protein 1 (ARFRP1) was previously shown to require N-terminal acetylation for membrane association and based on its N-terminal sequence, it is likely to be a substrate of hNaa30. ARFRP1 is involved in endosome-to- trans -Golgi network (TGN) traffic. We observed that ARFRP1 shifted from a predominantly cis -Golgi and TGN localization to localizing both Golgi and non-Golgi vesicular structures in hNaa30-depleted cells. However, we did not observe loss of membrane association of ARFRP1. We conclude that hNaa30 depletion induces Golgi scattering and induces aberrant ARFRP1 Golgi localization. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.; Othman, I.; Karajou, J.

    2001-01-01

    The radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method was applied to studies of the provenance of the ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. The samples were irradiated 1000s by a 109 Cd radioisotope source and 13 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb) were determined in 35 samples. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal components analysis (PCA). It was shown from the combination of the statistical techniques and the determination of elemental composition of the samples that 94% of the ceramic samples analyzed can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials

  2. Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Karajou, J.; Othman, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioisotope x-ray fluorescence method was applied to provenance studies of ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. 35 samples were analyzed, where each sample was irradiated 1000 s by sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd radioisotope source and the elements (As, Ca, fe, Ga, Nb, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, Y, Zn, and Zr) were determined. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal component analysis (PCA). The study show that 94% of the samples can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials. (Authors)

  3. HUBUNGAN KETERPAPARAN MEDIA MASSA, PERAN TEMAN SEBAYA TERHADAP TINDAKAN SEKSUAL DI SMA AN-NAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rika istawati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Masa remaja merupakan masa peralihan antara tahap anak dan dewasa dimana pada masa ini mereka sangat rentan terpapar informasi dari media massa dan teman sebaya terutama seks bebas. Data SKRRI mempunyai teman yang pernah berhubungan seksual pada usia 14-19 tahun dengan persentasi perempuan 37,7% dan laki-laki 30,9% dan Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informasi menyebut 62,1% siswa mengaku penah melakukan hubungan seks. Observasi yang di lakukan oleh peneliti di SMA AN-NAAS Pekanbaru diketahui adanya 2 siswa  yang tertangkap menyimpan dan menonton video porno di handphone dan melalui wawancara peneliti dengan 8 siswi mereka mengatakan adanya 1 siswi yang hamil diluar nikah dan 2 siswi diantaranya mengaku sering datang ketempat yang berisiko terhadap tindakan seksual. Tujuan Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan keterpaparan media massa dan peran teman sebaya terhadap tindakan seksual. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross sectional, populasi penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas SMA AN-NAAS Pekanbaru yaitu 123 responden. Sampel penelitian 94 orang dengan teknik stratified random sampling. Alat ukur yang digunakan adalah angket, data diolah menggunakan komputer. Analisa data secara univariat dan bivariat dengan uji chi square dengan ketentuan α (0,5. Hasil penelitian didapatkan uji statistik menunjukkan adanya hubungan keterpaparan media massa dengan tindakan seksual dimana nilai p value 0,000 < 0,05, terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara peran teman sebaya dengan tindakan seksual, dimana p value  0,001 < 0,05. Bagi pihak sekolah diharapkan untuk meningkatkan kegiatan di sekolah seperti ekstrakurikuler dan guru membimbing serta memberi pengawasan yang ketat terhadap siswanya.   

  4. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  5. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future space and planetary exploration missions. Small improvements in the RPS performance, weight, size, and/or...

  6. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  7. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  8. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2000-01-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90 Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  9. Organic synthesis with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes of the non-metals, principally 11 C, 13 N and 18 F, has burgeoned over the last decade. This has been almost entirely because of the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a powerful non-invasive technique for investigating pathophysiology in living man. PET is essentially an external technique for the rapid serial reconstruction of the spatial distribution of any positron-emitting radioisotope that has been administered in vivo. Such a distribution is primarily governed by the chemical form in which the positron-emitting radioisotope is incorporated, and importantly for clinical research, is often perturbed by physical, biological or clinical factors. Judicious choice of the chemical form enables specific biological information to be obtained. For example, the labelling of glucose with a positron-emitting radioisotope could be expected to provide a radiopharmaceutical for the study of glucose utilisation in both health and disease. (author)

  10. [Estimation of activities caused by black spots in digital radiography systems: analysis of black spots by the low concentrate radioisotopes adhered directly to the surface of the phosphor plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Takashi, Satoru; Hanamitsu, Hiroki; Mori, Michiko; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Onuma, Yoji

    2012-01-01

    Because of an accident of the nuclear power plants in the Fukushima, many radioisotopes (RI) have been diffused to the environment. As a result, black spots were appearing on the medical images which were taken by the phosphor plate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activity (Bq) of radioactive contaminated IP based on the experiment using RI. The radioactive material ((134)Cs and/or (137)Cs) in the form of liquid was dropped on filter paper (25 mm(2)), and radioactive sources having 40-240 Bq activities were made. These sources were closely attached to the IP with irradiation times of 2-22 h. Then, we obtained the relationship between pixel values and products of activities and irradiation times. Using these relationships, we evaluated the activity in the contaminated IP. The evaluated value of approximately 7 Bq was in good agreement with a value which was inhered in a chemical wiper used for the decontamination of the IP. Based on the results, we summarized that almost all black spots were created by the RI adhered directly to the IP.

  11. Evaluation of processing methods for static radioisotope scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, J.A.

    1976-12-01

    Radioisotope scanning in the field of nuclear medicine provides a method for the mapping of a radioactive drug in the human body to produce maps (images) which prove useful in detecting abnormalities in vital organs. At best, radioisotope scanning methods produce images with poor counting statistics. One solution to improving the body scan images is using dedicated small computers with appropriate software to process the scan data. Eleven methods for processing image data are compared

  12. Radioisotope Power Systems Reference Book for Mission Designers and Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The RPS Program's Program Planning and Assessment (PPA) Office commissioned the Mission Analysis team to develop the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Reference Book for Mission Planners and Designers to define a baseline of RPS technology capabilities with specific emphasis on performance parameters and technology readiness. The main objective of this book is to provide RPS technology information that could be utilized by future mission concept studies and concurrent engineering practices. A progress summary from the major branches of RPS technology research provides mission analysis teams with a vital tool for assessing the RPS trade space, and provides concurrent engineering centers with a consistent set of guidelines for RPS performance characteristics. This book will be iterated when substantial new information becomes available to ensure continued relevance, serving as one of the cornerstone products of the RPS PPA Office. This book updates the original 2011 internal document, using data from the relevant publicly released RPS technology references and consultations with RPS technologists. Each performance parameter and RPS product subsection has been reviewed and cleared by at least one subject matter representative. A virtual workshop was held to reach consensus on the scope and contents of the book, and the definitions and assumptions that should be used. The subject matter experts then reviewed and updated the appropriate sections of the book. The RPS Mission Analysis Team then performed further updates and crosschecked the book for consistency. Finally, a second virtual workshop was held to ensure all subject matter experts and stakeholders concurred on the contents.

  13. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-01-01

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 deg. C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 , H 2 O/Na 2 O and Na 2 O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4 + -cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2 /g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2 /g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ∼3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously. - Graphical Abstract: Novel Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composite.

  14. Synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X from tablet compressed and calcinated coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Gao, Wenyan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites Na-A and Na-X are important synthetic zeolites widely used for separation and adsorption in industry. It is of great significance to develop energy-efficient routines that can synthesize zeolites Na-A and Na-X from low-cost raw materials. Coal fly ash (CFA) is the major residue from the combustion of coal and biomass containing more than 85% SiO2 and Al2O3, which can readily replace the conventionally used sodium silicate and aluminate for zeolite synthesis. We used Na2CO3 to replace the expensive NaOH used for the calcination of CFA and showed that tablet compression can enhance the contact with Na2CO3 for the activation of CFA through calcination for the synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X under mild conditions. We optimized the control variables for zeolite synthesis and showed that phase-pure zeolite Na-A can be synthesized with CFA at reactant molar ratio, hydrothermal reaction temperature and reaction time of 1.3Na2O: 0.6Al2O3: 1SiO2: 38H2O at 80°C for 6 h, respectively, while phase-pure zeolite Na-X can be synthesized at 2.2Na2O: 0.2Al2O3: 1SiO2: 88H2O at 100°C for 8 h, respectively. The composition, morphology, specific surface area, vibration spectrum and thermogravimetry of synthesized Na-A and Na-X were further characterized.

  15. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.L.; Mandell, S.

    1974-01-01

    The eleventh edition of the AEC radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1974 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USAEC facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. The information is divided into four sections. Section I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Each customer has been designated a number according to its alphabetical position which provides a means of cross-referencing in the following sections. The isotopes purchased are listed after the address of the customer and the laboratory supplying each isotope is indicated by a letter set off by parentheses. Section II is an alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and again divided into the domestic and foreign categories. This section provides a quick idea of the amount of companies purchasing a particular isotope. If more information is needed, the reader can locate the customer by number and determine the laboratory supplying the isotope. The third section is an alphabetical list of states and countries, also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Section IV summarizes the FY 1974 radioisotope shipment activities of USAEC laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the Domestic, Foreign, and Project (AEC facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided. (U.S.)

  16. Strategy for securing the national supply of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongxian

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global supply shortage of medical radioisotopes caused by the unscheduled shutdown of the aged reactors which supply over 90% of radioisotopes overall the world, has severely affected the normal healthcare system which depend on the technology of molecular imaging for diagnoses and therapy as well as the development of nuclear molecular imaging technology. Purpose: It is urgently needed to develop new alternative technologies to solve the problem of global radioisotope supply shortage. Methods: The proton cyclotron is a potential alternative technology to produce the 99m Tc and the most of medical radioisotopes of clinical importance. Results: The quality of 99m Tc produced by cyclotron, such as nuclide purity, specific activity and nonradioisotope impurities, has reached and/or exceeded that eluted from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator produced by reactor. Conclusions: It is the most operational and sustainable way to substitute the conventional global centralized supply by reactors with local centralized supply of radioisotopes by proton cyclotrons for securing the national supply of radioisotopes. (author)

  17. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  18. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  19. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  1. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, L.; Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.; Wierzbicki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  2. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.; Gabdo, H.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.

    2010-01-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 and epithermal flux of 1.4x10 11 n cm -2 s -1 . Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  3. Application of nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamonov, E.I.; Khlystova, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the applications of nuclear-activation analysis (NAA) as discussed at the International Conference of 1977. One of the new results in the present-day NAA practices is the growing number of elements detected in samples without using a destructive radiochemical separation. An essential feature in this context is the development of the system automation of control and information NAA operations through the use computers. In biological medicine a multicomponent NAA is employed to determine the concentration of elements in various human organs and objects, in metabolic studies and for diagnostic purposes. In agriculture NAA finds applications in the evaluation of grain protein, analysis of element feed composition, soil and fertilizers. The application of this method to the environmental monitoring is considered with particular reference to the element analysis of water (especially drinking water), air, plant residues. Data are presented for the use of NAA in metallurgy, geology, archaeology and criminal law. Tables are provided to illustrate the uses of NAA in various fields

  4. Polymethylmethacrylate and radioisotopes in vertebral augmentation: an explanation of underlying principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Rosenstein, Barry S; Medich, David C; Martel, Christopher B; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported a novel concept for combining radioactive isotope technology with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement used for vertebral augmentation and have advocated that pain physicians become aware of this new concept when treating malignant compression fractures. The use of vertebral augmentation for malignant compression fractures is steadily increasing, and the goal of this novel approach would be to stabilize the fractured vertebral body while also controlling proliferation of the tumor cells in the vertebral body that caused the vertebral fracture. This approach would therefore provide mechanical stabilization of the fractured vertebral body at the same time as direct targeting of the cancer cells causing the fracture. For our analysis, we investigated six specific radioisotopes with regard to physical and biologic properties as they would interact with PMMA and local bone metastatic disease, taking into consideration anatomical, biological and physical characteristics. The radioisotopes investigated include beta emitting (plus and minus) sources, as well as low energy and mid-energy photon sources and are: P-32, Ho-166, Y-90, I-125, F-18, and Tc-99m. We review the advantages and disadvantages of each radioisotope. In addition, this paper serves to provide pain physicians with a basic background of the biologic principles (Biologically Effective Dose) and statistical modeling (Monte Carlo method) used in that analysis. We also review the potential complications when using radioactive sources in a clinical setting. Understanding the methodologies employed in determining isotope selection empowers the practitioner by fostering understanding of this presently theoretical treatment option. We believe that embedding radioisotopes in PMMA is merely a first step in the road of local treatment for symptomatic local lesions in the setting of systemic disease.

  5. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee and others

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  6. Application of neutron activation analysis in study of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    2000-01-01

    Trace-elements in ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram is obtained. The raw material sources of ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics are determined. The path for improving quality of imitative ancient ceramics is found

  7. Genotoxicity assessment of high concentrations of 2,4-D, NAA and Dicamba on date palm callus (Phoenix dactylifera L. using protein profile and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Abass

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic stability and uniformity of in vitro-derived date palm plants has a major importance to ascertain true-to-typeness of produced plants. The goal of present study was to evaluate the genetic toxicity of different plant growth regulators on date palm callus at initiation stages using protein patterns and RAPD analysis. Date palm offshoots of Hillawii cultivar were dissected, apical meristems were divided into four segments and cultured on callus induction medium containing the plant growth regulators as 2,4-D at 50 and 100 mg/L; NAA at 30 mg/L and Dicamba at 10 mg/L. The changes occurred in protein profile of callus when treated with high concentration of 2,4-D (100 mg/L, including loss of normal fragments (19 and 66 KDa polypeptides in control, as well as, appearance of new fragments, while at low concentration of 2,4-D (50 mg/L and Dicamba treatment, the protein patterns showed no changes compared to control profile. Similar trends of polymorphisms were obtained with RAPD marker. The high concentration of 2,4-D produced more polymorphic fragments in comparison to control treatment. The DNA profile was identical between 2,4-D at low concentration and control. Dendrograms were generated using similarity indices of protein and RAPD results, and revealed that genetic similarity index was high between 2,4-D treatment at low concentration and control, as separated in one subcluster, followed by Dicamba and NAA, while, the highest genetic distance was obtained between 2,4-D at high concentration and control treatment and separated alone in one cluster.

  8. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Doi, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Eiji; Kawakami, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14 C, 3 H, 125 I and 35 S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  9. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1999-01-01

    Coated particle fuel offers great promise for advanced radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs) being pursued for future U.S. solar system exploration missions. Potential benefits of this fuel include improved design flexibility and materials compatibility, enhanced safety and performance, and reduced specific mass and volume. This paper describes and discusses coated particle fuel, with emphasis on its applicability, attributes, and potential benefits to future RPSs and RHUs. Additionally, this paper identifies further analyses and verification testing that should be conducted before a commitment is made to fully develop this fuel. Efforts to date indicate there is every reason to believe that the potential benefits of coated particle fuel to future RPSs and RHUs can be demonstrated with a modest, phased analytical and verification test effort. Thus, developmental risk appears minimal, while the potential benefits are substantial. If coated particle fuel is pursued and ultimately developed successfully, it could revolutionize the design and space use of future RPSs and RHUs.

  10. Application and benefits to industry of radioisotope tracer techniques - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotopes continue to play an important role in better management of natural resources and industrial processes. The success of radioisotope applications is primarily to the ability, conferred by the unique properties of radioactive materials, to collect data, which cannot be obtained by other investigative techniques. Radioisotope-based industrial tracer techniques that have stood the test in their own right are described briefly and certain of the economic and process efficiency impacts are highlighted. The financial and other benefits of this technology, especially in Petrochemical sector have been amply demonstrated and accepted. Typical techniques employed are: Gamma ray scanning of distillation columns, leak testing of heat exchangers, deposit and blockage detection in pipe lines, homogeneous mixing, flow rate measurements and liquid interface measurements. The financial benefits by these techniques are widely accepted to exceed the cost of equipment and studies by several folds. Based on retrospective analysis of the data, it is found that an average cost-benefit ratio of 1:20 in many applications is reasonably representative. (Author)

  11. Technical Reviews on the Radioisotope Application for Leak Detection in Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jae Ho

    2006-02-01

    The previous techniques on the detection of leaks from reservoirs are difficult to identify the leak points and leak pathways in reservoirs. Additionally the complexity and ambiguity of data analysis resulted from them can increase the failures of leak detection. While, The technique using radioisotope as a tracer is considered to be very promising. In the same context, systematic studies led by IAEA are being practiced by organizing the task force team. The detection technique using natural tracer can give information about the age of ground water and the interconnection between ground water and reservoir water and the seepage origin. On the other hand, the one using artificial tracer can identify the leak point in reservoirs directly, in which radioactive cloud migration method and radioactive tracer adsorption method are included. The former is using hydrophilic radioisotope tracer, and the latter adsorptive radioisotope tracer which is emitting gamma ray. The radiotracer are injected at a point of the reservoir near to the bottom. Afterwards, the migration of the radioactive tracer is followed by means of submerged scintillation detectors suspended from boats. Usually 131 I, 82 Br, 46 Sc, and 198 Au etc. can be used as tracer. The point reaching the maximum concentration of tracer corresponds to the leak point in reservoirs

  12. Present situation of the production and use of radioisotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Charlie

    1974-01-01

    As the sole large scale producer of radioisotopes in France, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is keeping up pace with all developments in medical, biological and industrial areas. This production will reach the turnover close to 40 million F in 1973. About 65% of the products will go to medical market, 10% to biology and the remaining 25% to industry. As medical products, many radioisotopes are used for in-vivo diagnosis, while radioimmunology techniques are well known in in-vitro diagnosis. There has been very few noticeable development in therapeutics. Also there is steadily increasing demand for 14 C, 3 H and 13 C-labelled materials which are used to study metabolism of natural substances and drugs. The industrial utilization of radioisotopes in France is developed by CEA as well as several industrial companies. Trend must be analyzed for the different segments of the market which includes tracer utilization, instrumentation, large source technology such as sterilization of medical supplies, activation analysis and isotopic generators. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Technical Reviews on the Radioisotope Application for Leak Detection in Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jae Ho

    2006-02-15

    The previous techniques on the detection of leaks from reservoirs are difficult to identify the leak points and leak pathways in reservoirs. Additionally the complexity and ambiguity of data analysis resulted from them can increase the failures of leak detection. While, The technique using radioisotope as a tracer is considered to be very promising. In the same context, systematic studies led by IAEA are being practiced by organizing the task force team. The detection technique using natural tracer can give information about the age of ground water and the interconnection between ground water and reservoir water and the seepage origin. On the other hand, the one using artificial tracer can identify the leak point in reservoirs directly, in which radioactive cloud migration method and radioactive tracer adsorption method are included. The former is using hydrophilic radioisotope tracer, and the latter adsorptive radioisotope tracer which is emitting gamma ray. The radiotracer are injected at a point of the reservoir near to the bottom. Afterwards, the migration of the radioactive tracer is followed by means of submerged scintillation detectors suspended from boats. Usually {sup 131}I, {sup 82}Br, {sup 46}Sc, and {sup 198}Au etc. can be used as tracer. The point reaching the maximum concentration of tracer corresponds to the leak point in reservoirs.

  14. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Natsuki; Ikeda, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Satoru

    1989-01-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99m TcO 4 - into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author)

  15. Utilization of radioisotopes in medical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yasuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The establishment and advance of nuclear medicine was briefly described here and the present situations and recent topics on clinical nuclear medicine were summarized as well as its prospects for the future. A labeling method to monitor dynamic changes of living substances using radioisotope (RI) was established by Hevesy using radionuclides. The radiotracing method has been applied to chemical field. The numbers of yearly application in 1982, 1987, 1992 and 1997 were reported in respects of in vivo assays (scintigram, SPECT, PET), the treatments with unsealed RI, PET and in vitro examination (RIA, IRMA). The data show that the application of in vivo examination greatly increased for the last 5 years. Bone scintigram was most frequent (26.9%) followed by myocardial scintigram (19.6%). On the other hand, application of in vitro radioassay is gradually decreasing now after the peak in 1992 (241,000 cases per day). The determination of blood concentrations of various tumor markers such as CEA, CA19-9, CA15-3 ar3, etc. became able using radioimmunodetection (RID). Positron emission computed tomography (PET) is valuable for detection of malignant tumor especially for postoperative recurrence or metastasis, evaluation of myocardial viability and identification of epileptic focus. PET using {sup 15}O labeled H{sub 2}O is thought useful for the study on higher functions of human brain such as language, thinking, and prognostic evaluation of damages in the brain. Nuclear medicinal examination, which has been used for diagnosis would be utilized for designing of clinical therapy and evaluation of its effects and prognosis. (M.N.)

  16. Remedial measures against high levels of radioisotopes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Haakanson, L.

    2000-01-01

    This Annex has been prepared within the framework of the Aquatic Working Group of the co-ordinated Research Programme on Validation of the Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The main objectives of this Annex are: (1) To provide an outline of a broad set of remedial measures and strategies tested and suggested for aquatic systems to speed up the recovery after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. This Report covers case studies from rivers and lakes and includes results from field and laboratory experiments, as well as measures directed at reducing radioisotopes in food by different food preparation procedures in the home. (2) To provide results from selected case studies, focusing on general, strategic results rather than site-specific details. (3) To provide conclusions which specifically address practical matters concerning how to select remedial measures in different situations, how to avoid inefficient measures, and to suggest important areas for future research. (4) To provide an analysis of the concept of lake sensitivity using both empirical and modelled data. One and the same fallout may give rise to very different radionuclide concentrations in water and biota depending on the characteristics of the lake and its catchment

  17. Predictive efficacy of radioisotope voiding cystography for renal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Kwang Myeung; Choi, Whang; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    As vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) could lead to renal functional deterioration when combined with urinary tract infection, we need to decide whether operative anti-reflux treatment should be performed at the time of diagnosis of VUR. Predictive value of radioisotope voiding cystography (RIVCG) for renal outcome was tested. In 35 children (18 males, 17 females), radiologic voiding cystoure-thrography (VCU), RIVCG and DMSA scan were performed. Change in renal function was evaluated using the follow-up DMSA scan, ultrasonography, and clinical information. Discriminant analysis was performed using individual or integrated variables such as reflux amount and extent at each phase of voiding on RIVCG, in addition to age, gender and cortical defect on DMSA scan at the time of diagnosis. Discriminant function was composed and its performance was examined. Reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase had a significant prognostic value. Total reflux amount was a composite variable to predict prognosis. Discriminant function composed of reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase showed better positive predictive value and specificity than conventional reflux grading. RIVCG could predict renal outcome by disclosing characteristic reflux pattern during various voiding phases.=20

  18. Multiscale wavelet filter for high resolution radioisotopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousse, A.; Dornier, C.; Fagot, L.; Parmentier, M.; Kastler, B.

    2000-12-01

    Radioisotopic Investigations are very useful for functional diagnosis, but available gamma cameras have poor spatial resolution. Development of new PSPMT based high-resolution detectors brings new interests to this medical imaging technique. However, the Poissonian nature of emitted photon flux and low count images due to low doses administered to the patients and to collimation, lead to images with granular aspect. This noisy appearance is particularly inconvenient when looking for cold nodules as in thyroid examinations. Low-pass filters, which reduce noise, are not well suited for detecting small cold nodules. An adapted translation invariant wavelet filter is designed which takes into account the poissonian feature of noise and preserves small sized structures. The filter was tested by Monte Carlo simulations, phantom and clinical thyroid scintigraphies. Cold spherical nodules as small as 4 mm in diameter are easily detected on filtered images acquired with IRIS (ARIES) high-resolution gamma ray imaging probe. Presentation of filtered images at different scales offering enhanced visual quality and lowered noise, simultaneously with original image, allows more comfortable analysis and improves scintigraphic diagnosis ability.

  19. Radioisotope research and development at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout its fifty year history, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted research and development in the production, isolation, purification, and application of radioactive isotopes. Initially this work supported the weapons development mission of the Laboratory. Over the years the work has evolved to support basic and applied research in many diverse fields, including nuclear medicine, biomedical studies, materials science, environmental research and the physical sciences. In the early 1970s people in the Medical Radioisotope Research Program began irradiating targets at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to investigate the production and recovery of medically important radioisotopes. Since then spallation production using the high intensity beam at LAMPF has become a significant source of many important radioisotopes. Los Alamos posesses other facilities with isotope production capabilities. Examples are the Omega West Reactor (OWR) and the Van de Graaf Ion Beam Facility (IBF). Historically these facilities have had limited availability for radioisotope production, but recent developments portend a significant radioisotope production mission in the future

  20. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.