WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis naa radioisotope

  1. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  2. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, J.R. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  3. Analysis in Blood of Golden Hamster by Naa for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  4. Heat Transfer Analysis for Optimal Design of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Han; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Jong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A new approach is need in the space development and requires a technique having a high degree of reliability. For example, there is radioisotope thermoelectric generator(RTG) using radioisotope that has different mechanism in comparison with solar power as power source. This is a technology that has already been trusted by generator for space in the developed countries. For example, RTG is essential for moon explorer because no other power exist source night of moon. In this study, we investigated the thermal efficiency according to the structure of RTG. Specifically, the thermal properties were analyzed according to the presence of the shield inside vacuum heat-insulating part of the RTG through the finite element analysis. Finite element analysis was used to analyze the characteristics of the temperature distribution in the RTG models according to the shield. The structure of the shield came out less heat loss than the structure without shield. As a result, the structure with a shield is advantage in the RTG design.

  5. Determination of Trace Elements in Ghanaian Shea Butter and Shea Nut by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Alhassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the concentrations of trace elements in Ghanaian shea nut and shea butter. As part of the study, measurements of the elemental composition of shea butter and shea nut samples were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA using the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1. Samples collected from local markets in the Northern region of Ghana and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1547 Peach leaves were irradiated at the GHARR-1 facility. Validation of the method was done using NIST SRM Orchard Leaves (1571 under the same experimental conditions. Six trace elements (Na, Mn, Al, Cl, Ca and K were detected with maximum concentration of Na found to be 15±1 mg/kg in SN5, Mn; 7.4±0.8 mg/kg in SN6, Al; 259±3 mg/kg in SN1, Cl; 666±27 mg/kg in SN1, Ca; 0.21±0.04 wt.% in SN4, K; 2.0±0.04 wt.% in SN1, Ce; 3.2±0.06 mg/kg in SN2, Se; 0.12±0.004 mg/kg in SN4, and Sc; 0.40±0.02 mg/kg in SN2 . The concentrations of the trace elements were within the limit laid down for safe human consumption.

  6. Analysis of a case of internal contamination with cobalt radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, T; Malatova, I; Jurochova, B

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by compounds of cobalt radioisotopes occurs time to time at nuclear power plants. Intakes and committed effective doses are estimated by biokinetic models described in ICRP publications. The paper deals with a case of internal contamination of a worker engaged in a maintenance task at NPP Dukovany. In this case significant discrepancy was observed between intakes based on various datasets (whole body counting, analysis of urine and faeces) when default model setting was used. The reason of this phenomenon was searched for. Three different least square methods of fits were used to find out possible effect of a fitting method. The measured data were fitted by set of biokinetic functions, which covered all intake ways (ingestion and inhalation) and types (M, S, different AMADs and different f1) of the contaminant. The biokinetic model of cobalt needs further improvements as to find better agreement between data fit from direct measurements and bioassay.

  7. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  8. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah [Division of Waste and Environmental Technology, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Nadiah Binti [Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, UiTM Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  9. Safety analysis report for medical radioisotope transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    KAERI has been producing radioisotopes for medical and industrial use and supplying them to radioisotope-using hospitals and industries. RI transport cask of A type package has been developed to transport medical radioisotopes from the HANARO to the hospitals. The safety analyses were performed under normal transport conditions in accordance with standards of transport regulations. As a results, it should be verified that the cask maintains the shielding and structural integrities under prescribed condition by the regulations. 8 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  10. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  11. Evaluation of NAA procedures by means of information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrusnik, I. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Eckschlager, K. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1994-01-01

    This work gives a survey of the use of information theory in optimization of neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedures. In an introductory part, the principles of information theory are briefly outlined. Then, particular examples of the use of information theory are given: optimization of irradiation, counting and decay times in multielement NAA by means of the INFO program, investigation of the influence of measurement bias on information properties in {gamma}-ray spectrometry, evaluation of different standardization procedures including the k{sub 0} comparator technique, optimization of separation procedures in NAA measurements in NAA, choosing of an appropriate reference material for quality assurance in NAA and investigation of the role of interferences in NAA. Application of information theory in NAA can lead to interesting and valuable results especially in optimization of NAA methodology. This approach can often save both time and money otherwise spent on unnecessary irradiation and measurements.

  12. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  13. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  14. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. O' Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  15. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  16. Inorganic, Radioisotopic, and Organic Analysis of 241-AP-101 Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, S.K.; Bredt, P.R.; Campbell, J.A.; Farmer, O.T.; Greenwood, L.R.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hoopes, F.V.; Lumetta, G.J.; Mong, G.M.; Ratner, R.T.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Steele, M.J.; Swoboda, R.G.; Urie, M.W.; Wagner, J.J.

    2000-10-17

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids.

  17. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  18. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewgoy, Hugo R., E-mail: hugorl@usp.br [Universidade Bandeirante Anhanguera (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  19. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  20. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 79}Se, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc as pertechnetate, {sup 106}Ru/Rh, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 243+244}Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 241}AMU, {sup 242}AMU, {sup 243}AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all

  1. Performance analysis of coated 238PuO2 fuel particles compact for radioisotope heater units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    A fuel form consisting of coated plutonia fuel particles dispersed in a graphite matrix is being investigated for use in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs). The fuel particles consist of a 238PuO2 kernel (300-1200 μm in diameter), a 5-μm PyC inner coating and a ZrC outer coating (>=10 μm). The latter, an extremely strong material at high temperatures, serves as a pressure vessel for maintaining the integrity of the fuel particle and containing the helium generated by radioactive decay. Parametric analyses compared the thermal powers of the coated particle fuel compact (CPFC) RHU and LWRHU. Both utilize Fine-Weave Pierced Fabric (FWPF) aeroshell and PyC insulation sleeves. During normal operation, the fuel temperature is ~800 K, but could reach as much as 1723 K during an accidental re-entry heating. Assuming full helium release, a single-size particle (500 μm) fuel compact would maintain its integrity at a temperature of 1723 K, after 10 years storage time before launch. When replacing the LWRHU fuel pellet, Pt-alloy clad and inner PyC insulation sleeve with CPFC, the calculated thermal power of the CPFC-RHU is 1.5, 2.3 and 2.4 times that of LWRHU, for 100%, 10%, and 5% helium release, respectively, with little change in total mass. A fuel compact using binary-size particles (300 and 1200 μm diameters) would deliver 15% more thermal power. A one-dimensional, transient thermal analysis of the CPFC-RHU showed that during accidental re-entry the maximum fuel temperature in the CPFC would be 1734 K. .

  2. Safety analysis for the Galileo light-weight radioisotope heater unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ernest W.

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) will be used on the NASA Galileo Mission to provide thermal energy to the various systems on the orbiter and probe that are adversely affected by the low temperature a spacecraft encounters during a long interplanetary mission. Using these plutonia-fueled sources in 1-W increments permits employment of a single design and provides the spacecraft user the option of how many to use and where to position them to satisfy the proper thermal environment for components requiring such consideration. The use of the radioisotope Pu 238 in these devices necessitates the assessment of postulated radiological risks which might be experienced in case of accidents or malfunctions of the space shuttle or the spacecraft during phases of the mission in the vicinity of the earth. Included are data for the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events.

  3. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  4. k{sub 0}-NAA quality assessment in an Algerian laboratory by analysis of SMELS and four IAEA reference materials using Es-Salam research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidatou, L.A., E-mail: lylia.h@hotmail.fr [Nuclear Reseach Center of Birine, P.O. Box 180 Ain Oussera, 17200 Djelfa (Algeria); Dekar, S.; Boukari, S. [Department of physics, Ferhat Abbes University, 19000 Setif (Algeria)

    2012-08-01

    Different types of synthetic multi-element standard material (SMELS) and four IAEA reference materials, 140, Sl-1, Soil-7 and Lichen-336 were analyzed for validation and QC/QA of the k{sub 0}-standardised Neutron Activation Analysis (k{sub 0}-NAA). The samples of SMELS and RMs were irradiated at Es-Salam research reactor and measured on an absolutely calibrated HPGe detector with 35% relative efficiency connected to a Canberra Genie 2k inspector. Concentrations of 33 elements such as As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb, Zn, and Zr were determined in SMELS and RMs. The analytical results agreed well with the assigned values of SMELS and certified values of RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could be determined. The comparison between experimental values and assigned/certified data for SMELS and RMs was made by means of the results from Relative Bias, Z-score and U-score. The relatives bias of the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values were all within{+-}4.6%. For RMs with respect to certified values were within{+-}10% except for few elements for which RB varied from -28.6% to +12.8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within {+-}1. The U-scores for most of the elements were lower than 1.

  5. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  6. Analysis, optimization, and assessment of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design for an illustrative space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, C.; Summers, G.

    1995-01-01

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPVs are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that—when fully developed—they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g., RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 °C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low-mass generators.

  7. Radioisotope Power Supply Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  8. Large sample NAA work at BARC: Methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, R.; Swain, K. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Pujari, P. K.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) was carried out using thermal column facility of Apsara reactor at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. The k0-based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) using in situ detection efficiency was used to analyze large and non-standard geometry samples of clay pottery, uranium ore and stainless steel. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na as a monostandard were used in the study of pottery and ore samples. For stainless steel sample of SS 304L, the absolute concentrations were calculated from concentration ratios by mass balance approach since all the major elements (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn) were amenable to NAA. Applications of LSNAA in the above-mentioned three different areas are described in this paper.

  9. Large sample NAA work at BARC: Methodology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, R., E-mail: racharya@barc.gov.i [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Swain, K.K. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Pujari, P.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-10-11

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) was carried out using thermal column facility of Apsara reactor at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. The k{sub 0}-based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) using in situ detection efficiency was used to analyze large and non-standard geometry samples of clay pottery, uranium ore and stainless steel. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na as a monostandard were used in the study of pottery and ore samples. For stainless steel sample of SS 304L, the absolute concentrations were calculated from concentration ratios by mass balance approach since all the major elements (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn) were amenable to NAA. Applications of LSNAA in the above-mentioned three different areas are described in this paper.

  10. Radioisotope detection with accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.S.; Muller, R.A.; Tans, P.P.

    1979-12-01

    High energy mass spectrometry is a new and very sensitive technique of measuring rare radioisotopes. This paper describes the techniques used to select and identify the individual radioisotope atoms in a sample and the status of the radioisotope measurements and their applications.

  11. Power from Radioisotopes (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R; Mead, Robert L

    1971-01-01

    This booklet discusses Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), called isotope power generators, that are based on using heat from the decay of radioisotopes to produce electricity. These are the SNAP systems with odd-numbered designators. The basics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are discussed and their uses as power sources in space exploration and on earth are described. Various radioisotope heat sources are discussed and a table of RTGs built under the SNAP program listing their uses, electrical power, weight, the radioisotope used, the radioisotope's half-life, and the generator life is given.

  12. Functionalized NaA nanozeolites labeled with {sup 224,225}Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowska, Agata, E-mail: a.kasperek@ichtj.waw.pl; Leszczuk, Edyta [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Poland); Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred [Joint Research Centre – European Commission, Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany); Bilewicz, Aleksander [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    The {sup 223}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, and {sup 225}Ra radioisotopes exhibit very attractive nuclear properties for application in radionuclide therapy. Unfortunately the lack of appropriate bifunctional ligand for radium is the reason why these radionuclides have not found application in receptor-targeted therapy. In the present work, the potential usefulness of the NaA nanozeolite as a carrier for radium radionuclides has been studied. {sup 224}Ra and {sup 225}Ra, α-particle emitting radionuclides, have been absorbed in the nanometer-sized NaA zeolite (30–70 nm) through simple ion exchange. {sup 224,225}Ra-nanozeolites exhibited very high stability in solutions containing physiological salt, EDTA, amino acids, and human serum. To make NaA nanozeolite particles dispersed in water their surface was modified with a silane coupling agent containing poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. This functionalization approach let us covalently attach a biomolecule to the NaA nanozeolite surface.

  13. Comparative analysis of taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors by metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Background Biogas production is a very complex process due to the high complexity in diversity and interactions of the microorganisms mediating it, and only limited and diffuse knowledge exists about the variation of taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiomes across different biogas reactors......, and their relationships with the metabolic patterns. The present study used metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis to assess the taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors operated under various conditions treating either sludge or manure. Results...

  14. Comprehensive quantitative and qualitative liquid chromatography-radioisotope-mass spectrometry analysis for safety testing of tolbutamide metabolites without standard samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Aoyama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Kohei; Akita, Shoji; Oh-Hara, Toshinari; Adachi, Yasuhisa; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi

    2011-09-01

    Liquid chromatography-radioisotope-mass spectrometry (LC-RI-MS) analysis was used to determine the structures of 12 (four previously unknown) (14) C-tolbutamide (TB) metabolites in rat biological samples (plasma, urine, bile, feces, and microsomes). The four novel metabolites are ω-carboxy TB, hydroxyl TB (HTB)-O-glucuronide, TB-ortho or meta-glutathion, and tolylsulphoaminocarbo-glutathion. In rat plasma, after oral administration of (14) C-TB at therapeutic dose (1 mg/kg) and microdose (1.67 µg/kg), the total RI and six metabolites [HTB, carboxy TB (CTB), M1: desbutyl TB, M2: ω-hydroxyl TB, M3: α-hydroxyl TB, and M4: ω-1-hydroxyl TB] were quantified by LC-RI-MS. The plasma concentrations were calculated using their response factors (MS-RI intensity ratio) without standard samples, and the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentration per time for evaluation of Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites (MIST) was calculated using the ratio of TB metabolites AUC/total RI AUC. The ratios were as follows: TB 94.5% and HTB 2.5% for the microdose (1.67 µg/kg) and TB 95.6%, HTB 0.96%, CTB 0.065%, M1 0.62%, M2 0.0035%, M3 0.077%, and M4 0.015% for the therapeutic dose (1 mg/kg). These values were less than 10% of the MIST criteria.

  15. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-03-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  16. Economical Radioisotope Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power to...

  17. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  18. Elemental analysis of a concrete sample by capture gamma rays with a radioisotope neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collico Savio, D.L. [Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Fisica Nuclear; Mariscotti, M.A.J. [Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Fisica Nuclear; Ribeiro Guevara, S. [Laboratorio Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    1995-03-15

    Gamma radiation from capture of neutrons in concrete has been studied in the energy region from 0.3 to 10.5 MeV with a HPGe spectrometer and an AmBe neutron source. A careful analysis of the Fe, Si, Ca, and Cl peak intensities made it possible to determine their relative concentrations in the sample. A comparison has been made between this nuclear method and chemical techniques, resulting in good agreement. The employment of these nuclear reactions constitutes a promising technique for the bulk analysis of samples in the concrete industry, because of its nondestructive and in-situ nature. ((orig.)).

  19. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -Studies on application of neutron activation analysis-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Sam; Jung, Yung Joo; Jung, Eui Sik; Lee, Sang Mee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Bae [Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    To apply Neutron activation analysis to routine analysis of environmental samples utilizing the research reactor (TRIGA MK-III), improving effects of analytical sensitivity have been investigated using both of thermal and epithermal neutron irradiating technique. Identification and development of analytical procedure was carried out using three kinds of standard reference materials (urban particulate matter, coal fly ash, soil). In addition, the confidence of this method was established by participation in collaborative research for the training and apply of international credit of analytical procedure. Practical studies on air dust samples have also been carried out regionally and seasonally. For the investigation on emission source of special element, enrichment factor was calculated in urban and rural area. Besides, a suitable process of biological sample (pine needle) analyses has been established by carrying out identification of uncertainty using standard reference material. The concentration of elements in practical samples were also determined regionally and seasonally. 14 figs, 26 tabs, 67 refs. (Author).

  20. Lead shielded cells for the spectrographic analysis of radioisotope solutions; Descripcion de un equipo, con recintos blindados, para el analisis espectrografico de soluciones de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.; Cruz, F. de la

    1967-07-01

    Two lead shielded cells for the spectrochemical analysis of radioisotope samples are described. One of them is devoted to the evaporation of samples before excitation and the other one contains a suitable spectrographic excitation stand for the copper spark technique. A special device makes it possible the easy displacement of the excitation cell on wheels and rails for its accurate and reproducible position as well as its replacement by a glove box for plutonium analysis. In order to guarantee safety the room in which the spectrograph and the source are set up in separated from the active laboratory by a wall with a suitable window. (Author) 1 refs.

  1. Analysis of the inadvertent reentry of the Cassini Spacecraft{close_quote}s Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobery, E.W. [Lockheed Martin Astronautics, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406 (United States); Bhutta, B.A. [AeroTechnologies, Inc, Yorktown, Virginia 23692 (United States)] [Analysis of the inadvertent reentry of the Cassini Spacecrafts Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous multi-discipline approach has been developed to compute the aero/thermal/structural response of the Cassini Spacecraft{close_quote}s G{underscore}eneral P{underscore}urpose H{underscore}eat S{underscore}ource (GPHS) modules in the unlikely event of accidental reentry of the spacecraft during its Earth gravity-assist maneuver. A new r{underscore}eacting, a{underscore}blating, c{underscore}hemical e{underscore}quilibrium/nonequilibrium with r{underscore}adiation (RACER) full Navier-Stokes code is applied, along with an in-depth, transient-heating code, a nonlinear structural analysis code, and a six-degree-of-freedom flight-dynamics code. Attention is focused on the GPHS modules that would breakaway from the R{underscore}adioisotope T{underscore}hermoelectric G{underscore}enerators (RTGs) at high altitude. In addition, detailed analyses are performed to determine the survival/failure of the Graphite Impact Shells that would be released if the GPHS fails. The reentry velocity of the GPHS module (20 km/sec) is higher than any previously analyzed Earth reentry trajectory. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  3. ANALISIS DAN PENGUKURAN PARAMETER REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK PENERAPAN METODE K0-NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murniasih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metode k0-NAA merupakan metode analisis yang banyak digunakan dengan berbagai keunggulan. Dalam penerapan metode k0-NAA diperlukan nilai parameter reaktor (f dan α, maka tujuan penelitian ini adalah akan dilakukan pengukuran nilai parameter f dan α di fasilitas Lazy Susan reaktor Kartini. Metode yang digunakan meliputi metode Cd-ratio dan triple bare. Telah diukur nilai parameter tersebut pada tiga lubang iradiasi di fasilitas Lazy Susan. Diperoleh perbedaan hasil pengukuran nilai parameter yang signifikan pada setiap lubang iradiasi, nilai ƒ berkisar 13,713 - 22,128 dan α berkisar -0,060 – 0,068. Hasil pengukuran f dan α dengan metode Cd-ratio, memberikan nilai yang lebih stabil dibandingkan metode triple bare. Nilai f dan α yang diperoleh dapat dijadikan basis data pada penerapan metode k0-NAA untuk analisis sampel di laboratorium AAN – PSTA. Kata kunci: parameter reaktor, reaktor Kartini, k0-NAA, fluks neutron   The k0-NAA method is an analysis method that widely used by many of the advantages. In the application of k0-NAA method needed valuea of reactor parameters (f and α, then the purpose of the research would be conducted meaasurement parameter values f and α in the Lazy Susan Kartini reactor facilities. The methods used include Cd-ratio and triple bare methods. The parameter value has been measured in three channels in the irradiation facilities Lazy Susan. Differences of measurement results obtained parameter values are significant in each channel irradiation, the value of ƒ ranged from 13.713 to 22.128 and the value of α ranged from -0.060 – 0.068. The results of measurements for the f and α with the Cd-ratio method, providing more stable value than the triple bare method. The value of f and α obtained can be used a database for the application of k0-NAA method for sample analysis in the laboratory NAA – CAST. Keywords: reactor parameter, Kartini reactor, k0-NAA, neutron flux

  4. Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator, and its Applicability to an Illustrative Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.; Summers, G.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. To focus the design effort, it was decided to direct it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), envisages a direct eight to nine-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a six-week post-encounter cruise. Because of Pluto's long distance from the sun (30-50 A.U.) and the mission's large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. RTGs have been tentatively selected, because they have been successfully flown on many space missions, and have demonstrated exceptional reliability and durability. The only reason for exploring the applicability of the far less mature RTPV systems is their potential for much higher conversion efficiencies, which would greatly reduce the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which — like all NASA missions under current consideration — is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of an RTPV system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system; and depicts its integration with the PFF spacecraft. It then describes the optical, thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed performance of an RTPV system to that of an RTG designed for the same mission. Our analytical

  5. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. The study of in vivo quantification of aluminum (Al) in human bone with a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Mostafaei, Farshad; Liu, Yingzi; Blake, Scott P; Koltick, David; Nie, Linda H

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility and methodology of using a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis system to measure aluminum in hand bone has been investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate the moderator, reflector, and shielding assembly and to estimate the radiation dose. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to detect the Al gamma ray signals. The minimum detectable limit (MDL) was found to be 11.13 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm). An additional HPGe detector would improve the MDL by a factor of 1.4, to 7.9 ppm. The equivalent dose delivered to the irradiated hand was calculated by Monte Carlo to be 11.9 mSv. In vivo bone aluminum measurement with the DD generator was found to be feasible among general population with an acceptable dose to the subject.

  7. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-10-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the (19)F(n,γ)(20)F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10(8) n s(-1) and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure.

  8. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  9. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  10. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  11. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  12. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  13. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  14. An Organellar Nα-Acetyltransferase, Naa60, Acetylates Cytosolic N Termini of Transmembrane Proteins and Maintains Golgi Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Aksnes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available N-terminal acetylation is a major and vital protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs. NatF, or Nα-acetyltransferase 60 (Naa60, was recently identified as a NAT in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we find that Naa60 differs from all other known NATs by its Golgi localization. A new membrane topology assay named PROMPT and a selective membrane permeabilization assay established that Naa60 faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes. An Nt-acetylome analysis of NAA60-knockdown cells revealed that Naa60, as opposed to other NATs, specifically acetylates transmembrane proteins and has a preference for N termini facing the cytosol. Moreover, NAA60 knockdown causes Golgi fragmentation, indicating an important role in the maintenance of the Golgi’s structural integrity. This work identifies a NAT associated with membranous compartments and establishes N-terminal acetylation as a common modification among transmembrane proteins, a thus-far poorly characterized part of the N-terminal acetylome.

  15. An organellar nα-acetyltransferase, naa60, acetylates cytosolic N termini of transmembrane proteins and maintains Golgi integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Henriette; Van Damme, Petra; Goris, Marianne; Starheim, Kristian K; Marie, Michaël; Støve, Svein Isungset; Hoel, Camilla; Kalvik, Thomas Vikestad; Hole, Kristine; Glomnes, Nina; Furnes, Clemens; Ljostveit, Sonja; Ziegler, Mathias; Niere, Marc; Gevaert, Kris; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-03-03

    N-terminal acetylation is a major and vital protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). NatF, or Nα-acetyltransferase 60 (Naa60), was recently identified as a NAT in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we find that Naa60 differs from all other known NATs by its Golgi localization. A new membrane topology assay named PROMPT and a selective membrane permeabilization assay established that Naa60 faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes. An Nt-acetylome analysis of NAA60-knockdown cells revealed that Naa60, as opposed to other NATs, specifically acetylates transmembrane proteins and has a preference for N termini facing the cytosol. Moreover, NAA60 knockdown causes Golgi fragmentation, indicating an important role in the maintenance of the Golgi's structural integrity. This work identifies a NAT associated with membranous compartments and establishes N-terminal acetylation as a common modification among transmembrane proteins, a thus-far poorly characterized part of the N-terminal acetylome.

  16. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  17. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  18. Efficiency of Pm-147 direct charge radioisotope battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavetskiy, A.; Yakubova, G.; Yousaf, S.M. [TRACE Photonics Inc, 1680 West Polk Avenue, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Bower, K., E-mail: kbower@tracephotonics.co [TRACE Photonics Inc, 1680 West Polk Avenue, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Robertson, J.D.; Garnov, A. [Department of Chemistry and University of Missouri Research Reactor, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented here of the efficiency of direct charge radioisotope batteries based on the efficiency of the radioactive source, the system geometry, electrostatic repulsion of beta particles from the collector, the secondary electron emission, and backscattered beta particles from the collector. Efficiency of various design batteries using Pm-147 sources was experimentally measured and found to be in good agreement with calculations. The present approach can be used for predicting the efficiency for different designs of direct charge radioisotope batteries.

  19. Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studies of potential space missions have highlighted the need for very small electric power supplies for a variety of applications. The light weight radioisotope...

  20. Analysis of metal radioisotope impurities generated in [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O during the cyclotron production of fluorine-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, J.M. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jgillies@picr.man.ac.uk; Najim, N. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Zweit, J. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We show the separation of metal radioistope impurities using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The methodology used is an improvement of existent protocols for separation of stable metal ions. Production of fluorine-18 using [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O-enriched water encased in a titanium target body results in the production of several metal radioisotope impurities. Optimisation of the conditions for CE separation of the metal radioisotope impurities incorporated the use of 6 mM 18-Crown-6 in combination with 12 mM glycolic acid as complexing agents within the running buffer (10 mM pyridine, pH 4.0). Using this optimised procedure, we were able to separate and detect a number of metal radioisotopes, including chromium, cobalt, manganese, vanadium and berillium, within the fM concentration range.

  1. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TUNAS EKSPLAN TANAMAN PISANG CAVENDISH (Musa paradisiaca L. MELALUI KULTUR IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find the optimized combination micropropagation technique of Pisang “Cavendish” using Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Benzylaminopurin (BAP on culture in vitro. The research was conducted in Balai Benih Induk Hortikultura laboratorium (270 m upper sea level Salaman, Magelang, Central Java from November 2008 - Januari 2009. Design used was Complete Randomized Design. Experimental factor were concentration of NAA and BAP. NAA concentration comparised four levels (0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm. BAP concentration comparised four levels (0, 3, 6, and 9 ppm. Obtained data was analyzed by F test, when significantly different then followed by LSD test with 5% level. Observed variables is longest roots, total of buds, and total of roots. Statistic analysis result showed that concentration of BAP have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 0 ppm of BAP (B0 yielding optimalized on longest root ( 8,3 cm. Concentration of NAA have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 2 ppm of NAA (N2 yielding optimalized on longest root (6,0 cm. Concentration of BAP have significant effect on total buds. Concentration 9 ppm of BAP (B3 yielding optimalized on total of buds (2,5.

  2. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  3. NAA using the photoneutrons of a Linac as a neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera P, E.; De Leon M, H. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Soto B, T. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: rivera_yo@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal No. 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Linear accelerators working above 8 MV produce photoneutrons that represent a radiological risk in the patient and hospital staff. In this work a moderator has been designed in the aim to use the photoneutron field to perform neutron activation analysis (NAA) of small samples. The moderator has been designed using Monte Carlo methods, here the photoneutron spectrum is modified by the moderator having the maximum thermal neutron flux in the moderator cavity where the sample to be analyzed is located. (Author)

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bones in adult rats by repeated intraperitoneal administration of paclitaxel (taxol) using radioisotope EDXRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Y. E-mail: yozdemir25@yahoo.com; Iyiguen, Ibrahim; Durak, Ridvan

    2003-05-15

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of right back leg bone samples taken from adult female rats administered paclitaxel (taxol) was carried out using standard addition method. Because qualitative and quantitative data analysis of rat bone samples is not found in the literature, comparison was not made with other experimental results. Our experimental results are presented and discussed in this study.

  5. Evaluation of neutron sources for ISAGE-in-situ-NAA for a future lunar mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X., E-mail: xiaosong.li@frm2.tum.de [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Breitkreutz, H. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H.-G. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Trieloff, M.; Hopp, J. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, E.K. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Schwarz, W.H. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hofmann, P. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Hiesinger, H. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    For a future Moon landing, a concept for an in-situ NAA involving age determination using the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar method is developed. A neutron source {sup 252}Cf is chosen for sample irradiation on the Moon. A special sample-in-source irradiation geometry is designed to provide a homogeneous distribution of neutron flux at the irradiation position. Using reflector, the neutron flux is likely to increase by almost 200%. Sample age of 1 Ga could be determined. Elemental analysis using INAA is discussed. - Highlights: > We developed a concept for an in-situ age determination on the Moon. > {sup 252}Cf is chosen as the neutron source for the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar-method. > A sample-in-source geometry is designed to provide homogeneous neutron flux. > Determination of U, Th, K and Ir using NAA on the Moon is possible.

  6. A multi-matrix HILIC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of endogenous small molecule neurological biomarker N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin K; Burgess, Braydon L; Dean, Brian; Ding, Xiao

    2017-03-14

    A multi-matrix hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitation of N-Acetyl Aspartic acid (NAA) using stable isotope labeled internal standard, D3-NAA in various biological matrices such as human plasma, human CSF, mouse plasma, brain and spinal cord. A high throughput 96-well plate format supported liquid extraction (SLE) procedure was developed and used for sample preparation. Mass spectrometric analysis of NAA was performed using selected reaction monitoring transitions in positive electrospray ionization mode. As NAA is endogenously present, a surrogate matrix approach was used for quantitation of NAA and the method was qualified over linear calibration curve range of 0.01-10μg/mL. Intra and inter assay precision indicated by percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) was less than 7.1% for low, medium, medium high and high QCs. The accuracy of the method ranged from 92.6-107.0% of nominal concentration for within-run and between-run for the same QCs. Extraction recovery of NAA and D3-NAA was greater than 76%. Stability of NAA was established in the above biological matrices under bench top (RT, 5h), freeze thaw (-20±10°C, 3 cycles) and moues/human plasma sample collection (Wet ice, RT) conditions. HILIC-MS/MS method was then used to quantify and compare the NAA levels in human plasma and CSF of ALS patients versus control human subjects. NAA CSF levels in control human subjects (73.3±31.0ng/mL,N=10) were found to be slightly higher than ALS patients (46.1±22.6ng/mL, N=10) (P=0.04). No differences were observed in NAA plasma levels in human control subjects (49.7±13.8ng/mL,N=9) as compared to ALS patients (49.6±8.1ng/mL, N=10) (P=0.983). NAA endogenous concentrations in mouse plasma, brain and spinal cord were found to be 243.8±56.8ng/mL (N=6), 1029.8±115.2μg/g tissue weight (N=5) and 487.6±178.4μg/g tissue weight (N=5) respectively.

  7. Computer-assisted uncertainty assessment of k0-NAA measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučar, T.; Smodiš, B.

    2008-10-01

    In quantifying measurement uncertainty of measurement results obtained by the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA), a number of parameters should be considered and appropriately combined in deriving the final budget. To facilitate this process, a program ERON (ERror propagatiON) was developed, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the combined uncertainty. The program calculates uncertainty of the final result—mass fraction of an element in the measured sample—taking into account the relevant neutron flux parameters such as α and f, including their uncertainties. Nuclear parameters and their uncertainties are taken from the IUPAC database (V.P. Kolotov and F. De Corte, Compilation of k0 and related data for NAA). Furthermore, the program allows for uncertainty calculations of the measured parameters needed in k0-NAA: α (determined with either the Cd-ratio or the Cd-covered multi-monitor method), f (using the Cd-ratio or the bare method), Q0 (using the Cd-ratio or internal comparator method) and k0 (using the Cd-ratio, internal comparator or the Cd subtraction method). The results of calculations can be printed or exported to text or MS Excel format for further analysis. Special care was taken to make the calculation engine portable by having possibility of its incorporation into other applications (e.g., DLL and WWW server). Theoretical basis and the program are described in detail, and typical results obtained under real measurement conditions are presented.

  8. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  9. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.; Yoon, B. M.; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Park, C. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Suh, C. H.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Hong, S. B.; Jun, S. S.; Min, E. S.; Jang, K. D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Suh, K. S.; Goo, J. H.; Chung, S. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, J. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Bang, K. S.

    1997-09-01

    To produce radioisotopes utilizing the research reactor `HANARO`, development of RI production process, target fabrication, preparation of devices and tools for RI process, preparation of production facility for radiopharmaceuticals, test production for the established process, etc. have been carried out, respectively. Production processes for various kinds of radionuclides were developed and the settled methods were applied to test production using `HANARO`. The results of developed process are as follows: (1) I-131 dry distillation method. (2) Large scale production of Ir-192 sources (3) P-32 production process by distillation under reduced pressure (4) Cr-51 production process using enriched target. To irradiate the target for RI production in `HANARO`, target for neutron irradiation, loading/unloading devices, working table in service pool, remote handling tools, shield cask for irradiated target transfer, etc. were designed and fabricated. The function test of prepared targets and the safety analysis of shielding casks were carried out. License for practical use of the prepared casks were obtained from Ministry of Science and Technology. For production of medical radioisotopes, their production facilities were designed in detail and were installed in RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility), with full reflection of the basic concept of the good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The constructed GMP facilities have started to be operated after authorization since Jun., 1997. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes in `HANARO` and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Study on Microelements of Ten Consumed Fish Species by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; JIN; Xiang-chun; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>As the improvement of the living standard, people are more and more concerned about the safety of food currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the microelement of them by NAA.

  11. Combined expression of metastasis related markers Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 and its prognostic value in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Ma, Ruo-Lan; Yuan, Hua; Liu, Cai-Yun; Dong, Bing; Zhang, Cheng; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Li; Guo, Jian-Ping; Qu, Li-Ke; Shou, Cheng-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of multiple biomarkers representing distinct aspects of metastasis may have better prognostic value for breast cancer patients, especially those in late stages. In this study, we evaluated the protein levels of N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p), synuclein-γ (SNCG), and phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) in 365 patients with breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Distinct prognostic subgroups of breast cancer were identified by combination of the three biomarkers. The Naa10p+SNCG-PRL-3- subgroup showed best prognosis with a median distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of 140 months, while the Naa10p-SNCG+PRL-3+ subgroup had the worst prognosis with a median DMFS of 60.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated Naa10p, SNCG, PRL-3, and the TNM classification were all independent prognostic factors for both DMFS and overall survival (OS). The three biomarker combination of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 performed better in patients with lymph node metastasis, especially those with more advanced tumors than other subgroups. In conclusion, the combined expression profile of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3, alone or in combination with the TNM classification system, may provide a precise estimate of prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  12. KAERI charged particle cross section library for radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y O; Zhuang, Y X

    2001-01-01

    This report summarized information and figures describing the 'KAERI Charged Particle Cross Section Library for Radioisotope production' The library contains proton-, deutron-, He-3-, and alpha-induced monitor cross sections, and gamma- and positron-emitter production cross sections. Experimental data and evaluation methods are described, and the evaluated cross sections are compared with those of the IAEA, MENDL, and LA150. The library has cross sections and emission spectra suitable for the transport analysis in the design of radioisotope production system, and are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ in ENDF-6 format.

  13. Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Designing of PFRP experiments for controlled ionic species, analyzing results of recent neutron source development experiments, calculating expected...controllable and varied to access reactions of interest (primarily (n,n’) inelastic scattering). Theory and analysis using Monte Carlo codes ( MCNPX ) is still...MlTL flow theory, circuit calculation to determine the Mercury load line, neutron yield calculations , and LSP simulations. Experimentally, the total

  14. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN / CNEN - SP) - Centro do Reator de Pesquisas Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242 - 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenco, T. F.; Macedo, D. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP - Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970 - Campinas, SP Brazil - Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  15. Ultrasonic and conventional synthesis of NaA zeolite from rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, T.; de Ménorval, LC; Picazo, O.; Jordán, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, a simple synthetic route for the production of single phase NaA zeolite is demonstrated. Rice husk ash (RHA) as alternative silica source was employed for the synthesis by conventional hydrothermal and non-conventional ultrasound methods. The zeolite was also synthesized using commercially available silicate for comparison. The effect of the reaction time (2, 4 and 6 h) at a fixed temperature of 70 °C was investigated. The elemental, structural and morphological characterization of the ashes and the synthesized zeolites was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DSC).

  16. AQP4 expression and its correlation with the Lac and NAA using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy after rat cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ren-lan; XIE Peng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether AQP4 expression is associated with lactate (Lac) and Nacetyl aspartate (NAA) and with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) abnormality after rat cerebral ischemia. Methods: The time courses of ADC and lactate and NAA assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) were investigated at the time point of 6 h, and 1, 3, 7 d after rat cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Expression of AQP4 mRNA and protein were measured using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. Results: Significant reductions of NAA concentration and increases of lactate concentration were found after rat cerebral ischemia. The expressions of AQP4 mRNA and protein were increased at 6 h, and reached the peak at 1-3 d, then began to decrease at 7 d after rat cerebral ischemia. The expression of AQP4 was significantly correlated with NAA (rRT =-0.856, rw =-0. 927, P<0. 01), and with lactate (rW=0. 473, rRT=0. 413, P<0. 05), and with ADC values during the period of 1-7 d after rat cerebral ischemia (rW=0. 984, rRT= -0. 925, P<0.05). In addition, correlations between Lac and the ADC values(r=-0. 677, P<0. 05)and between NAA and ADC values during the period of 1-7 d after rat cerebral ischemia (r= 0. 909, P<0.05) were also observed. Conclusion: The data suggest that AQP4 is involved in the transport of water when brain edema is formed and cell membrane integrity is lost.

  17. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Du; Li-ying Liu; Penny Xiao; Shuai Che; He-ming Wang

    2014-01-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  18. Emulsion-based synthesis of NaA zeolite nanocrystals and its integration towards NaA membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Naskar; A Das; D Kundu; M Chatterjee

    2011-07-01

    NaA zeolite nanoparticles (seed crystals) of size 50–65 nm were synthesized using water-in-oil (w/o) type emulsions at a considerably low temperature of 65 ± 1°C in a short duration of 2 h. The emulsions were stabilized using non-ionic surfactants e.g. sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), polyoxyethylene(5)nonylphenylether with ethoxy numbers of 5 (Igepal CO-520) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of 4.3, 8.6, 10 and 15 respectively. Among the surfactants, the intermediate HLB values of 8.6 (Span 20) and 10 (Igepal CO-520) were effective in synthesizing highly dispersible NaA nanoparticles of size 50–65 nm. The membrane prepared hydrothermally in multi-steps at 65 ± 1°C, using the Span 20-derived seed crystals deposited on porous support, showed the formation of high quality interlocked NaA coating. Single gas nitrogen (N2) permeation of the membrane exhibited a permeance value of 1.01 × 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1 at ambient temperature (30°C).

  19. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  1. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. THINNING OF ‘GALA’ AND 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES WITH BA, NAA AND THEIR COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M STOPAR

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees, eight-year-old ‘Gala’/M.9 and four-year-old ‘Golden Delicious’/M.9 have been thinned with 6- benzyladenine (BA 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm, with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 5 ppm, 10 ppm and 20 ppm, and with the tank mix combinations of BA 50 ppm + NAA 5 ppm or BA 20 ppm + NAA 5 ppm, all at 9-10 mm fruitlet diameter. All applied concentrations of BA and NAA thinned both cultivars significantly and no significant difference was found between BA or NAA thinning action. No concentration response on thinning was observed with neither BA nor NAA application. All BA or NAA separate treatments caused yield of fruit to shift to bigger size class. The only concentration response effect was found on evaluation of mean fruit weight data on ‘Golden Delicious’. The higher concentration of BA was used, the higher was the weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit. On the opposite, the higher concentration of NAA was used, the lower was the weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit (not significantly. When BA and NAA were sprayed on ‘Gala’ or ‘Golden Delicious’ as a tank mix combination, similar effect on thinning or fruit growth occurred comparing to BA or NAA when sprayed alone. Return bloom was enhanced on all thinned ‘Gala’ trees while flower formation of ‘Golden Delicious’ was better in the case of BA 200 ppm, NAA 5 ppm, NAA 20 ppm or tank mix spraying of BA 20 ppm + NAA 5 ppm.

  3. Thirty years of naa developments and applications at the THETIS reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Corte, F.

    1999-01-01

    A survey is given of the past and present fundamental developments and practical applications of neutron activation analysis performed at the reactor THETIS of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent, which has already now for more than 30 years played an internationally appreciated pioneering role in this domain. Whereas the applications were mainly dealing with the analysis of semiconductor and high-purity materials, biomedical matrices, geological materials, environmental samples and artefacts, the developments were directed towards the elaboration of irradiation, separation and counting schemes, the determination of nuclear activation and decay constants, and especially towards the introduction of a modern (so-called k0-) standardization method which—especially combined with a dedicated software package such as KAYZERO/SOLCOI© issued by DSM Research—proved to make NAA to a manageable and competitive analytical tool, nowadays applied in more than 50 NAA-labs worldwide.

  4. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  5. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems - Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Mccallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan and implement content to enable planetary exploration where such systems could be needed, and to prepare more advanced RPS technology for possible infusion into future power systems. The 2014-2015 period saw significant changes, and strong progress. Achievements of near-term objectives have enabled definition of a clear path forward in which payoffs from research investments and other sustaining efforts can be applied. The future implementation path is expected to yield a higher-performing thermoelectric generator design, a more isotope-fuel efficient system concept design, and a robust RPS infrastructure maintained effectively within both NASA and the Department of Energy. This paper describes recent work with an eye towards the future plans that result from these achievements.

  6. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  7. Fast formation of NaA zeolite membrane in the microwave field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    NaA zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on the porous α-Al2O3 support by microwave heating. The synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane in the microwave field only needs 15 min and the synthesis time is 10 times shorter than that by conventional heating. SEM characterization indicates that the zeolite crystals in the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by microwave heating are uniform in size; the membrane thickness is about 4 μm and is thinner than that of the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by conventional heating. Gas permeation studies indicate that the permeances of the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by microwave heating are 3-4 times higher than those of the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by conventional heating, while their permselectivities are comparable.

  8. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  9. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  10. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) is a multicenter, multiagency (with the Department of Energy (DOE)) program whose purpose is to manage the Science Mission...

  11. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  12. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  13. Spectrochemical studies with {beta}-emitting radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesta, Miguel A.; Plivelic, Tomas S.; Mainardi, Raul T. [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Atronomia y Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Electrons emitted by {sup 90} Sr radioactive source and positrons from a {sup 22} Na source were used to produce ionizations in the constituents of a sample. The sources have similar energy spectra and this allowed us to compare the characteristic radiation emission efficiencies. The new proposed experimental set up for radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is of a transparent source type and provides at least a ten times increase in the intensity of characteristic x-rays emitted by the sample as compared with a standard set up in XRFA. It is shown that this fact, together with the relatively high energy of the beta particles, make it possible to carry out a mirror elemental analysis in a few minutes using low intensity radioactive sources (no special handling license). Preliminary experimental results are shown using both electrons and positrons impinging on pure and composed samples and simple analytical expressions are provided for the characteristic radiation intensity as detected by an HPGe detector. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA); Identificacion de procedencia para obsidianas de Cantona, Puebla, por el metodo de analisis por activacion neutronica (AAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-07-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  15. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  16. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program began formal implementation in December 2010. The RPS Program's goal is to make available RPS for the exploration of the solar system in environments where conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS system development and RPS technologies. The current keystone of the RPS Program is the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This generator will be about four times more efficient than the more traditional thermoelectric generators, while providing a similar amount of power. This paper provides the status of the RPS Program and its related projects. Opportunities for RPS generator development and targeted research into RPS component performance enhancements, as well as constraints dealing with the supply of radioisotope fuel, are also discussed in the context of the next ten years of planetary science mission plans.

  17. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  18. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Terry Lee [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Boulware, Charles H. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Hollister, Jerry L. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Jecks, Randall W. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Mamtimin, Mayir [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  19. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  20. Investigation of the excitation functions for some medical radioisotopes production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Fatma; Karpuz, Nurdan; Çetin, Betül

    2016-11-01

    One of the main application fields of nuclear technology is medicine and radioisotopes are used in medicine. Production of those radioisotopes is important and in the production processes the cross section must be known. All the production of radioisotope used in medicine is based on the nuclear reactions means they are not natural. The decay time of produced radioisotopes is important as from production to hospital can take time and thus generally generator is used to produce some radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are widely produced in reactors or cyclotron type accelerator. Type of radioisotopes direct way to be used in production processes. Thus obtaining of cross section becomes crucial. For this purposes the theoretical calculation cross section of some radioisotopes used in medicine will be calculated in this study. The calculations will be done using Monte Carlo code of TALYS 1.6

  1. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated {sup 42}K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  2. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  3. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E.G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  4. ILLUSTRATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES--DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS COMPOSED OF OVER 150 PAGES OF BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS DEALING WITH RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR USES. THESE ILLUSTRATIONS CONSIST OF CHARTS, GRAPHS, AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS WHICH COULD BE PREPARED AS HANDOUTS, TRANSPARENCIES FOR OVERHEAD PROJECTION, OR WHICH COULD BE USED IN A NUMBER OF OTHER WAYS FOR PRESENTING SUCH…

  5. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  6. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. (TFD)

  7. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Sedaghathoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1. Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55% was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA. Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively. Keywords: auxin; rooting; Pinus mugo; vegetative propagation.

  8. Protection by clinoptilolite or zeolite NaA against cadmium-induced anemia in growing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, W G; Yen, J T

    1983-07-01

    Weanling Landrace X Yorkshire swine were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 3% clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) with or without 150 ppm CdCl2 or 3% zeolite NaA (a synthetic zeolite) with or without 150 ppm CdCl2 for 31 days. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were depressed significantly in animals fed Cd in the absence of zeolites, but not in their presence. Liver Cd concentration was increased dramatically by added dietary Cd but was significantly lower in animals fed clinoptilolite with Cd than in those fed Cd alone (11.4 vs 16.5 ppm). Liver Fe and Zn were decreased by dietary Cd; liver Fe was not affected significantly by clinoptilolite or zeolite NaA, but liver Zn was increased by zeolite NaA. Kidney dry matter, Zn, and Cd concentrations were increased by dietary Cd; neither clinoptilolite nor zeolite NaA affected kidney Cd concentration. Zeolite NaA increased kidney dry matter both in the presence and in the absence of dietary Cd. Plasma urea-N, K, Na, and Mg were unaffected by Cd or by either zeolite. The data illustrate the different effects of dietary clinoptilolite compared with zeolite NaA on blood plasma, liver, and kidney concentrations of minerals and provide evidence that both zeolites offer some protection against Cd-induced Fe-deficiency anemia; the magnitude of this protection and the effects of each zeolite on tissue concentrations of Cd and other materials need further quantification.

  9. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (ELAI/CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). UNIFIEO - Centro Universitario FIEO; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica (LAN/CRPq)

    2011-07-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  10. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron; Blancos solidos para produccion de radioisotopos con ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Direccion de Investigacion Tecnologica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  11. Wolf-Rayet stars and radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Meynet, G

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes are natural clocks which can be used to estimate the age of the solar system. They also influence the shape of supernova light curves. In addition, the diffuse emission at 1.8 MeV from the decay of 26Al may provide a measure of the present day nucleosynthetic activity in the Galaxy. Therefore, even if radionuclides represent only a tiny fraction of the cosmic matter, they carry a unique piece of information. A large number of radioisotopes are produced by massive stars at the time of their supernova explosion. A more or less substantial fraction of them are also synthesized during the previous hydrostatic burning phases. These nuclides are then ejected either at the time of the supernova event, or through stellar winds during their hydrostatic burning phases. This paper focusses of the non explosive ejection of radionuclides by non-rotating or rotating Wolf-Rayet stars.

  12. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  13. Towards an international authoritative system for coordination and management of a unique recommended k0-NAA database

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, F.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the database in k0-standardized neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA), ranging from its full supervision by the founders of the k0-method at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences (INW)/Gent and the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI)/Budapest (from about the mid 1970s up to the early 1990s), to the present situation (roughly speaking starting with the first k0 Users Workshop in 1992) where an increasing number of researchers from institutes allover the world are reporting on their experimental work aiming at the improvement and extension of the existing database. Although these individual contributions are undoubtedly commendable, the resulting fragmentary data sets leave behind important questions with respect to interpretation, evaluation, integration and recommendation, as illustrated with the (extreme) example of 131Ba. This situation urgently calls for establishing and managing an international authoritative system for the coordination and quality control of a unique database with recommended data for k0-NAA, considering such parameters as accuracy, traceability and consistency. In the present paper, it is proposed to entrust this task to a standing "Reference k0-Data Subcommittee" of the k0-ISC ( k0 International Scientific Committee).

  14. [Radioisotope thermoelectric generators and ancillary activities]. Monthly technical progress report, 1 April--28 April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Tehnical progress achieved during this period on radioisotope thermoelectric generators is described under the following tasks: engineering support, safety analysis, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication/assembly/test, RTG shipping/launch support, design/review/mission applications, and project management/quality assurance/reliability.

  15. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  16. Opposing Functions of the N-terminal Acetyltransferases Naa50 and NatA in Sister-chromatid Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Ziye; Ouyang, Zhuqing; Magin, Robert S; Marmorstein, Ronen; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-09-02

    During the cell cycle, sister-chromatid cohesion tethers sister chromatids together from S phase to the metaphase-anaphase transition and ensures accurate segregation of chromatids into daughter cells. N-terminal acetylation is one of the most prevalent protein covalent modifications in eukaryotes and is mediated by a family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NAT). Naa50 (also called San) has previously been shown to play a role in sister-chromatid cohesion in metazoans. The mechanism by which Naa50 contributes to cohesion is not understood however. Here, we show that depletion of Naa50 in HeLa cells weakens the interaction between cohesin and its positive regulator sororin and causes cohesion defects in S phase, consistent with a role of Naa50 in cohesion establishment. Strikingly, co-depletion of NatA, a heterodimeric NAT complex that physically interacts with Naa50, rescues the sister-chromatid cohesion defects and the resulting mitotic arrest caused by Naa50 depletion, indicating that NatA and Naa50 play antagonistic roles in cohesion. Purified recombinant NatA and Naa50 do not affect each other's NAT activity in vitro Because NatA and Naa50 exhibit distinct substrate specificity, we propose that they modify different effectors and regulate sister-chromatid cohesion in opposing ways.

  17. NaA Zeolite Membrane with High Performance Synthesized by Vapor Phase Transformation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志林; 晁自胜; 林海强; 万惠霖

    2003-01-01

    NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized with high permeance on porous alumina substrate by the vapor phase transformation method. The membranes were characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. The XRD results showed that the membranes after the synthesis time of 24 h consisted of the pure NaA zeolite crystals. The SEM results showed that the membranes after the synthesis time of 48 h consisted of intergrown zeolite crystals.The H2 permeance of the NaA zeolite membranes was higher than 2.0 × 10-6 mol/(Pa·m2·s), and the maximum of the gas H2/C3H8 permselectivity was 7.15, which is higher than the corresponding Knudsen diffusion selectivity of which is 4.69.

  18. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo) cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghathoor, S.; Kayghobadi, S.; Tajva, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (Ia) and naphthaleneacetic acid (Naca) hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA) were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1). Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55%) was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA). Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively). (Author)

  19. First principles study on the structural, electronic, and elastic properties of Na-As systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozisik, H. B.; Colakoglu, K.; Deligoz, E.; Ozisik, H.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed the first principles calculation by using the plane-wave pseudopotential approach with the generalized gradient approximation for investigating the structural, electronic, and elastic properties Na-As systems (NaAs in NaP, LiAs and AuCu-type structures, NaAs 2 in MgCu 2-type structure, Na 3As in Na 3As, Cu 3P and Li 3Bi-type structures, and Na 5As 4 in A 5B 4-type structure). The lattice parameters, cohesive energy, formation energy, bulk modulus, and the first derivative of bulk modulus (to fit to Murnaghan's equation of state) of the related structures are calculated. The second-order elastic constants and the other related quantities such as Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, sound velocities, and Debye temperature are also estimated.

  20. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  1. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  2. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included.

  3. Synthesis of zeolite NaA membrane from fused fly ash extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Alechine E; Musyoka, Nicholas M; Fatoba, Ojo O; Syrtsova, Daria A; Teplyakov, Vladimir V; Petrik, Leslie F

    2016-01-01

    Zeolite-NaA membranes were synthesized from an extract of fused South African fly ash on a porous titanium support by a secondary growth method. The influence of the synthesis molar regime on the formation of zeolite NaA membrane layer was investigated. Two synthesis mixtures were generated by adding either aluminium hydroxide or sodium aluminate to the fused fly ash extract. The feedstock material and the synthesized membranes were characterized by X-diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). It was found by XRD and SEM that the cubic crystals of a typical zeolite NaA with a dense intergrown layer was formed on the porous Ti support. The study shows that the source of Al used had an effect on the membrane integrity as sodium aluminate provided the appropriate amount of Na(+) to form a coherent membrane of zeolite NaA, whereas aluminium hydroxide did not. Morphological, the single hydrothermal stage seeded support formed an interlocked array of zeolite NaA particles with neighbouring crystals. Also, a robust, continuous and well-intergrown zeolite NaA membrane was formed with neighbouring crystals of zeolite fused to each other after the multiple stage synthesis. The synthesized membrane was permeable to He (6.0 × 10(6) L m(-2)h(-1) atm(-1)) and CO2 (5.6 × 10(6) L m(-2)h(-1) atm(-1)), which indicate that the layer of the membrane was firmly attached to the porous Ti support. Membrane selectivity was maintained showing membrane integrity with permselectivity of 1.1, showing that a waste feedstock, fly ash, could be utilized for preparing robust zeolite NaA membranes on Ti support.

  4. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  5. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  6. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  7. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  8. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  9. Performance tuned radioisotope thermophotovoltaic space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Saban, S. B.

    1998-01-01

    The trend in space exploration is to use many small, low-cost, special-purpose satellites instead of the large, high-cost, multipurpose satellites used in the past. As a result of this new trend, there is a need for lightweight, efficient, and compact radioisotope fueled electrical power generators. This paper presents an improved design for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) space power system in the 10 W to 20 W class which promises up to 37.6 watts at 30.1% efficiency and 25 W/kg specific power. The RTPV power system concept has been studied and compared to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) radioisotope, Stirling generators and alkali metal thermal electric conversion (AMTEC) generators (Schock, 1995). The studies indicate that RTPV has the potential to be the lightest weight, most efficient and most reliable of the three concepts. However, in spite of the efficiency and light weight, the size of the thermal radiator required to eliminate excess heat from the PV cells and the lack of actual system operational performance data are perceived as obstacles to RTPV acceptance for space applications. Between 1994 and 1997 EDTEK optimized the key converter components for an RTPV generator under Department of Energy (DOE) funding administered via subcontracts to Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies Laboratory (Horne, 1995). The optimized components included a resonant micromesh infrared bandpass filter, low-bandgap GaSb PV cells and cell arrays. Parametric data from these components were supplied to OSC who developed and analyzed the performance of 100 W, 20 W, and 10 W RTPV generators. These designs are described in references (Schock 1994, 1995 and 1996). Since the performance of each class of supply was roughly equivalent and simply scaled with size, this paper will consider the OSC 20 W design as a baseline. The baseline 20-W RTPV design was developed by Schock, et al of OSC and has been presented elsewhere. The

  10. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  11. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  12. Development of stable isotope separation technology for radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Park, Kyung Bae [and others

    2003-05-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to construct the domestic production system of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 used as target materials in accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes F-18 and Tl-201, respectively. In order to achieve this goal, diode laser spectroscopic analytical system was constructed and automatic measurement computer software for the direct analysis of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O/H{sub 2}{sup 18}O ratio were developed. Distillation process, laser process, and membrane diffusion process were analyzed for the evaluation of O-18 production. And electromagnetic process, plasma process, and laser process were analyzed for the evaluation of Tl-203 production. UV laser system, IR laser system, and detailed system Tl-203 production were designed. Finally, current and future worldwide demand/supply of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 were estimated.

  13. Use of radioisotope scan in evaluation of intrascrotal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, T.W.; Mosbaugh, P.G.; Coles, J.L.; Newman, D.M.; Van Hove, E.D.; Heck, L.L.

    1976-10-01

    There were 98 patients with a variety of intrascrotal lesions studied with a radioisotope 99mtechnetium-pertechnetate scanning technique. Retrospective analysis in 50 patients subjected to an operation revealed a 94 percent accuracy of the scan in the differential diagnosis of testicular torsion and epididymitis as compared to a clinical accuracy of 48 percent. In 7 patients with a scan diagnosis of epididymo-orchitis with abscess the diagnosis was confirmed during the operation or by followup examination. While the scan has been a simple, safe, rapid and reliable technique to differentiate acute and subacute lesions, it has proved to be of limited diagnostic significance in cases of chronic intrascrotal lesions and carcinoma.

  14. Influence of GA3 and NAA on certain carbohydrate fractions in corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil K. Chrungoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 and napthaleneacetic acid (NAA to corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. markedly influenced degradation of reserve carbohydrates in the corm tissues. GA3 stimulated the breakdown of starch and promoted the accumulation of soluble sugars, especially sucrose. Although NAA treatment stimulated starch breakdown for the first 14 days after the treatment, the effect was less pronounced as compared to that of GA3. NAA treatment promoted the accumulation of reducing sugars but suppressed accumulation of non reducing sugars in the corm tissues. Corms treated with GA3 showed an increased accumulation of total pentoses and total ketoses. In NAA treated corms, accumulation of total pentoses was stimulated but that of total ketoses was suppressed. The effects of GA3 and NAA on carbohydrate changes in the corm tissues are discussed in the light of their effects on bud development.

  15. Pretreatment of Isopropanol Solution from Pharmaceutical Industry and Pervaporation Dehydration by NaA Zeolite Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余从立; 刘艳梅; 陈纲领; 顾学红; 邢卫红

    2011-01-01

    NaA zeolite membranes with 80 cm in length and 12.8 mm in outer diameter were prepared by our research group cooperating with Nanjing Jiusi Hi-Tech Co., China. The influence of dissolved inorganic salts and pH value in the feed of isopropanol (IPA) solution on NaA zeolite membranes was investigated. It was found that both factors exhibited strong influence on the stability of NaA zeolite membranes. A set of pretreatment steps such as pH adjustment and distillation of the IPA solution were proposed to improve stability for pervaporation dehydration. An industrial-scale pervaporation facility with 52 m2 membrane area was built to dehydrate IPA solution from industrial cephalosporin production. The facility was continuously operated at 368-378 K to dehydrate IPA solution from water mass content of 15%-20% to less than 2% with a feed flow rate of 400-500 L·h^-1 and an average water flux of 1-1.5 kg·m^-2·h-1. The successful application of this facility suggested a promising application of NaA zeolite mem-brane for IPA recovery from pharmaceutical production.

  16. Fluoxetine increases cerebral white matter NAA/Cr ratio in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, JP; Sijens, PE; Oudkerk, M; De Keyser, J

    2006-01-01

    Axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction and is associated with decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as measured with H-1-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Fluoxetine stimulates astrocytic glycogenolysis, which serves as an energy source f

  17. PENGARUH NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP EKSPLAN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L. Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. representing one of theplant which good of as drug. Plantof pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. good of  to launch the urine, degrading blood pressure and quicken to heal the hurt. Ready of the seed for the crop of drug which require to be paid attention by quality from itself seed. One of the alternative to get the uniform seed and a flash in the pan is with the technique of tissue culture. Tissue culturelaboratory research was conducted Researchand Development Center for Medicinal Plantsand Traditional MedicineTawangmangu. Research Method use the Random Device of Complete Group at MS (Murashige Skoog media with the treatment ofplant growth regulator the NAA concentration 0, 1, 3 and 5 mg / l and BAP concentration 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg / l. Result of research show the combination of  giving of NAA 1 until 3 mg / l and BAP 1 until 5 mg / l of is condition of explan experience of the change become the callus. Treatment of combination NAA 3 mg / l and BAP 4 mg / l give the best result to callus forming with the quicker callus forming time that is 25 day. Keywords : Pegagan, Centella asiática (L. Urb., tissue culture, NAA, BAP

  18. INTRACORPOREAL HEAT DISSIPATION FROM A RADIOISOTOPE-POWERED ARTIFICIAL HEART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Fred N.; Hagen, Kenneth G.; Whalen, Robert L.; Fuqua, John M.; Norman, John C.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of radioisotope-fueled circulatory support systems depends on the ability of the body to dissipate the reject heat from the power source driving the blood pump as well as to tolerate chronic intracorporeal radiation. Our studies have focused on the use of the circulating blood as a heat sink. Initial in vivo heat transfer studies utilized straight tube heat exchangers (electrically and radioisotope energized) to replace a segment of the descending aorta. More recent studies have used a left ventricular assist pump as a blood-cooled heat exchanger. This approach minimizes trauma, does not increase the area of prosthetic interface with the blood, and minimizes system volume. Heat rejected from the thermal engine (vapor or gas cycle) is transported from the nuclear power source in the abdomen to the pump in the thoracic cavity via hydraulic lines. Adjacent tissue is protected from the fuel capsule temperature (900 to 1200 degrees F) by vacuum foil insulation and polyurethane foam. The in vivo thermal management problems have been studied using a simulated thermal system (STS) which approximates the heat rejection and thermal transport mechanisms of the nuclear circulatory support systems under development by NHLI. Electric heaters simulate the reject heat from the thermal engines. These studies have been essential in establishing the location, suspension, surgical procedures, and postoperative care for implanting prototype nuclear heart assist systems in calves. The pump has a thermal impedance of 0.12 degrees C/watt. Analysis of the STS data in terms of an electrical analog model implies a heat transfer coefficient of 4.7 x 10(-3) watt/cm(2) degrees C in the abdomen compared to a value of 14.9 x 10(-3) watt/cm(2) degrees C from the heat exchanger plenum into the diaphragm.

  19. M073: Monte Carlo generated spectra for QA/QC of automated NAA routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, K. R. (Kevin R.); Biegalski, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    A quality check for an automated system of analyzing large sets of neutron activated samples has been developed. Activated samples are counted with an HPGe detector, in conjunction with an automated sample changer and spectral analysis tools, controlled by the Canberra GENIE 2K and REXX software. After each sample is acquired and analyzed, a Microsoft Visual Basic program imports the results into a template Microsoft Excel file where the final concentrations, uncertainties, and detection limits are determined. Standard reference materials are included in each set of 40 samples as a standard quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) test. A select group of sample spectra are also visually reviewed to check the peak fitting routines. A reference spectrum was generated in MCNP 4c2 using an F8, pulse height, tally with a detector model of the actual detector used in counting. The detector model matches the detector resolution, energy calibration, and counting geometry. The generated spectrum also contained a radioisotope matrix that was similar to what was expected in the samples. This spectrum can then be put through the automated system and analyzed along with the other samples. The automated results are then compared to expected results for QA/QC assurance.

  20. Development of leakage monitoring system using radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Lee, D. S. [Seoil College, Seoul (Korea); Cho, Y. S. [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea); Shin, S. K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This study is to development the potable neutron back-scattering gauge for leakage and detecting liquid interface of an oil and liquid tank, using a radioisotopes. For this purpose, small sized, light weight potable gauge is to be designed as to develope neutron shielding mechanism, low power supply circuit, high voltage circuit, measurement circuit, and operating handle etc. The user will be able to set the duration of the time interval, the scale, the high voltage, the threshold, the channel window, the selection whether the data storage or not, the selection whether the scale, high voltage, threshold and window fix or not at any time. The counted pulse will be displayed with the numerical value and the line bar. The gauge will be able to connect to an IBM compatible PC via a serial port, power will be supplied by internal battery. 9 refs., 28 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  1. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  2. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  3. Radioisotope scanning in inflammatory muscle disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.B.; Swift, T.R.; Spies, S.M.

    1976-06-01

    Fourteen whole-body rectilinear bone scans using technetium 99m-polyphosphate were done in nine patients with well-documented inflammatory myopathy (either polymyositis or dermatomyositis). In all nine patients the scans showed evidence of increased muscle labeling. Muscle uptake was markedly increased in one patient, moderately increased in two patients, and minimally increased in six patients. The degree of muscle labeling correlated with the severity of the muscle weakness at the time the scan was done. In four patients, who received high-dose corticosteroid treatment, muscle uptake was decreased following therapy. These findings suggest that radioisotope scanning may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with inflammatory muscle diseases.

  4. Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sychov, Maxim [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)], E-mail: msychov@yahoo.com; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: I{sub sc}=14 {mu}A; U{sub oc}=2.3 V; power output -21 {mu}W. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch.

  5. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Ricardo C G; Edden, Richard A E; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J M; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). These results may relate to: 1) the only known NAAG synthesis pathway is from NAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response.

  6. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jillian P.; Støve, Svein I.; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D.; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-01-01

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family’s disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT. PMID:26522270

  7. Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Kalinowski, Martin; Saey, Paul; Tuma, Matthias; Zähringer, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution of these isotopes based on emissions and transport patterns needs to be understood. A significant xenon background exists in the reactor regions of North America, Europe and Asia. An emission inventory of the four relevant xenon isotopes has recently been created, which specifies source terms for each power plant. As the major emitters of xenon isotopes worldwide, a few medical radioisotope production facilities have been recently identified, in particular the facilities in Chalk River (Canada), Fleurus (Belgium), Pelindaba (South Africa) and Petten (Netherlands). Emissions from these sites are expected to exceed those of the other sources by orders of magnitude. In this study, emphasis is put on 133Xe, which is the most prevalent xenon isotope. First, based on the emissions known, the resulting 133Xe concentration levels at all noble gas stations of the final CTBT verification network were calculated and found to be consistent with observations. Second, it turned out that emissions from the radioisotope facilities can explain a number of observed peaks, meaning that atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool for the categorization of measurements. Third, it became evident that Nuclear Power Plant emissions are more difficult to treat in the models, since their temporal variation is high and not generally reported. Fourth, there are indications that the assumed annual emissions may be underestimated by factors of two to ten, while the general emission patterns seem to be well understood. Finally, it became evident that 133Xe sources mainly influence the sensitivity of the

  8. Synthesis of Compact NaA Zeolite Membrane by Microwave Heating Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Lin CHENG; Zi Sheng CHAO; Hui Lin WAN

    2003-01-01

    A continuous and dense NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized by microwave heating method while employing a multi-step seeding LTA zeolite with the average size of 120 nm. The gas H2/N2 mixture separating results indicated that the mixture selectivity increased with increasing of synthesis times. In addition, selectivity of the three-step synthesis was higher than the value(3.74) expected from Kundsen diffusion.

  9. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology.

  10. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  11. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  12. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  13. A historical perspective on radioisotopic tracers in metabolism and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used routinely in the modern laboratory to trace and quantify a myriad of biochemical processes. The technique has a captivating history peppered with groundbreaking science and with more than its share of Nobel Prizes. The discovery of radioactivity at the end of the 19th century paved the way to understanding atomic structure and quickly led to the use of radioisotopes to trace the fate of molecules as they flowed through complex organic life. The 1940s saw the first radiotracer studies using homemade instrumentation and analytical techniques such as paper chromatography. This article follows the history of radioisotopic tracers from meager beginnings, through to the most recent applications. The author hopes that those researchers involved in radioisotopic tracer studies today will pause to remember the origins of the technique and those who pioneered this fascinating science.

  14. Removal of Cu2+from Aqueous Solutions Using Na-A Zeolite from Oil Shale Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包维维; 刘璐; 邹海峰; 甘树才; 徐学纯; 季桂娟; 高桂梅; 郑克岩

    2013-01-01

    Na-A zeolite was synthesized using oil shale ash (OSA), which is a solid by-product of oil shale proc-essing. The samples were characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffrac-tion and Brunauer Emmet Teller method. The batch isothermal equilibrium adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Na-A zeolite for removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions. The effects of operating pa-rameters, such as concentration of copper solutions, adsorbent dosages, pH value of solutions and temperature, on the adsorption efficiency were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity of Na-A zeolite obtained from the Langmuir adsorption iso-therm is 156.7 mg·g−1 of Cu (II). The increase of pH level in the adsorption process suggests that the uptake of heavy metals on the zeolite follows an ion exchange mechanism. The batch kinetic data fit the pseudo-second order equation well. The thermodynamic parameters, such as changes in Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and en-tropy (ΔS), are used to predict the nature of the adsorption process. The negativeΔG values at different tempera-tures confirm that the adsorption processes are spontaneous.

  15. The influence of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA on tipburn of internal leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ostrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available NAA potassium salt (preparation Pomonit applied at a concentration of 25 mg·dm;-3 markedly inhibited tipburn of internal leaves in lettuce plants grown in a greenhouse. Reduction of tipburn symptoms ranged from 9.6 to 96.9% depending on the cultivar. In the internal leaves, on which the disorder usually appears, the calcium level was generally lower and the level of phenolic substances higher. Treating the plants with a potassium salt of NAA, 2-3 weeks before harvest usually caused a rise of the Ca++ level and a decrease in the level of phenolic substances in the internal leaves. The NAA potassium salt was rapidly degraded in the plant and after only 24 hours was almost undetectable by a method sensitive to 0.3 µg NAA·g-1 fresh matter, therefore it is probable that NAA treatment may be permitted in practice.

  16. Radioisotope Power Systems Reference Book for Mission Designers and Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The RPS Program's Program Planning and Assessment (PPA) Office commissioned the Mission Analysis team to develop the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Reference Book for Mission Planners and Designers to define a baseline of RPS technology capabilities with specific emphasis on performance parameters and technology readiness. The main objective of this book is to provide RPS technology information that could be utilized by future mission concept studies and concurrent engineering practices. A progress summary from the major branches of RPS technology research provides mission analysis teams with a vital tool for assessing the RPS trade space, and provides concurrent engineering centers with a consistent set of guidelines for RPS performance characteristics. This book will be iterated when substantial new information becomes available to ensure continued relevance, serving as one of the cornerstone products of the RPS PPA Office. This book updates the original 2011 internal document, using data from the relevant publicly released RPS technology references and consultations with RPS technologists. Each performance parameter and RPS product subsection has been reviewed and cleared by at least one subject matter representative. A virtual workshop was held to reach consensus on the scope and contents of the book, and the definitions and assumptions that should be used. The subject matter experts then reviewed and updated the appropriate sections of the book. The RPS Mission Analysis Team then performed further updates and crosschecked the book for consistency. Finally, a second virtual workshop was held to ensure all subject matter experts and stakeholders concurred on the contents.

  17. The development of a milliwatt-level radioisotope power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David C.; McBirney, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Future NASA spacecraft for unmanned planetary exploration will be much smaller and require much less power than the large systems used in prior missions. The ``Powerstick'', a miniaturized isotopic electrical power generator, uses a flight-qualified, DoE-manufactured, 1.1 W Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU) to generate the high temperature sink for a thermoelectric converter (TEC). The TEC generates sufficient electrical power (~40 mW) to trickle-charge an external rechargeable battery pack, which can then be used in low duty cycle, low power applications. The original Powerstick concept (proposed by JPL) was refined at Swales Aerospace (SA), which has: repackaged it, constructed a prototype, and performed limited testing. The prototype Powerstick is 63.5 mm (2.500'') in diameter, 76.2 mm (3.000'') long, and weighs about 0.3 kg (0.66 lb). Structural analysis indicates the Powerstick can easily survive typical launch loads. Thermal analysis indicates that over 70% of the RHU energy enters the TEC. This paper will describe the design and analysis of the Powerstick prototype and present the key test results.

  18. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee and others

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  19. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1999-01-01

    Coated particle fuel offers great promise for advanced radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs) being pursued for future U.S. solar system exploration missions. Potential benefits of this fuel include improved design flexibility and materials compatibility, enhanced safety and performance, and reduced specific mass and volume. This paper describes and discusses coated particle fuel, with emphasis on its applicability, attributes, and potential benefits to future RPSs and RHUs. Additionally, this paper identifies further analyses and verification testing that should be conducted before a commitment is made to fully develop this fuel. Efforts to date indicate there is every reason to believe that the potential benefits of coated particle fuel to future RPSs and RHUs can be demonstrated with a modest, phased analytical and verification test effort. Thus, developmental risk appears minimal, while the potential benefits are substantial. If coated particle fuel is pursued and ultimately developed successfully, it could revolutionize the design and space use of future RPSs and RHUs.

  20. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  1. Predictive efficacy of radioisotope voiding cystography for renal outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Kwang Myeung; Choi, Whang; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    As vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) could lead to renal functional deterioration when combined with urinary tract infection, we need to decide whether operative anti-reflux treatment should be performed at the time of diagnosis of VUR. Predictive value of radioisotope voiding cystography (RIVCG) for renal outcome was tested. In 35 children (18 males, 17 females), radiologic voiding cystoure-thrography (VCU), RIVCG and DMSA scan were performed. Change in renal function was evaluated using the follow-up DMSA scan, ultrasonography, and clinical information. Discriminant analysis was performed using individual or integrated variables such as reflux amount and extent at each phase of voiding on RIVCG, in addition to age, gender and cortical defect on DMSA scan at the time of diagnosis. Discriminant function was composed and its performance was examined. Reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase had a significant prognostic value. Total reflux amount was a composite variable to predict prognosis. Discriminant function composed of reflux extent at the filling phase and reflux amount and extent at postvoiding phase showed better positive predictive value and specificity than conventional reflux grading. RIVCG could predict renal outcome by disclosing characteristic reflux pattern during various voiding phases.

  2. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  3. Investigation of Miniaturized Radioisotope Thermionic Power Generation for General Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) running off the radioisotope Pu238 are the current standard in deep space probe power supplies. While reliable, these generators are very inefficient, operating at only approx.7% efficiency. As an alternative, more efficient radioisotope thermionic emission generators (RTIGs) are being explored. Like RTGs, current RTIGs concepts use exotic materials for the emitter, limiting applicability to space and other niche applications. The high demand for long-lasting mobile power sources would be satisfied if RTIGs could be produced inexpensively. This work focuses on exposing several common materials, such as Al, stainless steel, W, Si, and Cu, to elevated temperatures under vacuum to determine the efficiency of each material as inexpensive replacements for thermoelectric materials.

  4. IBA和NAA对海桐水培的影响%Effects of IBA and NAA on Hydroponics of Pittosporum Tobira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小玉; 张凤银; 常杰君

    2016-01-01

    Robust branches of Pittosporum tobira under 1 year old were selected as hydroponic cuttings , and concentration of 50,100,200 mg/L of IBA and NAA were compounded to probe the most suitable plant growth regulators and the optimum concentration hydroponics for root growth of Pittosporum tobira. The results showed that the rooting rate of Pittosporum tobira cuttings was promoted by the treatment of IBA 50,200 mg/L,NAA 50,200 mg/L,and the most distinguished treatments were IBA 50 mg/L and NAA 50 mg/L treatment,under which Pittosporum tobira cuttings took root 24 days earlier than the control group. Only NAA 50 mg/L treatment promoted the germination of the cuttings ,and there were no obvious effects with other treatments. IBA 50 mg/L ,NAA 50 mg/L could also promote the growth of adventitious roots(amount)of Pittosporum tobira cuttings.%试验选取一年生的海桐健壮枝条作为水培插条,分别用浓度为50、100、200 mg/L的IBA、NAA对海桐枝条进行处理,探讨海桐水培生根最适合的植物生长调节剂及其最佳浓度。结果表明:IBA 50、200 mg/L,NAA 50、200 mg/L的处理对海桐水培生根率均有促进作用,其中IBA 50 mg/L、NAA 200 mg/L的促进作用最为明显,且在该浓度下使海桐提前24 d生根。仅NAA 50 mg/L的处理对海桐水培的发芽有显著促进作用,其他浓度的NAA及各浓度的IBA则对海桐的发芽率无显著影响。IBA 50 mg/L、NAA 50 mg/L对海桐的不定根生长(数量)也有显著促进作用。

  5. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-01

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 °C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2/Al 2O 3, H 2O/Na 2O and Na 2O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4+-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ˜3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously.

  6. Radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design and its application to an illustrative space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design effort by directing it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a post-encounter cruise lasting up to one year. Because of Pluto's long distance from the sun (30-50 A.U.) and the mission's large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. TRGs have been tentatively selected, because they have been successfully flown on many space missions, and have demonstrated exceptional reliability and durability. The only reason for exploring the applicability of the far less mature RTPV systems is their potential for much higher conversion efficiencies, which would greatly reduce the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which—like all NASA missions under current consideration—is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of the radioisotope heat source, the thermophotovoltaic converter, and the heat rejection system; and depicts its integration with the PFF spacecraft. A companion paper presented at this conference presents the results of the thermal, electrical, and structural analysis and the design optimization of the integrated RTPV system. It also discusses the programmatic implications of the analytical results, which

  7. A compact DD neutron generator-based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-09-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*10(9) neutrons s(-1) was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R(2) = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans.

  8. Neutron flux parameters for k{sub 0}-NAA method at the Malaysian nuclear agency research reactor after core reconfiguration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavar, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Sarmani, S. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Wood, A.K. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Fadzil, S.M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Masood, Z. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Khoo, K.S., E-mail: khoo@ukm.m [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor, commissioned in 1982, is a TRIGA Mark II swimming pool type reactor. When the core configuration changed in June 2009, it became essential to re-determine such neutron flux parameters as thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), epithermal neutron flux shape factor ({alpha}), thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th}) and epithermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub epi}) in the irradiation positions of MNA research reactor in order to guarantee accuracy in the application of k{sub 0}-neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-NAA).The f and {alpha} were determined using the bare bi-isotopic monitor and bare triple monitor methods, respectively; Au and Zr monitors were utilized in present study. The results for four irradiation positions are presented and discussed in the present work. The calculated values of f and {alpha} ranged from 33.49 to 47.33 and -0.07 to -0.14, respectively. The {phi}{sub th} and the {phi}{sub epi} were measured as 2.03 x 10{sup 12} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and 6.05 x 10{sup 10} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) respectively. These results were compared to those of previous studies at this reactor as well as to those of reactors in other countries. The results indicate a good conformity with other findings.

  9. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  10. Adsorption of Zn2+ ions onto NaA and NaX zeolites: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibou, D; Mekatel, H; Amokrane, S; Barkat, M; Trari, M

    2010-01-15

    The adsorption of Zn(2+) onto NaA and NaX zeolites was investigated. The samples were synthesized according to a hydrothermal crystallization using aluminium isopropoxide (Al[OCH(CH(3))(2)](3)) as a new alumina source. The effects of pH, initial concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models were applied and the adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The uptake distribution coefficient (K(d)) indicated that the Zn(2+) removal was the highest at minimum concentration. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The negative values of standard enthalpy of adsorption revealed the exothermic nature of the adsorption process whereas the negative activation entropies reflected that no significant change occurs in the internal structure of the zeolites solid matrix during the sorption of Zn(2+). The negative values of Gibbs free energy were indicative of the spontaneity of the adsorption process. Analysis of the kinetic and rate data revealed that the pseudo second-order sorption mechanism is predominant and the intra particle diffusion was the determining step for the sorption of zinc ions. The obtained optimal parameters have been applied to wastewater from the industrial zone (Algeria) in order to remove the contained zinc effluents.

  11. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Harold E.; Bearden, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a ``DOE Alternative.'' The U.S. Department of Transportation has special ``double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained ``bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992.

  12. Ablation response testing of simulated radioisotope power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Steven A.; Chan, Chris C.

    1994-05-01

    Results of an experimental program to assess the aerothermal ablation response of simulated radioisotope power supplies are presented. Full-scale general purpose heat source, graphite impact shell, and lightweight radioisotope heater unit test articles are all tested without nuclear fuel in simulated reentry environments. Convective stagnation heating, stagnation pressure, stagnation surface temperature, surface recession profile, and weight loss measurements are obtained for diffusion-limited and sublimation ablation conditions. The recession profile and weight loss measurements show an effect of surface features on the stagnation face. The surface features alter the local heating which in turn affects the local ablation.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of radioisotope nanospheres containing two gamma emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Hyuck; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2012-12-01

    Silica-coated gold-silver alloy nanospheres prepared by Stöber's method were irradiated in a nuclear reactor to prepare radioisotope nanospheres for use as radiotracers. The radioisotope nanospheres included two gamma nuclides: (i) Au-198, emitting major photons with 0.412 MeV and (ii) Ag-108, emitting photons with 0.434 and 0.633 MeV. The nanospheres shell and core diameters were 100-112 nm and 20-50 nm, respectively, depending on their preparation. The gamma-emitting nanospheres could be used as tracers in high-temperature petrochemical and refinery processes in which conventional organic radioactive labels will decompose.

  14. 78 FR 1848 - Plutonium-238 Production for Radioisotope Power Systems for National Aeronautics and Space...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Plutonium-238 Production for Radioisotope Power Systems for National Aeronautics and Space Administration...-238 (Pu-238) for radioisotope power systems (RPSs) to support the National Aeronautics and Space... Radioisotope Power Systems (Draft Consolidation EIS) in 2005 to consolidate the nuclear operations related...

  15. Current status of the production and research of radioisotopes in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hidetake [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Status of the radioisotope production and application in Japan is described, emphasizing that of reactor-produced radioisotopes for medicine. Some new application of reactor-produced radioisotopes to therapy are discussed together with those of positron emitters for medicine and plant physiology. (author)

  16. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement; Estudo sobre a determinacao de antimonio em amostras ambientais pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons: validacao da metodologia e determinacao da incerteza da medicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Tassiane Cristina Martins

    2011-07-01

    can also mask the peak of {sup 122}Sb hindering its detection. The analysis of CRM indicated that the accuracy and precision of the results depend on the type of matrix analyzed, its concentration in the sample, radioisotope measured and of the decay time used for the measurements. The analysis of the components that contribute to the uncertainty of the Sb concentration indicated that the largest uncertainty contribution is given by statistical counting of the sample. The findings also showed that the value of combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotopes of Sb measured and the decay time used for counting. This study showed that NAA is a very adequate method for Sb determinations in environmental samples furnishing results with low uncertainty values. (author)

  17. High radio-isotope uptakes in patients with hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, J.; Kalk, W.J.; Ganda, C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1982-12-04

    Hypothyroidism is usually associated with a low radio-isotope uptake by the thyriod gland. We report 8 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism and with borderline high or overtly increased technetium-99m pertechnetate and/or iodine-131 uptakes.

  18. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  19. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-08-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube.

  20. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  1. Clinical study of radioisotope clearance from the cerebrospinal fluid space using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchiwaki, H.; Nagasaka, M.; Takada, S.; Ishiguri, H.; Kameyama, H.; Aoyama, Y.

    1989-07-01

    Radioisotope cisternography with statistical analysis was evaluated in 18 patients with suspected hydrocephalus shown by conventional CT, and 4 control patients. Regions of interest were located at cisterna magna, basal cistern, lateral cistern Silvii, interhemispheric cistern, and lateral ventricle using three dimensional SPECT images. A value for constant K was determined for each exponential radioactivity decay curve. On the basis of SPECT-derived K values our patients were grouped into hydrocephalus, nonhydrocephalus, and control patients. Twelve of 14 hydrocephalus patients were treated by shunt operation. Our less-invasive method showed reliable criteria for assessing the cerebrospinal fluid circulation. (orig.).

  2. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  3. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  4. Microwave-heating Synthesis and Gas Separation Performance of NaA Zeolite Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志林; 刘赞; 万惠霖

    2005-01-01

    The paper presented novel synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane with good performance using microwave heating. The method involved two steps, prior seeding 120 nm of LTA crystals on substrate and then employing a secondary hydrothermal synthesis. Effects of seeding times, synthesis time and synthesis times were investigated in this work. The quality evaluation of membranes respectively used single component gases (HE and N2) and H2/N2 (equivalent volume) mixture. The ideal H2,/N2 selectivity increased from 1.90 of the substrate to 6.37 of the three-stage synthesized membrane, which was distinctly higher than the corresponding Knudsen diffusion selectivity of 3.74. However, the real H2/N2 selectivity of the three-stage synthesis was much lower than the corresponding ideal selectivity and close to the corresponding Knudsen diffusion selectivity of 3.74.

  5. Reversible emission evolution from Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui, E-mail: linh8112@163.com, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru, E-mail: linh8112@163.com, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-11-24

    Reversible emission evolution of thermally treated Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration in vacuum/water vapor was observed. The phenomenon was observed even for the sample with low Ag{sup +}-Na{sup +} exchanging (8.3%), indicating that the emission from Ag activated zeolites may not come from Ag clusters while from the surrounding coordinated Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms. It was disclosed that the characteristic yellow-green emission at ∼560 ± 15 nm is strongly associated with the coordinating water molecules to the Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms, which is clear evidence for that the efficient emission from Ag activated zeolites may not originate from the quantum confinement effect.

  6. Depletion of histone N-terminal-acetyltransferase Naa40 induces p53-independent apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, Demetria; Kirmizis, Antonis

    2016-03-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes implicated in various fundamental cellular and biochemical processes. This modification is catalysed by evolutionarily conserved N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) whose deregulation has been linked to cancer development and thus, are emerging as useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Naa40 is a highly selective NAT that acetylates the amino-termini of histones H4 and H2A and acts as a sensor of cell growth in yeast. In the present study, we examine the role of Naa40 in cancer cell survival. We demonstrate that depletion of Naa40 in HCT116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells decreases cell survival by enhancing apoptosis, whereas Naa40 reduction in non-cancerous mouse embryonic fibroblasts has no effect on cell viability. Specifically, Naa40 knockdown in colon cancer cells activates the mitochondrial caspase-9-mediated apoptotic cascade. Consistent with this, we show that caspase-9 activation is required for the induced apoptosis because treatment of cells with an irreversible caspase-9 inhibitor impedes apoptosis when Naa40 is depleted. Furthermore, the effect of Naa40-depletion on cell-death is mediated through a p53-independent mechanism since p53-null HCT116 cells still undergo apoptosis upon reduction of the acetyltransferase. Altogether, these findings reveal an anti-apoptotic role for Naa40 and exhibit its potential as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancers.

  7. Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Different Stages of Psychotic Disorders: a 3T 1H-MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André

    2016-02-23

    H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A (1)H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate.

  8. Increased NAA and reduced choline levels in the anterior cingulum following chronic methylphenidate. A spectroscopic test-retest study in adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Ende, Gabriele; Alm, Barbara; Deuschle, Michael; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucially involved in executive control of attention. Here, seven medication-naïve adult patients suffering from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were studied with 2D (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the ACC [Brodmann areas 24b'-c' and 32'] twice, once before initiation of stimulant treatment and once after 5-6 weeks of methylphenidate. Upon retest, all patients demonstrated marked clinical improvement. Analysis of regional brain spectra revealed a significantly decreased signal of choline containing compounds as well as increased N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels following treatment with methylphenidate whereas total creatine remained unchanged. Our results add to a growing body of evidence implicating the ACC in the pathophysiology of ADHD and suggest that subtle structural changes might be associated with aspects of clinical improvement under stimulant treatment.

  9. The use of NAA for chemical characterisation of clay sources within an archaeological ceramic study in the Chaschuil-Abaucan region (Tinogasta, Catamarca, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, R.R.; Moreno, M.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares; Ratto, N.R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Filosofia y Letras. Seccion Arqueologia; Fuente, G. de la; Orgaz, M. [Universidad Nacional de Catamarca (Argentina). Escuela de Arqueologia

    2002-07-01

    Application of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) to provenience studies of archaeological ceramics involves the determination of clay sources used for their production. This work presents the study on raw materials and its relation to sherd results, on samples from Argentine southern Puna,using NAA. An hypothesis was stated that the Puna region of Chaschuil served as a corridor for the circulation of goods, energy and information, interconnecting large areas and relating to facilities at the bottom of the valley, especially at the Bolson de Fiambala. Potential raw material source locations were sampled both in Puna and valley, considering availability, plasticity, workability and textural fractions of the deposits. Factor analysis was used for evaluation of the results. The graphical representation of the first three factors showed a dense grouping of valley clays with Puna samples as outliers. Within the valley group, those clays from La Troya river appeared closely related to each other. XRD of these samples showed 100 % good quality clays for ceramic manufacture and high presence of clay fraction (17 - 45 % concentration values), with excellent properties regarding their plasticity and workability. The evaluation of a matrix composed of clay and sherd analytical results showed that sherds from valley area were manufactured with local raw materials that included the already sampled sources and others still to be located; that most of Puna sherds were manufactured with raw materials from the valley area, mainly La Troya and that Puna sources of raw materials were not used in the manufacture of those sherds sampled at Puna sites. (author)

  10. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I

    2010-10-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  11. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2007-01-02

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  12. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  13. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  14. Solid state radioisotopic energy converter for space nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.M. (IsoGen Radioisotopic Research Laboratory, 315 S. McLoughlin Blvd., Oregon City, Oregon 97045 (United States))

    1993-01-10

    Recent developments in materials technology now make it possible to fabricate nonthermal thin-film radioisotopic energy converters (REC) with a specific power of 24 W/kg and a 10 year working life at 5 to 10 watts. This creates applications never before possible, such as placing the power supply directly on integrated circuit chips. The efficiency of the REC is about 25% which is two to three times greater than the 6 to 8% capabilities of current thermoelectric systems. Radioisotopic energy converters have the potential to meet many future space power requirements for a wide variety of applications with less mass, better efficiency, and less total area than other power conversion options. These benefits result in significant dollar savings over the projected mission lifetime.

  15. Efficient Radioisotope Energy Transfer by Gold Nanoclusters for Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotskova, Olga; Sun, Conroy; Stafford, Jason H; Koh, Ai Leen; Ma, Xiaowei; Cheng, Zhen; Cui, Bianxiao; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2015-08-26

    Beta-emitting isotopes Fluorine-18 and Yttrium-90 are tested for their potential to stimulate gold nanoclusters conjugated with blood serum proteins (AuNCs). AuNCs excited by either medical radioisotope are found to be highly effective ionizing radiation energy transfer mediators, suitable for in vivo optical imaging. AuNCs synthesized with protein templates convert beta-decaying radioisotope energy into tissue-penetrating optical signals between 620 and 800 nm. Optical signals are not detected from AuNCs incubated with Technetium-99m, a pure gamma emitter that is used as a control. Optical emission from AuNCs is not proportional to Cerenkov radiation, indicating that the energy transfer between the radionuclide and AuNC is only partially mediated by Cerenkov photons. A direct Coulombic interaction is proposed as a novel and significant mechanism of energy transfer between decaying radionuclides and AuNCs.

  16. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mukhopadhyay

    2003-06-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources.

  17. Provenance studies of archaeological ceramics from Mar-Takla (Ain-Minin, Syria) using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method was applied to studies of the provenance of the ceramics fragments originated from the Mar-Takla site in Syria. The samples were irradiated 1000s by a 109Cd radioisotope source and 13 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Pb) were determined in 35 samples. The data were subjected to two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and principal components analysis (PCA). It was shown from the combination of the statistical techniques and the determination of elemental composition of the samples that 94% of the ceramic samples analyzed can be considered to be manufactured using two sources of raw materials.

  18. Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Duddzinski, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

  19. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualls, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Program's budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Program's portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  20. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualis, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Programs budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Programs portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  1. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2014-10-15

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a {sup 99}Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated {sup 99}Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major {sup 99}Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease {sup 99}Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity

  2. Development of a Power Electronics Controller for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Douglas K.; Priest, Joel F.; Keiter, Douglas E.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Under a U.S. Department of Energy program for radioisotope power systems, Lockheed Martin is developing an Engineering Unit of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This is an advanced version of the previously reported SRG110 generator. The ASRG uses Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Incorporated under a NASA Research Announcement contract. The ASRG makes use of a Stirling controller based on power electronics that eliminates the tuning capacitors. The power electronics controller synchronizes dual-opposed convertors and maintains a fixed frequency operating point. The controller is single-fault tolerant and uses high-frequency pulse width modulation to create the sinusoidal currents that are nearly in phase with the piston velocity, eliminating the need for large series tuning capacitors. Sunpower supports this effort through an extension of their controller development intended for other applications. Glenn Research Center (GRC) supports this effort through system dynamic modeling, analysis and test support. The ASRG design arrived at a new baseline based on a system-level trade study and extensive feedback from mission planners on the necessity of single-fault tolerance. This paper presents the baseline design with an emphasis on the power electronics controller detailed design concept that will meet space mission requirements including single fault tolerance.

  3. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds

  4. Porównanie wpływu opryskiwania roztmorem NAA i Ethrelu na wzrost i kwitnienie ogórka (Cucumis sativus L.) odm. 'Monastyrski' [Comparison of the influence of sprays with NAA and Enthrel solution on the growth and flowering of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Monastyrski variety

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of NAA and Ethrel (2-chloroethanephosphonic acid) spray on the growth and flowering of cucumber plants were compared. The influence of NAA spray on the appearance of the pistillate flowers and on male sterility was considerably lower and less successful than that of Ethrel.

  5. Porównanie wpływu opryskiwania roztmorem NAA i Ethrelu na wzrost i kwitnienie ogórka (Cucumis sativus L. odm. 'Monastyrski' [Comparison of the influence of sprays with NAA and Enthrel solution on the growth and flowering of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Monastyrski variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Borkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of NAA and Ethrel (2-chloroethanephosphonic acid spray on the growth and flowering of cucumber plants were compared. The influence of NAA spray on the appearance of the pistillate flowers and on male sterility was considerably lower and less successful than that of Ethrel.

  6. The development and application of k -standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghem, L. [Departement d' Analyse par Activation Neutronique, CRNB, BP 180, Ain Oussera 17200, W Djelfa (Algeria)]. E-mail: lylia_25@hotmail.com; Ramdhane, M. [Departement de physique, Universite Mentouri de Constantine (Algeria); Khaled, S. [Departement d' Analyse par Activation Neutronique, CRNB, BP 180, Ain Oussera 17200, W Djelfa (Algeria); Akhal, T. [Departement d' Analyse par Activation Neutronique, CRNB, BP 180, Ain Oussera 17200, W Djelfa (Algeria)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k -NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of {gamma}-spectrometer used in k -NAA (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as {alpha} and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k -NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k -NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k -NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  7. The application of spectrographic analysis to the radioisotope production control. II. Analysis of calcium-45, scandium-46, nickel-63, and copper-64 solutions; Aplicacion del analisis espectrografico al control de produccion de radioisotopos. II. Analisis de soluciones de calcio-45, escandio-46, niquel-63 y cobre-64

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1972-07-01

    Semi-quantitative and quantitative determinations of both the radioactive and the target element in each radioisotope are described. The copper-spark technique was used except for Cu determinations, that need silver or.graphite electro des. Inter-element effects and their compensation through the use of Bi, 6a, In, Ho, Pd, TI and Y as reference elements was examined. For the determination of Ca in Ca-45 samples, Ba, La, Li and Sr were also tested. Good results are achieved with Li for Ca, Y for Sc,Ti and Ni, and either In or Y for Cu and Zn. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  9. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  10. Development of Next Generation Segmented Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been used for space-based applications since 1961 with a total of 22 space missions that have successfully used RTGs for electrical power production. The key advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are their long life, robustness, compact size, and high reliability. Thermoelectric converters are easily scalable, and possess a linear current-voltage curve, making power generation easy to control via a shunt regulator and shunt radiator. They produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. These properties have made RTGs ideally suitable for autonomous missions in the extreme environments of outer space and on planetary surfaces. More advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) with higher specific power (W/kg) and/or power output are desirable for future NASA missions, including the Europa Geophysical Orbiter mission. For the past few years, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing more efficient thermoelectric materials and has demonstrated significant increases in the conversion efficiency of high temperature thermocouples, up to 14% when operated across a 975K to 300K temperature differential. In collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center, universities (USC and UNM), Ceramic and Metal Composites Corporation and industrial partners, JPL is now planning to lead the research and development of advanced thermoelectric technology for integration into the next generations of RPS. Preliminary studies indicate that this technology has the potential for improving the RPS specific power by more than 50% over the current state-of-the-art multi-mission RTG being built for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. A second generation advanced RPS is projected at more than doubling the specific power.

  11. A radioisotope powered cryobot for penetrating the Europan ice shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Bryant, Scott; Zitzelberger, John; Nesmith, Bill

    2001-02-01

    The Cryobot team at JPL has been working on the design of a Cryo-Hydro Integrated Robotic Penetrator System (CHIRPS), which can be used to penetrate the Mars North Polar Cap or the thick sheet ice surrounding Jupiter's moon, Europa. The science for either one of these missions is compelling. For both Mars and Europa the major scientific interest is to reach regions where there is a reservoir of water that may yield signs of past or extant life. Additionally, a Mars polar cap penetration would help us understand both climatic and depositional histories for perhaps as far back as 20 million years. Similarly, penetration of the Europa ice sheet would allow scientists to unravel the mysteries surrounding the thick ice crust, its chemical composition, and subsurface ocean properties. Extreme mass and power constraints make deep drilling/coring impractical. The best way to explore either one of these environments is a cryobot mole penetrator vehicle, which carries a suite of instruments suitable for sampling and analyzing the ice or ocean environments. This paper concentrates on a Europa deep ice (i.e., kilometers thick) application of the CHIRPS, and introduces the reader to the vehicle design with focus on the use of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) technology as the primary heat (1 kW total) and power source for the robotic vehicle. Radioisotope heater unit (RHU) milli-watt power systems (120 mW total) are also employed to power the mini-radiowave ice transceivers, which are used to relay data through the ice up to the surface lander. The results of modeling and design work for both of these areas are discussed in this paper. Although radioisotope power is baselined for the Europa flight version of the cyrobot, no decision on the final design of the cryobot will be made until the environmental review process is complete. Any use of the cryobot for Mars or Europa will conform to all environmental and planetary protection requirements. .

  12. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2001-02-01

    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  13. A new access control system by fingerprint for radioisotope facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroko; Hirata, Yasuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Radioisotope Center; Kondo, Takahiro; Takatsuki, Katsuhiro

    1998-04-01

    We applied a new fingerprint checker for complete access control to the radiation controlled area and to the radioisotope storage room, and prepared softwares for the best use of this checker. This system consists of a personal computer, access controllers, a fingerprint register, fingerprint checkers, a tenkey and mat sensors, permits ten thousand users to register their fingerprints and its hard disk to keep more than a million records of user`s access. Only 1% of users could not register their fingerprints worn-out, registered four numbers for a fingerprint. The softwares automatically provide varieties of reports, caused a large reduction in manual works. (author)

  14. Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    The Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos has fabricated 180 heater units, which will be used on the Cassini mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at Los Alamos.

  15. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  16. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 Wth) modules as the thermal building block from which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass, and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component- and system-level trades.

  17. REVISS / MAYAK: A new partnership in radioisotope supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, N. [REVISS Services Limited, Chesham (United Kingdom); Chikshov, A.I.; Malykh, Y.A. [MAYAK Production Association, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    REVISS Services (UK) Limited, the joint venture company formed between Amersham International plc, Production Association MAYAK and Techsnabexport brings together the scientific, manufacturing, marketing and distribution skills and facilities which enable REVISS to be not just a major supplier of radioisotopes and other associated products and services, but the supplier with the largest product range. The paper describes the history and the development of MAYAK and reviews its manufacturing facilities and capabilities and also how MAYAK has moved from being a secret military organisation to become a major and successful commercial organisation

  18. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  19. Application of radioisotope XRF and thermoluminescence (TL) dating in investigation of pottery from Tell AL-Kasra archaeological site, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, R; Issa, H; Abed-Allah, Y D; Bakraji, E H

    2015-11-01

    Statistical analysis based on chemical composition, using radioisotope X-ray fluorescence, have been applied on 39 ancient pottery fragments coming from the excavation at Tell Al-Kasra archaeological site, Syria. Three groups were defined by applying Cluster and Factor analysis statistical methods. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was investigated on three sherds taken from the bathroom (hammam) on the site. Multiple aliquot additive dose (MAAD) was used to estimate the paleodose value, and the gamma spectrometry was used to estimate the dose rate. The average age was found to be 715±36 year.

  20. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report; Entrainement et redistribution des radionucleides sur le bassin versant de la Peyne. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F

    2006-07-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  1. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  2. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Sample Return

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC

    2009-07-14

    The need to answer basic questions regarding the origin of the Solar System will motivate robotic sample return missions to destinations like Pluto, its satellite Charon, and objects in the Kuiper belt. To keep the mission duration short enough to be of interest, sample return from objects farther out in the Solar System requires increasingly higher return velocities. A sample return mission involves several complicated steps to reach an object and obtain a sample, but only the interplanetary return phase of the mission is addressed in this paper. Radioisotope electric propulsion is explored in this parametric study as a means to propel small, dedicated return vehicles for transferring kilogram-size samples from deep space to Earth. Return times for both Earth orbital rendezvous and faster, direct atmospheric re-entry trajectories are calculated for objects as far away as 100 AU. Chemical retro-rocket braking at Earth is compared to radioisotope electric propulsion but the limited deceleration capability of chemical rockets forces the return trajectories to be much slower.

  3. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  4. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  5. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-07-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 Watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk.

  6. Multi-Watt Small Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Conceptual Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William R.; Otting, William; Frye, Patrick; Abelson, Robert; Ewell, Richard; Miyake, Bob; Synder, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A need has been identified for a small, light-weight, reliable power source using a radioisotope heat source, to power the next generation of NASA's small surface rovers and exploration probes. Unit performance, development costs, and technical risk are key criteria to be used to select the best design approach. Because safety can be a major program cost and schedule driver, RTG designs should utilize the DOE radioisotope safety program's data base to the maximum extent possible. Other aspects important to the conceptual design include: 1) a multi-mission capable design for atmospheric and vacuum environments, 2) a module size based on one GPHS Step 2 module, 3) use of flight proven thermoelectric converter technologies, 4) a long service lifetime of up to 14 years, 5) maximize unit specific power consistent with all other requirements, and 6) be ready by 2013. Another critical aspect of the design is the thermal integration of the RTG with the rover or probe's heat rejection subsystem and the descent vehicle's heat rejection subsystem. This paper describes two multi-watt RTG design concepts and their integration with a MER-class rover.

  7. The radioisotope osteogram: Kinetic studies of skeletal disorders in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, N.S.

    1959-10-16

    Radioactive strontium can serve as a tracer to gain information concerning calcium metabolism in human subjects. Gamma-emitting Sr{sup 85} is used rather than the much more hazardous, beta-emitting Sr{sup 89} and Sr{sup 90}. (ca{sup 47} -- the ideal tracer for normal calcium -- is quite expensive and difficult to procure.) Very significant information may be obtained merely by measuring and recording the changes in radioactivity in various body areas during the first hour after intravenous injection of the bone-seeking radioisotope. This is accomplished by placing a lead-shielded gamma-scintillation detector in contact with the skin over the sites of interest and recording the activities on a scaler or ratemeter. The activity versus time curves so obtained are called radioisotope osteograms. Data were presented which indicated that Sr{sup 85} osteograms for patients afflicted with osteoporosis, Paget`s disease, tumor metastases to bone, and possibly multiple myeloma, differ significantly from those obtained from subjects with no skeletal abnormalities. Some interpretations of these deviations were discussed. The value of conducting double-tracer tests (e.g. -- Sr{sup 85} plus radio-iodinated serum albumin) was demonstrated, and correlations with excretion data were made. With further refinements the technique may ultimately become useful for certain diagnostic problems in the clinic and.for evaluating the efficacy of treatment of these disorders.

  8. 77 FR 21592 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Chapters 7-18 of Draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) NPR-ISG-2011-002, augmenting NUREG-1537, Part 1... Content,'' for the production of radioisotopes and NUREG-1537, Part 2, ``Guidelines for Preparing and...,'' for the production of radioisotopes. The ISG augmenting NUREG-1537, Parts 1 & 2, Chapters 1-6...

  9. First collinear laser spectroscopy measurements of radioisotopes from an IGISOL ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billowes, J; Campbell, P; Cochrane, ECA; Cooke, JL; Dendooven, P; Evans, DE; Grant, IS; Griffith, JAR; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Levins, JMG; Liukkonen, E; Oinonen, M; Pearson, MR; Penttila, H; Persson, B.L.; Richardson, DS; Tungate, G; Wheeler, P; Zybert, L; Aysto, J

    1997-01-01

    The standard Doppler-free technique of collinear laser spectroscopy has been successfully applied to radioisotopes from the ion-guide isotope separator (IGISOL) at the Universiry of Jyvaskyla. The laser resonance fluorescence signals for the Ba-140.142,Ba-144 radioisotopes show that the ion beam ene

  10. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  11. The role of NAA in the environmental studies. Quantitative determination of heavy metals pollutant on environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutisna; Yusuf, Saeful; Fisli, Adel; Rukihati; Wardhani, Sri; Th Rina M [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2003-03-01

    mg/kg). Finally the heavy metals of Ag, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe and Zn were detected at air particulate matter taken from Jakarta Metropolitan and Serpong area which have a range concentration of about 0.04 ng/m{sup 3} (Cd) to 24000 ng/m{sup 3} (Fe). >From the above result were conclude that some elements have exceeded the concentration permitted by the Indonesian Government regulation. The NAA technique has a high capability in the trace elements analysis and potentially can be used in the monitoring of environmental pollutant. (author)

  12. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs and challenges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Shivarudrappa; K V Vimalnath

    2005-07-01

    Radionuclides have become powerful and indispensable tools in many endeavours of human activities, most importantly in medicine, industry, biology and agriculture, apart from R&D activities. Ready availability of radionuclides in suitable radiochemical form, its facile detection and elegant tracer concepts are responsible for their unprecedented use. Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of variety of diseases including cancer. Artificial transmutation of an element employing thermal neutrons in a reactor or high energy particle accelerators (cyclotrons) are the routes of radioisotope production world over. Availability of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope programme. Selection of stable nuclides in suitable chemical form as targets with desired isotopic and chemical purity are among the important considerations in radioisotope production. Mostly the oxide, carbonate or the metal itself are the preferred target forms for neutron activation in a research reactor. Chemical impurities, particularly from the elements of the same group, put a limitation on the purity of the final radioisotope product. Whereas the isotopic impurities result in the production of undesirable radionuclidic impurities, which affect their effective utilization. Isotope Group, BARC, is in the forefront of radioisotope production and supply in the country, meeting demands for gamut of radioisotope applications indigenously for over four decades now. Radioisotopes such as 131I, 99Mo, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 82Br, 203Hg, 198Au etc are produced in TBq quantities every month and supplied to several users and to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT). Such a large production programme puts a huge demand on the reliable sources of availability of high purity target materials which are at present mostly met

  13. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  14. Magnetic zeolite NaA: synthesis, characterization based on metakaolin and its application for the removal of Cu2+, Pb2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Peng, Shuchuan; Shu, Lin; Chen, Tianhu; Bao, Teng; Frost, Ray L

    2013-06-01

    The optimum parameters for synthesis of zeolite NaA based on metakaolin were investigated according to results of cation exchange capacity and static water adsorption of all synthesis products and selected X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic zeolite NaA was synthesized by adding Fe3O4 in the precursor of zeolite. Zeolite NaA and magnetic zeolite NaA were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD. Magnetic zeolite NaA with different Fe3O4 loadings was prepared and used for removal of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+)). The results show the optimum parameters for synthesis zeolite NaA are SiO2/Al2O3=2.3, Na2O/SiO2=1.4, H2O/Na2O=50, crystallization time 8h, crystallization temperature 95 °C. The addition of Fe3O4 makes the NaA zeolite with good magnetic susceptibility and good magnetic stability regardless of the Fe3O4 loading, confirming the considerable separation efficiency. Additionally, Fe3O4 loading had a little effect on removal of heavy metal by magnetic zeolite, however, the adsorption capacity still reaches 2.3 mmol g(-1) for Cu(2+), Pb(2+) with a removal efficiency of over 95% in spite of 4.7% Fe3O4 loading. This indicates magnetic zeolite can be used to remove metal heavy at least Cu(2+), Pb(2+) from water with metallic contaminants and can be separated easily after a magnetic process.

  15. A comparison of PET imaging characteristics of various copper radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Heather Ann [North Western Medical Physics, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Robinson, Simon; Julyan, Peter; Hastings, David [North Western Medical Physics, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Zweit, Jamal [University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    PET radiotracers which incorporate longer-lived radionuclides enable biological processes to be studied over many hours, at centres remote from a cyclotron. This paper examines the radioisotope characteristics, imaging performance, radiation dosimetry and production modes of the four copper radioisotopes, {sup 60}Cu,{sup 61}Cu,{sup 62}Cu and{sup 64}Cu, to assess their merits for different PET imaging applications. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and noise-equivalent count rate (NEC) are predicted for{sup 60}Cu,{sup 61}Cu,{sup 62}Cu and{sup 64}Cu using a model incorporating radionuclide decay properties and scanner parameters for the GE Advance scanner. Dosimetry for{sup 60}Cu,{sup 61}Cu and{sup 64}Cu is performed using the MIRD model and published biodistribution data for copper(II) pyruvaldehyde bis(N{sup 4}-methyl)thiosemicarbazone (Cu-PTSM). {sup 60}Cu and{sup 62}Cu are characterised by shorter half-lives and higher sensitivity and NEC, making them more suitable for studying the faster kinetics of small molecules, such as Cu-PTSM.{sup 61}Cu and{sup 64}Cu have longer half-lives, enabling studies of the slower kinetics of cells and peptides and prolonged imaging to compensate for lower sensitivity, together with better spatial resolution, which partially compensates for loss of image contrast.{sup 61}Cu-PTSM and{sup 64}Cu-PTSM are associated with radiation doses similar to [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose, whilst the doses for{sup 60}Cu-PTSM and{sup 62}Cu-PTSM are lower and more comparable with H{sub 2}{sup 15}O. The physical and radiochemical characteristics of the four copper isotopes make each more suited to some imaging tasks than others. The results presented here assist in selecting the preferred radioisotope for a given imaging application, and illustrate a strategy which can be extended to the majority of novel PET tracers. (orig.)

  16. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of

  17. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Gus J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Egger, Ann E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Krebs, Kenneth M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Milbrath, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, D. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warren, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilmer, N. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—Osiris—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  18. Preparation, characterization and modeling of zeolite NaA membranes for the pervaporation dehydration of alcohol mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Pera Titus, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Les membranes zeolítiques hidrofíliques, caracteritzades per les seves elevades relacions Al/Si, constitueixen una camp de recerca prometedor per a la deshidratació de mescles orgàniques mitjançant pervaporació (PV). Més específicament, les membranes de zeolita NaA han rebut especial atenció per les seves altes selectivitats (>40000) y fluxos en la deshidratació de mescles alcohol/aigua. En aquest context, l'objectiu principal d'aquesta tesi doctoral ha estat el desenvolupament de nous mètode...

  19. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  20. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  1. CALIBRATION OF DENSITOMETRY IN RADIO-ISOTOPIC IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ruijter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Densitometry on autoradiographs of sections processed for in situ hybridization provides a direct measure for the in situ quantification of mRNA. Gelatin spots, containing different concentrations of the radioisotope, and processed in parallel with the tissue sections, can be used as a sensitive model to calibrate the densitometric measurements. The shape of the gelatin spots was shown to be circular with a parabolic crosssectional profile. This simple shape allows the subdivision of the spot into a series of concentric rings, which enables an unbiased measurement of the optical density - radioactivity relation. This spot measurement is also applicable to DNA arrays spotted on glass or membranes. A new model, explaining the optical density of autoradiographs, was derived and fitted to the calibration points. The use of this calibration method is crucial for the correct interpretation of autoradiographs

  2. Studies of radioisotope production with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production of radioisotopes to be used mainly for nuclear medicine and biology is studied with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA. A production method of no-carrier-added {sup 186}Re with the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction has been developed; this product may be used as a therapeutic agent in radioimmunotherapy due to the adequate nuclear and chemical properties. For the study of the function of plants using a positron-emitter two-dimensional imaging system, a simple method of producing the positron emitter {sup 18}F in water was developed by taking advantage of a highly-energetic {alpha} beam from the AVF cyclotron. (author)

  3. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  4. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  5. Current status of radioisotope production in the year of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C

    2004-02-01

    The RIPF(Radio Isotope Production Facility) is the unique facility in Korea which has been used for the isotope production. Through the survey on the radioisotope quantities of production and consumption in the domestic industry, we were trying to show the trend of isotope production. The quantities of Tc-99m, Mo-99, Cr-51, I-131 solution and I-131 capsule produced in the hot cell and clean room of RIPF were compared with the quantities at the previous year. Also the output of the labeling compound such as Hippuran, MIBG, RIHSA, Phytate, MDP, DISIDA, DTPA, etc was compared with the previous year by the radioactivity and the vial. We treated the sum of selling amount of industrial isotopes and tracer isotopes and the status of technical supports also.

  6. A new adrenal computer imaging technique using dual-radioisotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohashi,Teruhisa

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer processed adrenal imaging using dual-radioisotopes, 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-nor-cholest-5(10-en-3 beta-ol-131I and 99mTc-phytate was performed in 12 patients with primary aldosteronism and 4 with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenocortical tumor. Adreno-photoscanning and hepato-photoscanning were performed in the same position 2-4 days following intravenous administration of radiocholesterol. The scintigraphic information was stored on cassettes and scan subtraction and a digital-computer method for data smoothing were performed on an oscilloscope. The tumor site could be determined in all cases until day 4 by this computer processed image.

  7. Fabrication of light weight radioisotope heater unit hardware components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Dennis C.

    1996-03-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is planned to be used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Cassini Mission, to provide localized thermal energy as strategic locations on the spacecraft. These one watt heater units will support the operation of many on-board instruments that require a specific temperature range to function properly. The system incorporates a fuel pellet encapsulated in a vented metallic clad fabricated from platinum-30% rhodium (Pt-30%Rh) tubing, sheet and foil materials. To complete the package, the clad assemblies are placed inside a combination of graphite components. This report describes the techniques employed by Mound related to the fabrication and sub assembly processes of the LWRHU clad hardware components. Included are details concerning configuration control systems, material procurement and certification, hardware fabrication specifics, and special processes that are utilized.

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor Development for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott D.; Collins, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Sunpower Inc.'s Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to a flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the United States. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASCs, one with the DOE and Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flightlike ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at Glenn, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  9. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  10. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e, E-mail: gcarval@ipen.br, E-mail: ftgasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  11. A high power, Coated Particle Fuel Compact Radioisotope Heat Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2001-02-01

    A Coated Particle Fuel Compact, Radioisotope Heater Unit (CPFC-RHU) is proposed, which is capable of generating thermal power in excess of 27 W. This power output is more than four times that of a Hexa-RHU, which generates only six watts of thermal power. The design of the CPFC-RHU is identical to that of the Hexa-RHU, except that the six Pt-30Rh clad fuel pellets and the POCO graphite support in the latter are replaced with single-sized, ZrC coated, 238PuO2 fuel particles ~500 μm in diameter. In addition to fully retaining the helium gas generated by the radioactive decay of the fuel, the CPFC offers promise for enhanced safety. Thermal analyses of the CPFC-RHU show that while the Hexa-RHU is suitable for use in a radioisotope power system (RPS) operating at a converter hot-side temperature of 473 K, the CPFC-RHU could also be used at higher temperatures of 773 K and 973 K with a thermal efficiency >60%. Even at a 473 K converter hot-side temperature, the CPFC-RHU offers higher thermal efficiency (>90%) than the Hexa-RHU (~75%). The CPFC-RHU final design provides constant temperature, with almost uniform radial heat flux to the converter, for enhanced performance, better integration, and higher overall efficiency of the RPS. The present CPFC-RHU fills a gap in the power needs for future space missions requiring electric power of 1-15 W, from a single RPS. .

  12. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin

    2008-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP was designed for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator, with a 850 °C heater head temperature. The VCHP turns on with a ΔT of 30 °C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 °C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator ΔT was roughly 70 °C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.

  13. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  14. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Adelaide R.V., E-mail: madelaide@fumec.br [Universidade Fundacao Mineira de Educacao e Cultura (FUMEC), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Construcao Civil, Meio Ambiente; Barbosa, Ana Flavia S.; Ruckert, Gabriela V., E-mail: mariavasc@unilestemg.br [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Engenharia Industrial; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  15. Adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} ions onto NaA and NaX zeolites: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nibou, D., E-mail: dnibou@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences et Genie des Materiaux, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Mekatel, H.; Amokrane, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences et Genie des Materiaux, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Barkat, M. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Draria, B.P. 43, 16003 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Trari, M. [Laboratoire de stockage et de Valorisation des Energies Renouvelables, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-01-15

    The adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} onto NaA and NaX zeolites was investigated. The samples were synthesized according to a hydrothermal crystallization using aluminium isopropoxide (Al[OCH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 3}) as a new alumina source. The effects of pH, initial concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models were applied and the adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The uptake distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) indicated that the Zn{sup 2+} removal was the highest at minimum concentration. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The negative values of standard enthalpy of adsorption revealed the exothermic nature of the adsorption process whereas the negative activation entropies reflected that no significant change occurs in the internal structure of the zeolites solid matrix during the sorption of Zn{sup 2+}. The negative values of Gibbs free energy were indicative of the spontaneity of the adsorption process. Analysis of the kinetic and rate data revealed that the pseudo second-order sorption mechanism is predominant and the intra particle diffusion was the determining step for the sorption of zinc ions. The obtained optimal parameters have been applied to wastewater from the industrial zone (Algeria) in order to remove the contained zinc effluents.

  16. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated.

  17. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombigit, L.; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  18. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-22

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  19. The scrapers of obsidian from Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Typology and tools function with the application of the Sem, PIXE and NAA techniques; Los raspadores de obsidiana del senorio de Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Tipologia y funcion de herramientas con la aplicacion de tecnicas de SEM, PIXE y NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde R, S.V.; Mandujano A, C

    2000-07-01

    In the last 50 years have been enormous changes and the archaeology has been benefited with the technology development, as computation, the advancements in nuclear physics, the electron microscopy, the particle accelerator and the DNA analysis. As first approach to studied material it was realized in cabinet the morphological and technological analysis to establish a typology and to know the manufacturer process of the scrapers (tool used for to scrape a cavity after cutting its lance-shaping leaves at the maguey core obtaining so the sap commonly named hydromel at the Hidalgo state region in Mexico). On the other hand the studies which carried out in the ININ consist in the functional analysis of use traces in scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and stereoscopic to know about the type of work which were addressed the scrapers. Also were carried out the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with the purpose to know the obsidian site which was supplied the Dominion population. (Author)

  20. NAA与BA对康乃馨愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of NAA and BA on Callus Induction of Dianthus Caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允威; 刁毅

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, effects of NAA and BA on callus induction of Dianthus Caryophyllus was studied to provide the theoretical basis for tissue culture of Dianthus Cao'ophyllus. As a result, the media with NAA or BA was in favor of the induction of callu, while media adding NAA 0.2 mg/L and BA 2 mg/L was the best hormone combination, induction rate was best, and callus grew well.%文章主要研究了NAA与BA对康乃馨愈伤组织诱导的影响,结果表明:单独使用NAA或BA时,能够诱导出愈伤组织;NAA浓度为0.2mg/L,BA浓度为2mg/L时,产生愈伤组织比例最高,生长状态最好。

  1. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Atmospheric and Surface Exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) powered airship for the near surface exploration of Titan was evaluated. The analysis did not consider the complete mission only the operation of the airship within the atmosphere of Titan. The baseline airship utilized two ASRG systems with a total of four general-purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. Hydrogen gas was used to provide lift. The ASRG systems, airship electronics and controls and the science payload were contained in a payload enclosure. This enclosure was separated into two sections, one for the ASRG systems and the other for the electronics and payload. Each section operated at atmospheric pressure but at different temperatures. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the surface of Titan based on the available power from the ASRGs. The atmospheric conditions on Titan were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Titan surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the flight altitude and payload mass and volume.

  2. Long Life 600W Hall Thruster System for Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) offers the prospect for a variety of new science missions by enabling use of Hall Effect propulsion in the outer solar system,...

  3. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): A Near-Term Approach to Nuclear Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  4. Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2004-02-01

    Three Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters (CTCs) are optimized for potential use in Multi-Mission Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (MM-ARPS) for electrical powers up to 1 kWe, or even higher, in support of 7-10 year missions. The peak efficiencies of these CTCs of 9.43% to 14.32% are 40% to 110% higher than that of SiGe in State-of-the-Art (SOA) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Such high efficiencies would significantly reduce the amount of 238PuO2 fuel and the total system mass for a lower mission cost. Each CTC is comprised of a SiGe top unicouple that is thermally, but not electrically, coupled to a bottom unicouple with one of the following three choices of thermoelectric materials: (a) p-leg of TAGS-85 and n-leg of 2N-PbTe (b) p-leg of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and n-leg of CoSb3; and (c) segmented p-leg of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Zn4Sb3 and n-leg of CoSb3. The length of the top and bottom unicouples is 10 mm, but the cross-sectional areas of the n- and p-legs of the unicouples are optimized for maximum efficiency operation. They vary with the thermal power inputs of 1, 2, and 3 Wth per SiGe unicouple, and the heat rejection temperature of 375 K, 475 K, and 575 K, from the bottom unicouple. Such geometrical optimization is at nominal hot shoe temperature of 1273 K for the SiGe unicouple and cold shoe temperature of either 780 K or 980 K, depending on the materials of the bottom unicouples. The hot shoe temperature of the bottom unicouples is 20 K lower than the cold shoe of the top SiGe unicouple, but the rate of heat input is the same as the rate of heat rejection from the top unicouple. The present results are conservative as they assume a contact resistance of 150 μΩ-cm2 per leg for the top and the bottom unicouples in the CTCs; however, decreasing this resistance to 50 μΩ-cm2 per leg could increase the current efficiency estimates by an additional 1 - 2 percentage points.

  5. ARAS: an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing a safe environment for radiation workers but also to ensure accuracy of dispensed radioactivity and an efficient workflow. For this purpose, we have designed ARAS, an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes with particular focus on fluorine-18 (18F). Methods The key to the system is the combina...

  6. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the e...

  7. NAA BA KT对麝香石竹不定芽形成的影响%The Effect of NAA BA KT on the Forming of the Adventitious Bud of Dianthus Caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新祥

    2001-01-01

    研究NAA,BA,KT对麝香石竹茎段外植体不定芽形成的影响.结果表明它们都能有效地诱导麝香石竹茎段外植体不定芽的形成,其中以BA诱导的芽的分化频率最高,生长素和细胞分裂素配合能进一步提高芽的分化频率.BA在高频率诱导不定芽形成的同时,对分化芽的伸长生长、鲜干重的增长、干重百分率的提高和叶绿素水平的增加均有明显的促进作用,而KT,NAA则不然.

  8. Personal reflections on the highlights and changes in radiation and radioisotope measurement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robin P.; Lee, Kyoung O.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the recent changes that the authors have perceived in the use of radiation and radioisotope measurement applications. The first change is that due to the increased use of Monte Carlo simulation which has occurred from a normal evolutionary process. This is due in large part to the increased accuracy that is being obtained by the use of detector response functions (DRFs) and the simultaneous increased computational efficiency that has become available with these DRFs, the availability of a greatly improved weight windows variance reduction method, and the availability of inexpensive computer clusters. This first change is a happy one. The other change that is occurring is in response to recent terrorist activities. That change is the replacement or major change in the use of long-lived radioisotopes in radioisotope measurement and other radioisotope source applications. In general this can be done by improving the security of these radioisotope sources or by replacing them altogether by using machine sources of radiation. In either case one would like to preclude altogether or at least minimize the possibility of terrorists being able to obtain radioisotopes and use them for clandestine purposes.

  9. Radioisotope tracer study in a sludge hygienization research irradiator (SHRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Thýn, J; Zitný, R; Bhatt, B C

    2001-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer study has been carried out in a batch type sludge hygienization research irradiator with flow from top to bottom, the objective being to measure flow rate, circulation and mixing times and to investigate the hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator for identifying the cause(s) of malfunction. A stimulus-response technique with NH4(82)Br as a tracer was used to measure the above parameters. Experiments were carried out at three different flow rates, i.e 1.0, 0.64 and 0.33 m3/min. Three combined models based on a set of differential equations are proposed and used to simulate the measured tracer concentration curves. The obtained parameters were used to estimate dead volume and analyse hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator. The nonlinear regression problem of model parameter estimation was solved using the Marquardt-Levenberg method. The measured flow rate was found to be in good agreement with the values shown by the flow meter. The circulation times were found to be half of the mixing times. A simple approach for estimation of dose based on a known vertical dose-rate profile inside the irradiator is presented. About one-fourth of the volume of the irradiator was found to be dead at lower flow rates and this decreased with increase in flow rate. At higher flow rates, a semi stagnant volume was found with slow exchange of flow between the active and dead volumes.

  10. Radioisotope tracer study in a sludge hygienization research irradiator (SHRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, H.J. E-mail: hjpant@aspsara.barc.ernet.in; Thyn, J.; Zitny, R.; Bhatt, B.C

    2001-01-15

    A radioisotope tracer study has been carried out in a batch type sludge hygienization research irradiator with flow from top to bottom, the objective being to measure flow rate, circulation and mixing times and to investigate the hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator for identifying the cause(s) of malfunction. A stimulus-response technique with NH{sup 82}{sub 4}Br as a tracer was used to measure the above parameters. Experiments were carried out at three different flow rates, i.e 1.0, 0.64 and 0.33 m{sup 3}/min. Three combined models based on a set of differential equations are proposed and used to simulate the measured tracer concentration curves. The obtained parameters were used to estimate dead volume and analyse hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator. The nonlinear regression problem of model parameter estimation was solved using the Marquardt-Levenberg method. The measured flow rate was found to be in good agreement with the values shown by the flow meter. The circulation times were found to be half of the mixing times. A simple approach for estimation of dose based on a known vertical dose-rate profile inside the irradiator is presented. About one-fourth of the volume of the irradiator was found to be dead at lower flow rates and this decreased with increase in flow rate. At higher flow rates, a semi stagnant volume was found with slow exchange of flow between the active and dead volumes.

  11. Radioisotope studies of mucociliary system function in otorhinolaryngology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rossi, G. [Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    An `excursus` on the Nuclear Medicine methods at present available for the study of mucociliary system function in otorhinolaryngology is reported. To this end, ostoscintigraphy and rhinosctinigraphy prove to be exquisitely sensitive techniques. Otoscintigraphy is useful for pre-operative studies in the patients who are planned to undergo tympanoplasty for dry tympanic perforations. Rhinoscintigraphy is regarded as the most affordable and sound method to evaluate mucociliary system function in rhinopathies. It is also suggested for the pre- and post-operative assessment of polypectomy. Hence, otorhinolaryngology radioisotope methods deserve to be extensively dealt with in Nuclear Medicine treatises. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Autor gibt einen Ueberblick ueber nuklear-medizinische Verfahren, die heutzutage fuer funktionelle Untersuchungen des mukoziliaren Systems in der HNO-Heilkunde zur Verfuegung stehen. Die Otoszintigraphie sowie die Rhinoszintigraphie erweisen sich in diesem Zusammenhang als Methoden mit einer ueberaus hohen Empfindlichkeit. Bei Patienten, die wegen einer Trommelfellperforation zur Trommelfellplastik vorgesehen sind, bewaehrt sich die Otoszintigraphie fuer praeoperative Untersuchungen. Die Rhinoszintigraphie wird bei den unterschiedlichsten Nasenerkrankungen als die rationellste und wirksamste Methode zur funktionellen Beurteilung des mukoziliaren Systems angesehen. Darueber hinaus wird sie fuer die praeoperative und postoperative Untersuchung bei Polypenexstirpationen empfohlen. Deshalb sollte den Methoden der Radioisotopenuntersuchungen in der HNO-Heilkunde ein hoeherer Stellenwert eingeraeumt werden. (orig.)

  12. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, R. L.; Goebel, C. J.; Amos, W. R.

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al., (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met.

  14. An Advanced Turbo-Brayton Converter for Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarola, Mark V.; Izenson, Michael G.; Breedlove, Jeffrey J.; O'Connor, George M.; Ketchum, Andrew C.; Jetley, Richard L.; Simons, James K.

    2005-02-01

    Past work has shown that Brayton power converters are an attractive option for high power, long-duration space missions. More recently, Creare has shown that Brayton technology could be scaled with high efficiency and specific power to lower power levels suitable for radioisotope power conversion systems. Creare is currently leading the development of an advanced turbo-Brayton converter under NASA's Prometheus Program. The converter design is based on space-proven cryocooler technologies that have been shown to be safe; to provide long, maintenance-free lifetimes; and to have high reliability, negligible vibration emittance, and low EMI/EMC. The predicted performance of a converter at the beginning of life is greater than 20% (including electronic inefficiencies and overhead) with a converter specific power of greater than 8 We/kg for a test unit and greater than 15 We/kg for a flight unit. The degradation in performance over a 14-year mission lifetime is predicted to be negligible, and the primary life limiting factor is not expected to be an issue for greater than twice the mission duration. Work during the last year focused on the material and fabrication issues associated with a high temperature turbine and a lightweight recuperator, and the performance issues associated with the high-temperature insulation and power conversion electronics. The development of the converter is on schedule. Thermal vacuum testing to demonstrate a technology readiness level of 5 is currently planned for 2006.

  15. Light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Rinehart, G. H.; Herrera, A.; Lopez, B.; Lynch, C.; Moniz, P.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a 238PuO2-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed 238PuO2 fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s.

  16. Toward high performance radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems using spectral control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiawa; Chan, Walker; Stelmakh, Veronika; Celanovic, Ivan; Fisher, Peter

    2016-12-01

    This work describes RTPV-PhC-1, an initial prototype for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system using a two-dimensional photonic crystal emitter and low bandgap thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell to realize spectral control. We validated a system simulation using the measurements of RTPV-PhC-1 and its comparison setup RTPV-FlatTa-1 with the same configuration except a polished tantalum emitter. The emitter of RTPV-PhC-1 powered by an electric heater providing energy equivalent to one plutonia fuel pellet reached 950 °C with 52 W of thermal input power and produced 208 mW output power from 1 cm2 TPV cell. We compared the system performance using a photonic crystal emitter to a polished flat tantalum emitter and found that spectral control with the photonic crystal was four times more efficient. Based on the simulation, with more cell areas, better TPV cells, and improved insulation design, the system powered by a fuel pellet equivalent heat source is expected to reach an efficiency of 7.8%.

  17. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin

    2008-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP turns on with a delta T of 30 C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator delta T was roughly 70 C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.

  18. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  19. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickles, Robert Jerome [Univ of Wisconsin

    2014-06-19

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatly reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace, allowing

  20. Using a non-radioisotopic, quantitative TRAP-based me thod detecting telomerase activities in human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A non-radioisotopic, quantitative TRAP-based telom erase activity assay was established mainly by using SYBR Green-I staining instead of radioisotope. Comparing with conventional radioisotope based method, it was better in reproducibility and accuracy. Using this method, we found telomerase activities were absent in normal human liver cells, while detected in all of four human hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7404, SMMC-7721, QGY-7903 and HCCM) without significant differences.

  1. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Rui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Results Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ, sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. Conclusions This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible

  2. Current status of production and research of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenarjo, Sunarhadijoso; Tamat, Swasono R. [Center for Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2000-10-01

    The use of radioactive preparation in Indonesia has sharply increased during the past years, indicated by increase of the number of companies utilizing radioisotopes during 1985 to 1999. It has been clearly stressed in the BATAN's Strategic Plan for 1994-2014 that the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals is one of five main industrial fields within the platform of the Indonesian nuclear industry. Research programs supporting the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals as well as development of production technology are undertaken by the Research Center for Nuclear Techniques (RCNT) in Bandung and by the Radioisotope Production Center (RPC) in Serpong, involving cooperation with other research center within BATAN, universities and hospitals as well as overseas nuclear research institution. The presented paper describes production and research status of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Indonesia after the establishment of P.T. Batan Teknologi in 1996, a government company assigned for activities related to the commercial application of nuclear technology. The reviewed status is divided into two short periods, i.e. before and after the Chairman Decree No. 73/KA/IV/1999 declaring new BATAN organizational structure. Subsequent to the Decree, all commercial requests for radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals are fulfilled by P.T. Batan Teknologi, while demands on novel radioactive preparations or new processing technology, as well as research and development activities should be fulfilled by the Center for the Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals (CDRR) through non-commercial arrangement. The near-future strategic research programs to response to dynamic public demand are also discussed. The status of research cooperation with JAERI (Japan) is also reported. (author)

  3. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations.

  4. Small Radioisotope Power System Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina; Bell, Mark; Oriti, Salvatore; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David; Duven, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer. A single ASC produces approximately 80 We making this system advantageous for small distributed lunar science stations. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with a passive balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with a passive balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. The single ASC with a passive balancer, simulated lunar lander test stand, and SCC were delivered to GRC and were tested as a system. The testing sequence at GRC included SCC fault tolerance, integration, electromagnetic interference (EMI), vibration, and extended operation testing. The SCC fault tolerance test characterized the SCCs ability to handle various fault conditions, including high or low bus power consumption, total open load or short circuit, and replacing a failed SCC card while the backup maintains control of the ASC. The integrated test characterized the behavior of the system across a range of operating conditions, including variations in cold-end temperature and piston amplitude, including the emitted vibration to both the sensors on the lunar lander and the lunar surface. The EMI test characterized the AC and DC magnetic and electric fields emitted by the SCC and single ASC. The vibration test confirms the SCCs ability to control the single ASC during launch. The extended operation test allows data to be collected over a period of thousands of hours to obtain long term performance data of the ASC with a passive balancer and the SCC. This paper will discuss the results of each of these tests.

  5. Radioisotope Productions for Medical Use with Accelerator Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Futoshi; Nagai, Yasuki; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Iwamoto, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    Various kinds of radioactive isotopes (RIs) are widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostics and therapy. Since the RIs are not usually present in the nature, they must be produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators. For instance, 99mTc, which is the most common RI used in diagnosis, is mainly produced by fission of highly enriched 235U (HEU) in nuclear reactors. However, use of the HEU is unfavorable in terms of nuclear security. Therefore, many methods without 235U have been studied in order to produce RIs for medical use; for example, thermal neutron capture, gamma disintegration, and proton induced reactions. We also have proposed an alternative method using accelerator neutrons besides the above methods. Technique producing high intense accelerator neutron beam as much as 1015 n/s is being developed and RI productions with the accelerator neutron have been done recently. The major advantages of the use of accelerator neutron are followings. 1) A wide variety of carrier-added and carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced using the neutrons, because a charge exchange reaction of a sample nucleus has a sizable cross section of 50 to 500 mb. 2) High transparency of neutron allows us to use a large amount of sample to co-produce other RIs by putting other samples behind the main sample in the beam direction. In this talk, we will show the features of RI productions with accelerator neutron which we have ever investigated and found, along with numerical results of RI yields calculated with Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-4.0).

  6. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabani, Gamal [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015 allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  7. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabani, Gamal [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences

    2016-10-28

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  8. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabani, Gamal [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  9. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Rusden Campus, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  10. Studies of copper transport in mammalian cells using copper radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    The trace element copper poses a major problem for all organisms. It is essential as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Using the copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t1/2 = 61 hr) we have developed a number of systems for studying copper transport in mammalian cells. These include investigation of copper uptake, copper efflux and ligand blot assays for Cu-binding proteins. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency disorder in humans. We have demonstrated that the Menkes protein is directly involved as a copper efflux pump in mammalian cells. Using cells overexpressing the Menkes protein we have provided the first biochemical evidence that this functions as a Cu translocating (across the membrane) P-type ATPase (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press). These studies were carried out using purified plasma membrane vesicles. We are now carrying out structure- function studies on this protein using targeted mutations and assaying using the radiocopper vesicle assay. Recently we have commenced studies on the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in copper transport and relationship of this to Alzheimers disease

  11. Scale-up of NaA zeolite membranes onα-Al2O3 hollow fibers by a secondary growth method with vacuum seeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanmei Liu; Xuerui Wang; Yuting Zhang; Yong He; Xuehong Gu

    2015-01-01

    NaA zeolite membranes were prepared by secondary growth method on the outer surface ofα-Al2O3 hollow fiber supports. Vacuum seeding method was used for planting zeolite seeds on the support surfaces. Hydrother-mal crystallization was then carried out in a synthesis solution with molar ratio of Al2O3:SiO2:Na2O:H2O=1:2:2:120 at 100 °C for 4 h. Effects of seeding conditions on preparation of hollow fiber NaA zeolite membranes were extensively investigated. Moreover, hollow fiber membrane modules with packing membrane areas of ca. 0.1 and 0.2 m2 were fabricated to separate ethanol/water mixture. It is found that the thickness of seed layer is obviously affected by seed suspension concentration, coating time and vacuum degree. Close-packing seed layer is required to obtain high-quality membranes. The optimized seeding conditions (seed suspension mass concentration of 0.5%–0.7%, coating time of 5 s and vacuum degree of 10 kPa) lead to dense NaA zeolite layer with a thickness of 6–8μm. Typically, an as-synthesized hollow fiber NaA zeolite membrane exhibits good pervaporation performance with a permeation flux of 7.02 kg·m−2·h−1 and separation factor N 10000 for sepa-ration of 90%(by mass) ethanol/water mixture at 75 °C. High reproducibility has been achieved for batch-scale production of hollow fiber NaA zeolite membranes by the hydrothermal synthesis approach.

  12. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J.C.G.G.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Campos, D.; Nogueira, P.R.; Damatto, S.R.; Pecequilo, B.R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were {sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m{sup 3} ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to {sup 125}I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y{sup -1} , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1} for workers. (author)

  13. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.; Campos, Daniela; Nogueira, Paulo R.; Damato, Sandra R.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/SP, and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in charcoal and paper filters) at the workplace during radioisotope production were {sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m{sup 3}), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum permissible values, excepting to {sup 125}I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y{sup -1}, below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1} for workers. (author)

  14. Characteristic X-rays induced by electrons and positrons from {beta}-emitting radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesta, M.A.; Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina); Plivelic, T.S. [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-11-01

    We have investigated the use of energetic electrons and positrons from low intensity {sup 90}Sr and {sup 22}Na radioactive sources respectively to produce characteristic radiation and compare the emission efficiencies of each kind of particle. A new proposed experimental set-up for radioisotope-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis is of the transparent source type and provides at least a ten-time increase in the intensity of characteristic X-rays emitted by the sample as compared to a standard radioactive source arrangement. Theoretically derived expressions for {beta}-particle penetration, transport and emission processes in a sample are presented, and experimental results of absolute characteristic X-ray yields induced by electrons and positrons from 31 pure chemical elements, from titanium to lead, have been included. The advantages of energetic {beta}-particles in comparison with other radiation sources are also discussed, in fact, a remarkable feature observed being that radiation yield changes by less than an order of magnitude across the whole range of the target atomic numbers herein considered. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Byung Jong

    2002-04-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting more interested in terms of on-line data acquisition and analysis for the validation of the numerical simulation models. The experiment using radiotracer becomes an important part of the method to solve the problems happening in coastal environment, as it supplies data with high confidence in the field. On the basis of the experience obtained from the researches for industrial application of radiotracer technology, KAERI is going to make its first step to the development of the radiotracer technology for costal environmental studies.

  16. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  17. Planning For Multiple NASA Missions With Use Of Enabling Radioisotope Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2013-02-01

    Since the early 1960’s the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have provided radioisotope power systems (RPS) to NASA as an enabling technology for deep space and various planetary missions. They provide reliable power in situations where solar and/or battery power sources are either untenable or would place an undue mass burden on the mission. In the modern era of the past twenty years there has been no time that multiple missions have been considered for launching from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the same year. The closest proximity of missions that involved radioisotope power systems would be that of Galileo (October 1989) and Ulysses (October 1990). The closest that involved radioisotope heater units would be the small rovers Spirit and Opportunity (May and July 2003) used in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission. It can be argued that the rovers sent to Mars in 2003 were essentially a special case since they staged in the same facility and used a pair of small launch vehicles (Delta II). This paper examines constraints on the frequency of use of radioisotope power systems with regard to launching them from Kennedy Space Center using currently available launch vehicles. This knowledge may be useful as NASA plans for its future deep space or planetary missions where radioisotope power systems are used as an enabling technology. Previous descriptions have focused on single mission chronologies and not analyzed the timelines with an emphasis on multiple missions.

  18. Feasibility Study of a Three-Stage Radioisotope-Powered Mars Ascent Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalpek, T. M.; Allen, R. E.; Guan, J. Y.; Rao, S. S.; Howe, S. D.

    Recent advancements in methods of housing radioisotopes at the Center for Space Nuclear Research have led to the concept of a radioisotope thermal rocket--a rocket powered by the accumulated heat of radioisotope decay. Heat energy from the decay can be accumulated over long periods of time in a material of high heat capacity to create a thermal capacitor. The capacitor can then be discharged at such a rate as to provide high power for short periods of time; in this case, the heat is transferred to a gas propellant. This paper explores the feasibility of using a radioisotope thermal rocket with in-situ atmospheric CO2 propellant to deliver a 10 kg payload from the Martian surface to a 200 km circular orbit about Mars. Models of heat transfer, gas dynamics, and ascent mechanics are constructed to test performance of different core materials and geometries. Of the configurations tested, the best simulation results fail to meet the altitude and velocity requirements by 12 km and 50 m/s respectively. The proximity to success indicates that the given models are capable of reaching orbital parameters if optimization algorithms and closed-loop guidance methods are employed. It is believed, however, that the current models underestimate expansion losses to the degree that if more realistic and computationally-intensive models are incorporated, the effect will definitively disprove the concept with currently available technology. Based on this preliminary research, radioisotope thermal rockets utilizing current technology are not capable of serving as Mars ascent vehicles.

  19. Reflections on the juridical implications of the medical use of radiations and radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Ana Celia P.P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito]. E-mails: anaceu2000@yahoo.com.br; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Memoria da Medicina - CEMMOR]. E-mail: ethel.mizrahy@yahoo.com; Campos, Tarcisio P. Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    The pacific use of radiation and radioisotopes for the society presents radiological risks, due its capacity to produce damage to environmental and human being, contrasting with its high economic and social benefits. In the face of the risk, juridical system leans over to reach the required regulations that implies in the balance between human and environmental security and the expected improvements of the medical nuclear techniques. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 tries to provide the normalization for the application of the nuclear energy and its radioisotopes. However, target as a strategically technology and due to its expansion, its regulations still deserves analyses and reflections. The present paper starts from the Constitution presenting the references about the theme and analyzing it. It is addressed the principle of the objective civil responsibility making analyses on the use of radiations and radioisotope on the medicine. It addresses the role of federal autonomy related to the 'MCT - Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia' with its accumulative functions in society, such as scientific and technologic development, education, and its own focalization. The recent opening of the monopoly for the production of radioisotopes for very short half-lives is also discussed. It makes a comparison between juridical aspects of Brazil with international system. The present article contributes to open same topics of discussions on the Brazilian juridical aspects involving radiations and radioisotopes application on medicine. (author)

  20. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  1. Determination and Certification of Multielements in 6 Biological Reference Materials by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Food safety has been a problem of global concern. The insufficient availability of certificated reference materials (CRM) used for food analysis has resulted in a lack of internal quality control in food

  2. Neutron Self-decay Characteristic Study on Big Sample by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Hong-chao; YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Zi-zhu; YANG; Wei; JIN; Xiang-chun; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>The advantages of the neutron activation analysis are non-destructive, multielement and high accuracy, but there are many difficulties on the study for the big sample so far. IAEA organized a CRP cooperative item to find the solutions for big sample analysis. In this study, we analyzed the horizontal beam neutron self-decay characteristics of in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) when it irradiates high purity zinc (Zn) and zirconium (Zr) plates.

  3. Nanocluster metal films as thermoelectric material for radioisotope mini battery unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Krasavin, A. V.; Tkalya, E. V.; Lebedinskii, Yu. Yu.; Vasiliev, O. S.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Kozlova, T. I.; Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the thermoelectric and structural properties of films based on metal nanoclusters (Au, Pd, Pt). The experimental results of the study of single nanoclusters' tunneling conductance obtained with scanning tunneling spectroscopy are presented. The obtained data allowed us to evaluate the thermoelectric power of thin film consisting of densely packed individual nanoclusters. It is shown that such thin films can operate as highly efficient thermoelectric materials. A scheme of miniature thermoelectric radioisotope power source based on the thorium-228 isotope is proposed. The efficiency of the radioisotope battery using thermoelectric converters based on nanocluster metal films is shown to reach values up to 1.3%. The estimated characteristics of the device are comparable with the parameters of up-to-date radioisotope batteries based on nickel-63.

  4. Contributions and Future of Radioisotopes in Medical, Industrial and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, G. L.; Dix, G. P.; Wahlquist, E. J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  5. Contributions and future of radioisotopes in medical, industrial and space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, G.L.; Dix, G.P.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  6. First measurement of radioisotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at an ion-guide separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, J.L.; Cochrane, E.C.A.; Evans, D.E.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Persson, J.R.; Richardson, D.S.; Tungate, G.; Zybert, L. [School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Cooper, T.G.; Grant, I.S.; Levins, J.M.G.; Pearson, M.R.; Wheeler, P.D. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Huhta, M.; Oinonen, M.; Penttilae, H.; Aeystoe, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, PL 35, Jyvaeskylae SF - 403 51 (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    The first successful application of an ion-guide separator (IGISOL) for collinear laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes has achieved an efficiency comparable with the best obtained with catcher-ionizer facilities. The ion beam energy spread was determined to be less than 6 eV, allowing laser fluorescence resonance signals for the {sup 140,142,144}Ba radioisotopes to be detected with high resolution and sensitivity. Applications of this technique to measuring nuclear properties of refractory elements and short lived isomers promises to be particularly advantageous. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  7. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes; Situacion actual y futura del empleo de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  8. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRI BRAHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  9. Determination of Br in blood of amateur runners using NAA and ITS correlation with adopted physical training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Lourenco, Thiago F.; Macedo, Denise V., E-mail: lazaroalessandro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: thiago_fl@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: denivevm@unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (LABEX/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Bioquimica do Exercicio

    2013-07-01

    Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the biosphere, in the human body is present in blood (as bromide), lungs, liver and hair. There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function and not enough information is available on bromine metabolism but, some studies report its use by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense and electrolytic balance. In this study the Br levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood that performing physical exercise at (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP-Brazil). The samples were collected from twenty six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, at rest. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil and were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. These results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities). The range established at rest for amateur runner (0.0040 - 0.0096 gL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (0.0074 - 0.0306 gL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training. (author)

  10. Application of NAA Method to Study Chromium Uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kalabegishvili, T L; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pomyakushina, E V; Pavlov, S S

    2002-01-01

    To study chromium uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans (Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from Columbia basalt rocks, USA) instrumental neutron activation analysis method was applied. It was established that chromate accumulation is dose-dependent and it is more intesive in the interval of concentrations of Cr(VI) (10-50 mg/l). At low concentrations of Cr(VI) (up to 50 mg/l) the most intensive formation of Cr(V) was also found (using ESR method). Besides, it was estimated that reduction from Cr(VI) to Cr(V) is faster process than the uptake of Cr(VI). According to ENAA measurements Cr(III), in constant to Cr(VI), is not accumulated in Arthrobacter oxydans cells up to concentration of 200 mg/l. Using epithermal neutron activation analysis the background levels of 17 major, minor and trace elements were determined in Arthrobacter oxydans.

  11. ELUCIDATION OF HYDRODESULFURIZATION AND HYDROGENATION MECHANISMS USING RADIOISOTOPE TRACER METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To meet the specification of sulfur and aromatic contents in diesel fuel, it is necessary for refiners to develop a new catalyst with high activity of hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation. In the present study, the properties of noble metal catalysts for hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation in the presence of sulfur compounds have been investigated. The hydrogenation activity of phenanthrene (PHE) on single noble metal and double noble metal catalysts—Pt/Al2O3, Pd/Al2O3 and Pd-Pt/Al2O3 in the presence of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was perforrned in a fixed bed flow reactor. The Pt based catalysts revealed the similar HDS activities and higher HYD activity compared with convertional Mo based ca-talysts. The maximum activity was obtained around 320 ℃ for both catalyst types. The Pt based catalysts produced perhydrophenanthrene as a major product at the maximum activity in the hydrogenation of PHE while the Mo based catalysts produced octahydrophenanthrene.   A  35S radioisotope pulse tracer method (35S RPTM) was used to estimate the behavior of sulfur on the working catalysts and to clarity the differences between Pt and Mo based catalysts. Very little amount of labile sulfur was accumulated on the Pt and Pd catalysts in the HDS of [35S]DBT (PtS0.25 or PdS0.25). This indicates that the mechanism of DBT HDS on noble metal catalysts is significantly different from that on conventional Mo based catalysts where Mo is present as MoS2 less than 60% of which can be labile in the case of Co-Mo/Al2O3.   Another Ru-Cs/Al2O3 catalysts were also prepared and the behavior of sulfur on the working catalyst was compared with those of Mo based catalysts and Pt and Pd catalysts. The values of labile sulfur in the HDS reaction for Ru-Cs catalysts approximately correspond to RuS0.5-0.74. These amounts of labile sulfur are much higher than those for Pt and Pd catalysts. The result suggests that the oxidation state of Ru species is present between the oxidation states

  12. Brachytherapy on restenosis. {sup 32}P radioisotope in animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E.; Cocca, C.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry; Croci, M.; Guzman, L.

    2000-05-01

    Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope ({sup 32}P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by

  13. The study on the adaptation for regulation - the permission of a radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Il; Choi, Won Seok; Jung, Yong Moon [Gallup Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-15

    The restriction -the permission of a radioisotope keeps satisfaction with almost parts for example, awareness, observance and so on. Moreover two concepts are considered fully -too strict about certain specific control rules and needed more discriminated application standards to each organization related to KINS, it's preserved and controlled properly even if the penalties are downsized.

  14. The radioisotope complex project “RIC-80” at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panteleev, V. N., E-mail: vnp@pnpi.spb.ru; Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Moroz, F. V.; Molkanov, P. L.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Volkov, Yu. M. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute” PNPI, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The high current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. The project development of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80 has been completed. The RIC-80 complex is briefly discussed in this paper. The combination of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device, available at one of the new target stations for on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes, is explored in greater detail. The results of target and ion source tests for a mass-separator method for the production of high purity radioisotopes {sup 82}Sr and {sup 223,224}Ra are also presented.

  15. Summary, the 20th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    For advancement of radioisotope in vitro tests such as radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee of Japan Radioisotope Association has conducted the yearly quality control survey for the test facilities in Japan since 1978. This is the summary of the 20th survey in 1998 where non-radioisotope tests like enzyme-immunoassay were involved as well. The survey was done for 143 facilities: 20 national and public university hospitals, 18 private university hospitals, 8 national hospitals, 13 public hospitals, 21 private hospitals, 41 hygienic laboratories and 22 manufacturers of reagents. Facilities examined intra- and between day-reproducibility, freeze-thaw effect and time change of the measured values on the same samples. Assays were for: growth hormone (h), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating h, luteinizing h, prolactin, thyroid stimulating h, triiodothyronines, thyroxines, thyroxine binding protein, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagons, gastrin, testosterones, estradiol, progesterone, gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandorosterone sulfate, renin, IgE, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA (125, 19-9 and 15-3), prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}2-microglobulin, ferritin, and neuron specific enolase. There was no great difference between this and last survey results although tendency of improvement was recognized. There were problems to be solved from the standpoint of clinical practice. (K.H.)

  16. Radioisotopic methods for the study of bone sarcoma and soft tissue neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotopic methods are widely applied to investigations of bone sarcoma and soft tissue neoplasms. We have at our disposal molecules with osseous, tumoral or vascular tropism. Their use, as single agents or combination, is helpful in positive and differential diagnosis and provides nosological informations. They are also useful in treatment monitoring and in long-term follow-up.

  17. First measurement of radioisotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at an ion-guide separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, JL; Billowes, J; Campbell, P; Cochrane, ECA; Cooper, TG; Dendooven, P; Evans, DE; Griffith, JAR; Grant, IS; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Levins, JMG; Oinonen, M; Pearson, MR; Penttila, H; Persson, B.L.; Richardson, DS; Tungate, G; Wheeler, PD; Zybert, L; Aysto, J

    1997-01-01

    The first successful application of an ion-guide separator (IGISOL) for collinear laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes has achieved an efficiency comparable with the best obtained with catcher-ionizer facilities. The ion beam energy spread was determined to be less than 6 eV, allowing laser fluoresce

  18. The use of radioisotopes in medicine and medical research, Australia 1947-73

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korszniak, N

    1994-12-01

    On March 31, 1994, an article appeared in the Melbourne Age claiming that after the Second World War `hundreds of people were injected with radioactive materials in medical experiments that continued in Australian hospitals until the 1960s. Similar reports subsequently appeared in other newspapers and on the television and radio news. The archival records held at the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) pertaining to the medical uses of radioisotopes during the period 1947-1973 have been examined to ascertain the nature of radioisotope use, and in the case of experimental procedures, any ethical considerations. The material examined indicates that the distribution and medical use of radioactive isotopes was stringently controlled by the Radio-isotope Standing Committee (established by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 1947 to oversee this area) until its disbandment in 1973, when the responsibility for regulation of the use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes in Australia passed to the Therapeutic Goods Administration. A database, showing details of over 500 radioisotope use in Australia between 1947-1973 is given in Appendix III . (author) refs., tabs.

  19. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  20. 78 FR 15009 - Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope Germanium-68 AGENCY... comment and information from the public to assist in its consideration of DOE withdrawal from the... summary, DOE's evaluation will include consideration of: a demonstrable private capability to produce...

  1. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel [Widetronix Corp., Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Spencer, M. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P{sup +}N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH{sup 3}{sub x}) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm{sup 2}. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6 }cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P{sup +}N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  2. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health; Produccion de radioisotopos para aplicaciones en la salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators, the radio lanthanides: {sup 151}Pm, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 161}Tb, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 131}I and the {sup 32}P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the {sup 99m}Tc and the {sup 188}Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  3. A multi-functional electronic program for the management of radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchot, Nathalie; Santary, William

    2008-05-01

    Everyone will agree that specialized computer programs have done away with the many tedious tasks associated with manually keeping track of radioisotopes. Enhanced electronic programs have virtually cut the time of managing radioisotopes. Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada's (AAFC) program for the management of radioisotopes, is somewhat different from most electronic programs. It is divided into three levels of management that are dependent on the roles that a user might have when applying the application. These roles include the Departmental Radiation Safety Officer (DRSO), Radiation Safety Officer (RSO), and authorized user, which meets the requirements of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The DRSO and authorized AAFC Radiation Safety Committee members have access to the first level of management. This is the highest level of control, and only the DRSO has permission to add a nuclear substance to the system with the approval of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). This level of management is also responsible for adding authorized users, locations, and managing the Internal Use Permits. The second level of management is for site-specific RSOs. They have access to all information regarding their center of activity, but they cannot change Internal Use Permit data. The RSOs can reset passwords, authorize new users, control the maximum activity limit, etc., but are limited to viewing only the information that relates to their internal use permit. However, they retain significant control within the permit. The third and last level of management is for authorized users who can access the radioisotope order-distribution-disposal section, waste or storage containers creation file, and leak/wipe test procedures. As in the case of the DRSO and RSO, they also have access to all reports and inventories for their center of activity but they cannot change Internal Use Permit or inventories data. This program has proven to be a valuable tool for scientific staff

  4. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  5. Visualization of Uptake of Mineral Elements and the Dynamics of Photosynthates in Arabidopsis by a Newly Developed Real-Time Radioisotope Imaging System (RRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Iwata, Ren; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2016-04-01

    Minerals and photosynthates are essential for many plant processes, but their imaging in live plants is difficult. We have developed a method for their live imaging in Arabidopsis using a real-time radioisotope imaging system. When each radioisotope,(22)Na,(28)Mg,(32)P-phosphate,(35)S-sulfate,(42)K,(45)Ca,(54)Mn and(137)Cs, was employed as an ion tracer, ion movement from root to shoot over 24 h was clearly observed. The movements of(22)Na,(42)K,(32)P,(35)S and(137)Cs were fast so that they spread to the tip of stems. In contrast, high accumulation of(28)Mg,(45)Ca and(54)Mn was found in the basal part of the main stem. Based on this time-course analysis, the velocity of ion movement in the main stem was calculated, and found to be fastest for S and K among the ions we tested in this study. Furthermore, application of a heat-girdling treatment allowed determination of individual ion movement via xylem flow alone, excluding phloem flow, within the main stem of 43-day-old Arabidopsis inflorescences. We also successfully developed a new system for visualizing photosynthates using labeled carbon dioxide,(14)CO2 Using this system, the switching of source/sink organs and phloem flow direction could be monitored in parts of whole shoots and over time. In roots,(14)C photosynthates accumulated intensively in the growing root tip area, 200-800 µm behind the meristem. These results show that this real-time radioisotope imaging system allows visualization of many nuclides over a long time-course and thus constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of various physiological phenomena.

  6. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING AN ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Raymond Sigg, R

    2006-08-14

    NAA using {sup 252}Cf is used to address important areas of applied interest at SRS. Sensitivity needs for many of the applications are not severe; analyses are accomplished using a 21 mg {sup 252}Cf NAA facility. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, it offers strong advantages for samples in difficult-to-digest matrices when its sensitivity is sufficient. Following radiochemical separation with stable carrier addition, chemical yields for a number methods are determined by neutron activation of the stable carrier. In some of the cases where no suitable stable carriers exist, the source has been used to generate radioactive tracers to yield separations.

  7. Neutron Activation Analysis of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) - With Emphasis on Geological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosch, Heinz-Günter

    2016-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been the analytical method of choice for rare earth element (REE) analysis from the early 1960s through the 1980s. At that time, irradiation facilitieswere widely available and fairly easily accessible. The development of high-resolution gamma-ray detectors in the mid-1960s eliminated, formany applications, the need for chemical separation of the REE from the matrix material, making NAA a reliable and effective analytical tool. While not as precise as isotopedilution mass spectrometry, NAA was competitive by being sensitive for the analysis of about half of the rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu). The development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry since the 1980s, together with decommissioning of research reactors and the lack of installation of new ones in Europe and North America has led to the rapid decline of NAA.

  8. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  9. Performance of Silicon Betavoltaic Device by using a Ni-63 Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. K.; Lee, N. H.; Lee, J. S.; Cheong, Y. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Semiconductor betavoltaic converters use energy from radioisotope sources to generate electricity for remote applications requiring a long life power. Radioisotopes emitting {beta} radiation such as Ni-63 and tritium (H-3) have been used as fuel for low power batteries. Significant advantages of a high energy density, the insensitivity to climates and a longer life than chemical batteries make them attractive candidates for nano-power sources. The betavoltaic effect is the generation of a potential due to a net positive charge flow of an electron-induced electron-hole production (EHP). Because the resulting current is from an n-type to a p-type semiconductor, the net power can be extracted. Hence, the objective of this study is to provide the feasibility of nuclear beta sources for supplying a power to realistic MEMS devices.

  10. Recovery of radioisotopes from nuclear waste for radio-scintillator-luminescence energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bennun, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of the light weight radioisotopes (LWR) 89Sr/90Sr, from the expended nuclear bars in the Fukushima reactor, should have decreased the extent of contamination during the course of the accident. 89Sr applications could pay for the extraction of 89Sr/90Sr from nuclear residues. Added value could be obtained by using 89Sr for cancer treatments. Known technologies could be used to relate into innovative ways LWR, to obtain nuclear energy at battery scale. LWR interact by contact with scintillators converting \\beta-radiation into light-energy. This would lead to manufacturing scintillator lamps which operate independently of other source of energy. These lamps could be used to generate photoelectric energy. Engineering of radioisotopes scintillator photovoltaic cells, would lead to devices without moving parts.

  11. Radioisotope thermal photovoltaic application of the GaSb solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M. D.; Horne, W. E.; Day, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An examination of a RTVP (radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic) conceptual design has shown a high potential for power densities well above those achievable with radioisotopic thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems. An efficiency of 14.4 percent and system specific power of 9.25 watts/kg were predicted for a system with sixteen GPHS (general purpose heat source) sources operating at 1100 C. The models also showed a 500 watt system power by the strontium-90 isotope at 1200 C at an efficiency of 17.0 percent and a system specific power of 11.8 watts/kg. The key to this level of performance is a high-quality photovoltaic cell with narrow bandgap and a reflective rear contact. Recent work at Boeing on GaSb cells and transparent back GaAs cells indicate that such a cell is well within reach.

  12. Effect of amplified spontaneous emission on selectivity of laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'yachkov, A. B.; Gorkunov, A. A.; Labozin, A. V.; Mironov, S. M.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Firsov, V. A.; Tsvetkov, G. O.

    2016-06-01

    A significant deselecting effect of amplified spontaneous emission has been observed in the experiments on selective laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope according to the scheme 5d6s2 2D3/2 → 5d6s6p 4Fo5/2 (18505 cm-1) → 5d6s7s 4D3/2(37194 cm-1) → autoionisation state (53375 cm-1). The effect is conditioned by involvement of non-target isotopes from the lower metastable level 5d6s2 2D5/2(1994 cm-1) into the ionisation process. Spectral filtering of spontaneous emission has allowed us to significantly increase the selectivity of the photoionisation process of the radioisotope and to attain a selectivity value of 105 when using saturating light intensities.

  13. Novel decapeptides that bind avidly and deliver radioisotope to colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Abraham

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of targeted tumor therapy often utilizes an antibody, sometimes tagged with a tumor-ablating material such as radioisotope, directed against a specific molecule.This report describes the discovery of nine novel decapeptides which can be radioactively labeled, bind to, and deliver (32P to colon cancer cells. The decapeptides vary from one another by one to three amino acids and demonstrate vastly different binding abilities. The most avidly binding decapeptide can permanently deliver very high levels of radioisotope to the adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines at an efficiency 35 to 150 times greater than to a variety of other cell types, including cell lines derived from other types of cancer or from normal tissue.This experimental approach represents a new example of a strategy, termed peptide binding therapy, for the potential treatment of colorectal and other adenocarcinomas.

  14. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  15. Glue-sniffing as a cause of a positive radio-isotope brain scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, C.M.; Adams, F.G.

    1982-08-01

    Convulsions are a known complication of the acute intoxicant effects of solvent abuse. A radio-isotope brain scan done 9 months following status epilepticus secondary to toluene inhalation, in a previously normal school-boy, demonstrated several wedge-shaped areas of increased uptake, in both cerebral hemispheres, consistent with infarcts. It is worth remembering that a positive brain scan in a young person, with recent onset of epilepsy, may be due to glue-sniffing.

  16. Theoretical cross section calculations of medical 13N and 18F radioisotope using alpha induced reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, F.; Karpuz, N.; ćetin, B.

    2017-02-01

    In medical physics, radionuclides are needed to diagnose functional disorders of organs and to diagnose and treat many diseases. Nuclear reactions are significant for the productions of radionuclides. It is important to analyze the cross sections for much different energy. In this study, reactional cross sections calculations on 13N, 18F radioisotopes are with TALYS 1.6 nuclear reaction simulation code. Cross sections calculated and experimental data taken from EXFOR library were compared

  17. Nuclear energy in the service of biomedicine: the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's radioisotope program, 1946-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2006-01-01

    The widespread adoption of radioisotopes as tools in biomedical research and therapy became one of the major consequences of the "physicists' war" for postwar life science. Scientists in the Manhattan Project, as part of their efforts to advocate for civilian uses of atomic energy after the war, proposed using infrastructure from the wartime bomb project to develop a government-run radioisotope distribution program. After the Atomic Energy Bill was passed and before the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was formally established, the Manhattan Project began shipping isotopes from Oak Ridge. Scientists and physicians put these reactor-produced isotopes to many of the same uses that had been pioneered with cyclotron-generated radioisotopes in the 1930s and early 1940s. The majority of early AEC shipments were radioiodine and radiophosphorus, employed to evaluate thyroid function, diagnose medical disorders, and irradiate tumors. Both researchers and politicians lauded radioisotopes publicly for their potential in curing diseases, particularly cancer. However, isotopes proved less successful than anticipated in treating cancer and more successful in medical diagnostics. On the research side, reactor-generated radioisotopes equipped biologists with new tools to trace molecular transformations from metabolic pathways to ecosystems. The U.S. government's production and promotion of isotopes stimulated their consumption by scientists and physicians (both domestic and abroad), such that in the postwar period isotopes became routine elements of laboratory and clinical use. In the early postwar years, radioisotopes signified the government's commitment to harness the atom for peace, particularly through contributions to biology, medicine, and agriculture.

  18. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich, E-mail: phongphaeth.p@chula.ac.th; Nares, Chankow [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Hao, Quang Nguyen [Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, Ministry of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-01-22

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  19. NASA Glenn Research Center Support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    A high-efficiency radioisotope power system was being developed for long-duration NASA space science missions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed a flight contract with Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company to build Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs), with support from NASA Glenn Research Center. DOE initiated termination of that contract in late 2013, primarily due to budget constraints. Sunpower, Inc., held two parallel contracts to produce Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), one with Lockheed Martin to produce ASC-F flight units, and one with Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering unit "pathfinders" that are built to the flight design. In support of those contracts, Glenn provided testing, materials expertise, Government-furnished equipment, inspection capabilities, and related data products to Lockheed Martin and Sunpower. The technical support included material evaluations, component tests, convertor characterization, and technology transfer. Material evaluations and component tests were performed on various ASC components in order to assess potential life-limiting mechanisms and provide data for reliability models. Convertor level tests were conducted to characterize performance under operating conditions that are representative of various mission conditions. Despite termination of the ASRG flight development contract, NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) and continues investment in the technology, including the continuation of the ASC-E3 contract. This paper describes key Government support for the ASRG project and future tests to be used to provide data for ongoing reliability assessments.

  20. Test Program for Stirling Radioisotope Generator Hardware at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Bolotin, Gary S.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    Stirling-based energy conversion technology has demonstrated the potential of high efficiency and low mass power systems for future space missions. This capability is beneficial, if not essential, to making certain deep space missions possible. Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-W radioisotope power system. A variety of flight-like hardware, including Stirling convertors, controllers, and housings, was designed and built under the ASRG flight development project. To support future Stirling-based power system development NASA has proposals that, if funded, will allow this hardware to go on test at the NASA Glenn Research Center. While future flight hardware may not be identical to the hardware developed under the ASRG flight development project, many components will likely be similar, and system architectures may have heritage to ASRG. Thus, the importance of testing the ASRG hardware to the development of future Stirling-based power systems cannot be understated. This proposed testing will include performance testing, extended operation to establish an extensive reliability database, and characterization testing to quantify subsystem and system performance and better understand system interfaces. This paper details this proposed test program for Stirling radioisotope generator hardware at NASA Glenn. It explains the rationale behind the proposed tests and how these tests will meet the stated objectives.

  1. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, PuO2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium are separately prepared as cylindrical rods cladded with carbon/carbon composite (C/C and these rods are located in the subzones. In order to obtain the flattened power density, percentages of PuO2 in the mixture of UO2 and PuO2 in the subzones are adjusted in radial direction of the fuel zone. Time-dependent calculations are performed at 1000 MW thermal fission power (Pth for one hour using the BURN card. The neutronic results show that the investigated ADS has a high neutronic capability, in terms of medical radioisotope productions, spent fuel transmutation and energy multiplication. Moreover, a good quasiuniform power density is achieved in each material case. The peak-to-average fission power density ratio is in the range of 1.02–1.28.

  2. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich; Nares, Chankow; Hao, Quang Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  3. The Copper Radioisotopes: A Systematic Review with Special Interest to 64Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artor Niccoli Asabella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an important trace element in humans; it plays a role as a cofactor for numerous enzymes and other proteins crucial for respiration, iron transport, metabolism, cell growth, and hemostasis. Natural copper comprises two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu, and 5 principal radioisotopes for molecular imaging applications (60Cu, 61Cu, 62Cu, and 64Cu and in vivo targeted radiation therapy (64Cu and 67Cu. The two potential ways to produce Cu radioisotopes concern the use of the cyclotron or the reactor. A noncopper target is used to produce noncarrier-added Cu thanks to a chemical separation from the target material using ion exchange chromatography achieving a high amount of radioactivity with the lowest possible amount of nonradioactive isotopes. In recent years, Cu isotopes have been linked to antibodies, proteins, peptides, and nanoparticles for preclinical and clinical research; pathological conditions that influence Cu metabolism such as Menkes syndrome, Wilson disease, inflammation, tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance have been studied. We aim to discuss all Cu radioisotopes application focusing on 64Cu and in particular its form 64CuCl2 that seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability with chelators, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  4. Síntese de zeólita tipo NaA a partir de caulim para obtenção de zeólita 5A através de troca iônica Synthesis of NaA zeolites from kaolin for obtaining 5A zeolites through ion exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A síntese de zeólitas com o intuito de utilizá-las posteriormente como materiais adsorventes exige rigoroso controle das variáveis de processamento. Para cada tipo diferente de zeólita, existem variáveis de processo distintas para obtenção do tipo específico desejado. Neste trabalho os objetivos foram obter zeólita NaA partindo de caulim, para posteriormente obter zeólita 5A por meio de troca iônica com esta zeólita anteriormente sintetizada. Estas zeólitas, por sua vez, podem ser usadas como adsorventes altamente seletivos para adsorver, por exemplo, metais pesados de efluentes industriais. Os resultados obtidos foram satisfatórios, a metodologia utilizada mostrou-se eficiente. A partir do metacaulim comercial utilizado, obteve-se com sucesso zeólita tipo NaA, e por meio de trocas iônicas obteve-se zeólita 5A. A porcentagem de sódio trocada na zeólita final foi 61,4%.Zeolites synthesis as adsorbing materials requires accurate control of the variables. There are distinct process variables for obtaining specific desired types depending on each different kind of zeolite to be synthesized. This paper was aimed at obtaining NaA zeolites from kaolin in order to obtain zeolites A afterwards through ionic exchange with the previously synthesized zeolite. These zeolites can then be used as highly selective adsorbents to adsorb, for instance, heavy metals in industrial effluents. The results obtained were satisfactory, the methodology was efficient. From the commercial metakaolin used NaA zeolite was obtained successfully, and through ionic exchanges 5A zeolite was obtained. The exchangeable sodium percentage in the final zeolite was 61.4%.

  5. Radioisotopes in sedimentary study of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, Gennady; Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.

    2013-04-01

    Natural archives, such as lake or marine sediment, are widely used in erosion/sedimentation, water quality, climate change and eutrophication study alongside with the retrospective reanalysis of contaminants fluxes (trace metals, organic pollutants or radionuclides). In order to "read" information stored in sediment sequences a chronostatigraphic method have been developed and used since 1950s which is based upon variation of activity of 210Pb over the sediment profile, natural radioisotope of Uranium decay series with half-life 22 years, and hence valid for the last 100-150 years of recent sedimentation history. The 210Pb chronology is prone to be validated by other time-markers, such as artificial radionuclides globally dispersed after the nuclear weapons tests of 1960s or major accidents on NPP (the Chernobyl accident of 1986 or latest on the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011). In the last decade an intensive study using sediment cores collected from shelf and deep-sea areas in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea have been undertaken within the framework of a number of international research projects organized by IAEA and UNOPS-GEF and devoted to environmental problems of this enclosed, and therefore sensitive to environmental impact, marine systems. Elaborative analysis of the experimental data and sediment age calculation have been done by application of CRS and CIC dating models to unsupported 210Pb activity over the sediment profile. Measured in sediment 137Cs and 241Am clearly showed well resolved Bomb test and Chernobyl fallout peaks and were used as markers in order to corroborate radiometrically determined age of sediment. Geochronological reconstruction of the fallout radionuclides inventory, fluxes and accumulation rate in the sediment of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea by application of combined radiometric dating technique proved to be very consistent with the historical data of atmospheric fallout observations of that artificial radionuclides recorded worldwide

  6. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmd{sup mdx}/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA; Determinacao de elementos de relevancia clinica em tecidos biologicos de camundongos distroficos Dmd{sup mdx}/J por AAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina

    2012-07-01

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMD{sup mdx}/J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmd{sup mdx}/J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  7. A Novel Seeding Method of Interfacial Polymerization-Assisted Dip Coating for the Preparation of Zeolite NaA Membranes on Ceramic Hollow Fiber Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Ming; Xu, Zhen-Liang; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Xue, Shuang-Mei

    2016-09-28

    A novel seeding method combining interfacial polymerization (IP) technique with dip-coating operation was designed for directly coating nanosized NaA seed crystals (150 nm) onto the micrometer-sized α-Al2O3 hollow fiber support, in which the polyamide (PA) produced by IP acted as an effective medium to freeze and fix seed crystals at the proper position so that the controlled seed layer could be accomplished. While a coating suspension with only 0.5 wt % seed content was used, a very thin seed layer with high quality and good adhesion was achieved through dip coating twice without drying between, and the whole seeding process was operated at ambient conditions. The resulting zeolite NaA membranes not only exhibited high pervaporation (PV) performance with an average separation factor above 10000 and flux nearly 9.0 kg/m(2)·h in dehydration of 90 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 348 K but also demonstrated great reproducibility by testing more than eight batches of zeolite membranes. In addition, this seeding strategy could be readily extended to the preparation of other supported zeolite membranes for a wide range of separation applications.

  8. Constraining Water Fluxes Through the Streambed of a Semi-arid Losing Stream Using Natural Tracers: Heat and Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M. S.; Rau, G. C.; McCallum, A. M.; Meredith, K.; Acworth, I.

    2011-12-01

    Natural physical and chemical tracers of flow have different advantages and shortfalls based on their properties and the uncertainty related to variability in their source concentration. Each tracer integrates over a characteristic spatial-temporal scale depending on its decay or production rate and the flow velocity of the system. For instance heat tracing using diurnal temperature fluctuations will, at best, provide information about flow in the upper 1-2 m of the streambed before the signal is dampened below measurement resolution (Constantz et al. 2003). Conversely, radioisotopes used as tracers will integrate over increasing spatio-temporal scales for decreasing decay constants. Radioisotopes with comparatively slow decay rates will be less sensitive for resolving flow conditions on short spatio-temporal scales. Therefore, it is difficult to use these tracers in the streambed of losing systems because the radioactive decay is not discernible against the variability. Consequently, employing a combination of different tracers provides information on different parts of a given flow system. Comparing flow velocities derived from tracers integrating over different scales allows for separating the local hyporheic exchange from the regional groundwater recharge. A field experiment was carried out in a perennial section of the mostly ephemeral Maules Creek in NSW, Australia. Streambed temperature profiles were monitored at three sites along a 400 m stretch of the perennial reach. Streambed temperatures were recorded at 4 depths within one meter below the streambed. Water samples were collected from surface water, streambed and groundwater and analysed for stable water isotopes (18O and 2H) and radioisotopes (222Rn and 3H). The streambed heat profiles provided time series of surface water/groundwater exchange. Using this method it was found that the conditions were losing at all three sites with recharge rates varying between 0 and 0.4 m/d. 222Rn measurements in the

  9. Development of Transportation Package for Medical and Industrial Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is development of RI transport package and establishment of transportation system. This report describes the objective of project, necessaries, state of related technology, scope and results, proposal for application etc. The scope of the project consist of establishment of performance test system for type-A package for medical use, development of type-B package for industrial use and development of casting technology for DU shield and evaluation of shielding efficiency. The research results obtained from this project are expected to be utilized as a basic data for design, analysis, test and license of transport package.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF NaA ZEOLITE MEMBRANE FROM CLEAR SOLUTION AND ITS GAS PERMEATION PROPERTIES%澄清溶液中NaA型分子筛膜的合成及气体渗透性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓春; 刘杰; 朱兵; 房廉清; 杨维慎; 熊国兴; 林励吾

    1999-01-01

    @@ The use of zeolite membranes in separation or combined reaction and separation processes is very attractive. Advantages of using such a type of membranes include their ability to discriminate molecules based on the molecular size and their stability[1]. In the past ten years, most efforts were involved in the synthesis and permeation studies of MFI zeolite membrane[2, 3]. Recently, NaA zeolite membrane has attracted much attention because of its high potential in the dehydration of organic liquids[4]. However, few gas permeation results were reported[5]. Furthermore, most of the NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized from gel[4]. In this letter, the synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane from clear solution and its gas permeation properties are reported.

  11. A roadmap for the development and validation of coated particle fuel for future space radioisotope heater units (RHUs) and radioisotope power systems (RPSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2001-02-01

    In early 1999, coated particle fuel was identified as offering promising advancements in design flexibility, performance, specific mass and volume, as well as safety for future space radioisotope heater units (RHUs) and radioisotope power systems (RPSs). Subsequent study, conducted during Fiscal Year 1999, provided confidence that these potential benefits were substantial and demonstrable if a modest follow-on investigative test effort was pursued. This paper lays out a roadmap for both immediate and near-term decision making, as well as any full-scale development and validation of coated particle fuel undertaken for future space RHUs, and RPSs. In an effort to obtain adequate and timely information at a reasonable cost for immediate and near-term decision making, as well as any subsequent development, production, and application decisions, a four-phased regimen of testing is identified. The four phases of testing are: (1) Pre-Decisional Testing: (2) Pre-Production Analytical Verification Testing: (3) Production Quality Assurance Testing: and (4) Post-Production Safety Verification Testing. Although all four of these phases of testing are considered essential, the first two phases are especially important for immediate and near-term decisions to advance and pursue coated particle fuel for space RHUs and RPSs. The third and fourth phases of testing are primarily identified and included for completeness at this early stage. It is concluded that there is every reason to believe that the potential benefits of coated particle fuel can be readily demonstrated through a modest investigative test effort. If such an effort is pursued and proves successful, coated particle fuel could then be developed with assurance that its ultimate benefits would revolutionize the design and space use of future RHUs and RPSs. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a starting point for further discussions and more specific planning activities aimed at advancing coated particle fuel for

  12. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of {sup 14}C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of {sup 14}C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring {sup 14}C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting {sup 14}C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10{sup 4}. Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as {sup 3}H, and {sup 10}Be, and {sup 26}Al, are discussed. 70 refs.

  13. GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

  14. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Hong, S. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, O. D. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related competitive protein-binding methods began a little over 20 years ago as a cumbersome research methodology in a few specialized laboratories. Endocrinology has been greatly enriched by the new knowledge that has come as a direct result of RIA methods. Establishment of the taxol RIA system will be expected to develop RIA for drug monitoring. Scintillation proximity assay was useful since any separation step is not required, it has the advantage of dealing with multiple samples. The increased sensitivity of the new assay in determining HCV RT([{sup 125}I]dUTP) suggests that it would be worth investigating whether the system can be applied to analysis. [{sup 125}I] lodotyramine with 98.5% radiochemical purity. Optimal background counts was certificated using varied radioactivity of radionuclides. Appropriate standard curve was obtained from SPA method successively, and the concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by standard curve. The result concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by synthesized successively and purified by HPLC system. Hybridoma reducing monoclonal anti thyroglobulin antibodies titer is measured by ELISA. These studies play an important role in development of in vitro assay with radionuclides.

  15. Uranium Enrichment Analysis With Electromechanical Cooled HPGe Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Micro_trans_SPEC-100 portable high-resolution gamma-ray radioisotope identifier was used for the uranium enrichment analysis demonstration. Micro_trans_SPEC utilize stirling-cycle cooler and integrated detector, signal electronics and analysis

  16. Recoil-Implantation Of Multiple Radioisotopes Towards Wear Rate Measurements And Particle Tracing In Prosthetic Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Smith, Paul N.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Gladkis, Laura; Timmers, Heiko

    2011-06-01

    This study demonstrates a new method of radioisotope labeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene inserts in prosthetic joints for wear studies. The radioisotopes 97Ru, 100Pd, 100Rh, and 101mRh are produced in fusion evaporation reactions induced by 12C ions in a 92Zr target foil. The fusion products recoil-implant into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene plugs, machined to fit into the surface of the inserts. During laboratory simulations of the joint motion, a wear rate of the labeled polyethylene may be measured and the pathways of wear debris particles can be traced by detecting characteristic gamma-rays. The concentration profiles of the radioisotopes extend effectively uniformly from the polyethylene surface to a depth of about 4 μm. The multiplicity of labeling and the use of several gamma-ray lines aids with avoiding systematic measurement uncertainties. Two polyethylene plugs were labeled and one was fitted into the surface of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis, which had been worn in. Actuation over close to 100,000 cycles with a 900 N axial load and a 24° flexion angle removed (14±1)% of the gamma-ray activity from the plug. Most of this activity dispersed into the serum lubricant identifying this as the important debris pathway. Less than 1% activity was transferred to the femoral component of the prosthesis and the measured activity on the tibial tray was insignificant. Assuming uniform wear across the superior surface of the insert, a wear rate of (12±3) mm3/Megacycle was determined. This is consistent with wear rate measurements under similar conditions using other techniques.

  17. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  18. Development of the data base for a degradation model of a selenide RTG. [Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapfer, G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the evaluation of the materials used in a selenide radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). These materials are composed of n-type gadolinium selenide and n-type copper selenide. A three-fold evaluation approach is being used: (1) the study of the rate of change of the thermal conductivity of the material, (2) the investigation of the long-term stability of the material's Seebeck voltage and electrical resistivity under current and temperature gradient conditions, and (3) determination of the physical behavior and compatibility of the material with surrounding insulation at elevated temperatures. Programmatically, the third category of characteristic evaluation is being emphasized.

  19. Development of disposal technologies for radioactive waste generated from radioisotope users and research institutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    In order to safely dispose of a radioactive waste, which is generated from radioisotope users and research institutes, investigation of characteristics of the waste and conceptual design of disposal facility were carried out. As a result of investigating JAERI that the waste has mainly been stored, it became clear that radioactivities of 19 nuclides are important from the viewpoint of the safety of the disposal. And the result of the conceptual design of disposal facilities on the assumption of 3 kinds of sites, the differences on the safety could not be recognized in either case, though the installation depth to construct the facilities influenced the economical efficiency. (author)

  20. Cosmogenic and primordial radioisotopes in copper bricks shortly exposed to cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coarasa, I.; Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuestá, C.; García, E.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortíz de Solórzano, A.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2016-05-01

    Cosmogenic activation is the most common source of radioactivity in copper, being 60 Co the most significant because of its long half-life (5.27 y) and saturation activity at sea level of 1 mBq/kg. Copper bricks, which had been exposed to cosmic rays for 41 days after their casting, were used to replace the internal 10 cm of the lead shielding of a HPGe detector placed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. We describe the outcome of the new shielding and the cosmogenic and primordial radioisotopes observed.

  1. Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Galileo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Gary H.

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a (Pu-238)O2-fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a (Pu-238)O2-fuel pellet, a Pt-30 pct Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 134 heater units which will be used on the Galileo mission.

  2. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.) Scientific Computational Division, 416 Muramatsu, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tran, Hoai Nam [Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Div. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Arbie, Bakri [PT MOTAB Technology, Kedoya Elok Plaza Blok DA 12, Jl. Panjang, Kebun Jeruk, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  3. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Program Overview - A Focus on RPS Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS technologies and RPS system development, working closely with the Department of Energy. This paper provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status, its collaborations with potential RPS users, and the approach employed to maintain the readiness of RPS to support future NASA mission concepts.

  4. Sourceless formation evaluation. An LWD solution providing density and neutron measurements without the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, R.; Reichel, N. [Schlumberger, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2013-08-01

    For many years the industry has been searching for a way to eliminate the logistical difficulties and risk associated with deployment of radioisotopes for formation evaluation. The traditional gamma-gamma density (GGD) measurement uses the scattering of 662-keV gamma rays from a 137Cs radioisotopic source, with a 30.17-year half-life, to determine formation density. The traditional neutron measurement uses an Am-Be source emitting neutrons with an energy around 4 MeV, with a half-life of 432 years. Both these radioisotopic sources pose health, security, and environmental risks. Pulsed-neutron generators have been used in the industry for several decades in wireline tools and more recently in logging-while-drilling tools. These generators produce 14-MeV neutrons, many of which interact with the nuclei in the formation. Elastic collisions allow a neutron porosity measurement to be derived, which has been available to the industry since 2005. Inelastic interactions are typically followed by the emission of a variety of high-energy gamma rays. Similar to the case of the GGD measurement, the transport and attenuation of these gamma rays is a strong function of the formation density. However, the gamma-ray source is now distributed over a volume within the formation, where gamma rays have been induced by neutron interactions and the source can no longer be considered to be a point as in the case of a radioisotopic source. In addition, the extent of the induced source region depends on the transport of the fast neutrons from the source to the point of gamma-ray production. Even though the physics is more complex, it is possible to measure the formation density if the fast neutron transport is taken into account when deriving the density answer. This paper briefly reviews the physics underlying the sourceless neutron porosity and recently introduced neutron-gamma density (SNGD) measurement, demonstrates how they can be used in traditional workflows and illustrates their

  5. Phosphate and arsenate removal efficiency by thermostable ferritin enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus using radioisotopes

    KAUST Repository

    Sevcenco, Ana-Maria

    2015-03-13

    Oxo-anion binding properties of the thermostable enzyme ferritin from Pyrococcus furiosus were characterized with radiography. Radioisotopes 32P and 76As present as oxoanions were used to measure the extent and the rate of their absorption by the ferritin. Thermostable ferritin proved to be an excellent system for rapid phosphate and arsenate removal from aqueous solutions down to residual concentrations at the picomolar level. These very low concentrations make thermostable ferritin a potential tool to considerably mitigate industrial biofouling by phosphate limitation or to remove arsenate from drinking water.

  6. Methods for producing Cu-67 radioisotope with use of a ceramic capsule for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehst, David A.; Willit, James L.

    2016-04-12

    The present invention provides a method for producing Cu67 radioisotope suitable for use in medical applications. The method comprises irradiating a metallic zinc-68 (Zn68) target within a sealed ceramic capsule with a high energy gamma ray beam. After irradiation, the Cu67 is isolated from the Zn68 by any suitable method (e.g. chemical and or physical separation). In a preferred embodiment, the Cu67 is isolated by sublimation of the zinc in a ceramic sublimation tube to afford a copper residue containing Cu67. The Cu67 can be further purified by chemical means.

  7. Nuclear and Radioisotope Propulsion and Power in the Atmosphere of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, T.

    A brief history of the use of nuclear fuelled powerplant in space is given along with some working principles of the technology, and recent proposals for spacecraft for the exploration of Titan utilising radioisotope generators are surveyed. Nuclear reaction engines are studied with specific consideration given to their use in Titan's atmosphere, and speculative modifications to one particular spacecraft concept originally conceived of for the exploration of Mars are proposed. A hybrid device producing mechanical power from nuclear decay heat is also suggested for future investigation.

  8. Electronic structure of polycrystalline Cd metal using {sup 241}Am radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhaka, M. S., E-mail: msdhaka75@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M. L. S. University, Udaipur-313001 (India); Sharma, G. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota-324005 (India); Mishra, M. C. [Department of Physics, R. R. M. Government College, Jhunjhunu-333001 (India); Sharma, B. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Electronic structure study of the polycrystalline cadmium metal is reported. The experimental measurement is undertaken on a polycrystalline sheet sample using 59.54 keV radioisotope of {sup 241}Am. These results are compared with the ab initio calculations. The theoretical calculations are performed using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method employing the density functional theories (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) and augmented plane wave (APW) methods. The spherically averaged APW and LCAO based theoretical Compton profiles are in good agreement with the experimental measurement however the APW based theoretical calculations show best agreement.

  9. Radioisotope tracer studies in the NASA Skylab ethothermic brazing experiment M-552

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braski, D. N.; Adair, H. L.; Kobisk, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The first use of radioisotope tracer for mapping flow patterns during brazing of metal components in a space environment (near-zero gravity) proved successful. A nickel ferrule was brazed to a nickel tube with Lithobraze BT (71.8% Ag, 28% Cu, 0.2% Li) which contained a trace amount of radioactive Ag-110. Mapping of the flow of the braze alloy in the annulus formed between the tube and the concentric ferrule was determined by counting the radiation intensity as a function of position in the braze joint. Significant information concerning the thermal history of the braze was determined.

  10. Peace propaganda and biomedical experimentation: influential uses of radioisotopes in endocrinology and molecular genetics in Spain (1947-1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental endocrinology and one in molecular biology. For both groups foreign funds were instrumental in the early establishment of their laboratories. The combination of funding and access to previously scarce radioisotopes helped position these groups at the forefront of research in Spain.

  11. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC; Amini, Rashied; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; /Caltech, JPL; Bennett, Gary L.; /Metaspace Enterprises; Brophy, John R.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ervin, Joan; /Caltech, JPL; Fernandez, Yan R.; /Central Florida U.; Grundy, Will; /Lowell Observ.; Khan, Mohammed Omair; /Caltech, JPL; King, David Q.; /Aerojet; Lang, Jared; /Caltech, JPL; Meech, Karen J.; /Hawaii U.; Newhouse, Alan; Oleson, Steven R.; Schmidt, George R.; /GRC; Spilker, Thomas; West, John L.; /Caltech, JPL

    2010-05-26

    Today, our questions and hypotheses about the Solar System's origin have surpassed our ability to deliver scientific instruments to deep space. The moons of the outer planets, the Trojan and Centaur minor planets, the trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), and distant Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) hold a wealth of information about the primordial conditions that led to the formation of our Solar System. Robotic missions to these objects are needed to make the discoveries, but the lack of deep-space propulsion is impeding this science. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) will revolutionize the way we do deep-space planetary science with robotic vehicles, giving them unprecedented mobility. Radioisotope electric generators and lightweight ion thrusters are being developed today which will make possible REP systems with specific power in the range of 5 to 10 W/kg. Studies have shown that this specific power range is sufficient to perform fast rendezvous missions from Earth to the outer Solar System and fast sample return missions. This whitepaper discusses how mobility provided by REP opens up entirely new science opportunities for robotic missions to distant primitive bodies. We also give an overview of REP technology developments and the required next steps to realize REP.

  12. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  13. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  14. Radioisotope radiotherapy research and achievements at the University of Missouri Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, G. J.; Ketring, A. R.; Cutler, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) in collaboration with faculty in other departments at the University of Missouri has been involved in developing new means of internal radioisotopic therapy for cancer for many years. These efforts have centered on methods of targeting radioisotopes such as brachytherapy, embolisation of liver tumors with radioactive microspheres, small-molecule-labelled chelates for the treatment of bone cancer, and various means of radioimmunotherapy or labelled receptor agent targeting. This work has produced two radioactive agents, Sm-153 Quadramet™ and Y-90 TheraSphere™, which have U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the palliation of bone cancer pain and treatment of inoperable liver cancer, respectively. MURR has also pioneered development of other beta-emitting isotopes for internal radiotherapy such as Re-186, Re-188, Rh-105, Ho-166, Lu-177, and Pm-149, many of which are in research and clinical trials throughout the U.S. and the world. This important work has been made possible by the very high neutron flux available at MURR combined with MURR's outstanding reliability of operation and flexibility in meeting the needs of researchers and the radiopharmaceutical industry.

  15. Summary. The 19th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishiba, Yoshimasa; Shimizu, Taeko [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Kousaka, Tadako; Kobayashi, Hisae; Tsushima, Toshio; Hoshino, Minoru; Mori, Mikio

    1998-11-01

    This summary concerns results of the survey in the title performed by the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in the Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee, Japan Radioisotope Association. The survey was conducted in 161 facilities in Japan including public and private hospitals, health institutes and reagent manufacturers. Samples were sent to the facilities and subjected to examinations of intra- and inter-day reproducibility, freeze-thawing effects and periodical changes of the measured values. Methods employed were RIA, IRMA, EIA, ELISA, LPIA, PAMIA, FIA, FPIA, NIA, LAT, CLIA and ECLIA. Results were analyzed by variation coefficients in the kit and between the kits. Samples were for: growth hormone, somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroxine binding globulin, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, {beta}human chorionic gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, renin, immunogloblin E, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}{sub 2}-microgloblin and ferritin. Results were found rather unsatistactory for some products in the clinical practice, necessary for improvement of detection for some tests and needed for some kits for solving the problems of difference between kits and of matrix effect. (K.H)

  16. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Dominic P; Pratt, Brenda E; Chittenden, Sarah J; Murray, Iain S; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J; Gear, Jonathan I; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D

    2017-03-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration.

  17. Progress in the Use of Isotopes: The Atomic Triad - Reactors, Radioisotopes and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, W. F.

    1958-08-04

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the use of isotopes in medicine, agriculture, and industry: up to the minute information on the production and use of isotopes in the U.S. is presented. The application of radioisotopes to industrial processes and manufacturing operations has expanded more rapidly than any one except its most ardent advocates expected. New uses and new users are numerous. The adoption by industry of low level counting techniques which make possible the use of carbon-14 and tritium in the control of industrial processes and in certain exploratory and research problems is perhaps most promising of current developments. The latest information on savings to industry will be presented. The medical application of isotopes has continued to develop at a rapid pace. The current trend appears to be in the direction of improvements in technique and the substitution of more effective isotopes for those presently in use. Potential and actual benefits accruing from the use of isotopes in agriculture are reviewed. The various methods of production of radioisotopes are discussed. Not only the present methods but also interesting new possibilities are covered. Although isotopes are but one of the many peaceful uses of the atom, it is the first to pay its way. (auth)

  18. Mass Properties Testing and Evaluation for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicione, Frank S.

    2009-12-01

    Mass properties (MP) measurements were performed for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), serial number (S/N) 0X730401, the power system designated for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Measurements were made using new mounting fixtures at the mass properties testing station in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Space and Security Power Systems Facility (SSPSF). The objective of making mass properties measurements was to determine the generator’s flight configured mass and center of mass or center of gravity (CG). Using an extremely accurate platform scale, the mass of the as-tested generator was determined to be 100.117 ± 0.007 lb. Weight accuracy was determined by checking the platform scale with calibrated weights immediately prior to weighing the MMRTG.a CG measurement accuracy was assessed by surrogate testing using an inert mass standard for which the CG could be readily determined analytically. Repeated testing using the mass standard enabled the basic measurement precision of the system to be quantified in terms of a physical confidence interval about the measured CG position. However, repetitious testing with the MMRTG itself was not performed in deference to the gamma and neutron radiation dose to operators and the damage potential to the flight unit from extra handling operations. Since the mass standard had been specially designed to have a total weight and CG location that closely matched the MMRTG, the uncertainties determined from its testing were assigned to the MMRTG as well. On this basis, and at the 99% confidence level, a statistical analysis found the direct, as-measured MMRTG-MSL CG to be located at 10.816 ± 0.0011 in. measured perpendicular from the plane of the lower surface of the generator’s mounting lugs (Z direction), and offset from the generator’s long axis centerline in the X and Y directions by 0.0968 ± 0.0040 in. and 0.0276 ± 0.0026 in., respectively. These uncertainties are based

  19. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  20. GEANT4 simulation of cyclotron radioisotope production in a solid target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poignant, F; Penfold, S; Asp, J; Takhar, P; Jackson, P

    2016-05-01

    The use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is essential for diagnosing and treating cancer. The optimization of their production is a key factor in maximizing the production yield and minimizing the associated costs. An efficient approach to this problem is the use of Monte Carlo simulations prior to experimentation. By predicting isotopes yields, one can study the isotope of interest expected activity for different energy ranges. One can also study the target contamination with other radioisotopes, especially undesired radioisotopes of the wanted chemical element which are difficult to separate from the irradiated target and might result in increasing the dose when delivering the radiopharmaceutical product to the patient. The aim of this work is to build and validate a Monte Carlo simulation platform using the GEANT4 toolkit to model the solid target system of the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) GE Healthcare PETtrace cyclotron. It includes a GEANT4 Graphical User Interface (GUI) where the user can modify simulation parameters such as the energy, shape and current of the proton beam, the target geometry and material, the foil geometry and material and the time of irradiation. The paper describes the simulation and presents a comparison of simulated and experimental/theoretical yields for various nuclear reactions on an enriched nickel 64 target using the GEANT4 physics model QGSP_BIC_AllHP, a model recently developed to evaluate with high precision the interaction of protons with energies below 200MeV available in Geant4 version 10.1. The simulation yield of the (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu reaction was found to be 7.67±0.074 mCi·μA(-1) for a target energy range of 9-12MeV. Szelecsenyi et al. (1993) gives a theoretical yield of 6.71mCi·μA(-1) and an experimental yield of 6.38mCi·μA(-1). The (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu cross section obtained with the simulation was also verified against the yield predicted from the nuclear database TENDL and

  1. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  2. Estimation of groundwater residence time using environmental radioisotopes (14C,T) in carbonate aquifers, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Katarzyna; Różkowski, Andrzej; Małoszewski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Triassic carbonate aquifers in the Upper Silesia region, affected by intense withdrawal, have been investigated by means of isotopic analyses of (14)C, δ(13)C, δ(2)H, δ(18)O and (3)H. The isotopic examinations were carried out in the 1970s and in the early 1980s, and it was the first application of tracers to estimate age and vulnerability for the contamination of groundwater in this region. Similar isotopic analyses were conducted in 2007 and 2008 with the same Triassic carbonate formation. The isotopic examinations were performed within the confined part of the carbonate formation, wherein aquifers are covered by semi-permeable deposits. The direct recharge of the aquifer occurs in the outcrop areas, but it mainly takes place due to percolation of the water through aquitards and erosional windows. The Triassic aquifer has been intensively drained by wells and by lead-zinc mines. Nowadays, the declining water demand and closure of some mines have induced a significant increase in the water table level. The detailed analysis of the results, including the radiocarbon age corrections and the comparison of radioisotope activities, has made it possible to estimate the range of residence time within the carbonate Triassic aquifer. This range from several tens to several tens of thousands indicates that the recharge of aquifers might have occurred between modern times and the Pleistocene. The apparent age of the water estimated on the basis of (14)C activity was corrected considering the carbon isotope exchange and the diffusion between mobile water in fractures and stagnant water in micropores. The obtained corrected period of recharge corresponds to the result of investigations of noble gases, which were carried out in the 1990s. In almost half of the cases, groundwater is a mixture of young and old water. The mixing processes occur mainly in areas of heavy exploitation of the aquifer.

  3. NAA application in the geochemical behavior study of lake sediments elements of a wastewater treatment plant; Aplicacao da NAA no estudo do comportamento geoquimico de elementos de interesse em sedimentos lacustres de uma estacao de tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: andreza@curiango.ipen.br; Sigolo, Joel B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Miguel, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis have been employed to determine 24 elements in bottom sediments from one lake of the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Barueri, SP, aiming to verify a possible contamination of this lake due to the wastes produced in the plant. The results obtained were compared with the concentration determined in soil profile and in a sample of rock, in natura, representing the lithologies of the region. Analysis was used in dry and wet seasons. The analysis of the data did not show a significant variation in concentration levels during the different periods, except for As. The results obtained showed a homogeneous distribution of the elements all along the lake and indicate that only As, Cr and Zn can have their origin associated with the residues disposed around the lake. (author)

  4. Increasing the Efficiency of the Multi-mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Tim C.; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Caillat, Thierry; Keyser, Steve; Sievers, Bob

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Science Laboratory terrestrial rover, Curiosity, has recently completed its first Martian year (687 Earth days) during which it has provided a wealth of information and insight into the red planet's atmosphere and geology. The success of this mission was made possible in part by the reliable electrical power provided by its onboard thermoelectric power source—the multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG). In an effort to increase the output power and efficiency of these generators, a newly designed enhanced MMRTG (eMMRTG) that will utilize the more efficient skutterudite-based thermoelectric materials has been conceptualized and modeled, and is now being developed. A discussion of the motivations, modeling results and key design factors are presented and discussed.

  5. Isolated working heart: description of models relevant to radioisotopic and pharmacological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depre, Christophe E-mail: cdepre@heart.med.uth.tmc.edu

    1998-11-01

    Isolated heart preparations are used to study physiological and metabolic parameters of the heart independently of its environment. Several preparations of isolated perfused heart are currently used, mainly the retrograde perfusion system and the working heart model. Both models allow investigations of the metabolic regulation of the heart in various physiological conditions (changes in workload, hormonal influences, substrate competition). These systems may also reproduce different pathological conditions, such as ischemia, reperfusion and hypoxia. Quantitation of metabolic activity can be performed with specific radioactive tracers. Finally, the effects of various drugs on cardiac performance and resistance to ischemia can be studied as well. Heart perfusion also revealed efficient methods to determine the tracer/tracee relation for radioisotopic analogues used with Positron Emission Tomography.

  6. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  7. Non-radioisotopic method for the in vitro measurement of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A non-radioisotopic method was developed for the assay ofepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A peptide with twenty amino acid residues around Tyr 1173, the major phosphorylation site of EGFR, was cloned as a GST fusion protein and used as substrate. Anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody PY99 was used for the determination of the extent of phosphorylation. Both the specificity and the sensitivity were substantially higher than that of the existing method. Km value of the fusion protein is much lower (10 (mol/L) than that of the synthetic peptide (110 (mol/L). The method can be applied to the measurement of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-erb B2 (Neu/HER2).

  8. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Jin, J H; Kim, J B

    2002-01-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting...

  9. Induced radioisotopes inside the treatment hall with a Linac for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon M, H. A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, 20255 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rivera P, E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    When Linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the Linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect; this last are mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation mainly in the concrete walls and the Linac components. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. (Author)

  10. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute Brazil, Radioactive Waste Management Department IPEN/GRR, Sao Paulo. SP. (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  11. Organic Materials Ionizing Radiation Susceptibility for the Outer Planet/Solar Probe Radioisotope Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy is considering the current Stirling Technology Corporation 55 We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor as a baseline option for an advanced radioisotope power source for the Outer Planets/Solar Probe project of Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other missions. However, since the Technology Demonstration Convertor contains organic materials chosen without any special consideration of flight readiness, and without any consideration of the extremely high radiation environment of Europa, a preliminary investigation was performed to address the radiation susceptibility of the current organic materials used in the Technology Demonstration Convertor. This report documents the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that candidate replacement materials have been identified to be acceptable in the harsh Europa radiation environment.

  12. Cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and their clinical use at the Austin PET Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J. [Centre for PET, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    1997-12-31

    A Centre for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been established within the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. PET is a non-invasive technique based on the use of biologically relevant compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The basic equipment consists of a medical cyclotron (10 MeV proton and 5 MeV deuteron), six lead-shielded hot cells with associated radiochemistry facilities and a whole body PET scanner. During its first five years of operation, the Melbourne PET Centre, has pursued a strong radiolabelling development program, leading to an ambitious clinical program in neurology, oncology and cardiology. This presentation will describe the basic principles of the PET technique and review the cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. Radiolabelling development programs and clinical applications are also addressed. 30 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems and heater units: status and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel; Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Coated particle fuel has been proposed recently for use in Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) and Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) for a variety of space missions requiring power levels from mWs to 10's or even hundreds of Watts. It can be made into different shapes and sizes of solid compacts, heating tapes, or paints. Using a conservative design approach, this fuel form could increase by 2.3-2.4 times the thermal power output of a LWRHU, while offering promise of enhanced safety. These performance figures are based on using single-size (500 μm) compacts of ZrC coated 238PuO2 kernels and assuming 10% and 5% He release, respectively, at 1723 K, following 10 years of storage. Using binary-size (300 and 1200 μm) fuel kernels in the compact increases the thermal power output by an additional 15%. 238PuO2 fuel kernels are intentionally sized (>=300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects. They are non-respirable and non-inhalable and, if ingested, would simply be excreted with no radiological effects. The 238PuO2 fuel kernels are contained within a strong ZrC coating, which is designed to fully retain the fuel and the helium gas. Helium retention in large grain (>=300 μm) granular and polycrystalline fuel kernels is possible even at high temperatures (>1700 K). The former could be fabricated using binderless agglomeration or similar processes, while the latter could be fabricated using Sol-Gel or thermal plasma processes, with potentially less radioactive waste and fabrication contamination. In addition to summarizing the results of a recent effort investigating the performance of coated fuel particle compact (CPFC) and helium gas release, this paper identifies and discusses future research and testing needs. .

  14. Radioisotope fueled pulsed power generation system for propulsion and electrical power for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Troy

    Space exploration missions to the moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies have allowed for great scientific leaps to enhance our knowledge of the universe; yet the astronomical cost of these missions limits their utility to only a few select agencies. Reducing the cost of exploratory space travel will give rise to a new era of exploration, where private investors, universities, and world governments can send satellites to far off planets and gather important data. By using radioisotope power sources and thermal storage devices, a duty cycle can be introduced to extract large amounts of energy in short amounts of time, allowing for efficient space travel. The same device can also provide electrical power for subsystems such as communications, drills, lasers, or other components that can provide valuable scientific information. This project examines the use of multiple radioisotope sources combined with a thermal capacitor using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which can collect energy over a period of time. The result of this design culminates in a variety of possible spacecraft with their own varying costs, transit times, and objectives. Among the most promising are missions to Mars which cost less than 17M, missions that can provide power to satellite constellations for decades, or missions that can deliver large, Opportunity-sized (185kg) payloads to mars for less than 53M. All made available to a much wider range of customer with commercially available satellite launches from earth. The true cost of such progress though lies in the sometimes substantial increase in transit times for these missions.

  15. Effects of NAA and BAP, double-layered media, and light distance on in vitro regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus), an aquatic edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad, Noraini; Taha, Rosna Mat; Othman, Rashidi; Saleh, Azani; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Elias, Hashimah

    2014-01-01

    In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.

  16. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Mn(NAA)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)4]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-Qun; LI Chang-Hong; LI Wei; KUANG Yun-Fei

    2008-01-01

    A novel one-dimensional chain coordination polymer [Mn(NAA)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)4]n has been synthesized with α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 4,4'-bipy and manganese(Ⅱ) sulfate as raw materials. Crystal data for this complex: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 1.1421(2), b=1.6337(3), c=0.94177(19) nm, β = 112.15(3)°, V= 1.6275(6) nm3, Dc = 1.407 g/cm3, Z = 2,μ(MoKα) = 0.467 mm-1, F(000) = 722, S = 1.007, R= 0.0412 and wR = 0.1022. The crystal structure shows that two neighboring manganese(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one 4,4'-bipy molecule, and the whole complex molecule forms a one-dimensional chain structure. Each manganese(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two oxygen atoms of two α-naphthaleneacetic acid molecules, two nitrogen atoms of two 4,4'-bipy molecules and two oxygen atoms from two water molecules, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The electrochemical properties were also analyzed.

  17. Norway 2050: a paradigm vision. Little country, what now?; Norge 2050: et paradigmefremsyn - Lille land, hva naa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report provides an overview of some of the main drivers for an upcoming techno-economic paradigm shift towards a resource efficient low carbon society and points out what such a paradigm may mean for Norway. The analysis describes a shift driven by resource scarcity, technological innovation and geopolitical changes. The analysis is also an introduction to paradigm vision as a method. Paradigm vision is an appropriate method in a time of great and fundamental changes, because the perspective is committed to identify and describe the possible implications of profound change and upheaval that we know is coming - in one form or another. Increasing pressure on today's techno-economic paradigm enables the emergence of new solutions. At some point they will achieve adequate distribution and maturity, until they reach a tipping point and become dominant.(auth)

  18. Effect of NAA and VB1 on the Mycelium Growth of Pleurotus geesteranus%NAA和VB1对秀珍菇菌丝生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦文添

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同浓度的NAA和VB1对秀珍菇菌丝生长的影响.结果表明,浓度为10 mg/L的NAA和浓度为10 mg/L的VB1最适宜秀珍菇菌丝的生长,提高菌丝的长势和密度.%Effect of the different concentration of NAA and Vb1 on the mycelium growth of Pleurotus geesteranus was studied. The results showed that 10 mg/L NAA and 10 mg/L Vitamin B1 suited to the growth of Pleurotus geesteranus hyphae, improve the mycelium growth and density.

  19. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Assistencia Social. Div. de Alimentacao

    2009-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  20. Cascaded Thermoelectric Conversion-Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (CTC-ARPSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2004-02-01

    Conceptual designs of Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) with Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters (CTCs) are developed and optimized for maximum efficiency operation for End-Of Mission (EOM) electrical power of at least 100 We. These power systems each employs four General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) bricks generating 1000 Wth at Beginning-of-Life (BOL) and 32 Cascaded Thermoelectric Modules (CTMs). Each CTM consists of a top and a bottom array of thermoelectric unicouples, which are thermally, but not electrically, coupled. The top and bottom arrays of the CTMs are connected electrically in series in two parallel strings with the same nominal voltage of > 28 VDC. The SiGe unicouples in the top array of the CTMs are optimized for nominal hot shoe temperature of 1273 K and constant cold shoe temperature of either 780 K or 980 K, depending on the thermoelectric materials of the unicouples in the bottom array. For a SiGe cold junction temperature of 780 K, the unicouples in the bottom array have p-legs of TAGS-85 and n-legs of 2N-PbTe and operate at constant hot junction temperature of 765 K and nominal cold junction temperature of 476.4 K. When the SiGe cold junction temperature is 980 K, the unicouples in the bottom arrays of CTMs have p-legs of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 or CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Zn4Sb3, segments and n-legs of CoSb3 and operate at constant hot junction temperature of 965 K and nominal cold junction temperatures of 446.5 K or 493.5 K, respectively. The CTC-ARPSs have a nominal efficiency of 10.82% - 10.85% and generate BOL power of 108 We. This system efficiency is ~ 80% higher than that of State-of-the-Art (SOA) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), requiring 7 GHPS bricks and generating 105 We at BOL. The CTC-ARPSs have specific powers of 8.2 We/kg to 8.8 We/kg, which are 71% to 83% higher, respectively, than that of the SOA-RTGs, and use ~ 43% less 238PuO2 fuel.

  1. Coated Particles Fuel Compact-General Purpose Heat Source for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    Coated Particles Fuel Compacts (CPFC) have recently been shown to offer performance advantage for use in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) and design flexibility for integrating at high thermal efficiency with Stirling Engine converters, currently being considered for 100 We. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS). The particles in the compact consist of 238PuO2 fuel kernels with 5-μm thick PyC inner coating and a strong ZrC outer coating, whose thickness depends on the maximum fuel temperature during reentry, the fuel kernel diameter, and the fraction of helium gas released from the kernels and fully contained by the ZrC coating. In addition to containing the helium generated by radioactive decay of 238Pu for up to 10 years before launch and 10-15 years mission lifetime, the kernels are intentionally sized (>= 300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects on reentry. This paper investigates the advantage of replacing the four iridium-clad 238PuO2 fuel pellets, the two floating graphite membranes, and the two graphite impact shells in current State-Of-The-Art (SOA) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) with CPFC. The total mass, thermal power, and specific power of the CPFC-GPHS are calculated as functions of the helium release fraction from the fuel kernels and maximum fuel temperature during reentry from 1500 K to 2400 K. For the same total mass and volume as SOA GPHS, the generated thermal power by single-size particles CPFC-GPHS is 260 W at Beginning-Of-Mission (BOM), versus 231 W for the GPHS. For an additional 10% increase in total mass, the CPFC-GPHS could generate 340 W BOM; 48% higher than SOA GPHS. The corresponding specific thermal power is 214 W/kg, versus 160 W/kg for SOA GPHS; a 34% increase. Therefore, for the same thermal power, the CPFC-GPHS is lighter than SOA GPHS, while it uses the same amount of 238PuO2 fuel and same aeroshell. For the same helium release fraction and fuel temperature, binary-size particles CPFC-GPHS could

  2. Status of an advanced radioisotope space power system using free-piston Stirling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.A,; Qiu, S.; Erbeznik, R.M.; Olan, R.W.; Welty, S.C.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a free-piston Stirling engine technology project to demonstrate a high efficiency power system capable of being further developed for deep space missions using a radioisotope (RI) heat source. The key objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years or longer on deep space missions. Primary issues being addressed for Stirling space power systems are weight and the vibration associated with reciprocating pistons. Similar weight and vibration issues have been successfully addressed with Stirling cryocoolers, which are the accepted standard for cryogenic cooling in space. Integrated long-life Stirling engine-generator (or convertor) operation has been demonstrated by the terrestrial Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) and other Stirling Technology Company (STC) programs. Extensive RSG endurance testing includes more than 40,000 maintenance-free, degradation-free hours for the complete convertor, in addition to several critical component and subsystem endurance tests. The Stirling space power convertor project is being conducted by STC under DOE Contract, and NASA SBIR Phase II contracts. The DOE contract objective is to demonstrate a two-convertor module that represents half of a nominal 150-W(e) power system. Each convertor is referred to as a Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). The ultimate Stirling power system would be fueled by three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules, and is projected to produce substantially more electric power than the 150-watt target. The system is capable of full power output with one failed convertor. One NASA contract, nearing completion, uses existing 350-W(e) RG-350 convertors to evaluate interactivity of two back-to-back balanced convertors with various degrees of electrical and mechanical interaction. This effort has recently provided the first successful synchronization of two convertors by means of parallel

  3. Diffuse damage to central nervous system in progressive rheumatoid arthritis complicated by cerebral hermorrhage after radioisotope cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnowska-Dziduszko, E.; Lazarowicz, J. (Instytut Psychoneurologiczny, Warsaw (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    Presented case reveals unusual reaction of central nervous system in the course of progressive rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral hemorrhage as a rare complication after radioisotope investigation of cerebro-spinal fluid spaces. Female, 58 years old which was treated for 22 years for progressive rheumatoid arthritis developed during last 3 years of life a psychoorganic syndrome with temporal epilepsy and slight left sided hemiparesis. After radioisotope cisternography appeared decerebration followed by death. On autopsy the hemorrhagic foci were found in left cerebral hemisphere and in the brain stem. Histological finding was generalized severe damage to interstitial vessels diagnosed as fibrinotic, necrotizing degeneration of capillary and arteriolar wall, significant proliferation of microglia in the white matter and brain stem. Chronic inflammatory infiltrates were present in leptomeninges. Pathogenesis of findings in connection with progressive rheumatoid arthritis and complications due to cisternography is discussed.

  4. An evaluation of the shielding effectiveness of lead aprons used in clinics for protection against ionising radiation from novel radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Pradip; Jamison, Robert; Mong, Lisa; U, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of personal radiation shields currently worn in hospital and other diagnostic environments. This study was performed with four different radioisotopes; (18)F, (99m)Tc, (124)I and (131)I. (18)F results showed a decrease in dose with 0.5-mm Pb shielding but the reduction provided does not warrant its use clinically. (124)I testing demonstrated that dose enhancement can occur in greater shield thicknesses. PET isotope (124)I can be adequately shielded using 0.25-mm Pb equivalent aprons but any higher thickness increase the wearer's dose. As a result more shielding does not always equal more protection. The (131)I test showed that no dose reduction occurred, even when tested with up to 1.25-mm Pb equivalent shielding. Novel radioisotopes being used in the laboratory and clinic should be individually tested as each requires specific shielding testing.

  5. A Study on Clinical Activity of Myositis by the Use of Radioisotope Bone Scan in the Patients with Dermatomyositis - polymyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Jae; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of radioisotope bone scan and clinical activity of myositis, bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-Methylene diphosphonate was serially done before and after treatment with prednisolone in 10 patients with well- documented dermatomyositis-polymyositis. The observed results were as follows. 1. In all 10 patients before treatment with prednisolone, the bone scans showed evidence of increased muscle uptake. Muscle uptake was markedly increased in 4 patients, moderately increased in 3 patients and minimally increased in 3 patients. 2. The site of increased muscle uptake was consistent with the site of clinically involved muscle which was weak and tender. 3. The degree of muscle uptake correlated with the severity of the muscle weakness and tenderness at the scan was done. In all 10 patients treated with high dose prednisolone, muscle uptake was decreased following therapy. Above results suggest the radioisotope bone scanning may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of patient with dermatomyositis-polymyositis.

  6. Excitation Function and Thick Target Yield of 186W(p,n)186Reg Reaction for Production of Therapeutic Radioisotope 186Reg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG; Meng-xiao; HUANG; Xiao-long; LIU; Li-le

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,radioactive therapy has become one of the most important methods for cancer therapy with the increasing number of the cancer patient.Now more and more attention is paid to the radionuclide used in radioactive therapy such as 67Cu,103Pd and 186Reg.186Reg is an important medically radioisotope and is regarded as the best radioisotopes used for

  7. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  8. Optimization Design and Simulation of a Multi-Source Energy Harvester Based on Solar and Radioisotope Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-source energy harvester based on solar and radioisotope energy sources is designed and simulated in this work. We established the calculation formulas for the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, and then studied and analyzed the optimization thickness of the semiconductor, doping concentration, and junction depth with simulation of the transport process of β particles in a semiconductor material using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP (version 5, Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In order to improve the efficiency of converting solar light energy into electric power, we adopted PC1D (version 5.9, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia to optimize the parameters, and selected the best parameters for converting both the radioisotope energy and solar energy into electricity. The results concluded that the best parameters for the multi-source energy harvester are as follows: Na is 1 × 1019 cm−3, Nd is 3.8 × 1016 cm−3, a PN junction depth of 0.5 μm (using the 147Pm radioisotope source, and so on. Under these parameters, the proposed harvester can achieve a conversion efficiency of 5.05% for the 147Pm radioisotope source (with the activity of 9.25 × 108 Bq and 20.8% for solar light radiation (AM1.5. Such a design and parameters are valuable for some unique micro-power fields, such as applications in space, isolated terrestrial applications, and smart dust in battlefields.

  9. A radioisotopic technique for analysis of free fatty acid reesterification in human adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibel, R L; Hirsch, J

    1985-01-01

    Reesterification rates of free fatty acids (FFA) formed by intracellular triglyceride hydrolysis in small fragments of human adipose tissue were measured. Subcutaneous gluteal adipose tissue, obtained by needle biopsy, was incubated in a buffered albumin medium containing [3H]palmitate and [14C]glucose, each of high specific activity. In triglycerides (TG) and diglycerides (DG) synthesized by the tissue, [14C]glucose is incorporated exclusively into the glyceride-glycerol moiety, and 3H appears solely in the esterified fatty acids. Since rates of TG and DG synthesis can be determined from 14C accumulation rates in these molecules, the total amounts of FFA esterified can also be calculated. The difference between this estimate of total FFA esterification and the moles of [3H]palmitate esterified to these molecules represents the amount of unlabeled FFA from ongoing TG hydrolysis that was reesterified during the incubation. FFA recycling by the reesterification pathway is an important mechanism for the control of the quantity and proportions of FFA and glycerol leaving the human adipocyte. Fasting and beta-adrenergic stimulation reduce the fraction of endogenously released FFA that are reesterified from resting values of 30-40% to 8-21%, thereby increasing the molar ratio of FFA to glycerol leaving the adipocyte. The technique described can be employed to monitor sequential changes in this important metabolic cycle in humans under a wide range of nutritional and clinical circumstances.

  10. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  11. Feasibility of Thulium-170, Produced on Site, for Radioisotope Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Charles; Mathews, Kirk

    1994-07-01

    Thulium-170 has been suggested as a replacement for 238Pu jn some radioisotope power generation applications. The proposed approach is to activate 169Tm within the core or reflector of a stationary site power nuclear reactor at a Lunar or Mars outpost. The 170Tm so produced offers high theoretical power densities without the toxicity, availability, and nuclear launch problems of plutonium (only stable 169Tm would be launched). We examined issues raised by previous studies. It would be desirable to activate the thulia repeatedly. The ORIGEN2 code was used to model repeated irradiation/decay of thulium sesquioxide. We found no substantial buildup of neutron absorbing activation products that would prohibit repeated irradiation of the sample. Throughout the life of the sample, the dominant activity was the 170Tm. There was no buildup of toxic substances. At end of life, the sample would be Class B waste. Another advantage of recycling is that, for the first several recyclings, recycled targets achieve the same power level as fresh ones, but with shorter activation periods (or higher power levels with the same activation periods). However, sufficient 170Tm could not be produced. Using neutron conservation arguments, we developed an absolute upper bound on l70Tm power production of 1/3 watt thermal per kilowatt thermal of reactor power. Realistic values are much lower. Thus, the envisioned application appears impractical, although limited uses for 170Tm power might be found.

  12. Persistence and decontamination of surrogate radioisotopes in a model drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Govindaswamy, Shekar; Hall, John S

    2009-12-01

    Contamination of a model drinking water system with surrogate radioisotopes was examined with respect to persistence on and decontamination of infrastructure surfaces. Cesium and cobalt chloride salts were used as surrogates for cesium-137 and cobalt-60. Studies were conducted in biofilm annular reactors containing heavily corroded iron surfaces formed under shear and constantly submerged in drinking water. Cesium was not detected on the corroded iron surface after equilibration with 10 and 100mgL(-1) solutions of cesium chloride, but cobalt was detected on corroded iron coupons at both initial concentrations. The amount of adhered cobalt decreased over the next six weeks, but was still present when monitoring stopped. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that adhered cobalt was in the III oxidation state. The adsorbed cobalt was strongly resistant to decontamination by various physicochemical methods. Simulated flushing, use of free chlorine and dilute ammonia were found to be ineffective whereas use of aggressive methods like 14.5M ammonia and 0.36M sulfuric acid removed 37 and 92% of the sorbed cobalt, respectively.

  13. Radioisotopic assays of CoASH and carnitine and their acetylated forms in human skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederblad, G.; Carlin, J.I.; Constantin-Teodosiu, D.; Harper, P.; Hultman, E. (Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital (Sweden))

    1990-03-01

    Radioisotopic assays for the determination of acetyl-CoA, CoASH, and acetylcarnitine have been modified for application to the amount of human muscle tissue that can be obtained by needle biopsy. In the last step common to all three methods, acetyl-CoA is condensed with (14C)oxaloacetate by citrate synthase to give (14C)-citrate. For determination of CoASH, CoASH is reacted with acetylphosphate in a reaction catalyzed by phosphotransacetylase to yield acetyl-CoA. In the assay for acetylcarnitine, acetylcarnitine is reacted with CoASH in a reaction catalyzed by carnitine acetyltransferase to form acetyl-CoA. Inclusion of new simple steps in the acetylcarnitine assay and conditions affecting the reliability of all three methods are also described. Acetylcarnitine and free carnitine levels in human rectus abdominis muscle were 3.0 +/- 1.5 (SD) and 13.5 +/- 4.0 mumol/g dry wt, respectively. Values for acetyl-CoA and CoASH were about 500-fold lower, 6.7 +/- 1.8 and 21 +/- 8.9 nmol/g dry wt, respectively. A strong correlation between acetylcarnitine (y) and short-chain acylcarnitine (x), determined as the difference between total and free carnitine, was found in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle obtained during intense muscular effort, y = 1.0x + 0.5; r = 0.976.

  14. The 11th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of the 11th quality control nationwide survey. Of 730 facilities performing radioisotopes in vitro tests in November 1989, 422 facilities (60.5%) participated in the present survey. The following 23 items were examined: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), albumin, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), calcitonin, cortisol, estradiol, ferritin, free thyroxine (FT{sub 4}), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gastrine, cholylglycine, glucagon, insulin, anti-DNA antibody, luteinizing hormone (LH), neuron specific enolase (NSE), parathyroid hormone (PTH), squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen (SCC), thyroxine (T{sub 4}), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and antithyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody. 'Within kit variation' between facilities showed large coefficient of variation for ACTH, CA125, CEA, estradiol, ferritin, FSH, glucagon, anti-DNA antibody, LH, PTH, and TSH receptor antibody. Both 'within kit variation' and 'between kit variation' showed small coefficient of variation for cortisol, free T{sub 4}, NSE, SCC, T{sub 4}, and TBG. The present survey was characterized by using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and non-isotope techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay. Kits for IRMA greatly varied from facility to facility. (N.K.).

  15. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 (ASRG EU2) Final Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently completed the assembly of a unique Stirling generator test article for laboratory experimentation. Under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight development contract, NASA GRC initiated a task to design and fabricate a flight-like generator for in-house testing. This test article was given the name ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) as it was effectively the second engineering unit to be built within the ASRG project. The intent of the test article was to duplicate Lockheed Martin's qualification unit ASRG design as much as possible to enable system-level tests not previously possible at GRC. After the cancellation of the ASRG flight development project, the decision was made to continue the EU2 build, and make use of a portion of the hardware from the flight development project. GRC and Lockheed Martin engineers collaborated to develop assembly procedures, leveraging the valuable knowledge gathered by Lockheed Martin during the ASRG development contract. The ASRG EU2 was then assembled per these procedures at GRC with Lockheed Martin engineers on site. The assembly was completed in August 2014. This paper details the components that were used for the assembly, and the assembly process itself.

  16. Emergency control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Farias, Larissa P. de; Ponte, Luana T.L.; Goncalves, Gabriel L.; Castro, Heraclito M.; Farias, Marcos S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Vianna Filho, Alfredo M.V., E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Emergency control room acts as an alternative control room for the purpose of shutting down or maintaining the facility in a safe shutdown state when the main control room is uninhabitable. The mission of emergency control room is to provide the resources to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition after an evacuation of the main control room. An evacuation of the main control room is assumed when there is no possibility to accomplish tasks involved in the shutdown except reactor trip. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the emergency control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the development phase of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team a 3D Sketch and a 3D printing of the emergency control room were created. (author)

  17. Detection and tracing of the medical radioisotope 131I in the Canberra environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilfillan Nathan R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The transport and radioecology of the therapeutical radioisotope 131I has been studied in Canberra, Australia. The isotope has been detected in water samples and its activity quantified via characteristic J-ray photo peaks. A comparison of measurements on samples from upstream and downstream of the Canberra waste water treatment plant shows that 131I is discharged from the plant outflow into the local Molonglo river. This is consistent with observations in other urban environments. A time-correlation between the measured activities in the outflow and the therapeutical treatment cycle at the hospital identifies the medical treatment as the source of the isotope. Enhanced activity levels of 131I have been measured for fish samples. This may permit conclusions on 131I uptake by the biosphere. Due to the well-defined and intermittent input of 131I into the sewage, the Canberra situation is ideally suited for radioecological studies. Furthermore, the 131I activity may be applied in tracer studies of sewage transport to and through the treatment plant and as an indicator of outflow dilution following discharge to the environment.

  18. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of a fluorescence and radioisotope nuclear smuggling deterrence tag - final report (IL500E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Delmastro, J.R. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials, (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials, and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The system uses three types of materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. This report also summarizes the efforts completed in identifying hardware that will be used for the tagging system. This hardware includes the devices for applying the tagging materials, the commercially available fluorescence detection systems, and gamma ray detection systems assembled from existing, commercially available technologies.

  20. Soil to plant transfer of radionuclides: predicting the fate of multiple radioisotopes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Neil J

    2014-07-01

    Predicting soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides is restricted by the range of species for which concentration ratios (CRs) have been measured. Here the radioecological utility of meta-analyses of phylogenetic effects on alkali earth metals will be explored for applications such as 'gap-filling' of CRs, the identification of sentinel biomonitor plants and the selection of taxa for phytoremediation of radionuclide contaminated soils. REML modelling of extensive CR/concentration datasets shows that the concentrations in plants of Ca, Mg and Sr are significantly influenced by phylogeny. Phylogenetic effects of these elements are shown here to be similar. Ratios of Ca/Mg and Ca/Sr are known to be quite stable in plants so, assuming that Sr/Ra ratios are stable, phylogenetic effects and estimated mean CRs are used to predict Ra CRs for groups of plants with few measured data. Overall, there are well quantified plant variables that could contribute significantly to improving predictions of the fate radioisotopes in the soil-plant system.

  1. Cadmium-109 Radioisotope Adsorption onto Polypyrrole Coated Sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Mahmud, Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of cadmium (109Cd) from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/ sawdust composite. Several factors such as solution pH, sorbent dosage, initial concentration, contact time, temperature and interfering metal ions were found to have influence on the adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium within 3 hours. A lowering of the solution pH reduced the removal efficiency from 99.3 to ~ 46.7% and an ambient temperature of 25°C was found to be optimum for maximum adsorption. The presence of sodium and potassium ions inhibited 109Cd removal from its aqueous solution. The experimental data for 109Cd adsorption showed a very good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The surface condition of the adsorbent before and after cadmium loading was investigated using BET, FESEM and FTIR. Considering the low cost of the precursor’s materials and the toxicity of 109Cd radioactive metal, polypyrrole synthesized on the sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of 109Cd radioisotope from radionuclide-containing effluents. PMID:27706232

  2. Charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production: chapter 3. theoretical evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M

    1999-06-24

    Creation of a Reference Charged Particle Cross Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production requires the evaluation of both experimental and modeled cross sections for beam monitor reactions and for radionuclide (positron and gamma emitters) production reactions. It was recognized at the first meeting of this CRP in Vienna in 1995 that modeling will play an important role in predicting cross sections where measurements are either not available or have large discrepancies. Because of the volume of work involving about forty-five reactions in the CRP, it was decided to use modeling as a guide rather than for full evaluation. (Although in some cases the CRP used the modeled cross sections as the recommended values). Thus the modeling was done using global input parameters. In this chapter we describe the modeling by four different groups: Livermore, Obninsk, Beijing and Islamabad. First we give a general overview of nuclear reaction models that may be used in modeling cross sections below 100 MeV. This will be followed by a short description of the codes and calculations actually used by the four groups. (We note that the codes have similar basic reaction physics, but they differ in details and in actual applications.) In the final section we give a discussion of the modeling with its successes and failures in reproducing experimental data using global input parameters.

  3. Present status of research on Re-186 radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutalib, A. [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium shows a close chemical similarity to technetium and is suitable for radiotherapy because the {beta}-emitting radionuclides {sup 186}Re (t{sub 1/2} 90 h, E{sub {beta}} = 1.1 MeV, E{sub {gamma}} = 137 keV) and {sup 188}Re (t{sub 1/2} = 17 h, E{sub {beta}} = 2.1 MeV). The {gamma}-emission associated with decay of {sup 186}Re is also useful in scintigraphy. The research on {sup 186}Re radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center has been carried out since April 1997. Interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) led us to the development of labeling antibodies with rhenium isotopes. Although there are several methods for coupling radiometal to antibody, we prefer an indirect labeling method in which a bifunctional chelating agent is used for coupling of {sup 186}Re to monoclonal antibodies. In this report we outline the study on the preparation of {sup 186}Re DMSA-TFP as precursor for labeling with monoclonal antibody. (author)

  4. Radioisotope scanning of brain, liver, lung and bone with a note on tumour localizing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Radioisotopic scanning of brain, liver, lungs and the skeleton is briefly reviewed with a survey of recent developments of clinical significance. In brain scanning neoplasm detection rates of greater than 90% are claimed. The true figure is probably 70-80%. Autopsy data shows a number of false negatives, particularly with vascular lesions. Attempts to make scanning more specific in differentiating neoplasm from vascular lesions by rapid sequence blood flow studies are reviewed. In liver scanning by means of colloids again high success rate is claimed but small metastases are frequently missed and the false negative scan rate is probably quite high. Lung scanning still has its main place in investigating pulmonary embolic disease. Ventilation studies using Xenon 133 are useful, particularly combined with perfusion studies. The various radiopharmaceuticals for use in bone scanning are reviewed. The appearance of technetium labelled phosphate compounds will probably allow much wider use of total skeletal scanning. Research into tumour localizing agents continues, the most recent and interesting being Gallium citrate and labelled bleomycin. Neither agent is predictable however although Gallium may have a place in Hodgkins disease and bronchogenic neoplasm and both may have a place in the detection of cerebral tumours. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3p452-bFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5bFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 12c & 12dFig. 13Fig. 13 b,c,dFig. 14Fig. 14bFig. 15Fig. 15bFig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4602127

  5. Status update of a free-piston Stirling convertor for radioisotope space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack; Peterson, Allen; Faultersack, Frank

    2001-02-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. This paper updates results from a combination of DOE and NASA contracts with Stirling Technology Company (STC). These contracts have demonstrated STC's Stirling convertor technology in a configuration and power level representative of a space power system. Based on demonstrated performance, long-life maintenance-free technology heritage, and success with aggressively imposed vibration testing. DOE has awarded system integration contracts to Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Teledyne Energy Systems. The objectives of these competitive Phase I contracts are to develop complete spacecraft power system conceptual designs based on the STC Stirling convertor, and to plan subsequent phases for two launches. Performance results for the DOE 55-W(e) Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) have met original projections. Although the TDC's were intended only for technology demonstration, they have achieved very aggressive efficiency goals, demonstrated convertor-induced vibration levels below the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) specifications, passed a simulated launch load vibration test at 0.2 g2/Hz (12.3 g rms), and met EMI/EMC goals for most contemplated missions. No consideration for EMI reduction was included in the TDC design. Minor changes are underway to reduce EMI levels, with a goal of meeting specifications for missions such as Solar Probe with highly sensitive instrumentation. The long-term objective for DOE is to develop a power system with a system efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years and longer on deep space missions. .

  6. Dose calibrator linearity test: {sup 99m}Tc versus {sup 18}F radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles, E-mail: willegaignon@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing {sup 18}F with {sup 99m}Tc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and methods: the test was performed with sources of {sup 99m}Tc (62 GBq) and {sup 18}F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: mean deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the {sup 99m}Tc source as measured with the equipment precalibrated to measure {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the {sup 18}F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: the results of the linearity test using {sup 99m}Tc were compatible with those obtained with the {sup 18}F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in {sup 18}F acquisition suggest {sup 99m}Tc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use {sup 18}F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. (author)

  7. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM/RDD MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, R.

    2012-06-05

    Detection and identification of shielded and masked nuclear materials is crucial to national security, but vast borders and high volumes of traffic impose stringent requirements for practical detection systems. Such tools must be be mobile, and hence low power, provide a low false alarm rate, and be sufficiently robust to be operable by non-technical personnel. Currently fielded systems have not achieved all of these requirements simultaneously. Transport modeling such as that done in GADRAS is able to predict observed spectra to a high degree of fidelity; our research is focusing on a radionuclide identification algorithm that inverts this modeling within the constraints imposed by a handheld device. Key components of this work include incorporation of uncertainty as a function of both the background radiation estimate and the hypothesized sources, dimensionality reduction, and nonnegative matrix factorization. We have partially evaluated performance of our algorithm on a third-party data collection made with two different sodium iodide detection devices. Initial results indicate, with caveats, that our algorithm performs as good as or better than the on-board identification algorithms. The system developed was based on a probabilistic approach with an improved approach to variance modeling relative to past work. This system was chosen based on technical innovation and system performance over algorithms developed at two competing research institutions. One key outcome of this probabilistic approach was the development of an intuitive measure of confidence which was indeed useful enough that a classification algorithm was developed based around alarming on high confidence targets. This paper will present and discuss results of this novel approach to accurately identifying shielded or masked radioisotopes with radiation detection systems.

  8. Development and characterization of carbon-bonded carbon fiber insulation for radioisotope space power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Robbins, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), an improved radioisotope heat source, employs a unique thermal insulation material, carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF), to protect the fuel capsule and to help achieve the highest possible specific power. The CBCF insulation is made from chopped rayon fiber about 10 ..mu..m in diameter and 250 ..mu..m long, which is carbonized and bonded with phenolic resin particles. The CBCF shapes, both tubes and plates, are formed in a multiple molding facility by vacuum molding a water slurry of the carbonized chopped-rayon fiber (54 wt %) and phenolic resin (46 wt %). The molded shapes are subsequently dried and cured. Final carbonization of the resin is at 1600/sup 0/C. Machining to close tolerances (+-0.08 mm) is accomplished by conventional tooling and fixturing. The resulting material is an excellent lightweight insulation with a nominal density of 0.2 Mg/m/sup 3/ and a thermal conductivity of 0.24 W(m.K) in vacuum at 2000/sup 0/C. Several attributes that make CBCF superior to other known high-temperature insulation materials for the GPHS application have been identified. It has the excellent attributes of light weight, low thermal conductivity, chemical compatibility, and high-temperature capabilities. The mechanical strength of CBCF insulation is satisfactory for the GPHS application; it has passed vibration tests simulating launch conditions. The basic fabrication technique was refined to eliminate undesirable large pores and cracks often present in materials fabricated by earlier techniques. Also, processing was scaled up to incease the fabrication rate by a factor of 10. The specific properties of the CBCF were tailored by adjusting material and processing variables to obtain the desired results. We report here how work on CBCF characterization and development conducted at ORNL from 1978 through 1980 has contributed to the GPHS program to meet the requirements of both the Galileo and Ulysees Missions.

  9. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Assessment of the environmental fate of cycloxaprid in flooded and anaerobic soils by radioisotopic tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuanqi; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China, University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Hanxue; Fu, Qiuguo [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shao, Xusheng [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China, University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China, University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide that has been developed for agricultural pest control. The fate of the {sup 14}C-labeled racemic and enantio-pure CYC isomers in flooded and anaerobic soil was investigated using radioisotope tracing techniques. After 100 d of incubation, only a minor portion (< 1%) of the applied CYC isomers is mineralized by each of the four tested soil types. The fraction of initially applied radioactive CYC dissipated into the bound or non-extractable residues (BR) increases with increase in the length of the incubation period, reaching up to 53.0–81.6%. The dissipation of the CYC through mineralization or formation of BR is strongly influenced by soil properties, such as humic content, pH value, and retained microbial activity. Amongst the soils studied, the fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil displayed the highest tendency to mineralize CYC while the coastal saline soil exhibited the strongest tendency to form BR. The observation that the water phase retained the large portion(> 60%) of the radioactivity attributed to the total extractable residue suggested that under the experimental condition, the initially applied {sup 14}C-labeled CYC residues were readily available for leaching or offsite transport. Additionally, no enantiomer-specific behaviors are observed. The results from this study provide a framework for assessing the environmental impact resulting from the use of this pesticide. - Highlights: • Only a minor portion (<1%) of the applied CYC was mineralized. • The bound residue increased over time, reaching up to 53.0-81.6%. • CYC residues were readily available for leaching. • No enantiomer-specific behaviors were observed.

  11. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  12. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2006 Through September 30, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  13. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  14. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PTCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C.W.; Hobbs, R.L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  15. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center developed a nonnuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EMs (engineering models) 2 and 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of ASCs. The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASCs in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and super-capacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS's and RSIL's ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 volts or exceeded 36 volts. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASCs. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  16. Method of radioisotope heat source measurement%同位素热源量热方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯旭峰; 张红生; 刘海港

    2012-01-01

    为了解决放射性同位素核源的热功率测试需要,进行了同位素核源量热方法的研究,通过搭建热功率测试试验装置,对各种影响量热精度的因素进行了分项试验、计算分析.试验结果表明,基于Gardon型热流传感器原理的量热方法,对于基本测量对象,用厚度为1.0 mm的康铜片作为敏感部件,可以实现在120~ 130W热功率范围内测试误差不大于1%,由试验研究分析表明测量原理可行,满足对同位素热源的量热精度要求.%A testing method of radioisotope heat power was researched for the radioisotope heat source. A experiment equipment for thermal testing was assembled to calculate and analyze the effect factor of thermal testing precision. The results Indicate that taking constantan sheet metal with thickness of 1.0 mm as the sensitive parts, the thermal testing technique based on Gardon type thermal flowage sensor, for the elementary measure objects, the testing error Is less than 1% between 120 W and 130 W, and the experimental research indicate that the Gardon type thermal testing theory is feasible and satisfied with the precision need of radioisotope thermal testing.

  17. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  18. Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Heat Exchangers for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Beatty, John S.; Kelly, Frank P.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bame, David P.; Liu, Yuanming; Birux, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Pauken, Michael T.; Illsley, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The addition of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover requires an advanced thermal control system that is able to both recover and reject the waste heat from the MMRTG as needed in order to maintain the onboard electronics at benign temperatures despite the extreme and widely varying environmental conditions experienced both on the way to Mars and on the Martian surface. Based on the previously successful Mars landed mission thermal control schemes, a mechanically pumped fluid loop (MPFL) architecture was selected as the most robust and efficient means for meeting the MSL thermal requirements. The MSL heat recovery and rejection system (HRS) is comprised of two Freon (CFC-11) MPFLs that interact closely with one another to provide comprehensive thermal management throughout all mission phases. The first loop, called the Rover HRS (RHRS), consists of a set of pumps, thermal control valves, and heat exchangers (HXs) that enables the transport of heat from the MMRTG to the rover electronics during cold conditions or from the electronics straight to the environment for immediate heat rejection during warm conditions. The second loop, called the Cruise HRS (CHRS), is thermally coupled to the RHRS during the cruise to Mars, and provides a means for dissipating the waste heat more directly from the MMRTG as well as from both the cruise stage and rover avionics by promoting circulation to the cruise stage radiators. A multifunctional structure was developed that is capable of both collecting waste heat from the MMRTG and rejecting the waste heat to the surrounding environment. It consists of a pair of honeycomb core sandwich panels with HRS tubes bonded to both sides. Two similar HX assemblies were designed to surround the MMRTG on the aft end of the rover. Heat acquisition is accomplished on the interior (MMRTG facing) surface of each HX while heat rejection is accomplished on the exterior surface of

  19. 182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Paton, Chad;

    2013-01-01

    Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized...... in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed...... provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al...

  20. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  1. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  2. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F. F.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor ( HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. First beginning operation in 1965, the high thermal neutron flux (2.5×1015 neutrons/cm2/sec at 85 MW) and versatile target irradiation and handling facilities provide the opportunity for production of a wide variety of neutron-rich medical radioisotopes of current interest for therapy. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117 m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube ( HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle (22-24 days) and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions ( PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117 m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  3. A re-evaluation of k sub 0 and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-line emitted by the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair for use in NAA

    CERN Document Server

    Corte, F D; Simonits, A; Bossus, D; Sluijs, R V; Pommé, S

    1999-01-01

    A re-evaluation is made of the k sub 0 -factor and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-ray of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair that are important in neutron activation analysis (NAA). This study considers that the relevant level is also fed by the 4.34 min sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh mother (with an absolute gamma-ray emission probability gamma sub 2 =0.13%) and not only, as assumed in former work, by the 42.3 s sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh daughter isotope (with gamma sub 3 =2.0%). In view of this, generalised equations were developed for both the experimental determination and the analytical use of the k sub 0 -factor and of the associated parameters k sub 0 (m)/k sub 0 (g), Q sub 0 (m) and Q sub 0 (g) [(m): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh; (g): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh], requiring the introduction of the gamma sub 2 and gamma sub 3 data and also of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh-> sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh fractional decay factor F sub 2 (=0.9987). The experimental determinations...

  4. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  5. Elemental analysis of rain- and fresh water by neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of rain-and fresh water for trace constituents is a manda tory part of environmental monitoring. This text gives a survey of neutron activation analysis (NAA) within the framework of current environmental water research pro grammes, based on the practice developed in co-operation with the Dutch Energy Research Centre at Petten (ECN). While the procedures reported in literature cover about thirty five elements, our routine procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is limited to ten to fifteen elements. The use of some dedicated ra diochemical separations (RNAA) adds another six, some of which are speciated as well. Current contributions of NAA to water analysis center on determination and speciation of anionic trace elements, notably Br, I, As. and Se, on the assay of some ultra traces like Ag, Au and Hg and on validation.

  6. Theoretical, experimental and field studies concerning molecular diffusion of radioisotopes in sediments and suspended solid particles of the sea Part A: Theories and mathematical calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursma, E.K.; Hoede, C.

    1967-01-01

    The best way to describe the kinetics of the uptake of radioisotopes from sea water by bottom sediments and suspended solid matter is by molecular diffusion. The basic diffusion laws can be applied for finding the important parameter of the diffusion, the diffusion coefficient, which will characteri

  7. Eficiência das auxinas (AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell Auxin (IBA and NAA effects on minicuttings rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniele de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência das auxinas AIB (ácido indolbutírico e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no enraizamento adventício de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana. Foram utilizadas miniestacas provenientes de sete clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana, estabelecidos em minijardim clonal, sendo avaliados os efeitos de AIB (0, 1.500, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 na forma líquida e em pó e ANA (0, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 na forma líquida. Os resultados apontaram ser a miniestaquia técnica viável na propagação vegetativa dos clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana estudados, apresentando, de modo geral, alto índice de enraizamento das miniestacas. Os clones com maior potencial de enraizamento adventício responderam mais positivamente às menores dosagens de AIB, enquanto nos clones com capacidade de enraizamento reduzida houve tendência de as maiores dosagens de AIB serem mais eficientes no enraizamento, independentemente da forma de aplicação do fitorregulador (líquido ou pó. O ANA, de modo geral, não influenciou significativamente o enraizamento das miniestacas da maioria dos clones estudados.The present work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the auxins IBA (indolbutyric acid and NAA (naphtaleneacetic acid on the adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana clones. Minicuttings originated from seven Eucalyptus cloeziana clones established in mini-clonal hedge, were evaluated for the effects of IBA (0, 1500, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1 in the liquid and powder forms and NAA (0, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1 in the liquid form. The results showed that minicutting is a viable technique for vegetative propagation of the studied Eucalyptus cloeziana clones, with overall high rooting rates. Clones with higher adventitious rooting potential gave better response to lower IBA doses, while clones with reduced rooting potential were more efficient with higher doses, independently of the form of the applied phytoregulator (powder or liquid. NAA

  8. Enraizamento de estacas de azaléia tratadas com concentrações de ANA em diferentes substratos Rooting of azalea cuttings treats with NAA concentrations and differents substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Mauad

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a necessidade de aumentar a produção de mudas de azaléia por meio da propagação vegetativa, em menor intervalo de tempo, foi proposto estudar os efeitos de diferentes substratos e concentrações de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 3X4 com três substratos (areia grossa lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e húmus e quatro concentrações de ANA na forma de pó (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5%. Utilizaram-se estacas de 100 mm de comprimento retiradas da porção apical do ramo, sem gema apical e com corte em bisel na parte superior, deixando um par de folhas cortadas ao meio. Essas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor de 128 células, por um período de 90 dias, nas quais avaliaram-se: comprimento, superficie, volume e diâmetro radicular e a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, sobreviventes, mortas e número de brotos. Pode-se concluir que a maior porcentagem de enraizamento foi obtida no substrato de casca de arroz carbonizada e com ANA na concentração de 5%.In agreement with to enhancement scion production ofRhododendron x simsii Planch trough the vegetative propagation in shorter time, it was intended to study the effects of different substrates and NAA concentration. The experiment was in factorial design 3x4 with three substrates (sand, hush rice and humus and four NAA concentrations in the powder form (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5%. The cuttings used had 100 mm length without apical meristem with two leaves cut in half. Those were put to rooting in trays of 128 cells, for 90 days in which were evaluated: length, surface, volume and root diameter and percentage of rooted, surviving and dead cuttings and number the buds. It can be conclued that the greatest of rooting was obtained in the substrates hush rice and the 5% of NAA.

  9. Effects of NAA and Atonik on Yield and Fruit Quality of Hainan Mangifera indica ‘Guifei'%NAA和爱多收对海南‘贵妃’杧产量和果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 邓穗生; 何书强; 贺军虎; 陈华蕊; 陈业渊

    2015-01-01

    以海南主栽杧果品种‘贵妃’为试材,在果实生育期进行萘乙酸(NAA)、爱多收(复硝酚钠)不同浓度处理的喷施试验,旨在明确2种植物生长调节剂对杧果产量和果实品质的影响.结果表明:爱多收增加产量效果较好,以高浓度的100 mg/L处理产量最高,比对照增加了102.6%,NAA低浓度可显著增加产量,高浓度则起到疏果的作用,增产效果不显著.NAA能显著促进果实膨大,爱多收则不能.在影响果皮色素方面,NAA和爱多收较低浓度(5、10 mg/L)处理延缓果皮叶绿素的降解,各处理均促进了果皮类胡萝卜素的积累,NAA较高浓度(60、100 rg/L)和爱多收5 mg/L处理抑制了果皮花青素的合成,尤其是NAA 100 mg/L,对果实采收期和完熟期的红色着色造成不利影响.NAA和爱多收对果实内在品质的影响不大.综合比较,以NAA 30 mg/L和爱多收100 mg/L处理为宜.该研究为NAA和爱多收在海南‘贵妃’杧种植中的合理应用提供了科学依据.

  10. A reanalysis of radioisotope measurements of the $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)^8$Be cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    The $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)^8$Be reaction is enhanced by a near threshold $1/2^+$ state. Contradictions between existing measurements of this reaction cross-section affect calculations of astrophysical r-process yields, dark matter detector calibrations, and the theory of the nuclear structure of $^9$Be. Select well-documented radioisotope $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)$ source yield measurements have been reanalyzed, providing a set of high-accuracy independently measured cross sections. A Breit-Wigner fit of these corrected measurements yields $E_R=1738.8^{+5.0}_{-4.2}$~keV, $\\Gamma_\\gamma=0.771^{+0.055}_{-0.044}$~eV, and $\\Gamma_n=268^{+40}_{-33}$~keV for the $1/2^+$ state. The fit favors a resonant $1/2^+$ state, but a virtual state is not excluded.

  11. Development of measuring method for platelet monoaminergic system for information transfer using radio-isotope and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kijiro; Nakahara, Tatsuo; Hirano, Makoto; Matsumoto, Takashi; Hondo, Hisao; Tsutsumi, Tetsuyuki; Nakamura, Kaoru; Uchimura, Hideyuki [National Sanatorium Hizen Hospital, Higashiseburi, Saga (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Aiming to develop a measuring method for various receptors such as {sigma}, NMDA(N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) on human platelet using radioisotope (RI), quantitative determination method using RT-PCR for serotonin reuptake protein into human platelets was developed in the previous year. And quantitative determination for {sigma}{sub 1} receptor was succeeded by amplifying the base sequence which recognizes the receptor using RT-PCR method. There kinds of primer, P1 P2 and P3 were constructed based on the base sequence obtained from Gen Bank and P2 was selected as the primer which allows most efficient expression. Neither of the three primers could detect the specific band for RNA extracted from rat platelet. There remains a possibility that since the base sequence for {sigma}{sub 1} receptor is less homologous between the rat and human, its detection was unable by the primers used. (M.N.)

  12. Sublimation behavior of silicon nitride /Si3N4/ coated silicon germanium /SiGe/ unicouples. [for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapfer, G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1975-01-01

    For the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), the silicon germanium unicouples are coated with silicon nitride to minimize degradation mechanisms which are directly attributable to material sublimation effects. A program is under way to determine the effective vapor suppression of this coating as a function of temperature and gas environment. The results of weight loss experiments, using Si3N4 coated hot shoes (SiMo), operating over a temperature range from 900 C to 1200 C, are analyzed and discussed. These experiments were conducted both in high vacuum and at different pressures of carbon monoxide (CO) to determine its effect on the coating. Although the results show a favorable vapor suppression at all operating temperatures, the pressure of the CO and the thickness of the coating have a decided effect on the useful lifetime of the coating.

  13. Renal radioisotope clearance in an unselected group of diabetics - a tool for the early recognition of diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doschek, D.; Wulf, R.; Krause, F.J.

    1980-12-01

    Our study in unselected patients with diabetes was undertaken to determine the relation between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) according to the patient's age. The diagnostic work-up was done with patients in unselected disease states because a classification of all systemic manifestations of the diabetes was not possible. The lack of selection may therefore reduce the value of our statistical results. From age 55 onwards, there was a reduction in GFR and, to a lesser extent, in PFR exceeding that which was age-dependent. It is, therefore, recommended to check the clearance in all patients with diabetes older than 55 years. The clearance with radioisotopically labeled substances, being a very sensitive method for the evaluation of restricted renal function, may permit an early recognition of diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Renal radioisotope clearance in an unselected group of diabetics - a tool for the early recognition of diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doschek, D.; Wulf, R.; Krause, F.J.

    1980-12-01

    Our study in unselected patients with diabetes was undertaken to determine the relation between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) according to the patient's age. The diagnostic work-up was done with patients in unselected disease states because a classification of all systemic manifestations of the diabetes was not possible. The lack of selection may therefore reduce the value of our statistical results. From age 55 onwards, there was a reduction in GFR and, to a lesser extent, in RPF exceeding that which was age-dependent. It is, therefore, recommended to check the clearance in all patients with diabetes older than 55 years. The clearance with radioisotopically labeled substances, being a very sensitive method for the evaluation of restricted renal function, may permit an early recognition of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. A unique radioisotopic label as a new concept for safeguarding and tagging of long-term stored items and waste

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikova, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The present paper discuss a novel method of tagging and labeling of waste casks, copper canisters, spent fuel containers, mercury containers, waste pack- ages and other items. In particular, it is related to the development of new long-term security identification tags/labels that can be applied to articles for carrying information about the content, inventory tracking, prevention of falsifi- cation and theft etc. It is suggested to use a unique combination of radioisotopes with different predictable length of life, as a label of the items. The possibil- ity to realize a multidimensional bar code symbology is proposed as an option for a new labeling method. The results of the first tests and evaluations of this are shown and discussed in the paper. The invention is suitable for use in items assigned to long-term (hundreds of years) storing or for final repositories. Alternative field of use includes fresh nuclear fuel handling and shipment of goods.

  16. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer%核子医学在乳癌的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳定勤

    2001-01-01

    乳癌是女性最常见的癌症.正确的诊断对医治的方法和结果有很大的影响.本文探讨几种用在乳癌病人上的核医学技术的临床价值,包括乳腺造影、淋巴腺采集和正电子断层扫描.%Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques.

  17. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  18. Determination of tungsten in geochemical reference material basalt Columbia River 2 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Samuel S.; Beck, Chelsie L.; Bowen, James M.; Eggemeyer, Tere A.; Hines, Corey C.; Liezers, Martin; Metz, Lori A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Restis, Kaitlyn R.; Snow, Mathew; Wall, Donald E.; Clark, Sue B.; Seiner, Brienne N.

    2017-01-02

    Environmental tungsten (W) analyses are inhibited by a lack of reference materials and practical methods to remove isobaric and radiometric interferences. We present a method that evaluates the potential use of commercially available sediment, Basalt Columbia River-2 (BCR-2), as a reference material using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and mass spectrometry. Tungsten concentrations using both methods are in statistical agreement at the 95% confidence interval (92 ± 4 ng/g for NAA and 100 ±7 ng/g for mass spectrometry) with recoveries greater than 95%. These results indicate that BCR-2 may be suitable as a reference material for future studies.

  19. Numerical simulation of radioisotope's dependency on containment performance for large dry PWR containment under severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehboob, Khurram, E-mail: khurramhrbeu@gmail.com [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, 145-31 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Xinrong, Cao [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, 145-31 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Ahmed, Raheel [College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, 145-31 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Ali, Majid [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, 145-31 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Calculation and comparison of activity of BURN-UP code with ORIGEN2 code. • Development of SASTC computer code. • Radioisotopes dependency on containment ESFs. • Mitigation in atmospheric release with ESFs operation. • Variation in radioisotopes source term with spray flow and pH value. -- Abstract: During the core melt accidents large amount of fission products can be released into the containment building. These fission products escape into the environment to contribute in accident source term. The mitigation in environmental release is demanded for such radiological consequences. Thus, countermeasures to source term, mitigations of release of radioactivity have been studied for 1000 MWe PWR reactor. The procedure of study is divided into five steps: (1) calculation and verification of core inventory, evaluated by BURN-UP code, (2) containment modeling based on radioactivity removal factors, (3) selection of potential accidents initiates the severe accident, (4) calculation of release of radioactivity, (5) study the dependency of release of radioactivity on containment engineering safety features (ESFs) inducing mitigation. Loss of coolant accident (LOCA), small break LOCA and flow blockage accidents (FBA) are selected as initiating accidents. The mitigation effect of ESFs on source term has been studied against ESFs performance. Parametric study of release of radioactivity has been carried out by modeling and simulating the containment parameters in MATLAB, which takes BURN-UP outcomes as input along with the probabilistic data. The dependency of iodine and aerosol source term on boric and caustic acid spray has been determined. The variation in source term mitigation with the variation of containment spray flow rate and pH values have been studied. The variation in containment retention factor (CRF) has also been studied with the ESF performance. A rapid decrease in source term is observed with the increase in pH value.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals in positron emission tomography: Radioisotope productions and radiolabelling procedures at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Chan, J.G.; Cook, M. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Positron Emission Tomography

    1997-10-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that utilizes positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals to map the physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology of the human body. Positron-emitting radioisotopes produced in a medical cyclotron are incorporated into compounds that are biologically active in the body. A scanner measures radioactivity emitted from a patient`s body and provides cross-sectional images of the distribution of these radiolabelled compounds in the body. It is the purpose of this paper to review the variety of PET radiopharmaceuticals currently produced at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. Radioisotope production, radiolabelling of molecules and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals will be discussed. A few examples of their clinical applications will be shown as well. During the last five years we achieved a reliable routine production of various radiopharmaceuticals labelled with the four most important positron-emitters: oxygen-15 (t,{sub 1/2}=2min), nitrogen-13 (t{sub 1/2}= 10 min), carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2}=20 min) and fluorine-18 (t{sub 1/2}= 110 min). These radiopharmaceuticals include [{sup 15}O]oxygen, [{sup 15}O]carbon monoxide, [{sup 15}O]carbon dioxide, [{sup 15}O]water, [{sup 13}N]ammonia, [{sup 11}C]flumazenil, [{sup 11}C]SCH23390, [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG). In addition, since the half life of [{sup 18}F] is almost two hours, regional distribution can be done, and the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre is currently supplying [{sup 18}F]FDG in routine to other hospitals. Future new radiopharmaceuticals development include a [{sup 18}F]thymidine analog to measure cell proliferation and a [{sup 11}C]pyrroloisoquinoline to visualize serotonergic neuron abnormalities. (authors) 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Low temperature storage of NAA, GA3 and 2,4-D treated citrus budsticks Armazenamento em baixa temperatura de hastes porta-borbulhas de citros tratadas com ANA, GA3 e 2,4-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage allows citrus budstick conservation for several months, although gradual bud viability loss and abscission of leaf petioles is observed. This study aimed to maintain bud viability reducing leaf petiole abscission in budsticks of 'Baianinha' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (C. sinensis Osbeck, 'Tahiti' lime (C. latifolia Tanaka, and 'Murcott' tangor (C. sinensis × C. reticulata, using NAA, GA3, 2,4-D, and low temperature storage. After a 15-minutes-immersion in distilled water and NAA and GA3 solutions at concentrations of 10, 100, 500 and 1000 µmol L-1, and 2,4-D solutions at concentrations of 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol L-1, the shoots were stored in polyethylene bags at 5 ± 1ºC for 74 days. Percentage of leaf petiole abscission, fresh and dry matter losses, bud viability, and growth flush were evaluated. NAA and 2,4-D had the highest efficiency for petiole abscission inhibition, reaching almost 99% of success. The packaging system and shoot storage under low temperature efficiently reduced fresh and dry matter losses. Bud viability of 'Baianinha', 'Valencia' and 'Murcott' shoots was not reduced by storage, maintaining above 95% of grafting success. NAA, GA3 and 2,4-D treatments had no influence on sprout growth.O armazenamento refrigerado possibilita a conservação de hastes porta-borbulhas de citros por vários meses, embora ocorra perda gradual da viabilidade das borbulhas e abscisão dos pecíolos foliares. Este estudo objetivou manter a viabilidade das borbulhas e reduzir a abscisão dos pecíolos foliares das hastes porta-borbulhas das laranjeiras 'Baianinha' e 'Valência'(C. sinensis Osbeck, da lima ácida 'Tahiti'(C. latifolia Tanaka e da tangoreira 'Murcote' (C. sinensis × C. reticulata por meio do tratamento com ANA, GA3, 2,4-D e armazenamento refrigerado. As hastes foram imersas por 15 minutos em água destilada e em soluções com os reguladores de crescimento ANA e GA3 nas concentrações 10, 100, 500 e 1000 µmol L-1 e

  2. Zircon Geochronology (U-Pb, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioisotopes of Bornaward Metarhyolites (Central Taknar Zone-Northwest of Bardaskan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Monazzami Bagherzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Bornaward area is located in the Northeastern Iran (in the Khorasan Razavi province 28 km northwest of the city of Bardaskan at 57˚ 46΄ to 57˚ 52΄ N latitude and 35˚ 21΄ to 35˚ 24΄E longitude. The Taknar structural zone, situated in the North central Iranian micro continent, is part of the Lut block (Forster, 1978. The Taknar zone is an allochthonous block bounded by the Darouneh and Taknar major faults. Much of this zone consists of metarhyolite-rhyodacite volcanic rocks, and rhyolitic tuff with interlayers of sandstone and dolomite (Taknar Formation. Analytical Results ICP-MS analysis of REE and minor elements of samples of the Bornaward metarhyolites was carried out at the ACME Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada. U-Pb dating of the metarhyolites was performed on isolated zircons in Crohn's Laser Lab, in Arizona (Gehrels et al., 2008. Measurement of Rb, Sr, Sm and Nd isotopes and (143Nd/144Ndi and (87Sr/86Sri ratios took place in the radioisotope laboratory of the University of Aveiro in Portugal. Petrography The volcanic rocks are porphyritic, commonly containing phenocrysts of orthoclase and rarely sanidine, quartz and intermediate plagioclase in a groundmass of fine-grained quartz and feldspar. An alteration has produced oriented needles of sericite and clay minerals, clusters of fine-grained green biotite and clots of epidote and chlorite. Geochemistry The compositions of the volcanic rocks are calc alkaline and high K- calc alkaline. The obtained Shand index (Al2O3/( CaO+Na2O+K2O is above 1.1, in the peraluminous S-type granite field (Chappell and White, 2001. Plotted on the TAS diagram (Middlemost, 1994, all the metarhyolite-rhyodacite samples are located in the sub-alkaline field and the majority fall into the rhyolite group. The metarhyolite-rhyodacites show enrichment of LREE with a moderately ascending pattern ((La/YbN=2.51-10.11 and La=46.45-145.48. Europium shows a negative anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.23-0.71. U

  3. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination; Estudo comparativo entre a tecnica de inducao de raios X por particulas e analise por ativacao com neutrons na determinacao do metal pesado zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). CNPDIA. E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in {mu}g/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university.

  4. International comparison of Cd content in a quality control material of Navajuelas (Tagelus dombeii) determined by anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirolo, F. (Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. of Chemistry Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry); Ostapczuk, P. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie); Valenta, P.; Stegen, S. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry); Marin, C.; Vinagre, F.; Sanchez, A. (Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry)

    1991-05-01

    The determination of Cd was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame or in the electrothermal mode and anodic stripping voltammetry in the differential pulse mode (DPASV) and the square wave mode (SWASV). (orig./EF).

  5. Anwendung eines Radioisotop-EDX-Systems bei der Analyse von Manganknollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Friedrich, G.; Plüger, W.

    1974-01-01

    Method described in the paper was used on board a research ship for determination of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn in manganese nodules. Besides the quantitative analysis of finely ground nodules, the semi-quantitative analysis of smooth surfaces and the distribution of the elements in the nodules w...

  6. The Mars Hopper: Development, Simulation and Experimental Validation of a Radioisotope Exploration Probe for the Martian Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan D. Jerred; Spencer Cooley; Robert C. O' Brien; Steven D. Howe; James E. O' Brien

    2012-09-01

    An advanced exploration probe has been proposed by the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) to acquire detailed data from the Martian surface and subsurface, ‘hop’ large distances to multiple sites in short periods of time and perform this task repeatedly. Although several similar flying vehicles have been proposed utilizing various power sources and complex designs, e.g. solar-electric and chemical-based, the CSNR’s Mars Hopper is based on a radioisotope thermal rocket (RTR) concept. The Mars Hopper’s design relies on the high specific energies [J/kg] of radioisotopes and enhances their low specific power [W/kg] through the use of a thermal capacitance material to store thermal energy over time. During operation, the RTR transfers the stored thermal energy to a flowing gas, which is then expanded through a converging-diverging nozzle, producing thrust. Between flights, the platform will have ample time to perform in-depth science at each location while the propellant tanks and thermal capacitor recharge. Recharging the propellant tanks is accomplished by sublimation freezing of the ambient CO2 atmosphere with a cryocooler, followed by heating and pressurization to yield a liquid storage state. The proposed Mars Hopper will undergo a ballistic flight, consuming the propellant in both ascent and descent, and by using multiple hopper platforms, information can be gathered on a global scale, enabling better resource resolution and providing valuable information for a possible Mars sample-return mission. The CSNR, collaborating with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and three universities (University of Idaho, Utah State University and Oregon State University), has identified key components and sub-systems necessary for the proposed hopper. Current project activities include the development of a lab-scale prototypic Mars Hopper and test facility, along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/thermal-hydraulic models to yield a better understanding of the

  7. Offer/demand of the radioisotope {sup 99}MO in Brazil: a social necessity; Oferta/demanda do radioisotopo {sup 99}MO no Brasil: uma necessidade social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Bruno Luiz da Cruz Barbosa de; Pereira, Marcelo O., E-mail: brunosouza.ep@gmail.com, E-mail: marcelocefetrj@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET), Nova Iguacu, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao

    2013-07-01

    The construction of a nuclear reactor, project under way in Brazil, always generates controversy surrounding the real needs of a society to the risks of accidents. This paper proposes, using statistical data on the supply / demand of the {sup 99}Mo radioisotope, show the need to build a nuclear research reactor in the country, showing the various applications in Nuclear Medicine and needs of this input for the country.

  8. 花生毛状根的高频诱导及NAA和2,4-D对花生毛状根生长和白藜芦醇含量的影响%High Frequency Induction of Hairy Roots and Effect of NAA and 2,4-D on Peanut Hairy Roots Growth and Resveratrol Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚庆收; 姜吉刚; 单长民; 武玉永; 于敏

    2012-01-01

    为获得高诱导率的花生毛状根诱导条件,同时探究不同浓度的萘乙酸(NAA)和2,4二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)对花生毛状根生长和白藜芦醇含量的影响.研究了不同发根农杆菌菌株和不同乙酰丁香酮浓度对花生毛状根诱导率的影响;以固体MS培养基为对照,分别添加不同浓度的NAA和2,4-D,培养花生毛状根,探究对毛状根生长和白藜芦醇含量的影响.实验显示花生毛状根诱导率可达到92.3%.花生毛状根随着NAA的浓度升高,生物量同对照相比较无显著差异,各浓度的NAA之间也无明显差异;与对照相比较,白藜芦醇含量显著增高,呈显著差异,但各浓度的NAA之间白藜芦醇的含量无明显差异.添加2,4-D形成的生物量明显偏低,白藜芦醇含量与添加NAA组无差别.以A600为0.8的发根农杆菌R1601菌液侵染花生叶片,在含50 μmoL/L乙酰丁香酮的MS培养基培养时,可以高效的诱导得到花生毛状根;NAA可以作为一种外源激素提高花生毛状根中白藜芦醇的含量.%To obtain induction conditions about a high induction rate of peanut hairy root, and to explore the influence of biomass and resveratrol content of peanut hairy root with different concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) ,the effects of induced rate of peanut hairy roots with different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and different aceto-syringone concentrations were studied and Ms solid medium was used as control,then different concentrations of NAA and 2,4-D were added to cultivate peanut hairy roots, and to explore the influence of hairy root biomass and resveratrol content. The results showed that the induction rate of peanut hairy root reached 92. 3% . With increasing NAA concentration,no significant difference was observed in the biomass accumulation between the control and the group treated with various concentrations of NAA. With NAA concentration more and more higher

  9. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for April 1, 2002 Through September 20, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.P.

    2002-12-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2002. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  10. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed

    2005-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Production and production maintenance activities for flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  11. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for September 2000 through March 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.P.

    2001-05-22

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) and weld shields (WS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2001. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, CVS, and WS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials. or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  12. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2002 Through September 30, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.F.

    2004-05-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2003. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  13. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  14. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technical Program Tasks for October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-04-02

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  15. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2005 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2007-04-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  16. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Programs Tasks for October 1, 2005, through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  17. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2004, THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  18. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed

    2006-08-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  19. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2004 Through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  20. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days.

  1. Summary of Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in Support of Stirling Radioisotope Power System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifer, Nicholas A.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been testing 100 We class, free-piston Stirling convertors for potential use in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for space science and exploration missions. Free-piston Stirling convertors are capable of achieving a 38% conversion efficiency, making Stirling attractive for meeting future power system needs in light of the shrinking U.S. plutonium fuel supply. Convertors currently on test include four Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDCs), manufactured by the Stirling Technology Company (STC), and six Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), manufactured by Sunpower, Inc. Total hours of operation is greater than 514,000 hours (59 years). Several tests have been initiated to demonstrate the functionality of Stirling convertors for space applications, including: in-air extended operation, thermal vacuum extended operation. Other tests have also been conducted to characterize Stirling performance in anticipated mission scenarios. Data collected during testing has been used to support life and reliability estimates, drive design changes and improve quality, and plan for expected mission scenarios. This paper will provide a summary of convertors tested at NASA GRC and discuss lessons learned through extended testing.

  2. Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with $\\gamma$ Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in $(\\gamma,x{\\rm n}+y{\\rm p})$ photonuclear reactions or ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) photoexcitation reactions with high flux [($10^{13}-10^{15}$)$\\gamma$/s], small diameter $\\sim (100 \\, \\mu$m$)^2$ and small band width ($\\Delta E/E \\approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}$) $\\gamma$ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,$x$n$ + y$p) reactions with (ion=p,d,$\\alpha$) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,$\\gamma$) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow $\\gamma$ beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ isomer production via specially selected $\\gamma$ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground st...

  3. Estimates of helium gas release in 238PuO 2 fuel particles for radioisotope heat sources and heater units

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2000-06-01

    Release data of noble gases (Xe and Kr) from small-grain (7-40 μm), large-grain (⩾300 μm), and monocrystal UO 2 fuel particles, during isothermal irradiation up to 6.4 at.% and 2030 K are reviewed and their applicability to estimate helium release from 238PuO 2 fuel particles (⩾300 μm in diameter) is examined. Coated 238PuO 2 particles have recently been proposed for use in radioisotope power systems and heater units employed in planetary exploration missions. These fuel particles are intentionally sized and designed to prevent any adverse radiological effect and retain the helium gas generated by the radioactive decay of 238Pu, a desired feature for some planetary missions. Results suggest that helium release from large-grain (⩾300 μm) particles of K could be 80% but less than 7% at 1042 K, which is in general agreement with the experiments conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory more than two decades ago. In these experiments, the helium gas release from small-grain (7-40 μm) 238PuO 2 fuel pellets has been measured during steady-state heating at temperatures up to 1886 K and ramp heating to 1723 K.

  4. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kh A; Seddeek, M K; Elnimr, T; Sharshar, T; Badran, H M

    2011-06-01

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of ²²⁶Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The ²²⁶Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg⁻¹ for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg⁻¹ for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l⁻¹ for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, ²²⁶Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ∼14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the ²³²Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while ¹³⁷Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place.

  5. Determination of Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability in the Small Intestine of Catfish (Pangasius djambal by Using the 32P Radioisotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sugoro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The viability of probiotics is important to be determined, as is its probiotic potency in the small instestine of fish. The result can be used as a basis to determine the feeding frequency of the probiotics to the fish.The aim of this study is to gain information about the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the small intestine of fish by using the 32P isotope technique. Catfish (Pangasius djambal was used as a test fish, and the LAB with the code of P2.1 PTB was the subject of the experiment. Before its viability was tested, the LAB had been labelled with radioisotope 32P, then mixed into catfish feed. Its viability could be determined by counting the activity of 32P. The results showed that the percentage of LAB viability in the small intestine of catfish declined until day 7. The percentage of LAB viability was decreased at an amount of 30% at day 3. Based on this result, the feeding frequency of LAB P2.1 PTB is every 3 days. Received: 04 October 2014 Revised: 26 March 2015; Accepted: 05 April 2015

  6. /sup 203/Hg and other gamma-emitting radio-isotopes as labels for Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengemann, F.W.; Grieve, R.B.; Chmielewicz, M.; Georgi, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    The in vitro uptake of gamma-emitting radionuclides by microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis was investigated. Radionuclides tested were /sup 133/Ba, /sup 207/Bi, /sup 82/Br, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 60/Co, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 203/Hg, /sup 125/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 32/P, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 46/Sc, /sup 75/Se and /sup 65/Zn. Only /sup 207/Bi, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 203/Hg, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 46/Sc showed more than 2% of the available radioactivity to bind to the microfilariae. When tested for retention in vitro only /sup 203/Hg showed retention levels approaching 90%. Moreover, when dimethyl-sulphoxide was incorporated into the medium at levels of 1% (v/v) the uptake of /sup 203/Hg could be increased by 3-5 times; no other radio-isotope tested responded in this manner. The uptake of /sup 203/Hg was directly related to temperature and time of incubation. Mercury, as mercuric chloride, was toxic to the microfilariae and represents an impediment to the incorporation of high levels of /sup 203/Hg in microfilariae.

  7. Reentry response of the light weight radioisotope heater unit resulting from a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist maneuver accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    Reentry analyses consisting of ablation response, thermal response and thermal stress response have been conducted on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit for Galileo/VEEGA reentry conditions. Sequential ablation analyses of the LWRHU aeroshell, the fuel clad, and the fuel pellet have been conducted in reentry regimes where the aeroshell has been deemed to fail. The failure criterion for ablation is assumed to be recession corresponding to 50% of the wall thickness (the design criterion recommended in the DOE Overall Safety Manual). Although the analyses have been carried far beyond this limit (as presented and discussed herein), JHU/APL endorses the position that failure may occur at the time that this recession is achieved or at lower altitudes within the heat pulse considering the uncertainties in the aerodynamic, thermodynamic, and thermo-structural analyses and modeling. These uncertainties result mainly because of the high energies involved in the VEEGA reentries compared to orbital decay reentries. Risk evaluations should consider the fact that for shallow flight paths the unit may disassemble at high-altitude as a result of ablation or may remain intact until it impacts with a clad that had been molten. 80 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. NaA分子筛膜渗透蒸发制备高纯糠醛%Preparation of High-Pure Furfural Through Pervaporation on NaA Zeolite Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志辉; 丁武龙; 王涛; 刘小青; 刘恒浪; 王金渠

    2013-01-01

    采用热浸渍晶种法制备了均匀致密的NaA分子筛膜,并用于糠醛脱水.考察了进料流量、进料温度和进料中糠醛含量对糠醛脱水性能的影响.实验结果表明,当进料温度为80℃、渗透侧压力小于100 Pa、流量为196 mL/min、进料中糠醛含量为93.7%(w)时,NaA分子筛膜对于水-糠醛的分离因数最高可达34 110;当进料温度为90℃时,分离因数约为12 000,膜的渗透通量可达1.79 kg/(m2·h);对进料中糠醛含量为89.6%(w)的水-糠醛混合液进行渗透蒸发浓缩,连续运行96 h后所得产品糠醛含量为99.5%(w),膜的平均渗透通量为0.60 kg/(m2·h).%Continuous and compact NaA zeolite membranes were synthesized by a hot dip-coating seeding method and applied to the preparation of high pure furfural by dehydration.The effects of feeding flowrate,feedstock temperature and furfural content in the feedstock on the dehydration of furfural were investigated.The results indicated that under the conditions of feedstock temperature 80 ℃,pressure of the penetrating side less than 100 Pa,feeding flowrate 196 mL/min and furfural content in the feedstock 93.7%(w),the separation factor of the NaA membranes could reach 34 110.Under the conditions of feedstock temperature 90 ℃ and separation factor 12 000,the flux could reach 1.79 kg/(m2 · h).The furfural content in the products was 99.5%(w) and the average penetration flux on the membranes was 0.60 kg/(m2 · h) when the furfural content in the feedstock was 89.6%(w) and after continuous pervaporation was carried out for 96 h.

  9. Development of Neutron Activation Analysis for Scientific Interpretation on Cultural Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Ho; Kim, Na Young; Ko, Min Chung; Kim, Min Ji; Cho, Su Mi; Kang, Ji Eun [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This research is tried to set up the application of neutron activation analysis and to evaluate the historical information about ceramics materials at production kilns for the standardized technology of NAA. This project is measured the 112 samples from Jijong-dong, Daejeon and 4 production kiln sites in Kyongsangdo by using NAA and XRF and classified as types and production site by PCA and applied of factor analysis, discruminant analysis and cluster analysis. As the results, we know that it is classified as pottery and roof tile as measured 11 elements and that it is not classified major and trace elements as the production kiln sites because raw materials is 2nd clay. At last, it is investigated the comparative evaluation of raw material as production kiln sites by cluster analysis as the basis of the data of NA

  10. Analysis of bioactive ingredients in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus by capillary electrophoresis and neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truus, Kalle; Vaher, Merike; Koel, Mihkel; Mähar, Andres; Taure, Imants

    2004-07-01

    Two different types of bioactive components of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were analysed: (1) polyphenols (phlorotannins) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (2) mineral part (including bioactive microelements) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). CE experiments were carried out using a UV detector (at 210 nm) and an uncoated silica capillary. The best separation was achieved at a voltage of 20 kV using borate or acetate buffer in a methanol/acetonitrile mixture as background electrolyte. The CE analysis data were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Determination of mineral composition of algal biomass by NAA was performed on the basis of various nuclides; the best results (from 38 elements determined) were obtained for Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Sr, I, Ba, Au and Hg.

  11. Climate cure 2020. Measures and instruments for achieving Norwegian climate targets to 2020; Klimakur 2020. Tiltak og virkemidler for aa naa norske klimamaal mot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    In this scenario, the analysis shows how international climate change agreements and the population's attitude to climate-friendly actions could affect Norway's ability to achieve the objectives of national emission reductions. Political feasibility, technology and carbon price may vary according to how forces will move in future. Some measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may be more robust against future uncertainties than others. Scenario analysis can therefore provide useful perspectives when instruments should be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the years ahead. (AG)

  12. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Low Altitude Operation on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a Stirling engine powered airship for the near surface exploration of Venus was evaluated. The heat source for the Stirling engine was limited to 10 general purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. The baseline airship utilized hydrogen as the lifting gas and the electronics and payload were enclosed in a cooled insulated pressure vessel to maintain the internal temperature at 320 K and 1 Bar pressure. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the Venus surface based on the available thermal power. The atmospheric conditions on Venus were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Venus surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the internal temperature of the payload chamber and the flight altitude. In addition other lifting methods were evaluated such as an evacuated chamber, heated atmospheric gas and augmented heated lifting gas. However none of these methods proved viable.

  13. Effects of thermal shocks on the release of radioisotopes and on molten metal target vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Benedikt, Michael; Catherall, R; Cyvoct, G; Fabich, A; Georg, U; Gilardoni, S S; Jonsson, O; Ravn, H L; Sgobba, Stefano; Bauer, G; Bruchertseifer, H; Graber, T; Gudermann, C; Ni, L; Rastani, R

    2003-01-01

    The ISOLDE pulsed proton beam peak power amounts to 500 MW during the 2.4 ms proton pulse. The fraction of the proton pulse energy deposited in the target material is at the origin of severe thermal shocks. Quantitative measurement of their effect on the release of radioelements from ISOLDE targets was obtained by comparison of release profiles measured under different proton beam settings. The thermal shock induced in liquids (Pb, Sn, La) lead to mechanical failure of ISOLDE molten metal target vessels. Failure analysis is presented and discussed in the light of the response of mercury samples submitted to the ISOLDE beam and monitored by high-speed optical systems.

  14. The application of spectrographic analysis to the radioisotope production control; Aplicacion del analisis espectrografico al control de produccion de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1972-07-01

    The copper spark technique has been employed for both semi-quantitative and quantitative determinations of twelve usual impurities in the p.p.m. range, in Solutions of Mn-54, Fe-55, Fe-59 and Cr-51. The effect of the HCl concentration has previously been investigated: for the majority of elements the line intensities attain a maximum at 0.3 N HCl. To compensate for the influence of the concentration of the radioactive element, as well as of Na in the Cr-51 samples, Bi, 6a, In, Mo, Pd, TI and Y have been tested. Finally, the quantitative determination of each radioelement has been performed using the above-mentioned elements as internal standards, Ga and Ko giving the best results. (Author) 2 refs.

  15. Radioisotope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical applications of activation analysis. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A. B.

    1978-07-31

    Studies on dosimetry included: comparative dosimetry of iodocholesterol compounds; /sup 59/Fe and /sup 111/In dosimetry in abnormal human subjects; dosimetry of intraperitoneally administered /sup 32/P colloid; evaluation of the standard man model for dosimetry calculations; radiosensitivity of the thyroid during /sup 131/I therapy; environmental monitoring of nuclear power reactors; distribution and excretion of lung imaging agents; and organ distribution and excretion of /sup 99m/Tc--Sn--Methylene diphosphonate. Supporting systems development studies were conducted on hardware and software. Hardware studies included microprocessor controlled quantitative scanner and digital computer interface for a longitudinal tomographic scanner for human dosimetry studies. Software studies included acquisition, reconstruction, and display of tomographic data, simulation and modeling, and computer programs in nuclear medicine. (HLW)

  16. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotope. Studies on radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Jin, J. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, M. Z.; Jung, S. H.; Park, S. C.; Na, B. Z.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, O. H.

    1997-09-01

    An attempt was made to synthesize adsorbent by radiation grafting of monomers onto polypropylene fabric, and then introducing functional groups such as cation-exchange and anion-exchange. The capacities of the synthesized adsorbents having the cationic and anionic exchange groups were evaluated by determining the degree to adsorb the basic and acidic gas, respectively. Software for RTD analysis was made to analyze data from radiotracer experiments. A pilot plant for practicing tracer experiments was designed and constructed, and experimental procedures for several tracer techniques were established. Radiation source holder, detector collimator, driver unit and software to control them were designed and constructed for column scanning technique. Basic studies for sea sand movement were performed and some tracer experiments were executed to support local industry as well as to gain field experiences. Cellulosic agricultural waste was observed by SEM for structural changes and analysed by thermal gravity analysis and water holding capacity test for the physical characteristics as a function of radiation dose. The number and kind of microorganisms in cellulosic agricultural waste were determined and sterilized by the reasonable radiation dose. The optimal fermentable microorganism is evaluated by the fermentation experiments of various useful strains. (author). 20 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs.

  17. Calculating of Dose Distribution in Tongue Brachytherapy by Different Radioisotopes using Monte Carlo Simulation and Comparing by Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192

  18. Effects of thermal shocks on the release of radioisotopes and on molten metal target vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J. E-mail: jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Arnau, G.; Benedikt, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Catherall, R.; Georg, U.; Cyvogt, G.; Fabich, A.; Jonsson, O.; Ravn, H.; Sgobba, S.; Bauer, G.; Brucherstseifer, H.; Graber, T.; Guedermann, C.; Ni, L.; Rastani, R

    2003-05-01

    The ISOLDE pulsed proton beam peak power amounts to 500 MW during the 2.4 {mu}s proton pulse. The fraction of the proton pulse energy deposited in the target material is at the origin of severe thermal shocks. Quantitative measurement of their effect on the release of radioelements from ISOLDE targets was obtained by comparison of release profiles measured under different proton beam settings. The thermal shock induced in liquids (Pb, Sn, La) lead to mechanical failure of ISOLDE molten metal target vessels. Failure analysis is presented and discussed in the light of the response of mercury samples submitted to the ISOLDE beam and monitored by high-speed optical systems.

  19. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Akyuez, T; Guezel, T; Akyuz, S

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 mu g/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium.

  20. [Study of age and sex dependance in renal clearances with radioisotopes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, G; Erd, W; Ludwig, H; Sinzinger, H; Höfer, R

    1976-03-01

    In 85 patients between 15 and 95 years of age (40 male patients and 45 females) without any signs of renal disease (concentration of serum creatinine below 1,4 mg/100ml, normal diastolic blood pressure and normal urine analysis) a highly significant negative correlation was found between glomerular filtration rate (GFR, determined by 51Cr-EDTA - slope-clearance) and renal plasma flow (RPF, determined by 131J-oJHS-iodinehippuricacid-totalclearance) on one side and age on the other. Beginning with a basic value of 160 ml in males and 144 ml in females for GFR, the average decrease per year was 1,2 ml/1,0 ml respectively. The basis value of RPF was 854 ml for males and 673 ml for females, the decrease per year was 5,4 ml in men and 2,9 ml in women. The importance of physiological diminution of clearance values in elderly patients and its consequences for therapy are discussed. The more exact and methodically simpler 51Cr-EDTA-slope-clearance without urine collection should be used instead of the somewhat inaccurate determination of endogenous creatinine clearance especially in older patients.