Applying critical analysis - main methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Araujo Alonso
2012-02-01
Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.
Applying homotopy analysis method for solving differential-difference equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhen; Zou Li; Zhang Hongqing
2007-01-01
In this Letter, we apply the homotopy analysis method to solving the differential-difference equations. A simple but typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized homotopy analysis method in solving differential-difference equation. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the homotopy analysis method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations
Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method
Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen
2018-03-01
The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.
Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method
Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen
2018-03-01
The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.
A Multifactorial Analysis of Reconstruction Methods Applied After Total Gastrectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oktay Büyükaşık
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods applied after total gastrectomy in terms of postoperative symptomology and nutrition. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer in 2. Clinic of General Surgery, SSK Ankara Training Hospital. 6 different reconstruction methods were used and analyzed in terms of age, sex and postoperative complications. One from esophagus and two biopsy specimens from jejunum were taken through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from all cases, and late period morphological and microbiological changes were examined. Postoperative weight change, dumping symptoms, reflux esophagitis, solid/liquid dysphagia, early satiety, postprandial pain, diarrhea and anorexia were assessed. Results: Of 31 patients,18 were males and 13 females; the youngest one was 33 years old, while the oldest- 69 years old. It was found that reconstruction without pouch was performed in 22 cases and with pouch in 9 cases. Early satiety, postprandial pain, dumping symptoms, diarrhea and anemia were found most commonly in cases with reconstruction without pouch. The rate of bacterial colonization of the jejunal mucosa was identical in both groups. Reflux esophagitis was most commonly seen in omega esophagojejunostomy (EJ, while the least-in Roux-en-Y, Tooley and Tanner 19 EJ. Conclusion: Reconstruction with pouch performed after total gastrectomy is still a preferable method. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:126-31
Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ronald L. Boring
2012-06-01
Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.
The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Halász Amadé
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.
Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method to Discovery Layer Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marlen Promann
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Libraries are implementing discovery layers to offer better user experiences. While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus has remained on its relative interface benefits over the traditional federated search. The informal site- and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA method. As no previous application of HTA to the evaluation of discovery layers was found, this paper presents the application of HTA as an expert based and workflow centered (e.g. retrieving a relevant book or a journal article method to evaluating discovery layers. Purdue University’s Primo by Ex Libris was used to map eleven use cases as HTA charts. Nielsen’s Goal Composition theory was used as an analytical framework to evaluate the goal carts from two perspectives: a users’ physical interactions (i.e. clicks, and b user’s cognitive steps (i.e. decision points for what to do next. A brief comparison of HTA and usability test findings is offered as a way of conclusion.
Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis Methods for Fire Risk Assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pushkina Julia
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove the application of multi-criteria analysis methods for optimisation of fire risk identification and assessment process. The object of this research is fire risk and risk assessment. The subject of the research is studying the application of analytic hierarchy process for modelling and influence assessment of various fire risk factors. Results of research conducted by the authors can be used by insurance companies to perform the detailed assessment of fire risks on the object and to calculate a risk extra charge to an insurance premium; by the state supervisory institutions to determine the compliance of a condition of object with requirements of regulations; by real state owners and investors to carry out actions for decrease in degree of fire risks and minimisation of possible losses.
Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Persson, Rolf
1966-11-15
Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/{tau} + 1/L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L{sup 2} >> {tau}, e.g. D{sub 2}O, contributes with {radical}{tau} to the thickness. In cores where {tau} >> L{sup 2} , e.g. H{sub 2}O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D{sub 2}O and on test regions of D{sub 2}O alone (where B{sup 2} = - 1/L{sup 2} ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of {radical}2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D{sub 2}O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis.
Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures
Artificial Neural Network methods applied to sentiment analysis
Ebert, Sebastian
2017-01-01
Sentiment Analysis (SA) is the study of opinions and emotions that are conveyed by text. This field of study has commercial applications for example in market research (e.g., “What do customers like and dislike about a product?”) and consumer behavior (e.g., “Which book will a customer buy next when he wrote a positive review about book X?”). A private person can benefit from SA by automatic movie or restaurant recommendations, or from applications on the computer or smart phone that adapt to...
Nondestructive methods of analysis applied to oriental swords
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edge, David
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Various neutron techniques were employed at the Budapest Nuclear Centre in an attempt to find the most useful method for analysing the high-carbon steels found in Oriental arms and armour, such as those in the Wallace Collection, London. Neutron diffraction was found to be the most useful in terms of identifying such steels and also indicating the presence of hidden patternEn el Centro Nuclear de Budapest se han empleado varias técnicas neutrónicas con el fin de encontrar un método adecuado para analizar las armas y armaduras orientales con un alto contenido en carbono, como algunas de las que se encuentran en la Colección Wallace de Londres. El empleo de la difracción de neutrones resultó ser la técnica más útil de cara a identificar ese tipo de aceros y también para encontrar patrones escondidos.
Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S
2009-01-01
Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terra, Andre Miguel Barge Pontes Torres
2005-01-01
The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)
Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H
2012-01-01
Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo
Simplified inelastic analysis methods applied to fast breeder reactor core design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abo-El-Ata, M.M.
1978-01-01
The paper starts with a review of some currently available simplified inelastic analysis methods used in elevated temperature design for evaluating plastic and thermal creep strains. The primary purpose of the paper is to investigate how these simplified methods may be applied to fast breeder reactor core design where neutron irradiation effects are significant. One of the problems discussed is irradiation-induced creep and its effect on shakedown, ratcheting, and plastic cycling. Another problem is the development of swelling-induced stress which is an additional loading mechanism and must be taken into account. In this respect an expression for swelling-induced stress in the presence of irradiation creep is derived and a model for simplifying the stress analysis under these conditions is proposed. As an example, the effects of irradiation creep and swelling induced stress on the analysis of a thin walled tube under constant internal pressure and intermittent heat fluxes, simulating a fuel pin, is presented
The fundamental parameter method applied to X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation
Pantenburg, F. J.; Beier, T.; Hennrich, F.; Mommsen, H.
1992-05-01
Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applying the fundamental parameter method is usually restricted to monochromatic excitation sources. It is shown here, that such analyses can be performed as well with a white synchrotron radiation spectrum. To determine absolute elemental concentration values it is necessary to know the spectral distribution of this spectrum. A newly designed and tested experimental setup, which uses the synchrotron radiation emitted from electrons in a bending magnet of ELSA (electron stretcher accelerator of the university of Bonn) is presented. The determination of the exciting spectrum, described by the given electron beam parameters, is limited due to uncertainties in the vertical electron beam size and divergence. We describe a method which allows us to determine the relative and absolute spectral distributions needed for accurate analysis. First test measurements of different alloys and standards of known composition demonstrate that it is possible to determine exact concentration values in bulk and trace element analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haaland, D.M.; Easterling, R.G.; Vopicka, D.A.
1985-01-01
In an extension of earlier work, weighted multivariate least-squares methods of quantitative FT-IR analysis have been developed. A linear least-squares approximation to nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law is made by allowing the reference spectra to be a set of known mixtures, The incorporation of nonzero intercepts in the relation between absorbance and concentration further improves the approximation of nonlinearities while simultaneously accounting for nonzero spectra baselines. Pathlength variations are also accommodated in the analysis, and under certain conditions, unknown sample pathlengths can be determined. All spectral data are used to improve the precision and accuracy of the estimated concentrations. During the calibration phase of the analysis, pure component spectra are estimated from the standard mixture spectra. These can be compared with the measured pure component spectra to determine which vibrations experience nonlinear behavior. In the predictive phase of the analysis, the calculated spectra are used in our previous least-squares analysis to estimate sample component concentrations. These methods were applied to the analysis of the IR spectra of binary mixtures of esters. Even with severely overlapping spectral bands and nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law, the average relative error in the estimated concentration was <1%
Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti
2010-01-01
In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Freyman
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.
IAEA-ASSET's root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi
1997-08-01
The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)
IAEA-ASSET`s root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-08-01
The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)
An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Susana Vargas-Valencia
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel calibration procedure as a simple, yet powerful, method to place and align inertial sensors with body segments. The calibration can be easily replicated without the need of any additional tools. The proposed method is validated in three different applications: a computer mathematical simulation; a simplified joint composed of two semi-spheres interconnected by a universal goniometer; and a real gait test with five able-bodied subjects. Simulation results demonstrate that, after the calibration method is applied, the joint angles are correctly measured independently of previous sensor placement on the joint, thus validating the proposed procedure. In the cases of a simplified joint and a real gait test with human volunteers, the method also performs correctly, although secondary plane errors appear when compared with the simulation results. We believe that such errors are caused by limitations of the current inertial measurement unit (IMU technology and fusion algorithms. In conclusion, the presented calibration procedure is an interesting option to solve the alignment problem when using IMUs for gait analysis.
Reliability analysis of protection systems in NPP applying fault-tree analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bokor, J.; Gaspar, P.; Hetthessy, J.; Szabo, G.
1998-01-01
This paper demonstrates the applicability and limits of dependability analysis in nuclear power plants (NPPS) based on the reactor protection refurbishment project (RRP) in NPP Paks. This paper illustrates case studies from the reliability analysis for NPP Paks. It also investigates the solutions for the connection between the data acquisition and subsystem control units (TSs) and the voter units (VTs), it analyzes the influence of the voting in the VT computer level, it studies the effects of the testing procedures to the dependability parameters. (author)
An Analysis of Methods Section of Research Reports in Applied Linguistics
Patrícia Marcuzzo
2011-01-01
This work aims at identifying analytical categories and research procedures adopted in the analysis of research article in Applied Linguistics/EAP in order to propose a systematization of the research procedures in Genre Analysis. For that purpose, 12 research reports and interviews with four authors were analyzed. The analysis showed that the studies are concentrated on the investigation of the macrostructure or on the microstructure of research articles in different fields. Studies about th...
Brewe, Eric; Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G.
2016-01-01
We describe "Module Analysis for Multiple Choice Responses" (MAMCR), a new methodology for carrying out network analysis on responses to multiple choice assessments. This method is used to identify modules of non-normative responses which can then be interpreted as an alternative to factor analysis. MAMCR allows us to identify conceptual…
New methods applied to the analysis and treatment of ovarian cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Order, S.E.; Rosenshein, N.B.; Klein, J.L.; Lichter, A.S.; Ettinger, D.S.; Dillon, M.B.; Leibel, S.A.
1979-01-01
The development of rigorous staging methods, appreciation of new knowledge concerning ovarian cancer dissemination, and administration of new treatment techniques have been applied to ovarian cancer. The method of staging consists of peritoneal cytology, total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo oophorectomy (TAH-BSO), omentectomy, nodal biopsy, diaphragmatic inspection and is coupled with maximal surgical resection. An additional examination being evaluated for usefulness in future staging is intraperitoneal /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scans. Nineteen patients have entered the pilot studies. Sixteen patients (5 Stage 2, 10 Stage 3 micrometastatic, and 1 Stage 4) have been treated with colloidal 32 P, i.p. followed 2 weeks later by split abdominal irradiation (200 rad fractions pelvis-2 hr rest-150 rad upper abdomen) to a total abdominal dose of 3000 rad with a pelvic cone down to 4000 rad. Five of these patients received Phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) (7 mg/m 2 ) maintenance therapy. The 3 year actuarial survival was 78% and the 3 year disease free actuarial survival 68%. Seven patients were treated with intraperitoneal tumor antisera and 4/7 remain in complete remission as of this writing. The specificity of the antiserum has been demonstrated by immunoelectrophoresis in 4/4 patients, and by live cell fluorescence in 1 patient. Rabbit IgG levels revealed significant increasing titers in 4/6 patients following i.p. antiovarian antiserum. Radiolabeled IgG derived from the antiserum demonstrated tumor localization and correlation with conventional radiograhy and computerized axial tomograhy (CAT) scans in 2 patients studied to date. Biomarker analysis reveals that free secretory protein 6/6, apha globulin 5/6, and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) 3/6 were elevated in the 6 patients studied. Two patients whose disease progressed demonstrated elevated levels of all three biomarkers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milivojevic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)
1974-12-15
Probability method was chosen for analysing the reactor system reliability is considered realistic since it is based on verified experimental data. In fact this is a statistical method. The probability method developed takes into account the probability distribution of permitted levels of relevant parameters and their particular influence on the reliability of the system as a whole. The proposed method is rather general, and was used for problem of thermal safety analysis of reactor system. This analysis enables to analyze basic properties of the system under different operation conditions, expressed in form of probability they show the reliability of the system on the whole as well as reliability of each component.
Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Congdon, P
2010-01-01
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...
Methods of applied mathematics
Hildebrand, Francis B
1992-01-01
This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.
Applied ecosystem analysis - a primer; the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lestelle, L.C.; Mobrand, L.E.; Lichatowich, J.A.; Vogel, T.S.
1996-05-01
The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual
Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.
1996-05-01
The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.
Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ervin Sejdić
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.
Artificial intelligence methods applied for quantitative analysis of natural radioactive sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medhat, M.E.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Basic description of artificial neural networks. ► Natural gamma ray sources and problem of detections. ► Application of neural network for peak detection and activity determination. - Abstract: Artificial neural network (ANN) represents one of artificial intelligence methods in the field of modeling and uncertainty in different applications. The objective of the proposed work was focused to apply ANN to identify isotopes and to predict uncertainties of their activities of some natural radioactive sources. The method was tested for analyzing gamma-ray spectra emitted from natural radionuclides in soil samples detected by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe (high purity germanium). The principle of the suggested method is described, including, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. It is clear that there is satisfactory agreement between obtained and predicted results using neural network.
A comparative analysis of three metaheuristic methods applied to fuzzy cognitive maps learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno A. Angélico
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This work analyses the performance of three different population-based metaheuristic approaches applied to Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM learning in qualitative control of processes. Fuzzy cognitive maps permit to include the previous specialist knowledge in the control rule. Particularly, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Genetic Algorithm (GA and an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO are considered for obtaining appropriate weight matrices for learning the FCM. A statistical convergence analysis within 10000 simulations of each algorithm is presented. In order to validate the proposed approach, two industrial control process problems previously described in the literature are considered in this work.
Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Audrius Čereška
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the
Data Analytics of Mobile Serious Games: Applying Bayesian Data Analysis Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heide Lukosch
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Traditional teaching methods in the field of resuscitation training show some limitations, while teaching the right actions in critical situations could increase the number of people saved after a cardiac arrest. For our study, we developed a mobile game to support the transfer of theoretical knowledge on resuscitation. The game has been tested at three schools of further education. A number of data has been collected from 171 players. To analyze this large data set from different sources and quality, different types of data modeling and analyses had to be applied. This approach showed its usefulness in analyzing the large set of data from different sources. It revealed some interesting findings, such as that female players outperformed the male ones, and that the game fostering informal, self-directed is equally efficient as the traditional formal learning method.
Analysis of coupled neutron-gamma radiations, applied to shieldings in multigroup albedo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunley, Leonardo Souza
2002-01-01
The principal mathematical tools frequently available for calculations in Nuclear Engineering, including coupled neutron-gamma radiations shielding problems, involve the full Transport Theory or the Monte Carlo techniques. The Multigroup Albedo Method applied to shieldings is characterized by following the radiations through distinct layers of materials, allowing the determination of the neutron and gamma fractions reflected from, transmitted through and absorbed in the irradiated media when a neutronic stream hits the first layer of material, independently of flux calculations. Then, the method is a complementary tool of great didactic value due to its clarity and simplicity in solving neutron and/or gamma shielding problems. The outstanding results achieved in previous works motivated the elaboration and the development of this study that is presented in this dissertation. The radiation balance resulting from the incidence of a neutronic stream into a shielding composed by 'm' non-multiplying slab layers for neutrons was determined by the Albedo method, considering 'n' energy groups for neutrons and 'g' energy groups for gammas. It was taken into account there is no upscattering of neutrons and gammas. However, it was considered that neutrons from any energy groups are able to produce gammas of all energy groups. The ANISN code, for an angular quadrature order S 2 , was used as a standard for comparison of the results obtained by the Albedo method. So, it was necessary to choose an identical system configuration, both for ANISN and Albedo methods. This configuration was six neutron energy groups and eight gamma energy groups, using three slab layers (iron aluminum - manganese). The excellent results expressed in comparative tables show great agreement between the values determined by the deterministic code adopted as standard and, the values determined by the computational program created using the Albedo method and the algorithm developed for coupled neutron
Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Fourth annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazelrigg, G.A. Jr.
1980-01-01
The current study reported here has involved three separate tasks. The first task deals with the development of expected utility analysis techniques for economic evaluation of fusion research. A decision analytic model is developed for the incorporation of market uncertainties, as well as technological uncertainties in an economic evaluation of long-range energy research. The model is applied to the case of fusion research. The second task deals with the potential effects of long-range energy RD and D on fossil fuel prices. ECON's previous fossil fuel price model is extended to incorporate a dynamic demand function. The dynamic demand function supports price fluctuations such as those observed in the marketplace. The third task examines alternative uses of fusion technologies, specifically superconducting technologies and first wall materials to determine the potential for alternative, nonfusion use of these technologies. In both cases, numerous alternative uses are found
Novel Signal Noise Reduction Method through Cluster Analysis, Applied to Photoplethysmography.
Waugh, William; Allen, John; Wightman, James; Sims, Andrew J; Beale, Thomas A W
2018-01-01
Physiological signals can often become contaminated by noise from a variety of origins. In this paper, an algorithm is described for the reduction of sporadic noise from a continuous periodic signal. The design can be used where a sample of a periodic signal is required, for example, when an average pulse is needed for pulse wave analysis and characterization. The algorithm is based on cluster analysis for selecting similar repetitions or pulses from a periodic single. This method selects individual pulses without noise, returns a clean pulse signal, and terminates when a sufficiently clean and representative signal is received. The algorithm is designed to be sufficiently compact to be implemented on a microcontroller embedded within a medical device. It has been validated through the removal of noise from an exemplar photoplethysmography (PPG) signal, showing increasing benefit as the noise contamination of the signal increases. The algorithm design is generalised to be applicable for a wide range of physiological (physical) signals.
An homogeneization method applied to the seismic analysis of LMFBR cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochard, D.; Hammami, L.
1991-01-01
Important structures like nuclear reactor cores, steam generator bundle, are schematically composed by a great number of beams, immersed in a fluid. The fluid structure interaction is an important phenomenon influencing the dynamical response of bundle. The study of this interaction through classical methods would need a refined modelisation at the scale of the beams and lead to important size of problems. The homogeneization method constitutes an alternative approach if we are mainly interested by the global behaviour of the bundle. Similar approaches have been already used for other types of industrial structures (Sanchez-Palencia 1980, Bergman and al. 1985, Theodory 1984, Benner and al. 1981). This method consists in replacing the physical heterogeneous medium by an homogeneous medium, which characteristics are determined from the resolution of a set problems on the elementary cell. In the first part of this paper the main assumptions of the method will be summarized. Moreover, other important phenomena may contribute to the dynamical behaviour of the industrial above mentioned structures: those are the impacts between the beams. These impacts could be due to supports limiting the displacements of the beams or to differences in the vibratory characteristics of the various beams. The second part of the paper will concern the way of taking into account the impacts in the linear hemogeneous formalism. Finally an application to the seismic analysis of the FBR core mock-up RAPSODIE will be presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.
2014-01-01
A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web. - Highlights: • A method from light scattering is applied to analyze ferrofluid magnetization curves. • A magnetic size distribution is obtained without prior assumption of its shape. • The method is tested successfully on ferrofluids with a known size distribution. • The practical limits of the method are explored with simulated data including noise. • This method is implemented in the program MINORIM, freely available online
Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I
2015-12-04
necessary, two-step gradient elution. The developed methods were then applied to real cosmetic samples to assess the method specificity, with regards to matrix interferences, and calibration curves were plotted to evaluate quantification. Besides, depending on the matrix and on the studied compounds, the importance of the detector type, UV or ELSD (evaporative light-scattering detection), and of the particle size of the stationary phase is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ensink, Elliot; Sinha, Jessica; Sinha, Arkadeep; Tang, Huiyuan; Calderone, Heather M; Hostetter, Galen; Winter, Jordan; Cherba, David; Brand, Randall E; Allen, Peter J; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Haab, Brian B
2015-10-06
Experiments involving the high-throughput quantification of image data require algorithms for automation. A challenge in the development of such algorithms is to properly interpret signals over a broad range of image characteristics, without the need for manual adjustment of parameters. Here we present a new approach for locating signals in image data, called Segment and Fit Thresholding (SFT). The method assesses statistical characteristics of small segments of the image and determines the best-fit trends between the statistics. Based on the relationships, SFT identifies segments belonging to background regions; analyzes the background to determine optimal thresholds; and analyzes all segments to identify signal pixels. We optimized the initial settings for locating background and signal in antibody microarray and immunofluorescence data and found that SFT performed well over multiple, diverse image characteristics without readjustment of settings. When used for the automated analysis of multicolor, tissue-microarray images, SFT correctly found the overlap of markers with known subcellular localization, and it performed better than a fixed threshold and Otsu's method for selected images. SFT promises to advance the goal of full automation in image analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Corina Mahu Ştefania
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. Due to the complex composition of biological fluids a biological sample pre-treatment before the use of the method for quantitative determination is required in order to remove proteins and potential interferences. The most commonly used methods for processing biological samples containing metoprolol and bisoprolol were identified through a thorough literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Willey Journals databases. Articles published between years 2005-2015 were reviewed. Protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction are the main techniques for the extraction of these drugs from plasma, serum, whole blood and urine samples. In addition, numerous other techniques have been developed for the preparation of biological samples, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction, hollow fiber-protected liquid phase microextraction, on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The analysis of metoprolol and bisoprolol in human plasma, urine and other biological fluids provides important information in clinical and toxicological trials, thus requiring the application of appropriate extraction techniques for the detection of these antihypertensive substances at nanogram and picogram levels.
Multicriterial Hierarchy Methods Applied in Consumption Demand Analysis. The Case of Romania
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin Bob
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The basic information for computing the quantitative statistical indicators, that characterize the demand of industrial products and services are collected by the national statistics organizations, through a series of statistical surveys (most of them periodical and partial. The source for data we used in the present paper is an statistical investigation organized by the National Institute of Statistics, "Family budgets survey" that allows to collect information regarding the households composition, income, expenditure, consumption and other aspects of population living standard. In 2005, in Romania, a person spent monthly in average 391,2 RON, meaning about 115,1 Euros for purchasing the consumed food products and beverage, as well as non-foods products, services, investments and other taxes. 23% of this sum was spent for purchasing the consumed food products and beverages, 21.6% of the total sum was spent for purchasing non-food goods and 18,1% for payment of different services. There is a discrepancy between the different development regions in Romania, regarding total households expenditure composition. For this reason, in the present paper we applied statistical methods for ranking the various development regions in Romania, using the share of householdsí expenditure on categories of products and services as ranking criteria.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.; Henry, G.
1999-01-01
A diagnostic expert system that integrates database management methods, artificial neural networks, and decision-making using fuzzy logic has been developed for the automation of steam generator eddy current test (ECT) data analysis. The new system, known as EDDYAI, considers the following key issues: (1) digital eddy current test data calibration, compression, and representation; (2) development of robust neural networks with low probability of misclassification for flaw depth estimation; (3) flaw detection using fuzzy logic; (4) development of an expert system for database management, compilation of a trained neural network library, and a decision module; and (5) evaluation of the integrated approach using eddy current data. The implementation to field test data includes the selection of proper feature vectors for ECT data analysis, development of a methodology for large eddy current database management, artificial neural networks for flaw depth estimation, and a fuzzy logic decision algorithm for flaw detection. A large eddy current inspection database from the Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center is being utilized in this research towards the development of an expert system for steam generator tube diagnosis. The integration of ECT data pre-processing as part of the data management, fuzzy logic flaw detection technique, and tube defect parameter estimation using artificial neural networks are the fundamental contributions of this research. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Behravesh, M.M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Henry, G. [EPRI NDE Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)
1999-09-01
A diagnostic expert system that integrates database management methods, artificial neural networks, and decision-making using fuzzy logic has been developed for the automation of steam generator eddy current test (ECT) data analysis. The new system, known as EDDYAI, considers the following key issues: (1) digital eddy current test data calibration, compression, and representation; (2) development of robust neural networks with low probability of misclassification for flaw depth estimation; (3) flaw detection using fuzzy logic; (4) development of an expert system for database management, compilation of a trained neural network library, and a decision module; and (5) evaluation of the integrated approach using eddy current data. The implementation to field test data includes the selection of proper feature vectors for ECT data analysis, development of a methodology for large eddy current database management, artificial neural networks for flaw depth estimation, and a fuzzy logic decision algorithm for flaw detection. A large eddy current inspection database from the Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center is being utilized in this research towards the development of an expert system for steam generator tube diagnosis. The integration of ECT data pre-processing as part of the data management, fuzzy logic flaw detection technique, and tube defect parameter estimation using artificial neural networks are the fundamental contributions of this research. (orig.)
Risk-based analysis methods applied to nuclear power plant technical specifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.
1989-01-01
A computer-aided methodology and practical applications of risk-based evaluation of technical specifications are described. The methodology, developed for use by the utility industry, is a part of the overall process of improving nuclear power plant technical specifications. The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a probabilistic risk assessment or a system-level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at the plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns and decreasing labor requirements for test and maintenance activities, with no adverse impacts on risk. The methodology and the SOCRATES computer program have been used extensively toe valuate several actual technical specifications in case studies demonstrating the methods. Summaries of these applications demonstrate the types of results achieved and the usefulness of the risk-based evaluation in improving the technical specifications
Szapacs, Cindy
2006-01-01
Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gunar Boye
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The axial heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of n-hexane was measured using infrared thermography to determine the axial wall temperature in three geometrically similar annular gaps with different widths (s = 1.5 mm, s = 1 mm, s = 0.5 mm. During the design and evaluation process, the methods of statistical experimental design were applied. The following factors/parameters were varied: the heat flux q · = 30 − 190 kW / m 2 , the mass flux m · = 30 − 700 kg / m 2 s , the vapor quality x · = 0 . 2 − 0 . 7 , and the subcooled inlet temperature T U = 20 − 60 K . The test sections with gap widths of s = 1.5 mm and s = 1 mm had very similar heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer coefficient increases significantly in the range of subcooled boiling, and after reaching a maximum at the transition to the saturated flow boiling, it drops almost monotonically with increasing vapor quality. With a gap width of 0.5 mm, however, the heat transfer coefficient in the range of saturated flow boiling first has a downward trend and then increases at higher vapor qualities. For each test section, two correlations between the heat transfer coefficient and the operating parameters have been created. The comparison also shows a clear trend of an increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing heat flux for test sections s = 1.5 mm and s = 1.0 mm, but with increasing vapor quality, this trend is reversed for test section 0.5 mm.
Ohyanagi, S.; Dileonardo, C.
2013-12-01
As a natural phenomenon earthquake occurrence is difficult to predict. Statistical analysis of earthquake data was performed using candlestick chart and Bollinger Band methods. These statistical methods, commonly used in the financial world to analyze market trends were tested against earthquake data. Earthquakes above Mw 4.0 located on shore of Sanriku (37.75°N ~ 41.00°N, 143.00°E ~ 144.50°E) from February 1973 to May 2013 were selected for analysis. Two specific patterns in earthquake occurrence were recognized through the analysis. One is a spread of candlestick prior to the occurrence of events greater than Mw 6.0. A second pattern shows convergence in the Bollinger Band, which implies a positive or negative change in the trend of earthquakes. Both patterns match general models for the buildup and release of strain through the earthquake cycle, and agree with both the characteristics of the candlestick chart and Bollinger Band analysis. These results show there is a high correlation between patterns in earthquake occurrence and trend analysis by these two statistical methods. The results of this study agree with the appropriateness of the application of these financial analysis methods to the analysis of earthquake occurrence.
Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) Applied to the South Napa Earthquake
Worrell, V. E.; Cronin, V. S.
2014-12-01
We used the seismo-lineament analysis method (SLAM; http://bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/) to "predict" the location of the fault that produced the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014, using hypocenter and focal mechanism data from NCEDC (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html) and a digital elevation model from the USGS National Elevation Dataset (http://viewer.nationalmap.gov/viewer/). The ground-surface trace of the causative fault (i.e., the Browns Valley strand of the West Napa fault zone; Bryant, 2000, 1982) and virtually all of the ground-rupture sites reported by the USGS and California Geological Survey (http://www.eqclearinghouse.org/2014-08-24-south-napa/) were located within the north-striking seismo-lineament. We also used moment tensors published online by the USGS and GCMT (http://comcat.cr.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nc72282711#scientific_moment-tensor) as inputs to SLAM and found that their northwest-striking seismo-lineaments correlated spatially with the causative fault. We concluded that SLAM could have been used as soon as these mechanism solutions were available to help direct the search for the trace of the causative fault and possible rupture-related damage. We then considered whether the seismogenic fault could have been identified using SLAM prior to the 24 August event, based on the focal mechanisms of smaller prior earthquakes reported by the NCEDC or ISC (http://www.isc.ac.uk). Seismo-lineaments from three M~3.5 events from 1990 and 2012, located in the Vallejo-Crockett area, correlate spatially with the Napa County Airport strand of the West Napa fault and extend along strike toward the Browns Valley strand (Bryant, 2000, 1982). Hence, we might have used focal mechanisms from smaller earthquakes to establish that the West Napa fault is likely seismogenic prior to the South Napa earthquake. Early recognition that a fault with a mapped ground-surface trace is seismogenic, based on smaller earthquakes
Applied multivariate statistical analysis
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2015-01-01
Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners. It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added. All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior. All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hansen, Eric C
2005-01-01
.... Today's threat is nondoctrinal and asymmetric. The means used to counter this threat are based on standardized equipment and capabilities, and they rely on template-based analysis and network diagrams...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hansen, Eric C
2005-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the need for a quantitative analytical capability within organizations and staffs that provide intelligence analysis to Army, Joint, and Coalition Force headquarters...
Structural Modeling and Analysis of a Wave Energy Converter Applying Dynamical Substructuring Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Damkilde, Lars; Gao, Zhen
2013-01-01
to the relative stiff behavior of the arm the calculation can be reduced to a quasi-static analysis. The hydrodynamic and the structural analyses are thus performed separately. In order to reduce the computational time of the finite element calculation the main structure is modeled as a superelement......This paper deals with structural modeling and analysis of a wave energy converter. The device, called Wavestar, is a bottom fixed structure, located in a shallow water environment at the Danish Northwest coast. The analysis is concentrated on a single float and its structural arm which connects...... the WEC to a jackup structure. The wave energy converter is characterized by having an operational and survival mode. The survival mode drastically reduces the exposure to waves and therfore to the wave loads. Structural response analysis of the Wavestar arm is carried out in this study. Due...
Oden, J Tinsley
2010-01-01
The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto, L C; Silvestrini, J H; Schettini, E B C
2011-01-01
In present paper, Navier-Stokes and Continuity equations for incompressible flow around an oscillating cylinder were numerically solved. Sixth order compact difference schemes were used to solve the spatial derivatives, while the time advance was carried out through second order Adams Bashforth accurate scheme. In order to represent the obstacle in the flow, the Immersed Boundary Method was adopted. In this method a force term is added to the Navier-Stokes equations representing the body. The simulations present results regarding the hydrodynamic coefficients and vortex wakes in agreement to experimental and numerical previous works and the physical lock-in phenomenon was identified. Comparing different methods to impose the IBM, it can be concluded that no alterations regarding the vortex shedding mode were observed. The Immersed Boundary Method techniques used here can represent the surface of an oscillating cylinder in the flow.
Attia, Khalid A. M.; El-Abasawi, Nasr M.; El-Olemy, Ahmed; Serag, Ahmed
2018-02-01
Five simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of simeprevir in the presence of its oxidative degradation product namely, ratio difference, mean centering, derivative ratio using the Savitsky-Golay filters, second derivative and continuous wavelet transform. These methods are linear in the range of 2.5-40 μg/mL and validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results of accuracy, repeatability and precision were found to be within the acceptable limits. The specificity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. Furthermore, these methods were statistically comparable to RP-HPLC method and good results were obtained. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of simeprevir in quality-control laboratories.
Sustainability Assessment of Power Generation Systems by Applying Exergy Analysis and LCA Methods
Stougie, L.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Valero Delgado, A.
2015-01-01
The selection of power generation systems is important when striving for a more sustainable society. However, the results of environmental, economic and social sustainability assessments are subject to new insights into the calculation methods and to changing needs, economic conditions and societal
Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes
2014-01-01
on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaji, Akio; Miyakoshi, Jun-ichi; Iwao, Yoshiaki; Tsubosaka, Akira; Saito, Tetsuo; Fujii, Takayoshi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Suzuoki, Zenro; Kawakita, Takashi.
1984-01-01
Procedures of shielding analysis are described which were used for the shielding modification design of the Nuclear Ship ''MUTSU''. The calculations of the radiation distribution on board were made using Sn codes ANISN and TWOTRAN, a point kernel code QAD and a Monte Carlo code MORSE. The accuracies of these calculations were investigated through the analysis of various shielding experiments: the shield tank experiment of the Nuclear Ship ''Otto Hahn'', the shielding mock-up experiment for ''MUTSU'' performed in JRR-4, the shielding benchmark experiment using the 16 N radiation facility of AERE Harwell and the shielding effect experiment of the ship structure performed in the training ship ''Shintoku-Maru''. The values calculated by the ANISN agree with the data measured at ''Otto Hahn'' within a factor of 2 for fast neutrons and within a factor of 3 for epithermal and thermal neutrons. The γ-ray dose rates calculated by the QAD agree with the measured values within 30% for the analysis of the experiment in JRR-4. The design values for ''MUTSU'' were determined in consequence of these experimental analyses. (author)
General algebraic method applied to control analysis of complex engine types
Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard
1950-01-01
A general algebraic method of attack on the problem of controlling gas-turbine engines having any number of independent variables was utilized employing operational functions to describe the assumed linear characteristics for the engine, the control, and the other units in the system. Matrices were used to describe the various units of the system, to form a combined system showing all effects, and to form a single condensed matrix showing the principal effects. This method directly led to the conditions on the control system for noninteraction so that any setting disturbance would affect only its corresponding controlled variable. The response-action characteristics were expressed in terms of the control system and the engine characteristics. The ideal control-system characteristics were explicitly determined in terms of any desired response action.
Corina Mahu Ştefania; Monica Hăncianu; Luminiţa Agoroaei; Anda Cristina Coman Băbuşanu; Elena Butnaru
2015-01-01
Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. ...
Construction and analysis of lattice Boltzmann methods applied to a 1D convection-diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, Stephane
2014-01-01
To solve the 1D (linear) convection-diffusion equation, we construct and we analyze two LBM schemes built on the D1Q2 lattice. We obtain these LBM schemes by showing that the 1D convection-diffusion equation is the fluid limit of a discrete velocity kinetic system. Then, we show in the periodic case that these LBM schemes are equivalent to a finite difference type scheme named LFCCDF scheme. This allows us, firstly, to prove the convergence in L∞ of these schemes, and to obtain discrete maximum principles for any time step in the case of the 1D diffusion equation with different boundary conditions. Secondly, this allows us to obtain most of these results for the Du Fort-Frankel scheme for a particular choice of the first iterate. We also underline that these LBM schemes can be applied to the (linear) advection equation and we obtain a stability result in L∞ under a classical CFL condition. Moreover, by proposing a probabilistic interpretation of these LBM schemes, we also obtain Monte-Carlo algorithms which approach the 1D (linear) diffusion equation. At last, we present numerical applications justifying these results. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susana González
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.
Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background EDT - The Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mobrand, L.E.; Lichatowich, J.A.; Howard, D.A.; Vogel, T.S.
1996-05-01
This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980's the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born
Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mobrand, Lars E.
1996-05-01
This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.
Applied survival analysis using R
Moore, Dirk F
2016-01-01
Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...
Francés, J.; Bleda, S.; Neipp, C.; Márquez, A.; Pascual, I.; Beléndez, A.
2013-03-01
The finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) allows electromagnetic field distribution analysis as a function of time and space. The method is applied to analyze holographic volume gratings (HVGs) for the near-field distribution at optical wavelengths. Usually, this application requires the simulation of wide areas, which implies more memory and time processing. In this work, we propose a specific implementation of the FDTD method including several add-ons for a precise simulation of optical diffractive elements. Values in the near-field region are computed considering the illumination of the grating by means of a plane wave for different angles of incidence and including absorbing boundaries as well. We compare the results obtained by FDTD with those obtained using a matrix method (MM) applied to diffraction gratings. In addition, we have developed two optimized versions of the algorithm, for both CPU and GPU, in order to analyze the improvement of using the new NVIDIA Fermi GPU architecture versus highly tuned multi-core CPU as a function of the size simulation. In particular, the optimized CPU implementation takes advantage of the arithmetic and data transfer streaming SIMD (single instruction multiple data) extensions (SSE) included explicitly in the code and also of multi-threading by means of OpenMP directives. A good agreement between the results obtained using both FDTD and MM methods is obtained, thus validating our methodology. Moreover, the performance of the GPU is compared to the SSE+OpenMP CPU implementation, and it is quantitatively determined that a highly optimized CPU program can be competitive for a wider range of simulation sizes, whereas GPU computing becomes more powerful for large-scale simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmo Faria Junior, L.E. do
1980-01-01
The quartz grains of sediments and sedimentary rocks change their colour in variable intensity to smoky-quartz by X-ray irradiation, Co 60 or in reactors, dependent on their temperature of cristallization. The quantity of quartz grains which were stained and which were not stained after being irradiated are related to rock types from the source areas. This method was applied for selected sandstones of different stratigraphical levels of the Permian-Carboniferous in the Maranhao Basin of Brazil. Studeis on heavy minerals of these sandstones have been done before. The heavy mineral associations of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation corroborate the results of the analysis of quartz grains which indicate a predominance of the metamorphic rocks in the source area. However, the heavy mineral parageneses of the Carboniferous Piaui Formation are different. This may be because the frequency of those heavy minerals depend directly on the stage of the weathering of the sandstones. It should be mentioned that heavy minerals occur in paleozoic sediments only in a small quantity, sometimes below 1% of the rock constitution. The irradiation analysis, which is applied for the predominant mineral in sandstones, appears to be most reliable. It is used here as the basis for the interpretations presented. (Author) [pt
Agapova, Maria; Devine, Emily Beth; Bresnahan, Brian W; Higashi, Mitchell K; Garrison, Louis P
2014-09-01
Health agencies making regulatory marketing-authorization decisions use qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess expected benefits and expected risks associated with medical interventions. There is, however, no universal standard approach that regulatory agencies consistently use to conduct benefit-risk assessment (BRA) for pharmaceuticals or medical devices, including for imaging technologies. Economics, health services research, and health outcomes research use quantitative approaches to elicit preferences of stakeholders, identify priorities, and model health conditions and health intervention effects. Challenges to BRA in medical devices are outlined, highlighting additional barriers in radiology. Three quantitative methods--multi-criteria decision analysis, health outcomes modeling and stated-choice survey--are assessed using criteria that are important in balancing benefits and risks of medical devices and imaging technologies. To be useful in regulatory BRA, quantitative methods need to: aggregate multiple benefits and risks, incorporate qualitative considerations, account for uncertainty, and make clear whose preferences/priorities are being used. Each quantitative method performs differently across these criteria and little is known about how BRA estimates and conclusions vary by approach. While no specific quantitative method is likely to be the strongest in all of the important areas, quantitative methods may have a place in BRA of medical devices and radiology. Quantitative BRA approaches have been more widely applied in medicines, with fewer BRAs in devices. Despite substantial differences in characteristics of pharmaceuticals and devices, BRA methods may be as applicable to medical devices and imaging technologies as they are to pharmaceuticals. Further research to guide the development and selection of quantitative BRA methods for medical devices and imaging technologies is needed. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana SLOBODEANU
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In the article hereby we analyse the matrix method of analysis of the risks for fraud and error at the level of the procurement-payments cycle. The risk of presentation of certain fraudulent information regarding the accounts of the procurement-payments cycle becomes more and more accentuated in the enhancement of the administration’s wish to present financial indicators of performance. In these conditions, the auditor is to necessarily quantify the involvement of this phenomenon for the report of audit. As a consequence, the auditor is to evaluate the risk for fraud and apply additional audit procedures for identifying all the possible indicators for „remaking” the financial situations on the side of the accounts of suppliers, activity, as a last consequence of which may be a qualified opinion on audit.
Analytical methods applied to water pollution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudin, G.
1977-01-01
A comparison of different methods applied to water analysis is given. The discussion is limited to the problems presented by inorganic elements, accessible to nuclear activation analysis methods. The following methods were compared: activation analysis: with gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, fluorimetry, emission spectrometry, colorimetry or spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry, voltametry, polarography or other electrochemical methods, activation analysis-beta measurements. Drinking-water, irrigation waters, sea waters, industrial wastes and very pure waters are the subjects of the investigations. The comparative evaluation is made on the basis of storage of samples, in situ analysis, treatment and concentration, specificity and interference, monoelement or multielement analysis, analysis time and accuracy. The significance of the neutron analysis is shown. (T.G.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroto Narimatsu
Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a method of operations research that has not yet been applied in the field of obesity research. However, DEA might be used to evaluate individuals' susceptibility to obesity, which could help establish effective risk models for the onset of obesity. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of applying DEA to predict obesity, by calculating efficiency scores and evaluating the usefulness of risk models. In this study, we evaluated data from the Takahata study, which was a population-based cohort study (with a follow-up study of Japanese people who are >40 years old. For our analysis, we used the input-oriented Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes model of DEA, and defined the decision-making units (DMUs as individual subjects. The inputs were defined as (1 exercise (measured as calories expended and (2 the inverse of food intake (measured as calories ingested. The output was defined as the inverse of body mass index (BMI. Using the β coefficients for the participants' single nucleotide polymorphisms, we then calculated their genetic predisposition score (GPS. Both efficiency scores and GPS were available for 1,620 participants from the baseline survey, and for 708 participants from the follow-up survey. To compare the strengths of the associations, we used models of multiple linear regressions. To evaluate the effects of genetic factors and efficiency score on body mass index (BMI, we used multiple linear regression analysis, with BMI as the dependent variable, GPS and efficiency scores as the explanatory variables, and several demographic controls, including age and sex. Our results indicated that all factors were statistically significant (p < 0.05, with an adjusted R2 value of 0.66. Therefore, it is possible to use DEA to predict environmentally driven obesity, and thus to establish a well-fitted model for risk of obesity.
Applied Formal Methods for Elections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jian
development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...... process. The chapter Measuring Voter Lines describes an automated data collection method for measuring voters' waiting time, and discusses statistical models designed to provide an understanding of the voter behavior in polling stations....
Griffel, DH
2002-01-01
A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syafii
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of fast decoupled load flow computation using three linear system solver scheme. The full matrix version of the fast decoupled load flow based on XB methods used in this study. The numerical investigations are carried out on the small and large test systems. The execution time of small system such as IEEE 14, 30, and 57 are very fast, therefore the computation time can not be compared for these cases. Another cases IEEE 118, 300 and TNB 664 produced significant execution speedup. The superLU factorization sparse matrix solver has best performance and speedup of load flow solution as well as in contigency analysis. The invers full matrix solver can solved only for IEEE 118 bus test system in 3.715 second and for another cases take too long time. However for superLU factorization linear solver can solved all of test system in 7.832 second for a largest of test system. Therefore the superLU factorization linear solver can be a viable alternative applied in contingency analysis.
Woodward, Wayne A; Elliott, Alan C
2011-01-01
""There is scarcely a standard technique that the reader will find left out … this book is highly recommended for those requiring a ready introduction to applicable methods in time series and serves as a useful resource for pedagogical purposes.""-International Statistical Review (2014), 82""Current time series theory for practice is well summarized in this book.""-Emmanuel Parzen, Texas A&M University""What an extraordinary range of topics covered, all very insightfully. I like [the authors'] innovations very much, such as the AR factor table.""-David Findley, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)""…
[Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].
Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio
2012-06-01
The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bryan, B.J.; Flanders, H.E. Jr.
1992-01-01
Seismic qualification of Class I nuclear components is accomplished using a variety of analytical methods. This paper compares the results of time history dynamic analyses of a heat exchanger support structure using response spectrum and time history direct integration analysis methods. Dynamic analysis is performed on the detailed component models using the two methods. A nonlinear elastic model is used for both the response spectrum and direct integration methods. A nonlinear model which includes friction and nonlinear springs, is analyzed using time history input by direct integration. The loads from the three cases are compared
Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?
Hopkins, B. L.
1995-01-01
Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…
Seljetun, Kristin Opdal; Eliassen, Elin; Karinen, Ritva; Moe, Lars; Vindenes, Vigdis
2018-01-17
Accidental poisoning with anticoagulant rodenticides is not uncommon in dogs, but few reports of the elimination kinetics and half-lives in this species have been published. Our objectives were to develop and validate a new method for the quantification of anticoagulant rodenticides in canine blood and faeces using reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and apply the method on a case of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. Sample preparation was liquid-liquid extraction. Six anticoagulant rodenticides were separated using a UPLC ® BEH C 18 -column with a mobile phase consisting of 5 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 10.2 and methanol. MS/MS detection was performed with positive electrospray ionization and two multiple reaction monitoring transitions. The limits of quantification were set at the levels of the lowest calibrator (1.5-2.7 ng/mL or ng/g). The method was successfully applied to a case from a dog accidentally poisoned with anticoagulant rodenticide. Coumatetralyl and brodifacoum concentrations were determined from serial blood and faecal samples. A terminal half-life of at least 81 days for coumatetralyl in blood was estimated, which is longer than previous reported in other species. A slow elimination of brodifacoum from the faeces was found, with traces still detectable in the faeces at day 513. This study offers a new method of detection and quantification of six frequently used anticoagulant rodenticides in canine faeces. Such drugs might cause serious health effects and it is important to be able to detect these drugs, to initiate proper treatment. The very long elimination half-lives detected in our study is important to be aware of in assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide burden to the environment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leyva, Ana G.; Vega, Daniel R.; Trimarco, Veronica G.; Marchi, Daniel E.
1999-01-01
The (U,Gd)O 2 sintered pellets are fabricated by different methods. The homogeneity characterisation of Gd content seems to be necessary as a production control to qualify the process and the final product. The micrographic technique is the most common method used to analyse the homogeneity of these samples, this method requires time and expertise to obtain good results. In this paper, we propose an analysis of the X-ray diffraction powder patterns through the Rietveld method, in which the differences between the experimental data and the calculated from a crystalline structure model proposed are evaluated. This result allows to determine the cell parameters, that can be correlated with the Gd concentration, and the existence of other phases with different Gd ratio. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kil Yong; Sim, Sang Kwan; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)
2000-04-01
The demand for inorganic analysis of plastics has significantly increased in the fields of microelectronic, environmental, nuclear and resource recycling. The difficulties of chemical analysis methods have led to the application of NAA which has great advantages of non-destructivity, freedom from blank, high sensitivity. The goal of the present work is to optimize and to develop the NAA procedures for the inorganic analysis of plastics. Even though NAA has unique advantages, it has two problems for plastics. One is the contamination by metallic utensils during sample treatment and the other is destruction of sample ampule due to pressure build-up by hydrogen and methane gas formed from oxyhydrogenation reaction with neutrons. For the first problem, large plastics were cut to pieces after immersion in liquid nitrogen. And the second problem has been solved by making an aperture on top side of sample ampule. These research results have been applied to analysis of various plastic materials which were used in food, drug containers and toys for children. Moreover, korean irradiation rabbit could be produced by the application of the results and standard reference materials of plastics which were used for the analysis in XRF and ICP could be produced. 36 refs., 6 figs., 37 tabs (Author)
Applied Formal Methods for Elections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jian
Information technology is changing the way elections are organized. Technology renders the electoral process more efficient, but things could also go wrong: Voting software is complex, it consists of over thousands of lines of code, which makes it error-prone. Technical problems may cause delays...... bounded model-checking and satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers can be used to check these criteria. Voter Experience: Technology profoundly affects the voter experience. These effects need to be measured and the data should be used to make decisions regarding the implementation of the electoral...... at polling stations, or even delay the announcement of the final result. This thesis describes a set of methods to be used, for example, by system developers, administrators, or decision makers to examine election technologies, social choice algorithms and voter experience. Technology: Verifiability refers...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Knop
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of risk analysis associated with nonconformities of aluminium profiles in the process of coating and quality inspection methods used to their detection. Analysis of risk was done based on results of FMEA method. Evaluated quality inspection methods were distinguished based on the term of inspection in the ISO 9000:2005 norm. Manufacturing process of aluminium profile in micro-technological approach was presented. Triple quantification of nonconformities risk based on the FMEA method by using three different approaches was conducted. Analysis of nonconformities risks associated with the use of specific quality inspection methods was done. In the last part the analysis of causes of critical nonconformities, proposals for improvement actions reducing the risk of the critical nonconformities and applied critical quality inspection method were showed.
Applied analysis and differential equations
Cârj, Ovidiu
2007-01-01
This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.
Peeters, Michael J; Vaidya, Varun A
2016-06-25
Objective. To describe an approach for assessing the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) Standard 4.4, which focuses on students' professional development. Methods. This investigation used mixed methods with triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data to assess professional development. Qualitative data came from an electronic developmental portfolio of professionalism and ethics, completed by PharmD students during their didactic studies. Quantitative confirmation came from the Defining Issues Test (DIT)-an assessment of pharmacists' professional development. Results. Qualitatively, students' development reflections described growth through this course series. Quantitatively, the 2015 PharmD class's DIT N2-scores illustrated positive development overall; the lower 50% had a large initial improvement compared to the upper 50%. Subsequently, the 2016 PharmD class confirmed these average initial improvements of students and also showed further substantial development among students thereafter. Conclusion. Applying an assessment for learning approach, triangulation of qualitative and quantitative assessments confirmed that PharmD students developed professionally during this course series.
Lyles, Courtney Rees; Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala
2016-06-10
It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals' opinions and the decision-making process. We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms "cervical cancer," "Pap smear," and "Pap test" were analyzed during: (1) January 1-March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14-June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value criterion for each topic. The results were then qualitatively coded from top 10 relevant topics to determine the efficiency of clustering method in grouping distinct ideas, and how the discussion differed before vs. after the change in guidelines . This machine learning method was effective in grouping the relevant discussion topics about cervical cancer during the respective time periods (~20% overall irrelevant content in both time periods). Qualitative analysis determined that a significant portion of the top discussion topics in the second time period directly reflected the USPSTF guideline change (eg, "New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer"), and many topics in both time periods were addressing basic screening promotion and education (eg, "It is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month! Click the link to see where you can receive a free or low cost Pap test.") It was demonstrated that machine learning
Han, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Kim, Mae-Ja; Hong, Kyung-Ja; Park, Sungae; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Song, Misoon; Jung, Yoenyi; Kim, Haewon; Kim, Dong-Oak Debbie; Choi, Heejung; Kim, Kyungae
2007-06-01
The purpose of the paper is to discover the patterns and processes of decision-making in clinical nursing practice. A set of think-aloud data from five critical care nurses during 40 to 50 minutes of caregiving in intensive care units were obtained and analyzed by applying the procedures recommended by Ericsson and Simon for protocol analysis. Four thinking processes before acting were identified to constitute various sorts of thoughts in which the nurses were engaged during patient care: reviewing, validation, consideration, rationalization, and action. In addition, three patterns of sequential streaming of thinking (short, intermediate, long) were identified to reveal various ways the nurses dealt with clinical situations involving nursing tasks and responsibilities. This study specifies the initial categories of thoughts for each of the processes and various patterns with which these processes are sequentially combined, providing insights into the ways nurses think about problems and address their concerns. The findings suggest that the thinking in clinical practice involves more than focused decision-making and reasoning, and needs to be examined from a broader perspective.
Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O
2013-09-03
A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altiparmakov, D.
1988-12-01
This analysis is part of the report on ' Implementation of geometry module of 05R code in another Monte Carlo code', chapter 6.0: establishment of future activity related to geometry in Monte Carlo method. The introduction points out some problems in solving complex three-dimensional models which induce the need for developing more efficient geometry modules in Monte Carlo calculations. Second part include formulation of the problem and geometry module. Two fundamental questions to be solved are defined: (1) for a given point, it is necessary to determine material region or boundary where it belongs, and (2) for a given direction, all cross section points with material regions should be determined. Third part deals with possible connection with Monte Carlo calculations for computer simulation of geometry objects. R-function theory enables creation of geometry module base on the same logic (complex regions are constructed by elementary regions sets operations) as well as construction geometry codes. R-functions can efficiently replace functions of three-value logic in all significant models. They are even more appropriate for application since three-value logic is not typical for digital computers which operate in two-value logic. This shows that there is a need for work in this field. It is shown that there is a possibility to develop interactive code for computer modeling of geometry objects in parallel with development of geometry module [sr
Applied regression analysis a research tool
Pantula, Sastry; Dickey, David
1998-01-01
Least squares estimation, when used appropriately, is a powerful research tool. A deeper understanding of the regression concepts is essential for achieving optimal benefits from a least squares analysis. This book builds on the fundamentals of statistical methods and provides appropriate concepts that will allow a scientist to use least squares as an effective research tool. Applied Regression Analysis is aimed at the scientist who wishes to gain a working knowledge of regression analysis. The basic purpose of this book is to develop an understanding of least squares and related statistical methods without becoming excessively mathematical. It is the outgrowth of more than 30 years of consulting experience with scientists and many years of teaching an applied regression course to graduate students. Applied Regression Analysis serves as an excellent text for a service course on regression for non-statisticians and as a reference for researchers. It also provides a bridge between a two-semester introduction to...
Modern problems in applied analysis
Rogosin, Sergei
2018-01-01
This book features a collection of recent findings in Applied Real and Complex Analysis that were presented at the 3rd International Conference “Boundary Value Problems, Functional Equations and Applications” (BAF-3), held in Rzeszow, Poland on 20-23 April 2016. The contributions presented here develop a technique related to the scope of the workshop and touching on the fields of differential and functional equations, complex and real analysis, with a special emphasis on topics related to boundary value problems. Further, the papers discuss various applications of the technique, mainly in solid mechanics (crack propagation, conductivity of composite materials), biomechanics (viscoelastic behavior of the periodontal ligament, modeling of swarms) and fluid dynamics (Stokes and Brinkman type flows, Hele-Shaw type flows). The book is addressed to all readers who are interested in the development and application of innovative research results that can help solve theoretical and real-world problems.
Ng, Kwong Bor; Rieh, Soo Young; Kantor, Paul
2000-01-01
Discussion of natural language processing focuses on experiments using linear discriminant analysis to distinguish "Wall Street Journal" texts from "Federal Register" tests using information about the frequency of occurrence of word boundaries, sentence boundaries, and punctuation marks. Displays and interprets results in terms…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz, L; Andonie, O; Kohnenkamp, I
2000-01-01
The main purpose of an analytical laboratory is to provide reliable information on the nature and composition of the materials submitted for analysis. This purpose can only be attained if analytical methodologies that have the attributes of accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity, among others, are used. The process by which these attributes are evaluated is called validation of the analytical method. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory is applying a quality guarantee program to ensure the quality of its analytical results, which aims, as well, to attain accreditation for some of its measurements. Validation of the analytical methodologies used is an essential part of applying this program. There are many forms of validation, from comparison with reference techniques to participation in inter-comparison rounds. Certified reference materials were used in this work in order to validate the application of neutron activation analysis in determining As, Co, Na, Hg, Se and Fe in shellfish samples. The use of reference materials was chosen because it is a simple option that easily detects sources of systematic errors. Neutron activation analysis is an instrumental analytical method that does not need chemical treatment and that is based on processes which take place in the nuclei of atoms, making the matrix effects unimportant and different biological reference materials can be used. The following certified reference materials were used for validating the method used: BCR human hair 397, NRCC dogfish muscle DORM-2, NRCC -dogfish liver DOLT-2, NIST - oyster tissue 1566, NIES - mussel 6 and BCR - tuna fish 464. The reference materials were analyzed using the procedure developed for the shellfish samples and the above-mentioned elements were determined. With the results obtained, the parameters of accuracy, precision, detection limit, quantification limit and uncertainty associated with the method were determined for each
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dana Khider Mawlood
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Single well test is more common than aquifer test with having observation well, since the advantage of single well test is that the pumping test can be conducted on the production well with the absence of observation well. A kind of single well test, which is step-drawdown test used to determine the efficiency and specific capacity of the well, however in case of single well test it is possible to estimate Transmissivity, but the other parameter which is Storativity is overestimated, so the aim of this study is to analyze four pumping test data located in KAWRGOSK area by using cooper-Jacob’s (1946 time drawdown approximation of Theis method to estimate the aquifer parameters, also in order to determine the reasons which are affecting the reliability of the Storativity value and obtain the important aspect behind that in practice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
da Silva, M. G.
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The tocopherol contents of refined soybean oil with the addition of rosemary, oregano, garlic, annatto seeds and TBHQ was evaluated during storage at 25 °C and 35 °C for twelve months, in comparison with a control soybean oil without the antioxidant addition. The method proposed to assess the tocopherol content was validated and the uncertainty estimation was determined. The method presented adequate linearity and precision, accuracy between 93% and 103% and expanded uncertainty of 2%. The contents of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols of all the tested soybean oils remained constant during the storage at 25 °C and 35 °C regardless of antioxidant addition, while β-tocopherol content decreased. The addition of a mixture of rosemary, oregano, garlic and annatto seeds increased the concentration of γ- and δ-tocopherol. The oil with spices presented a similar behavior to that of the oil with the addition of TBHQ.La concentración de tocoferoles en aceite de soja refinado (muestra control, aceite de soja adicionado de romero, orégano, ajo, semilla de achiote y TBHQ fueron cuantificados durante el almacenamiento durante 12 meses a 25°C y 35°C. El método propuesto para medir tocoferoles fue validado y determinada la incertidumbre. Este método presentó linealidad y precisión adecuadas, exactitud entre 93% y 103% además de una incertidumbre expandida de 2%. Las cantidades de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol en el aceite de soja refinado, aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos y aceite de soja adicionado con TBHQ se mantuvieron constantes durante el almacenamiento a 25°C y 35°C con excepción del β-tocoferol el cual disminuyó. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos (romero, orégano, ajo, y semilla de achiote presentó mayores concentraciones de γ- y δ-tocoferol en comparación con el aceite de soja refinado utilizado como control. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos presentó un comportamiento semejante al aceite de soja adicionado
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torabi, K.; Nafar Dastgerdi, J.
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with the free transverse vibration of cracked nanobeams modeled after Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory and Timoshenko beam theory. The cracked beam is modeled as two segments connected by a rotational spring located at the cracked section. This model promotes discontinuities in rotational displacement due to bending which is proportional to bending moment transmitted by the cracked section. The governing equations of cracked nanobeams with two symmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions are derived; then these equations are solved analytically based on concerning basic standard trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Besides, the frequency parameters and the vibration modes of cracked nanobeams for variant crack positions, crack ratio, and small scale effect parameters are calculated. The vibration solutions obtained provide a better representation of the vibration behavior of short, stubby, micro/nanobeams where the effects of small scale, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are significant. - Highlights: ► The free vibration analysis of cracked nanobeams is investigated. ► This study is based on the theory of nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory. ► The small scale effect parameter greatly affects the value of natural frequencies. ► Crack reduces the natural frequencies, causes a discontinuity in the cracked section.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torabi, K., E-mail: kvntrb@KashanU.ac.ir; Nafar Dastgerdi, J., E-mail: J.nafardastgerdi@me.iut.ac.ir
2012-08-31
This paper is concerned with the free transverse vibration of cracked nanobeams modeled after Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory and Timoshenko beam theory. The cracked beam is modeled as two segments connected by a rotational spring located at the cracked section. This model promotes discontinuities in rotational displacement due to bending which is proportional to bending moment transmitted by the cracked section. The governing equations of cracked nanobeams with two symmetric and asymmetric boundary conditions are derived; then these equations are solved analytically based on concerning basic standard trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Besides, the frequency parameters and the vibration modes of cracked nanobeams for variant crack positions, crack ratio, and small scale effect parameters are calculated. The vibration solutions obtained provide a better representation of the vibration behavior of short, stubby, micro/nanobeams where the effects of small scale, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are significant. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The free vibration analysis of cracked nanobeams is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is based on the theory of nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The small scale effect parameter greatly affects the value of natural frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack reduces the natural frequencies, causes a discontinuity in the cracked section.
Patel, Vaishali N; Riley, Anne W
2007-10-01
A multiple case study was conducted to examine how staff in child out-of-home care programs used data from an Outcomes Management System (OMS) and other sources to inform decision-making. Data collection consisted of thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with clinicians, managers, and directors from two treatment foster care programs and two residential treatment centers, and individuals involved with developing the OMS; and observations of clinical and quality management meetings. Case study and grounded theory methodology guided analyses. The application of qualitative data analysis software is described. Results show that although staff rarely used data from the OMS, they did rely on other sources of systematically collected information to inform clinical, quality management, and program decisions. Analyses of how staff used these data suggest that improving the utility of OMS will involve encouraging staff to participate in data-based decision-making, and designing and implementing OMS in a manner that reflects how decision-making processes operate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju; Jeong, Eui Sik; Lee, Sang Mi; Kang, Sang Hun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kwon, Young Sik; Chung, Sang Wuk; Lee, Kyu Sung; Chun, Ki Hong; Kim, Nak Bae; Lee, Kil Yong; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki.
1997-09-01
This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs
Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics
Masujima, Michio
2005-04-01
All there is to know about functional analysis, integral equations and calculus of variations in a single volume. This advanced textbook is divided into two parts: The first on integral equations and the second on the calculus of variations. It begins with a short introduction to functional analysis, including a short review of complex analysis, before continuing a systematic discussion of different types of equations, such as Volterra integral equations, singular integral equations of Cauchy type, integral equations of the Fredholm type, with a special emphasis on Wiener-Hopf integral equations and Wiener-Hopf sum equations. After a few remarks on the historical development, the second part starts with an introduction to the calculus of variations and the relationship between integral equations and applications of the calculus of variations. It further covers applications of the calculus of variations developed in the second half of the 20th century in the fields of quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Throughout the book, the author presents over 150 problems and exercises -- many from such branches of physics as quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory -- together with outlines of the solutions in each case. Detailed solutions are given, supplementing the materials discussed in the main text, allowing problems to be solved making direct use of the method illustrated. The original references are given for difficult problems. The result is complete coverage of the mathematical tools and techniques used by physicists and applied mathematicians Intended for senior undergraduates and first-year graduates in science and engineering, this is equally useful as a reference and self-study guide.
Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils
consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...
Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.
Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David
2002-01-01
Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)
Applied mathematical methods in nuclear thermal hydraulics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ransom, V.H.; Trapp, J.A.
1983-01-01
Applied mathematical methods are used extensively in modeling of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic behavior. This application has required significant extension to the state-of-the-art. The problems encountered in modeling of two-phase fluid transients and the development of associated numerical solution methods are reviewed and quantified using results from a numerical study of an analogous linear system of differential equations. In particular, some possible approaches for formulating a well-posed numerical problem for an ill-posed differential model are investigated and discussed. The need for closer attention to numerical fidelity is indicated
Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.
2013-01-01
The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vito, E. de; Cayron, C.; Hicham Khodja; Lorenzetto, P.
2006-01-01
A proposed fabrication route for ITER first wall components implies a diffusion welding step of Be tiles onto a Cu-based substrate. However, Be has a tendency to form particularly brittle intermetallics with Cu and a lot of other elements. Insertion of interlayers may be a solution to increase bond quality. Applying traditional analyses to this study can be problematic because of Be toxicity and low atomic number Z. Ion Beam Analysis methods have thus been considered together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) as complementary techniques. The following work aims at demonstrating how such techniques (used in micro-beam mode), and in particular NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) techniques, coupled with SEM/EBSD data, can bring valuable information in this area. Quantification of data allow to obtain concentration values (provided the hypotheses on the initial junction composition are valuable), then phase diagrams give clues about the composition and structure of the junction. SEM retro-diffused electrons chemical contrast images and EBSD allow to characterize the presence of the awaited intermetallics, and finally confirm or refine the conclusions of Ion Beam Analysis data quantification. A series of reference first wall mock-ups have been analysed. Interlayer-free mock-ups reveal intermetallics which are mainly BeCu (apparently mixed with lower quantities of BeCu 2 compound). While Cr or Ti interlayers seem to behave as good Be diffusion barriers in the sense that they prevent the formation of BeCu, they strongly interact with Cu to form CuTi 2 or Cr 2 Ti intermetallics. In the case of Cr, Be seems to be incorporated into the Cr layer. PIXE analysis has however been unable to characterize Al-based interlayers (Z=13, close to the lower PIXE sensibility limit) and emphasizes one limitation of Ion Beam Analysis methods for lighter metals, justifying the use of other
Applied decision analysis and risk evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferse, W.; Kruber, S.
1995-01-01
During 1994 the workgroup 'Applied Decision Analysis and Risk Evaluation; continued the work on the knowledge based decision support system XUMA-GEFA for the evaluation of the hazard potential of contaminated sites. Additionally a new research direction was started which aims at the support of a later stage of the treatment of contaminated sites: The clean-up decision. For the support of decisions arising at this stage, the methods of decision analysis will be used. Computational aids for evaluation and decision support were implemented and a case study at a waste disposal site in Saxony which turns out to be a danger for the surrounding groundwater ressource was initiated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takagawa, Kenichi; Miyazaki, Takamasa; Gofuku, Akio; Iida, Hiroyasu
2007-01-01
Since many of the adverse events that have occurred in nuclear power plants in Japan and abroad have been related to maintenance or operation, it is necessary to plan preventive measures based on detailed analyses of human errors made by maintenance workers or operators. Therefore, before planning preventive measures, we developed a new method of analyzing human errors. Since each human error is an unsafe action caused by some misjudgement made by a person, we decided to classify them into six categories according to the stage in the judgment process in which the error was made. By further classifying each error into either an omission-type or commission-type, we produced 12 categories of errors. Then, we divided them into the two categories of basic error tendencies and individual error tendencies, and categorized background factors into four categories: imperfect planning; imperfect facilities or tools; imperfect environment; and imperfect instructions or communication. We thus defined the factors in each category to make it easy to identify factors that caused the error. Then using this method, we studied the characteristics of human errors that involved maintenance workers and planners since many maintenance errors have occurred. Among the human errors made by workers (worker errors) during the implementation stage, the following three types were prevalent with approximately 80%: commission-type 'projection errors', omission-type comprehension errors' and commission type 'action errors'. The most common among the individual factors of worker errors was 'repetition or habit' (schema), based on the assumption of a typical situation, and the half number of the 'repetition or habit' cases (schema) were not influenced by any background factors. The most common background factor that contributed to the individual factor was 'imperfect work environment', followed by 'insufficient knowledge'. Approximately 80% of the individual factors were 'repetition or habit' or
Essentials of applied dynamic analysis
Jia, Junbo
2014-01-01
This book presents up-to-date knowledge of dynamic analysis in engineering world. To facilitate the understanding of the topics by readers with various backgrounds, general principles are linked to their applications from different angles. Special interesting topics such as statistics of motions and loading, damping modeling and measurement, nonlinear dynamics, fatigue assessment, vibration and buckling under axial loading, structural health monitoring, human body vibrations, and vehicle-structure interactions etc., are also presented. The target readers include industry professionals in civil, marine and mechanical engineering, as well as researchers and students in this area.
Applied research in uncertainty modeling and analysis
Ayyub, Bilal
2005-01-01
Uncertainty has been a concern to engineers, managers, and scientists for many years. For a long time uncertainty has been considered synonymous with random, stochastic, statistic, or probabilistic. Since the early sixties views on uncertainty have become more heterogeneous. In the past forty years numerous tools that model uncertainty, above and beyond statistics, have been proposed by several engineers and scientists. The tool/method to model uncertainty in a specific context should really be chosen by considering the features of the phenomenon under consideration, not independent of what is known about the system and what causes uncertainty. In this fascinating overview of the field, the authors provide broad coverage of uncertainty analysis/modeling and its application. Applied Research in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis presents the perspectives of various researchers and practitioners on uncertainty analysis and modeling outside their own fields and domain expertise. Rather than focusing explicitly on...
Applied systems analysis. No. 22
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-12-01
Based on a detailed analysis of demands in the area Cologne/Frankfurt, the amount of the system products for this region were ascertained, which under consideration of technical conditions and entrepreneurial aspects seemed to be disposable at cost equality with competative energy supplies. Based on these data, the technical components of the system, location and piping were fixed and first- and operating costs were determined. For a judgement of the economics, the key numbers, cash value, internal rate of interest and cost recovery rate were determined from the difference of costs between the nuclear long distance energy system and alternative facilities. Furthermore specific production cost, associated prices and contribution margin were presented for each product. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2013-08-15
The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2012, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination conducted for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as core damage analysis code, were carried out following the planned schedule. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)
Krzysztof Knop
2017-01-01
The article presents the results of risk analysis associated with nonconformities of aluminium profiles in the process of coating and quality inspection methods used to their detection. Analysis of risk was done based on results of FMEA method. Evaluated quality inspection methods were distinguished based on the term of inspection in the ISO 9000:2005 norm. Manufacturing process of aluminium profile in micro-technological approach was presented. Triple quantification of nonconformities risk b...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muraguri, G.R.
2002-01-01
A study was carried out in the coastal lowlands region of kilifi and Kwale districts to evaluate the financial impacts of two methods applied by smallholder farmers for concurrent control of ticks and tick-born diseases and trypanosomosis. the two strategies were application of synthetic pyrethroid pour-ons and rearing of cattle in netted zero-grazing units. the data was collected using rapid appraisals and cross-sectional surveys. A static simulation method was used to analyse the data. Both control strategies resulted in positive benefit cost ratios of approximately 1.5. It was concluded that these methods were economically viable and could be applied for integrated control of TBDs and trypanosomosis in areas where both are endemic
Social network analysis applied to team sports analysis
Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa
2016-01-01
Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.
Applied linear algebra and matrix analysis
Shores, Thomas S
2018-01-01
In its second edition, this textbook offers a fresh approach to matrix and linear algebra. Its blend of theory, computational exercises, and analytical writing projects is designed to highlight the interplay between these aspects of an application. This approach places special emphasis on linear algebra as an experimental science that provides tools for solving concrete problems. The second edition’s revised text discusses applications of linear algebra like graph theory and network modeling methods used in Google’s PageRank algorithm. Other new materials include modeling examples of diffusive processes, linear programming, image processing, digital signal processing, and Fourier analysis. These topics are woven into the core material of Gaussian elimination and other matrix operations; eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and discrete dynamical systems; and the geometrical aspects of vector spaces. Intended for a one-semester undergraduate course without a strict calculus prerequisite, Applied Linear Algebra and M...
Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju
1997-08-01
This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.
Concept analysis of culture applied to nursing.
Marzilli, Colleen
2014-01-01
Culture is an important concept, especially when applied to nursing. A concept analysis of culture is essential to understanding the meaning of the word. This article applies Rodgers' (2000) concept analysis template and provides a definition of the word culture as it applies to nursing practice. This article supplies examples of the concept of culture to aid the reader in understanding its application to nursing and includes a case study demonstrating components of culture that must be respected and included when providing health care.
Dinç, Erdal; Ertekin, Zehra Ceren; Büker, Eda
2017-09-01
In this study, excitation-emission matrix datasets, which have strong overlapping bands, were processed by using four different chemometric calibration algorithms consisting of parallel factor analysis, Tucker3, three-way partial least squares and unfolded partial least squares for the simultaneous quantitative estimation of valsartan and amlodipine besylate in tablets. In analyses, preliminary separation step was not used before the application of parallel factor analysis Tucker3, three-way partial least squares and unfolded partial least squares approaches for the analysis of the related drug substances in samples. Three-way excitation-emission matrix data array was obtained by concatenating excitation-emission matrices of the calibration set, validation set, and commercial tablet samples. The excitation-emission matrix data array was used to get parallel factor analysis, Tucker3, three-way partial least squares and unfolded partial least squares calibrations and to predict the amounts of valsartan and amlodipine besylate in samples. For all the methods, calibration and prediction of valsartan and amlodipine besylate were performed in the working concentration ranges of 0.25-4.50 μg/mL. The validity and the performance of all the proposed methods were checked by using the validation parameters. From the analysis results, it was concluded that the described two-way and three-way algorithmic methods were very useful for the simultaneous quantitative resolution and routine analysis of the related drug substances in marketed samples.
Methods of applied mathematics with a software overview
Davis, Jon H
2016-01-01
This textbook, now in its second edition, provides students with a firm grasp of the fundamental notions and techniques of applied mathematics as well as the software skills to implement them. The text emphasizes the computational aspects of problem solving as well as the limitations and implicit assumptions inherent in the formal methods. Readers are also given a sense of the wide variety of problems in which the presented techniques are useful. Broadly organized around the theme of applied Fourier analysis, the treatment covers classical applications in partial differential equations and boundary value problems, and a substantial number of topics associated with Laplace, Fourier, and discrete transform theories. Some advanced topics are explored in the final chapters such as short-time Fourier analysis and geometrically based transforms applicable to boundary value problems. The topics covered are useful in a variety of applied fields such as continuum mechanics, mathematical physics, control theory, and si...
Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A
2016-05-01
Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis.
APPLYING SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS ON ANALYSES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
Dobrinić, Julijan; Kunić, Marija; Ciganj, Zlatko
2000-01-01
Abstract The paper presents results of measuring the content of heavy and other metals in waste samples from the hazardous waste disposal site of Sovjak near Rijeka. The preliminary design elaboration and the choice of the waste disposal sanification technology were preceded by the sampling and physico-chemical analyses of disposed waste, enabling its categorization. The following spectroscopic methods were applied on metal content analysis: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and plas...
Building an applied activation analysis centre
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartosek, J.; Kasparec, I.; Masek, J.
1972-01-01
Requirements are defined and all available background material is reported and discussed for the building up of a centre of applied activation analysis in Czechoslovakia. A detailed analysis of potential users and the centre's envisaged availability is also presented as part of the submitted study. A brief economic analysis is annexed. The study covers the situation up to the end of 1972. (J.K.)
Applying scrum methods to ITS projects.
2017-08-01
The introduction of new technology generally brings new challenges and new methods to help with deployments. Agile methodologies have been introduced in the information technology industry to potentially speed up development. The Federal Highway Admi...
Applying Fuzzy Possibilistic Methods on Critical Objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Choros, Kazimierz
2016-01-01
Providing a ﬂexible environment to process data objects is a desirable goal of machine learning algorithms. In fuzzy and possibilistic methods, the relevance of data objects is evaluated and a membership degree is assigned. However, some critical objects objects have the potential ability to affect...... the performance of the clustering algorithms if they remain in a speciﬁc cluster or they are moved into another. In this paper we analyze and compare how critical objects affect the behaviour of fuzzy possibilistic methods in several data sets. The comparison is based on the accuracy and ability of learning...... methods to provide a proper searching space for data objects. The membership functions used by each method when dealing with critical objects is also evaluated. Our results show that relaxing the conditions of participation for data objects in as many partitions as they can, is beneﬁcial....
Quality assurance and applied statistics. Method 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
This German-Industry-Standards-paperback contains the International Standards from the Series ISO 9000 (or, as the case may be, the European Standards from the Series EN 29000) concerning quality assurance and including the already completed supplementary guidelines with ISO 9000- and ISO 9004-section numbers, which have been adopted as German Industry Standards and which are observed and applied world-wide to a great extent. It also includes the German-Industry-Standards ISO 10011 parts 1, 2 and 3 concerning the auditing of quality-assurance systems and the German-Industry-Standard ISO 10012 part 1 concerning quality-assurance demands (confirmation system) for measuring devices. The standards also include English and French versions. They are applicable independent of the user's line of industry and thus constitute basic standards. (orig.) [de
Lavine method applied to three body problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mourre, Eric.
1975-09-01
The methods presently proposed for the three body problem in quantum mechanics, using the Faddeev approach for proving the asymptotic completeness, come up against the presence of new singularities when the potentials considered v(α)(x(α)) for two-particle interactions decay less rapidly than /x(α)/ -2 ; and also when trials are made for solving the problem with a representation space whose dimension for a particle is lower than three. A method is given that allows the mathematical approach to be extended to three body problem, in spite of singularities. Applications are given [fr
Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science
Harris, Christopher Glenn
2013-01-01
Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…
Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning
Voorhees, Richard A.
2008-01-01
In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…
Multivariate analysis: models and method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz Perucha, J.
1990-01-01
Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis
Colilert® applied to food analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria José Rodrigues
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Colilert® (IDEXX was originally developed for the simultaneous enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in water samples and has been used for the quality control routine of drinking, swimming pools, fresh, coastal and waste waters (Grossi et al., 2013. The Colilert® culture medium contains the indicator nutrient 4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG. MUG acts as a substrate for the E. coli enzyme β-glucuronidase, from which a fluorescent compound is produced. A positive MUG result produces fluorescence when viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. If the test fluorescence is equal to or greater than that of the control, the presence of E. coli has been confirmed (Lopez-Roldan et al., 2013. The present work aimed to apply Colilert® to the enumeration of E. coli in different foods, through the comparison of results against the reference method (ISO 16649-2, 2001 for E. coli food analysis. The study was divided in two stages. During the first stage ten different types of foods were analyzed with Colilert®, these included pastry, raw meat, ready to eat meals, yogurt, raw seabream and salmon, and cooked shrimp. From these it were approved the following: pastry with custard; raw minced pork; soup "caldo-verde"; raw vegetable salad (lettuce and carrots and solid yogurt. The approved foods presented a better insertion in the tray, the colour of the wells was lighter and the UV reading was easier. In the second stage the foods were artificially contaminated with 2 log/g of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and analyzed. Colilert® proved to be an accurate method and the counts were similar to the ones obtained with the reference method. In the present study, the Colilert® method did not reveal neither false-positive or false-negative results, however sometimes the results were difficult to read due to the presence of green fluorescence in some wells. Generally Colilert® was an easy and rapid method, but less objective and more expensive than the reference method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malla, Min Bikram; Bruce, Nigel; Bates, Elizabeth; Rehfuess, Eva
2011-01-01
Indoor air pollution from burning solid fuels for cooking is a major environmental health problem in developing countries, predominantly affecting children and women. Traditional household energy practices also contribute to substantial time loss and drudgery among households. While effective interventions exist, levels of investment to date have been very low, in part due to lack of evidence on economic viability. Between 2004 and 2007, different combinations of interventions – improved stoves, smoke hoods and a switch to liquefied petroleum gas – were implemented in poor communities in Nepal, Sudan and Kenya. The impacts were extensively evaluated and provided the basis for a household-level cost-benefit analysis, which essentially followed the methodology proposed by the World Health Organization. The results suggest that interventions are justified on economic grounds with estimated internal rates of return of 19%, 429% and 62% in Nepal, Kenya and Sudan, respectively. Time savings constituted by far the most important benefit followed by fuel cost savings; direct health improvements were a small component of the overall benefit. This paper describes the methodology applied, discusses the findings and highlights the methodological challenges that arise when a global approach is applied to a local programme. - Highlights: ► A project to alleviate indoor smoke from cooking fires in Sudan, Kenya and Nepal was evaluated. ► Investments for improving indoor air quality are shown to be justifiable on economic grounds. ► Savings in time and fuel costs, as well as health improvements are key benefits. ► The challenges of applying a global cost-benefit approach to a local programme are examined.
[The diagnostic methods applied in mycology].
Kurnatowska, Alicja; Kurnatowski, Piotr
2008-01-01
The systemic fungal invasions are recognized with increasing frequency and constitute a primary cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis improves prognosis, but remains a problem because there is lack of sensitive tests to aid in the diagnosis of systemic mycoses on the one hand, and on the other the patients only present unspecific signs and symptoms, thus delaying early diagnosis. The diagnosis depends upon a combination of clinical observation and laboratory investigation. The successful laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection depends in major part on the collection of appropriate clinical specimens for investigations and on the selection of appropriate microbiological test procedures. So these problems (collection of specimens, direct techniques, staining methods, cultures on different media and non-culture-based methods) are presented in article.
Monte Carlo method applied to medical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C.; Teixeira, N.; Matos, B.; Goncalves, I.C.; Ramalho, A.; Salgado, J.
2000-01-01
The main application of the Monte Carlo method to medical physics is dose calculation. This paper shows some results of two dose calculation studies and two other different applications: optimisation of neutron field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and optimization of a filter for a beam tube for several purposes. The time necessary for Monte Carlo calculations - the highest boundary for its intensive utilisation - is being over-passed with faster and cheaper computers. (author)
Proteomics methods applied to malaria: Plasmodium falciparum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuesta Astroz, Yesid; Segura Latorre, Cesar
2012-01-01
Malaria is a parasitic disease that has a high impact on public health in developing countries. The sequencing of the plasmodium falciparum genome and the development of proteomics have enabled a breakthrough in understanding the biology of the parasite. Proteomics have allowed to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the parasite s expression of proteins and has provided information on protein expression under conditions of stress induced by antimalarial. Given the complexity of their life cycle, this takes place in the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. It has proven difficult to characterize the protein expression during each stage throughout the infection process in order to determine the proteome that mediates several metabolic, physiological and energetic processes. Two dimensional electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been useful to assess the effects of antimalarial on parasite protein expression and to characterize the proteomic profile of different p. falciparum stages and organelles. The purpose of this review is to present state of the art tools and advances in proteomics applied to the study of malaria, and to present different experimental strategies used to study the parasite's proteome in order to show the advantages and disadvantages of each one.
METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM
Gray, A.G.
1959-07-14
A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.
Sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models.
Zi, Z
2011-11-01
With the rising application of systems biology, sensitivity analysis methods have been widely applied to study the biological systems, including metabolic networks, signalling pathways and genetic circuits. Sensitivity analysis can provide valuable insights about how robust the biological responses are with respect to the changes of biological parameters and which model inputs are the key factors that affect the model outputs. In addition, sensitivity analysis is valuable for guiding experimental analysis, model reduction and parameter estimation. Local and global sensitivity analysis approaches are the two types of sensitivity analysis that are commonly applied in systems biology. Local sensitivity analysis is a classic method that studies the impact of small perturbations on the model outputs. On the other hand, global sensitivity analysis approaches have been applied to understand how the model outputs are affected by large variations of the model input parameters. In this review, the author introduces the basic concepts of sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. Moreover, the author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different sensitivity analysis methods, how to choose a proper sensitivity analysis approach, the available sensitivity analysis tools for systems biology models and the caveats in the interpretation of sensitivity analysis results.
Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-01
Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.
Lessons learned in applying function analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchel, G.R.; Davey, E.; Basso, R.
2001-01-01
This paper summarizes the lessons learned in undertaking and applying function analysis based on the recent experience of utility, AECL and international design and assessment projects. Function analysis is an analytical technique that can be used to characterize and asses the functions of a system and is widely recognized as an essential component of a 'systematic' approach to design, on that integrated operational and user requirements into the standard design process. (author)
Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design
Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.
1983-01-01
The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.
Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis
Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.
2006-01-01
This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…
Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching
Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold
2007-01-01
We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…
Applying the Socratic Method to Physics Education
Corcoran, Ed
2005-04-01
We have restructured University Physics I and II in accordance with methods that PER has shown to be effective, including a more interactive discussion- and activity-based curriculum based on the premise that developing understanding requires an interactive process in which students have the opportunity to talk through and think through ideas with both other students and the teacher. Studies have shown that in classes implementing this approach to teaching as compared to classes using a traditional approach, students have significantly higher gains on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This has been true in UPI. However, UPI FCI results seem to suggest that there is a significant conceptual hole in students' understanding of Newton's Second Law. Two labs in UPI which teach Newton's Second Law will be redesigned replacing more activity with students as a group talking through, thinking through, and answering conceptual questions asked by the TA. The results will be measured by comparing FCI results to those from previous semesters, coupled with interviews. The results will be analyzed, and we will attempt to understand why gains were or were not made.
Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pavlicek, Niko
2013-08-01
Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. An STM head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individual molecules in the future. Combined STM/AFM studies revealed a reversible molecular switch based on two stable configurations of DBTH molecules on ultrathin NaCl films. AFM experiments visualize the molecular structure in both states. Our experiments allowed to unambiguously determine the pathway of the switch. Finally, tunneling into and out of the frontier molecular orbitals of pentacene molecules has been investigated on different insulating films. These experiments show that the local symmetry of initial and final electron wave function are decisive for the ratio between elastic and vibration-assisted tunneling. The results can be generalized to electron transport in organic materials.
Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics
Buttkus, Burkhard
2000-01-01
This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stochl Jan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mokken scaling techniques are a useful tool for researchers who wish to construct unidimensional tests or use questionnaires that comprise multiple binary or polytomous items. The stochastic cumulative scaling model offered by this approach is ideally suited when the intention is to score an underlying latent trait by simple addition of the item response values. In our experience, the Mokken model appears to be less well-known than for example the (related Rasch model, but is seeing increasing use in contemporary clinical research and public health. Mokken's method is a generalisation of Guttman scaling that can assist in the determination of the dimensionality of tests or scales, and enables consideration of reliability, without reliance on Cronbach's alpha. This paper provides a practical guide to the application and interpretation of this non-parametric item response theory method in empirical research with health and well-being questionnaires. Methods Scalability of data from 1 a cross-sectional health survey (the Scottish Health Education Population Survey and 2 a general population birth cohort study (the National Child Development Study illustrate the method and modeling steps for dichotomous and polytomous items respectively. The questionnaire data analyzed comprise responses to the 12 item General Health Questionnaire, under the binary recoding recommended for screening applications, and the ordinal/polytomous responses to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Results and conclusions After an initial analysis example in which we select items by phrasing (six positive versus six negatively worded items we show that all items from the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 – when binary scored – were scalable according to the double monotonicity model, in two short scales comprising six items each (Bech’s “well-being” and “distress” clinical scales. An illustration of ordinal item analysis
Stochl, Jan; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim J
2012-06-11
Mokken scaling techniques are a useful tool for researchers who wish to construct unidimensional tests or use questionnaires that comprise multiple binary or polytomous items. The stochastic cumulative scaling model offered by this approach is ideally suited when the intention is to score an underlying latent trait by simple addition of the item response values. In our experience, the Mokken model appears to be less well-known than for example the (related) Rasch model, but is seeing increasing use in contemporary clinical research and public health. Mokken's method is a generalisation of Guttman scaling that can assist in the determination of the dimensionality of tests or scales, and enables consideration of reliability, without reliance on Cronbach's alpha. This paper provides a practical guide to the application and interpretation of this non-parametric item response theory method in empirical research with health and well-being questionnaires. Scalability of data from 1) a cross-sectional health survey (the Scottish Health Education Population Survey) and 2) a general population birth cohort study (the National Child Development Study) illustrate the method and modeling steps for dichotomous and polytomous items respectively. The questionnaire data analyzed comprise responses to the 12 item General Health Questionnaire, under the binary recoding recommended for screening applications, and the ordinal/polytomous responses to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. After an initial analysis example in which we select items by phrasing (six positive versus six negatively worded items) we show that all items from the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)--when binary scored--were scalable according to the double monotonicity model, in two short scales comprising six items each (Bech's "well-being" and "distress" clinical scales). An illustration of ordinal item analysis confirmed that all 14 positively worded items of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental
Basic methods of isotope analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.
2000-01-01
The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru
Fourier convergence analysis applied to neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook
2004-01-01
Fourier error analysis has been a standard technique for the stability and convergence analysis of linear and nonlinear iterative methods. Though the methods can be applied to Eigenvalue problems too, all the Fourier convergence analyses have been performed only for fixed source problems and a Fourier convergence analysis for Eigenvalue problem has never been reported. Lee et al proposed new 2-D/1-D coupling methods and they showed that the new ones are unconditionally stable while one of the two existing ones is unstable at a small mesh size and that the new ones are better than the existing ones in terms of the convergence rate. In this paper the convergence of method A in reference 4 for the diffusion Eigenvalue problem was analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The Fourier convergence analysis presented in this paper is the first one applied to a neutronics eigenvalue problem to the best of our knowledge
Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research
Hashemi, Mohammad R.
2012-01-01
This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…
GPS surveying method applied to terminal area navigation flight experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murata, M; Shingu, H; Satsushima, K; Tsuji, T; Ishikawa, K; Miyazawa, Y; Uchida, T [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)
1993-03-01
With an objective of evaluating accuracy of new landing and navigation systems such as microwave landing guidance system and global positioning satellite (GPS) system, flight experiments are being carried out using experimental aircraft. This aircraft mounts a GPS and evaluates its accuracy by comparing the standard orbits spotted by a Kalman filter from the laser tracing data on the aircraft with the navigation results. The GPS outputs position and speed information from an earth-centered-earth-fixed system called the World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS84). However, in order to compare the navigation results with output from a reference orbit sensor or other navigation sensor, it is necessary to structure a high-precision reference coordinates system based on the WGS84. A method that applies the GPS phase interference measurement for this problem was proposed, and used actually in analyzing a flight experiment data. As referred to a case of the method having been applied to evaluating an independent navigation accuracy, the method was verified sufficiently effective and reliable not only in navigation method analysis, but also in the aspect of navigational operations. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.
Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.
2010-01-01
Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)
Gerbershagen, H J; Rothaug, J; Kalkman, C J; Meissner, W
2011-10-01
Cut-off points (CPs) of the numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10) are regularly used in postoperative pain treatment. However, there is insufficient evidence to identify the optimal CP between mild and moderate pain. A total of 435 patients undergoing general, trauma, or oral and maxillofacial surgery were studied. To determine the optimal CP for pain treatment, four approaches were used: first, patients estimated their tolerable postoperative pain intensity before operation; secondly, 24 h after surgery, they indicated if they would have preferred to receive more analgesics; thirdly, satisfaction with pain treatment was analysed, and fourthly, multivariate analysis was used to calculate the optimal CP for pain intensities in relation to pain-related interference with movement, breathing, sleep, and mood. The estimated tolerable postoperative pain before operation was median (range) NRS 4.0 (0-10). Patients who would have liked more analgesics reported significantly higher average pain since surgery [median NRS 5.0 (0-9)] compared with those without this request [NRS 3.0 (0-8)]. Patients satisfied with pain treatment reported an average pain intensity of median NRS 3.0 (0-8) compared with less satisfied patients with NRS 5.0 (2-9). Analysis of average postoperative pain in relation to pain-related interference with mood and activity indicated pain categories of NRS 0-2, mild; 3-4, moderate; and 5-10, severe pain. Three of the four methods identified a treatment threshold of average pain of NRS≥4. This was considered to identify patients with pain of moderate-to-severe intensity. This cut-off was indentified as the tolerable pain threshold.
Applied surface analysis of metal materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, Z.
1987-01-01
The applications of surface analytical techniques in the solution of technological problems in metalurgy and engineering are reviewed. Some important application areas such as corrosion, grain boundary segregation and metallurgical coatings are presented together with specific requirements for the type of information which is necessary for solving particular problems. The techniques discussed include: electron spectroscopies (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), ion spectroscopies (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Ion Scattering Spectroscopy), Rutherford Back-Scattering, nuclear reaction analysis, optical methods (Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry), ellipsometry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, the Moessbauer spectroscopy and methods of consumptive depth profile analysis. Principles and analytical features of these methods are demonstrated and examples of their applications to metallurgy are taken from recent literature. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 112 refs
Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences
Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L
2013-01-01
To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model
SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CHIS ANCA OANA
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.
Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho
2010-01-01
In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO 2 that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO 2 samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO 2 samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of the
Strategic decision analysis applied to borehole seismology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menke, M.M.; Paulsson, B.N.P.
1994-01-01
Strategic Decision Analysis (SDA) is the evolving body of knowledge on how to achieve high quality in the decision that shapes an organization's future. SDA comprises philosophy, process concepts, methodology, and tools for making good decisions. It specifically incorporates many concepts and tools from economic evaluation and risk analysis. Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (CPTC) has applied SDA to evaluate and prioritize a number of its most important and most uncertain R and D projects, including borehole seismology. Before SDA, there were significant issues and concerns about the value to CPTC of continuing to work on borehole seismology. The SDA process created a cross-functional team of experts to structure and evaluate this project. A credible economic model was developed, discrete risks and continuous uncertainties were assessed, and an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results, even applied to a very restricted drilling program for a few years, were good enough to demonstrate the value of continuing the project. This paper explains the SDA philosophy concepts, and process and demonstrates the methodology and tools using the borehole seismology project example. SDA is useful in the upstream industry not just in the R and D/technology decisions, but also in major exploration and production decisions. Since a major challenge for upstream companies today is to create and realize value, the SDA approach should have a very broad applicability
Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.
1983-01-01
Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis are considered. Methods of complexometric titration are mentioned, as well as methods of increasing sensitivity in titrimetry. Gravimetry and titrimetry are applied during analysis for traces of geological materials
Thermally stimulated current method applied to highly irradiated silicon diodes
Pintilie, I; Pintilie, I; Moll, Michael; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G
2002-01-01
We propose an improved method for the analysis of Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) measured on highly irradiated silicon diodes. The proposed TSC formula for the evaluation of a set of TSC spectra obtained with different reverse biases leads not only to the concentration of electron and hole traps visible in the spectra but also gives an estimation for the concentration of defects which not give rise to a peak in the 30-220 K TSC temperature range (very shallow or very deep levels). The method is applied to a diode irradiated with a neutron fluence of phi sub n =1.82x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2.
Classification of Specialized Farms Applying Multivariate Statistical Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuzana Hloušková
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Classification of specialized farms applying multivariate statistical methods The paper is aimed at application of advanced multivariate statistical methods when classifying cattle breeding farming enterprises by their economic size. Advantage of the model is its ability to use a few selected indicators compared to the complex methodology of current classification model that requires knowledge of detailed structure of the herd turnover and structure of cultivated crops. Output of the paper is intended to be applied within farm structure research focused on future development of Czech agriculture. As data source, the farming enterprises database for 2014 has been used, from the FADN CZ system. The predictive model proposed exploits knowledge of actual size classes of the farms tested. Outcomes of the linear discriminatory analysis multifactor classification method have supported the chance of filing farming enterprises in the group of Small farms (98 % filed correctly, and the Large and Very Large enterprises (100 % filed correctly. The Medium Size farms have been correctly filed at 58.11 % only. Partial shortages of the process presented have been found when discriminating Medium and Small farms.
Functional Data Analysis Applied in Chemometrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Muller, Martha
nutritional status and metabolic phenotype. We want to understand how metabolomic spectra can be analysed using functional data analysis to detect the in uence of dierent factors on specic metabolites. These factors can include, for example, gender, diet culture or dietary intervention. In Paper I we apply...... representation of each spectrum. Subset selection of wavelet coecients generates the input to mixed models. Mixed-model methodology enables us to take the study design into account while modelling covariates. Bootstrap-based inference preserves the correlation structure between curves and enables the estimation...
Advanced methods for image registration applied to JET videos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: teddy.craciunescu@jet.uk [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)
2015-10-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.
Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.
Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene
2013-01-01
Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Souleymane, Keita; Zhonghua, Tang
2017-08-01
Vulnerability to groundwater pollution in the Senegal River basin was studied by two different but complementary methods: the DRASTIC method (which evaluates the intrinsic vulnerability) and the fuzzy method (which assesses the specific vulnerability by taking into account the continuity of the parameters). The validation of this application has been tested by comparing the connection in groundwater and distribution of different established classes of vulnerabilities as well as the nitrate distribution in the study area. Three vulnerability classes (low, medium and high) have been identified by both the DRASTIC method and the fuzzy method (between which the normalized model was used). An integrated analysis reveals that high classes with 14.64 % (for the DRASTIC method), 21.68 % (for the normalized DRASTIC method) and 18.92 % (for the fuzzy method) are not the most dominant. In addition, a new method for sensitivity analysis was used to identify (and confirm) the main parameters which impact the vulnerability to pollution with fuzzy membership. The results showed that the vadose zone is the main parameter which impacts groundwater vulnerability to pollution while net recharge contributes least to pollution in the study area. It was also found that the fuzzy method better assesses the vulnerability to pollution with a coincidence rate of 81.13 % versus that of 77.35 % for the DRASTIC method. These results serve as a guide for policymakers to identify areas sensitive to pollution before such sites are used for socioeconomic infrastructures.
Printing method and printer used for applying this method
2006-01-01
The invention pertains to a method for transferring ink to a receiving material using an inkjet printer having an ink chamber (10) with a nozzle (8) and an electromechanical transducer (16) in cooperative connection with the ink chamber, comprising actuating the transducer to generate a pressure
Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line
Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René
2009-05-01
Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.
Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)
2001-07-01
Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)
Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists
Reddy, T Agami
2011-01-01
""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berthomier, Charles
1975-01-01
A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr
Applying systems ergonomics methods in sport: A systematic review.
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M
2018-04-16
As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future
Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive
Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane
2016-01-01
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…
Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance
Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene
2008-01-01
Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…
Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis.
Mello, Rafael Barrios; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaca; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato
2017-01-04
Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections. Osteocyte and osteocyte lacuna counts, percent bone matrix loss, and fungal spheroid element counts could be measured and collagen fibre bundles observed in all specimens. Decalcification with 7% nitric acid proceeded more rapidly than with 0.5 M EDTA and may offer better preservation of histological and cellular structure. No endothelial cells could be detected using CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Correlation between osteocytes per lacuna and age at death may reflect reported age-related responses to microdamage. Methodological limitations and caveats, and results of the TMA analysis of post mortem diagenesis in bone are discussed, and implications for DNA survival and recovery considered.
Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.
2003-01-01
In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers...... is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use ofaccelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded...... and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...
Communication Network Analysis Methods.
Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy
This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…
Methods for geochemical analysis
Baedecker, Philip A.
1987-01-01
The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.
Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizaki, Jin
1998-01-01
The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)
Epithermal neutron activation analysis in applied microbiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marina Frontasyeva
2012-01-01
Some results from applying epithermal neutron activation analysis at FLNP JINR, Dubna, Russia, in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology are reviewed. In the biomedical experiments biomass from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such essential trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties was shown. The absorption of mercury on growth dynamics of S. platensis and other bacterial strains was observed. Detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B was demonstrated. Microbial synthesis of technologically important silver nanoparticles by the novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD and blue-green alga S. platensis were characterized by a combined use of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. It was established that the tested actinomycete S. glaucus 71 MD produces silver nanoparticles extracellularly when acted upon by the silver nitrate solution, which offers a great advantage over an intracellular process of synthesis from the point of view of applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by S. platensis proceeded differently under the short-term and long-term silver action. (author)
Building "Applied Linguistic Historiography": Rationale, Scope, and Methods
Smith, Richard
2016-01-01
In this article I argue for the establishment of "Applied Linguistic Historiography" (ALH), that is, a new domain of enquiry within applied linguistics involving a rigorous, scholarly, and self-reflexive approach to historical research. Considering issues of rationale, scope, and methods in turn, I provide reasons why ALH is needed and…
Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview
Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick
2011-01-01
Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…
Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho, E-mail: kellyfisica@gmail.co, E-mail: fernando.lameiras@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: flmigliorini@hotmail.co, E-mail: lucsc@hotmail.co, E-mail: egonn@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2010-07-01
In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO{sub 2} that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO{sub 2} samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO{sub 2} samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of
Reliability analysis applied to structural tests
Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.
1972-01-01
The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.
Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcucci Maria
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.
Analysis of the interaction between experimental and applied behavior analysis.
Virues-Ortega, Javier; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Cox, Alison D; Pear, Joseph J
2014-01-01
To study the influences between basic and applied research in behavior analysis, we analyzed the coauthorship interactions of authors who published in JABA and JEAB from 1980 to 2010. We paid particular attention to authors who published in both JABA and JEAB (dual authors) as potential agents of cross-field interactions. We present a comprehensive analysis of dual authors' coauthorship interactions using social networks methodology and key word analysis. The number of dual authors more than doubled (26 to 67) and their productivity tripled (7% to 26% of JABA and JEAB articles) between 1980 and 2010. Dual authors stood out in terms of number of collaborators, number of publications, and ability to interact with multiple groups within the field. The steady increase in JEAB and JABA interactions through coauthors and the increasing range of topics covered by dual authors provide a basis for optimism regarding the progressive integration of basic and applied behavior analysis. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciana Flaquer Martins
2012-10-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric and the Facial Index (photographs. RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa, made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra
Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broen Pedersen, H.; Dahl Kristensen, O.J.
2003-02-01
In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Different equipment for mounting the accelerometers are investigated and the most suitable are chosen. Different excitation techniques are tried during experimental campaigns. After a discussion the pendulum hammer were chosen, and a new improved hammer was manufactured. Some measurement errors are investigated. The ability to repeat the measured results is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use of accelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on a blade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Oeyes blade{sub E}V1 program. (au)
Tárraga Marcos, M L; Panisello Royo, J M; Carbayo Herencia, J A; Rosich Domenech, N; Alins Presas, J; Castell Panisello, E; Tárraga López, P J
To analyse the effect of the use/implementation of 3methods to reduce weight in overweight or obese patients during one year of follow up. The design corresponds to a double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial with 3arms, and 12 months of follow-up. Patients were randomised into 3intervention groups: obesity motivational intervention, with a nurse previously trained in motivational intervention by expert psychologists (G1; n=60); lower intensity consultation, non-motivational group, with digital platform support (G2; N=61), and a third group that received recommendations for weight loss and follow-up in Primary Care Clinic (G3; n=59). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, and abdominal-waist circumference) were measured, and the percentage of patients who managed to reduce their weight ≥5% was considered as the main measurement of treatment effectiveness. All groups significantly decreased body weight at the end of the study, with a reduction in G1 (-5.6kg) followed by G2 (-4.3kg), and G3 (-1.7kg), with an overall mean: -3.9kg. The indicators of clinical relevance were in G1/G3: relative risk (RR): 4.99 (95% CI: from 2.71 to 9.18); relative risk reduction (RRR): 399.1% (171.3 to 818.0); Absolute risk reduction (RAR): 65.3% (from 51.5 to 79.1) and NNT: 2 (from 2 to 2). In the G2/G3 groups: RR: 3.01 (from 1.57 to 5.76); RRR: 200.5% (from 57.0 to 475.5); RAR: 32.8% (from 16.9 to 48.7) and NNT: 4 (from 3 to 6). In the G1/G2 groups: RR: 1.66 (from 1.25 to 2.20); RRR: 66.1% (from 25.3 to 120.1); RAR: 32.5% (from 16.6 to 48.4) and NNT: 4 (from 3 to 7). All 3groups were able to reduce weight. Although the group with motivational intervention achieved the greatest decrease, as well as the most favourable clinical relevance indicators. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Quantitative EEG Applying the Statistical Recognition Pattern Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engedal, Knut; Snaedal, Jon; Hoegh, Peter
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the discriminatory power of quantitative EEG (qEEG) applying the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method to separate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from elderly individuals without dementia and from other dementia patients. METHODS...
Gradient pattern analysis applied to galaxy morphology
Rosa, R. R.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Sautter, R. A.; Barchi, P. H.; Stalder, D. H.; Moura, T. C.; Rembold, S. B.; Morell, D. R. F.; Ferreira, N. C.
2018-06-01
Gradient pattern analysis (GPA) is a well-established technique for measuring gradient bilateral asymmetries of a square numerical lattice. This paper introduces an improved version of GPA designed for galaxy morphometry. We show the performance of the new method on a selected sample of 54 896 objects from the SDSS-DR7 in common with Galaxy Zoo 1 catalogue. The results suggest that the second gradient moment, G2, has the potential to dramatically improve over more conventional morphometric parameters. It separates early- from late-type galaxies better (˜ 90 per cent) than the CAS system (C˜ 79 per cent, A˜ 50 per cent, S˜ 43 per cent) and a benchmark test shows that it is applicable to hundreds of thousands of galaxies using typical processing systems.
Probabilistic safety analysis applied to RBMK reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerez Martin, L.; Fernandez Ramos, P.
1995-01-01
The project financed by the European Union ''Revision of RBMK Reactor Safety was divided into nine Topic Groups dealing with different aspects of safety. The area covered by Topic Group 9 was Probabilistic Safety Analysis. TG9 will have touched on some of the problems discussed by other groups, although in terms of the systematic quantification of the impact of design characteristics and RBMK reactor operating practices on the risk of core damage. On account of the reduced time scale and the resources available for the project, the analysis was made using a simplified method based on the results of PSAs conducted in Western countries and on the judgement of the group members. The simplifies method is based on the concepts of Qualification, Redundancy and Automatic Actuation of the systems considered. PSA experience shows that systems complying with the above-mentioned concepts have a failure probability of 1.0E-3 when redundancy is simple, ie two similar equipment items capable of carrying out the same function. In general terms, this value can be considered to be dominated by potential common cause failures. The value considered above changes according to factors that have a positive effect upon it, such as an additional redundancy with a different equipment item (eg a turbo pumps and a motor pump), individual trains with good separations, etc, or a negative effect, such as the absence of suitable periodical tests, the need for operators to perform manual operations, etc. Similarly, possible actions required by the operator during accident sequences are assigned failure probability values between 1 and 1.0E-4, according to the complexity of the action (including local actions to be performed outside the control room) and the time available
Flood Hazard Mapping by Applying Fuzzy TOPSIS Method
Han, K. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Keum, H.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, T. H.
2017-12-01
There are lots of technical methods to integrate various factors for flood hazard mapping. The purpose of this study is to suggest the methodology of integrated flood hazard mapping using MCDM(Multi Criteria Decision Making). MCDM problems involve a set of alternatives that are evaluated on the basis of conflicting and incommensurate criteria. In this study, to apply MCDM to assessing flood risk, maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time are considered as criterion, and each applied elements are considered as alternatives. The scheme to find the efficient alternative closest to a ideal value is appropriate way to assess flood risk of a lot of element units(alternatives) based on various flood indices. Therefore, TOPSIS which is most commonly used MCDM scheme is adopted to create flood hazard map. The indices for flood hazard mapping(maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time) have uncertainty concerning simulation results due to various values according to flood scenario and topographical condition. These kind of ambiguity of indices can cause uncertainty of flood hazard map. To consider ambiguity and uncertainty of criterion, fuzzy logic is introduced which is able to handle ambiguous expression. In this paper, we made Flood Hazard Map according to levee breach overflow using the Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique. We confirmed the areas where the highest grade of hazard was recorded through the drawn-up integrated flood hazard map, and then produced flood hazard map can be compared them with those indicated in the existing flood risk maps. Also, we expect that if we can apply the flood hazard map methodology suggested in this paper even to manufacturing the current flood risk maps, we will be able to make a new flood hazard map to even consider the priorities for hazard areas, including more varied and important information than ever before. Keywords : Flood hazard map; levee break analysis; 2D analysis; MCDM; Fuzzy TOPSIS
Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science
1984-01-01
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.
Electronic-projecting Moire method applying CBR-technology
Kuzyakov, O. N.; Lapteva, U. V.; Andreeva, M. A.
2018-01-01
Electronic-projecting method based on Moire effect for examining surface topology is suggested. Conditions of forming Moire fringes and their parameters’ dependence on reference parameters of object and virtual grids are analyzed. Control system structure and decision-making subsystem are elaborated. Subsystem execution includes CBR-technology, based on applying case base. The approach related to analysing and forming decision for each separate local area with consequent formation of common topology map is applied.
A Lagrangian meshfree method applied to linear and nonlinear elasticity.
Walker, Wade A
2017-01-01
The repeated replacement method (RRM) is a Lagrangian meshfree method which we have previously applied to the Euler equations for compressible fluid flow. In this paper we present new enhancements to RRM, and we apply the enhanced method to both linear and nonlinear elasticity. We compare the results of ten test problems to those of analytic solvers, to demonstrate that RRM can successfully simulate these elastic systems without many of the requirements of traditional numerical methods such as numerical derivatives, equation system solvers, or Riemann solvers. We also show the relationship between error and computational effort for RRM on these systems, and compare RRM to other methods to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. And to further explain the two elastic equations used in the paper, we demonstrate the mathematical procedure used to create Riemann and Sedov-Taylor solvers for them, and detail the numerical techniques needed to embody those solvers in code.
Digital photoelastic analysis applied to implant dentistry
Ramesh, K.; Hariprasad, M. P.; Bhuvanewari, S.
2016-12-01
Development of improved designs of implant systems in dentistry have necessitated the study of stress fields in the implant regions of the mandible/maxilla for better understanding of the biomechanics involved. Photoelasticity has been used for various studies related to dental implants in view of whole field visualization of maximum shear stress in the form of isochromatic contours. The potential of digital photoelasticity has not been fully exploited in the field of implant dentistry. In this paper, the fringe field in the vicinity of the connected implants (All-On-Four® concept) is analyzed using recent advances in digital photoelasticity. Initially, a novel 3-D photoelastic model making procedure, to closely mimic all the anatomical features of the human mandible is proposed. By choosing appropriate orientation of the model with respect to the light path, the essential region of interest were sought to be analysed while keeping the model under live loading conditions. Need for a sophisticated software module to carefully identify the model domain has been brought out. For data extraction, five-step method is used and isochromatics are evaluated by twelve fringe photoelasticity. In addition to the isochromatic fringe field, whole field isoclinic data is also obtained for the first time in implant dentistry, which could throw important information in improving the structural stability of the implant systems. Analysis is carried out for the implant in the molar as well as the incisor region. In addition, the interaction effects of loaded molar implant on the incisor area are also studied.
Functional analysis in modern applied mathematics
Curtain, Ruth F
1977-01-01
In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat
Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis
Tincani, Matt
2007-01-01
A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…
Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SERVER
2008-02-19
Feb 19, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Po.Box: 484, ... nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the ... of BSA/ethanol and organic solvent adding rate. ... Sodium aside and all other chemicals were purchased from.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neumann, Andreas [Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mineralogy and Geochemistry; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Klinkenberg, Martina; Curtius, Hildegard [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6 Nuclear Waste Management
2017-04-01
Corrosion experiments with non-irradiated metallic UAl{sub x}-Al research reactor fuel elements were carried out in autoclaves to identify and quantify the corrosion products. Such compounds, considering the long-term safety assessment of final repositories, can interact with the released inventory and this constitutes a sink for radionuclide migration in formation waters. Therefore, the metallic fuel sample was subjected to clay pore solution to investigate its process of disintegration by analyzing the resulting products and the remnants, i.e. the secondary phases. Due to the fast corrosion rate a full sample disintegration was observed within the experimental period of 1 year at 90 C. The obtained solids were subdivided into different grain size fractions and prepared for analysis. The elemental analysis of the suspension showed that, uranium and aluminum are concentrated in the solids, whereas iron was mainly dissolved. Non-ambient X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with the derivative difference minimization (DDM) method was applied for the qualitative and quantitative phase analysis (QPA) of the secondary phases. Gypsum and hemihydrate (bassanite), residues of non-corroded nuclear fuel, hematite, and goethite were identified. The quantitative phase analysis showed that goethite is the major crystalline phase. The amorphous content exceeded 80 wt% and hosted the uranium. All other compounds were present to a minor content. The obtained results by XRD were well supported by complementary scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.
Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics
Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul
2011-01-01
This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deville, J.P.
1998-01-01
Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)
Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles
Young, Douglas
1997-01-01
The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.
Magnetic stirring welding method applied to nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, Kenji; Watando, Masayuki; Morishige, Norio; Enoo, Kazuhide; Yasuda, Yuuji
2002-01-01
In construction of a new nuclear power plant, carbon steel and stainless steel are used as base materials for the bottom linear plate of Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) to achieve maintenance-free requirement, securing sufficient strength of structure. However, welding such different metals is difficult by ordinary method. To overcome the difficulty, the automated Magnetic Stirring Welding (MSW) method that can demonstrate good welding performance was studied for practical use, and weldability tests showed the good results. Based on the study, a new welding device for the MSW method was developed to apply it weld joints of different materials, and it practically used in part of a nuclear power plant. (author)
Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.
Crooks, S M; Xing, L
2001-10-01
Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.
Methods of Multivariate Analysis
Rencher, Alvin C
2012-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit
Applied time series analysis and innovative computing
Ao, Sio-Iong
2010-01-01
This text is a systematic, state-of-the-art introduction to the use of innovative computing paradigms as an investigative tool for applications in time series analysis. It includes frontier case studies based on recent research.
Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis
Barrios Mello, Rafael; Regis Silva, Maria Regina; Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Evison, Martin; Guimarães, Marco Aurélio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaça; Dias Astolphi, Rafael; Miazato Iwamura, Edna Sadayo
2017-01-01
Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens....
Meta-analysis in applied ecology.
Stewart, Gavin
2010-02-23
This overview examines research synthesis in applied ecology and conservation. Vote counting and pooling unweighted averages are widespread despite the superiority of syntheses based on weighted combination of effects. Such analyses allow exploration of methodological uncertainty in addition to consistency of effects across species, space and time, but exploring heterogeneity remains controversial. Meta-analyses are required to generalize in ecology, and to inform evidence-based decision-making, but the more sophisticated statistical techniques and registers of research used in other disciplines must be employed in ecology to fully realize their benefits.
Waste classification and methods applied to specific disposal sites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, V.C.
1979-01-01
An adequate definition of the classes of radioactive wastes is necessary to regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes. A classification system is proposed in which wastes are classified according to characteristics relating to their disposal. Several specific sites are analyzed with the methodology in order to gain insights into the classification of radioactive wastes. Also presented is the analysis of ocean dumping as it applies to waste classification. 5 refs
Which DTW Method Applied to Marine Univariate Time Series Imputation
Phan , Thi-Thu-Hong; Caillault , Émilie; Lefebvre , Alain; Bigand , André
2017-01-01
International audience; Missing data are ubiquitous in any domains of applied sciences. Processing datasets containing missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to build a framework for filling missing values in univariate time series and to perform a comparison of different similarity metrics used for the imputation task. This allows to suggest the most suitable methods for the imp...
Applying Qualitative Research Methods to Narrative Knowledge Engineering
O'Neill, Brian; Riedl, Mark
2014-01-01
We propose a methodology for knowledge engineering for narrative intelligence systems, based on techniques used to elicit themes in qualitative methods research. Our methodology uses coding techniques to identify actions in natural language corpora, and uses these actions to create planning operators and procedural knowledge, such as scripts. In an iterative process, coders create a taxonomy of codes relevant to the corpus, and apply those codes to each element of that corpus. These codes can...
A new method of AHP applied to personal credit evaluation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Ming-hui; XIONG Qi; CAO Jing
2006-01-01
This paper presents a new negative judgment matrix that combines the advantages of the reciprocal judgment matrix and the fuzzy complementary judgment matrix, and then puts forth the properties of this new matrix. In view of these properties, this paper derives a clear sequencing formula for the new negative judgment matrix, which improves the sequencing principle of AHP. Finally, this new method is applied to personal credit evaluation to show its advantages of conciseness and swiftness.
Applied Spectrophotometry: Analysis of a Biochemical Mixture
Trumbo, Toni A.; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G.; Pugh, Michael Eugene
2013-01-01
Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the…
Novel biodosimetry methods applied to victims of the Goiania accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straume, T.; Langlois, R.G.; Lucas, J.; Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Ramalho, A.T.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.
1991-01-01
Two biodosimetric methods under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were applied to five persons accidentally exposed to a 137Cs source in Goiania, Brazil. The methods used were somatic null mutations at the glycophorin A locus detected as missing proteins on the surface of blood erythrocytes and chromosome translocations in blood lymphocytes detected using fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Biodosimetric results obtained approximately 1 y after the accident using these new and largely unvalidated methods are in general agreement with results obtained immediately after the accident using dicentric chromosome aberrations. Additional follow-up of Goiania accident victims will (1) help provide the information needed to validate these new methods for use in biodosimetry and (2) provide independent estimates of dose
Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step
Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail: nelida@usp.br
2002-03-01
Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.
Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.
1979-01-01
The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)
Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis
Corsberg, Dan
1988-01-01
Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.
Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-10-15
Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.
Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, Richard V., Jr.
2004-10-01
Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olivarius, Signe
of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...
Energy analysis applied to uranium resource estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mortimer, N.D.
1980-01-01
It is pointed out that fuel prices and ore costs are interdependent, and that in estimating ore costs (involving the cost of fuels used to mine and process the uranium) it is necessary to take into account the total use of energy by the entire fuel system, through the technique of energy analysis. The subject is discussed, and illustrated with diagrams, under the following heads: estimate of how total workable resources would depend on production costs; sensitivity of nuclear electricity prices to ore costs; variation of net energy requirement with ore grade for a typical PWR reactor design; variation of average fundamental cost of nuclear electricity with ore grade; variation of cumulative uranium resources with current maximum ore costs. (U.K.)
The Lattice Boltzmann Method applied to neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erasmus, B.; Van Heerden, F. A.
2013-01-01
In this paper the applicability of the Lattice Boltzmann Method to neutron transport is investigated. One of the main features of the Lattice Boltzmann method is the simultaneous discretization of the phase space of the problem, whereby particles are restricted to move on a lattice. An iterative solution of the operator form of the neutron transport equation is presented here, with the first collision source as the starting point of the iteration scheme. A full description of the discretization scheme is given, along with the quadrature set used for the angular discretization. An angular refinement scheme is introduced to increase the angular coverage of the problem phase space and to mitigate lattice ray effects. The method is applied to a model problem to investigate its applicability to neutron transport and the results are compared to a reference solution calculated, using MCNP. (authors)
Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft
Brady, J. V.
1990-01-01
This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most
Isaacson, Eugene
1994-01-01
This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.
Applied probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heuser, F.W.
1982-01-01
Some aspects of applied reliability and risk analysis methods in nuclear safety and the present role of both in Germany, are discussed. First, some comments on the status and applications of reliability analysis are given. Second, some conclusions that can be drawn from previous work on the German Risk Study are summarized. (orig.)
1978-10-01
This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...
Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberhardt, L L
1976-01-01
In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.
Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung
2003-05-01
The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology
Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites
Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.
1996-01-01
Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.
Local regression type methods applied to the study of geophysics and high frequency financial data
Mariani, M. C.; Basu, K.
2014-09-01
In this work we applied locally weighted scatterplot smoothing techniques (Lowess/Loess) to Geophysical and high frequency financial data. We first analyze and apply this technique to the California earthquake geological data. A spatial analysis was performed to show that the estimation of the earthquake magnitude at a fixed location is very accurate up to the relative error of 0.01%. We also applied the same method to a high frequency data set arising in the financial sector and obtained similar satisfactory results. The application of this approach to the two different data sets demonstrates that the overall method is accurate and efficient, and the Lowess approach is much more desirable than the Loess method. The previous works studied the time series analysis; in this paper our local regression models perform a spatial analysis for the geophysics data providing different information. For the high frequency data, our models estimate the curve of best fit where data are dependent on time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alverbro, Karin
2010-01-01
Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects
Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations
Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen
2016-01-01
Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.
Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations
Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.
2016-12-01
Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.
Modal method for crack identification applied to reactor recirculation pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, W.H.; Brook, R.
1991-01-01
Nuclear reactors have been operating and producing useful electricity for many years. Within the last few years, several plants have found cracks in the reactor coolant pump shaft near the thermal barrier. The modal method and results described herein show the analytical results of using a Modal Analysis test method to determine the presence, size, and location of a shaft crack. The authors have previously demonstrated that the test method can analytically and experimentally identify shaft cracks as small as five percent (5%) of the shaft diameter. Due to small differences in material property distribution, the attempt to identify cracks smaller than 3% of the shaft diameter has been shown to be impractical. The rotor dynamics model includes a detailed motor rotor, external weights and inertias, and realistic total support stiffness. Results of the rotor dynamics model have been verified through a comparison with on-site vibration test data
Applying Nyquist's method for stability determination to solar wind observations
Klein, Kristopher G.; Kasper, Justin C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, Michael L.
2017-10-01
The role instabilities play in governing the evolution of solar and astrophysical plasmas is a matter of considerable scientific interest. The large number of sources of free energy accessible to such nearly collisionless plasmas makes general modeling of unstable behavior, accounting for the temperatures, densities, anisotropies, and relative drifts of a large number of populations, analytically difficult. We therefore seek a general method of stability determination that may be automated for future analysis of solar wind observations. This work describes an efficient application of the Nyquist instability method to the Vlasov dispersion relation appropriate for hot, collisionless, magnetized plasmas, including the solar wind. The algorithm recovers the familiar proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, as well as instabilities that had been previously identified using fits extracted from in situ observations in Gary et al. (2016). Future proposed applications of this method are discussed.
Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective
Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith
2010-01-01
The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…
Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.
Olden, Peter C
2006-01-01
Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.
The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Forquin P.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.
Applied statistical methods in agriculture, health and life sciences
Lawal, Bayo
2014-01-01
This textbook teaches crucial statistical methods to answer research questions using a unique range of statistical software programs, including MINITAB and R. This textbook is developed for undergraduate students in agriculture, nursing, biology and biomedical research. Graduate students will also find it to be a useful way to refresh their statistics skills and to reference software options. The unique combination of examples is approached using MINITAB and R for their individual strengths. Subjects covered include among others data description, probability distributions, experimental design, regression analysis, randomized design and biological assay. Unlike other biostatistics textbooks, this text also includes outliers, influential observations in regression and an introduction to survival analysis. Material is taken from the author's extensive teaching and research in Africa, USA and the UK. Sample problems, references and electronic supplementary material accompany each chapter.
Structural reliability analysis applied to pipeline risk analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gardiner, M. [GL Industrial Services, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F.; Donato, Guilherme V.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2009-07-01
Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of pipelines requires two main components to be provided. These are models of the consequences that follow from some loss of containment incident, and models for the likelihood of such incidents occurring. This paper describes how PETROBRAS have used Structural Reliability Analysis for the second of these, to provide pipeline- and location-specific predictions of failure frequency for a number of pipeline assets. This paper presents an approach to estimating failure rates for liquid and gas pipelines, using Structural Reliability Analysis (SRA) to analyze the credible basic mechanisms of failure such as corrosion and mechanical damage. SRA is a probabilistic limit state method: for a given failure mechanism it quantifies the uncertainty in parameters to mathematical models of the load-resistance state of a structure and then evaluates the probability of load exceeding resistance. SRA can be used to benefit the pipeline risk management process by optimizing in-line inspection schedules, and as part of the design process for new construction in pipeline rights of way that already contain multiple lines. A case study is presented to show how the SRA approach has recently been used on PETROBRAS pipelines and the benefits obtained from it. (author)
Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun
2000-05-01
This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques.
Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun
2000-05-01
This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques
COMPUTER METHODS OF GENETIC ANALYSIS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. L. Osipov
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.
Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"
Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan
2011-01-01
This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…
Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination applied to Fickian difussion phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz Sanchidrian, C.; Castans, M.
1989-01-01
Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination is applied to Fickian difussion phenomena in order to transform its partial differen-tial equations into ordinary ones, and also to obtain in a dimensionl-ess fom the Ficks second law. (Author)
Critical path method applied to research project planning: Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES)
Earl B. Anderson; R. Stanton Hales
1986-01-01
The critical path method (CPM) of network analysis (a) depicts precedence among the many activities in a project by a network diagram; (b) identifies critical activities by calculating their starting, finishing, and float times; and (c) displays possible schedules by constructing time charts. CPM was applied to the development of the Forest Service's Fire...
Applying sociodramatic methods in teaching transition to palliative care.
Baile, Walter F; Walters, Rebecca
2013-03-01
We introduce the technique of sociodrama, describe its key components, and illustrate how this simulation method was applied in a workshop format to address the challenge of discussing transition to palliative care. We describe how warm-up exercises prepared 15 learners who provide direct clinical care to patients with cancer for a dramatic portrayal of this dilemma. We then show how small-group brainstorming led to the creation of a challenging scenario wherein highly optimistic family members of a 20-year-old young man with terminal acute lymphocytic leukemia responded to information about the lack of further anticancer treatment with anger and blame toward the staff. We illustrate how the facilitators, using sociodramatic techniques of doubling and role reversal, helped learners to understand and articulate the hidden feelings of fear and loss behind the family's emotional reactions. By modeling effective communication skills, the facilitators demonstrated how key communication skills, such as empathic responses to anger and blame and using "wish" statements, could transform the conversation from one of conflict to one of problem solving with the family. We also describe how we set up practice dyads to give the learners an opportunity to try out new skills with each other. An evaluation of the workshop and similar workshops we conducted is presented. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Bumhee; Cho, Nam Zin
2015-01-01
In this study, the steady-state p-CMFD adjoint flux is used as the weighting function to obtain PK parameters instead of the computationally expensive transport adjoint angular flux. Several numerical problems are investigated to see the capability of the PCQS method applied to the NLG iteration. CRX-2K adopts the nonoverlapping local/global (NLG) iterative method with the 2-D/1-D fusion transport kernel and the global p-CMFD wrapper. The parallelization of the NLG iteration has been recently implemented in CRX-2K and several numerical results are reported in a companion paper. However, the direct time discretization leads to a fine time step size to acquire an accurate transient solution, and the step size involved in the transport transient calculations is millisecond-order. Therefore, the transient calculations need much longer computing time than the steady-state calculation. To increase the time step size, Predictor-Corrector Quasi-Static (PCQS) method can be one option to apply to the NLG iteration. The PCQS method is a linear algorithm, so the shape function does not need to be updated more than once at a specific time step like a conventional quasi-static (QS) family such as Improved Quasi-Static (IQS) method. Moreover, the shape function in the PCQS method directly comes from the direct transport calculation (with a large time step), so one can easily implement the PCQS method in an existing transient transport code. Any QS method needs to solve the amplitude function in the form of the point kinetics (PK) equations, and accurate PK parameters can be obtained by the transport steady-state adjoint angular flux as a weighting function. The PCQS method is applied to the transient NLG iteration with the 2-D/1-D fusion transport kernel and the global p-CMFD wrapper, and has been implemented in CRX-2K. In the numerical problems, the PCQS method with the NLG iteration shows more accurate solutions compared to the direct transient calculations with large time step
Applying multi-resolution numerical methods to geodynamics
Davies, David Rhodri
Computational models yield inaccurate results if the underlying numerical grid fails to provide the necessary resolution to capture a simulation's important features. For the large-scale problems regularly encountered in geodynamics, inadequate grid resolution is a major concern. The majority of models involve multi-scale dynamics, being characterized by fine-scale upwelling and downwelling activity in a more passive, large-scale background flow. Such configurations, when coupled to the complex geometries involved, present a serious challenge for computational methods. Current techniques are unable to resolve localized features and, hence, such models cannot be solved efficiently. This thesis demonstrates, through a series of papers and closely-coupled appendices, how multi-resolution finite-element methods from the forefront of computational engineering can provide a means to address these issues. The problems examined achieve multi-resolution through one of two methods. In two-dimensions (2-D), automatic, unstructured mesh refinement procedures are utilized. Such methods improve the solution quality of convection dominated problems by adapting the grid automatically around regions of high solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. Thermal and thermo-chemical validation tests illustrate that the technique is robust and highly successful, improving solution accuracy whilst increasing computational efficiency. These points are reinforced when the technique is applied to geophysical simulations of mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone magmatism. To date, successful goal-orientated/error-guided grid adaptation techniques have not been utilized within the field of geodynamics. The work included herein is therefore the first geodynamical application of such methods. In view of the existing three-dimensional (3-D) spherical mantle dynamics codes, which are built upon a quasi-uniform discretization of the sphere and closely coupled
Analytic methods in applied probability in memory of Fridrikh Karpelevich
Suhov, Yu M
2002-01-01
This volume is dedicated to F. I. Karpelevich, an outstanding Russian mathematician who made important contributions to applied probability theory. The book contains original papers focusing on several areas of applied probability and its uses in modern industrial processes, telecommunications, computing, mathematical economics, and finance. It opens with a review of Karpelevich's contributions to applied probability theory and includes a bibliography of his works. Other articles discuss queueing network theory, in particular, in heavy traffic approximation (fluid models). The book is suitable
Reactor calculation in coarse mesh by finite element method applied to matrix response method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, H.
1982-01-01
The finite element method is applied to the solution of the modified formulation of the matrix-response method aiming to do reactor calculations in coarse mesh. Good results are obtained with a short running time. The method is applicable to problems where the heterogeneity is predominant and to problems of evolution in coarse meshes where the burnup is variable in one same coarse mesh, making the cross section vary spatially with the evolution. (E.G.) [pt
Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary
2002-01-01
The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)
Applying the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM) to portfolio selection.
Reyes Santos, Joost; Haimes, Yacov Y
2004-06-01
The analysis of risk-return tradeoffs and their practical applications to portfolio analysis paved the way for Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT), which won Harry Markowitz a 1992 Nobel Prize in Economics. A typical approach in measuring a portfolio's expected return is based on the historical returns of the assets included in a portfolio. On the other hand, portfolio risk is usually measured using volatility, which is derived from the historical variance-covariance relationships among the portfolio assets. This article focuses on assessing portfolio risk, with emphasis on extreme risks. To date, volatility is a major measure of risk owing to its simplicity and validity for relatively small asset price fluctuations. Volatility is a justified measure for stable market performance, but it is weak in addressing portfolio risk under aberrant market fluctuations. Extreme market crashes such as that on October 19, 1987 ("Black Monday") and catastrophic events such as the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 that led to a four-day suspension of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) are a few examples where measuring risk via volatility can lead to inaccurate predictions. Thus, there is a need for a more robust metric of risk. By invoking the principles of the extreme-risk-analysis method through the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM), this article contributes to the modeling of extreme risks in portfolio performance. A measure of an extreme portfolio risk, denoted by f(4), is defined as the conditional expectation for a lower-tail region of the distribution of the possible portfolio returns. This article presents a multiobjective problem formulation consisting of optimizing expected return and f(4), whose solution is determined using Evolver-a software that implements a genetic algorithm. Under business-as-usual market scenarios, the results of the proposed PMRM portfolio selection model are found to be compatible with those of the volatility-based model
The Significance of Regional Analysis in Applied Geography.
Sommers, Lawrence M.
Regional analysis is central to applied geographic research, contributing to better planning and policy development for a variety of societal problems facing the United States. The development of energy policy serves as an illustration of the capabilities of this type of analysis. The United States has had little success in formulating a national…
Valuing national effects of digital health investments: an applied method.
Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer; Frazer, Cassandra; Gheorghiu, Bobby; Leaver, Chad
2015-01-01
This paper describes an approach which has been applied to value national outcomes of investments by federal, provincial and territorial governments, clinicians and healthcare organizations in digital health. Hypotheses are used to develop a model, which is revised and populated based upon the available evidence. Quantitative national estimates and qualitative findings are produced and validated through structured peer review processes. This methodology has applied in four studies since 2008.
Dose rate reduction method for NMCA applied BWR plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Varela, Juan; Caine, Thomas
2012-09-01
BRAC (BWR Radiation Assessment and Control) dose rate is used as an indicator of the incorporation of activated corrosion by products into BWR recirculation piping, which is known to be a significant contributor to dose rate received by workers during refueling outages. In order to reduce radiation exposure of the workers during the outage, it is desirable to keep BRAC dose rates as low as possible. After HWC was adopted to reduce IGSCC, a BRAC dose rate increase was observed in many plants. As a countermeasure to these rapid dose rate increases under HWC conditions, Zn injection was widely adopted in United States and Europe resulting in a reduction of BRAC dose rates. However, BRAC dose rates in several plants remain high, prompting the industry to continue to investigate methods to achieve further reductions. In recent years a large portion of the BWR fleet has adopted NMCA (NobleChem TM ) to enhance the hydrogen injection effect to suppress SCC. After NMCA, especially OLNC (On-Line NobleChem TM ), BRAC dose rates were observed to decrease. In some OLNC applied BWR plants this reduction was observed year after year to reach a new reduced equilibrium level. This dose rate reduction trends suggest the potential dose reduction might be obtained by the combination of Pt and Zn injection. So, laboratory experiments and in-plant tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of Pt and Zn on Co-60 deposition behaviour. Firstly, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of noble metal deposition on Co deposition on stainless steel surfaces. Polished type 316 stainless steel coupons were prepared and some of them were OLNC treated in the test loop before the Co deposition test. Water chemistry conditions to simulate HWC were as follows: Dissolved oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide were below 5 ppb, 100 ppb and 0 ppb (no addition), respectively. Zn was injected to target a concentration of 5 ppb. The test was conducted up to 1500 hours at 553 K. Test
Bellman, Richard Ernest
1970-01-01
In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat
Complexity methods applied to turbulence in plasma astrophysics
Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.
2016-09-01
In this review many of the well known tools for the analysis of Complex systems are used in order to study the global coupling of the turbulent convection zone with the solar atmosphere where the magnetic energy is dissipated explosively. Several well documented observations are not easy to interpret with the use of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or Kinetic numerical codes. Such observations are: (1) The size distribution of the Active Regions (AR) on the solar surface, (2) The fractal and multi fractal characteristics of the observed magnetograms, (3) The Self-Organised characteristics of the explosive magnetic energy release and (4) the very efficient acceleration of particles during the flaring periods in the solar corona. We review briefly the work published the last twenty five years on the above issues and propose solutions by using methods borrowed from the analysis of complex systems. The scenario which emerged is as follows: (a) The fully developed turbulence in the convection zone generates and transports magnetic flux tubes to the solar surface. Using probabilistic percolation models we were able to reproduce the size distribution and the fractal properties of the emerged and randomly moving magnetic flux tubes. (b) Using a Non Linear Force Free (NLFF) magnetic extrapolation numerical code we can explore how the emerged magnetic flux tubes interact nonlinearly and form thin and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS) inside the coronal part of the AR. (c) The fragmentation of the UCS and the redistribution of the magnetic field locally, when the local current exceeds a Critical threshold, is a key process which drives avalanches and forms coherent structures. This local reorganization of the magnetic field enhances the energy dissipation and influences the global evolution of the complex magnetic topology. Using a Cellular Automaton and following the simple rules of Self Organized Criticality (SOC), we were able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the
The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Several different methods have been used to sense load currents and extract its ... in order to produce a reference current in shunt active power filters (SAPF), and ... technique compared to other similar methods are found quite satisfactory by ...
Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research
Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.
2017-12-01
This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.
Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization
Piotr Markiewicz
2013-01-01
One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The method was c...
Classical and modular methods applied to Diophantine equations
Dahmen, S.R.
2008-01-01
Deep methods from the theory of elliptic curves and modular forms have been used to prove Fermat's last theorem and solve other Diophantine equations. These so-called modular methods can often benefit from information obtained by other, classical, methods from number theory; and vice versa. In our
The pseudo-harmonics method applied to depletion calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, F.C. da; Amaral, J.A.C.; Thome, Z.D.
1989-01-01
In this paper, a new method for performing depletion calculations, based on the use of the Pseudo-Harmonics perturbation method, was developed. The fuel burnup was considered as a global perturbation and the multigroup difusion equations were rewriten in such a way as to treat the soluble boron concentration as the eigenvalue. By doing this, the critical boron concentration can be obtained by a perturbation method. A test of the new method was performed for a H 2 O-colled, D 2 O-moderated reactor. Comparison with direct calculation showed that this method is very accurate and efficient. (author) [pt
Advantages and Drawbacks of Applying Periodic Time-Variant Modal Analysis to Spur Gear Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Rune; Santos, Ilmar; Hede, Ivan Arthur
2010-01-01
to ensure sufficient accuracy of the results. The method of time-variant modal analysis is applied, and the changes in the fundamental and the parametric resonance frequencies as a function of the rotational speed of the gears, are found. By obtaining the stationary and parametric parts of the time...... of applying the methodology to wind turbine gearboxes are addressed and elucidated....
Applying multicriteria analysis for choosing the best marination for pork
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nieto VMOS
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. This research aimed to choose a best marination solution using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Materials and methods. Pork meat samples were collected in a commercial slaughterhouse, and they were randomly distributed in four treatments with three different salt contents blend. Color, pH, retention of the solution, exudate and cooking loss, shear force and sensory attributes were assessed and evaluated. Multicriteria analysis using AHP was applied to the results in order to choose the best overall marination solution. Criteria used for selection were the physical and sensory characteristics of meat, and based on these criteria were classified solutions marination. Results. Results showed that the combination of the salts was the best alternative (Na2CO3+NaCl+Na5P3O10, followed by the solutions of (Na2CO3 + NaCl, and (Na5P3O10 + NaCl. Conclusions. All tested solutions with the salts used alone or in combination led to better physical and sensory attributes than the meat not marinated.
Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan
2011-01-01
This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications.
DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis
Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise
2016-01-01
Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to soil analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Scapin Junior, Wilson Santo; Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Imakima, Kengo
1997-01-01
This paper studies the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to the soil analysis. A comparative study of the WD-XRFS and ED-XRFS techniques was carried out by using the following soil samples: SL-1, SOIL-7 and marine sediment SD-M-2/TM, from IAEA, and clay, JG-1a from Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ)
Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis
Poling, Alan
2010-01-01
Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…
B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis
Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.
2005-01-01
Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…
Applied Behavior Analysis: Current Myths in Public Education
Fielding, Cheryl; Lowdermilk, John; Lanier, Lauren L.; Fannin, Abigail G.; Schkade, Jennifer L.; Rose, Chad A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.
2013-01-01
The effective use of behavior management strategies and related policies continues to be a debated issue in public education. Despite overwhelming evidence espousing the benefits of the implementation of procedures derived from principles based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA), educators often indicate many common misconceptions…
Neutron activation analysis applied to energy and environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyon, W.S.
1975-01-01
Neutron activation analysis was applied to a number of problems concerned with energy production and the environment. Burning of fossil fuel, the search for new sources of uranium, possible presence of toxic elements in food and water, and the relationship of trace elements to cardiovascular disease are some of the problems in which neutron activation was used. (auth)
nuclear and atomic methods applied in the determination of some
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NAA is a quantitative and qualitative method for the precise determination of a number of major, minor and trace elements in different types of geological, environmental and biological samples. It is based on nuclear reaction between neutron and target nuclei of a sample material. It is a useful method for the simultaneous.
Instructions for applying inverse method for reactivity measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milosevic, M.
1988-11-01
This report is a brief description of the completed method for reactivity measurement. It contains description of the experimental procedure needed instrumentation and computer code IM for determining reactivity. The objective of this instructions manual is to enable experiments and reactivity measurement on any critical system according to the methods adopted at the RB reactor
The spectral volume method as applied to transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClarren, Ryan G.
2011-01-01
We present a new spatial discretization for transport problems: the spectral volume method. This method, rst developed by Wang for computational fluid dynamics, divides each computational cell into several sub-cells and enforces particle balance on each of these sub-cells. Also, these sub-cells are used to build a polynomial reconstruction in the cell. The idea of dividing cells into many cells is a generalization of the simple corner balance and other similar schemes. The spectral volume method preserves particle conservation and preserves the asymptotic diffusion limit. We present results from the method on two transport problems in slab geometry using discrete ordinates and second through sixth order spectral volume schemes. The numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and preservation of the diffusion limit of the spectral volume method. Future work will explore possible bene ts of the scheme for high-performance computing and for resolving diffusive boundary layers. (author)
Literature Review of Applying Visual Method to Understand Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Xiaojuan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As a new method to understand mathematics, visualization offers a new way of understanding mathematical principles and phenomena via image thinking and geometric explanation. It aims to deepen the understanding of the nature of concepts or phenomena and enhance the cognitive ability of learners. This paper collates and summarizes the application of this visual method in the understanding of mathematics. It also makes a literature review of the existing research, especially with a visual demonstration of Euler’s formula, introduces the application of this method in solving relevant mathematical problems, and points out the differences and similarities between the visualization method and the numerical-graphic combination method, as well as matters needing attention for its application.
Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Markiewicz
2013-06-01
Full Text Available One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The method was created as a result of implementing the project “Measuring performance in the Organization of the future” of 1990, completed by a team under the supervision of David Norton (Kaplan, Norton 2002. The developed method was used first of all to evaluate performance by decomposition of a strategy into four perspectives and identification of measures of achievement. In the middle of 1990s the method was improved by enriching it, first of all, with a strategy map, in which the process of transition of intangible assets into tangible financial effects is reflected (Kaplan, Norton 2001. Strategy map enables illustration of cause and effect relationship between processes in all four perspectives and performance indicators at the level of organization. The purpose of the study being prepared is to present methodical conditions of using strategy maps in the strategy implementation process in organizations of different nature.
Applying a life cycle approach to project management methods
Biggins, David; Trollsund, F.; Høiby, A.L.
2016-01-01
Project management is increasingly important to organisations because projects are the method\\ud by which organisations respond to their environment. A key element within project management\\ud is the standards and methods that are used to control and conduct projects, collectively known as\\ud project management methods (PMMs) and exemplified by PRINCE2, the Project Management\\ud Institute’s and the Association for Project Management’s Bodies of Knowledge (PMBOK and\\ud APMBOK. The purpose of t...
Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.
1975-01-01
An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)
A novel bi-level meta-analysis approach: applied to biological pathway analysis.
Nguyen, Tin; Tagett, Rebecca; Donato, Michele; Mitrea, Cristina; Draghici, Sorin
2016-02-01
The accumulation of high-throughput data in public repositories creates a pressing need for integrative analysis of multiple datasets from independent experiments. However, study heterogeneity, study bias, outliers and the lack of power of available methods present real challenge in integrating genomic data. One practical drawback of many P-value-based meta-analysis methods, including Fisher's, Stouffer's, minP and maxP, is that they are sensitive to outliers. Another drawback is that, because they perform just one statistical test for each individual experiment, they may not fully exploit the potentially large number of samples within each study. We propose a novel bi-level meta-analysis approach that employs the additive method and the Central Limit Theorem within each individual experiment and also across multiple experiments. We prove that the bi-level framework is robust against bias, less sensitive to outliers than other methods, and more sensitive to small changes in signal. For comparative analysis, we demonstrate that the intra-experiment analysis has more power than the equivalent statistical test performed on a single large experiment. For pathway analysis, we compare the proposed framework versus classical meta-analysis approaches (Fisher's, Stouffer's and the additive method) as well as against a dedicated pathway meta-analysis package (MetaPath), using 1252 samples from 21 datasets related to three human diseases, acute myeloid leukemia (9 datasets), type II diabetes (5 datasets) and Alzheimer's disease (7 datasets). Our framework outperforms its competitors to correctly identify pathways relevant to the phenotypes. The framework is sufficiently general to be applied to any type of statistical meta-analysis. The R scripts are available on demand from the authors. sorin@wayne.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e
The integral equation method applied to eddy currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biddlecombe, C.S.; Collie, C.J.; Simkin, J.; Trowbridge, C.W.
1976-04-01
An algorithm for the numerical solution of eddy current problems is described, based on the direct solution of the integral equation for the potentials. In this method only the conducting and iron regions need to be divided into elements, and there are no boundary conditions. Results from two computer programs using this method for iron free problems for various two-dimensional geometries are presented and compared with analytic solutions. (author)
Multivariate analysis methods in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolter, M.
2007-01-01
A review of multivariate methods based on statistical training is given. Several multivariate methods useful in high-energy physics analysis are discussed. Selected examples from current research in particle physics are discussed, both from the on-line trigger selection and from the off-line analysis. Also statistical training methods are presented and some new application are suggested [ru
Methods in algorithmic analysis
Dobrushkin, Vladimir A
2009-01-01
…helpful to any mathematics student who wishes to acquire a background in classical probability and analysis … This is a remarkably beautiful book that would be a pleasure for a student to read, or for a teacher to make into a year's course.-Harvey Cohn, Computing Reviews, May 2010
Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.
Kumar, Anant
2016-01-01
The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.
Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A
2012-01-01
Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.
Apply of torque method at rationalization of work
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bandurová Miriam
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Aim of the study was to analyse consumption of time for profession - cylinder grinder, by torque method.Method of torque following is used for detection of sorts and size of time slope, on detection of portion of individual sorts of time consumption and cause of time slope. By this way it is possible to find out coefficient of employment and recovery of workers in organizational unit. Advantage of torque survey is low costs on informations acquirement, non-fastidiousness per worker and observer, which is easy trained. It is mentally acceptable method for objects of survey.Finding and detection of reserves in activity of cylinders grinder result of torque was surveys. Loss of time presents till 8% of working time. In 5 - shift service and average occupiying of shift by 4,4 grinder ( from statistic information of service , loss at grinder of cylinders are for whole centre 1,48 worker.According presented information it was recommended to cancel one job place - grinder of cylinders - and reduce state about one grinder. Next job place isn't possible cancel, because grindery of cylinders must to adapt to the grind line by number of polished cylinders in shift and semi - finishing of polished cylinders can not be high for often changes in area of grinding and sortiment changes.By this contribution we confirmed convenience of exploitation of torque method as one of the methods using during the job rationalization.
Thermoluminescence as a dating method applied to the Morocco Neolithic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ousmoi, M.
1989-09-01
Thermoluminescence is an absolute dating method which is well adapted to the study of burnt clays and so of the prehistoric ceramics belonging to the Neolithic period. The purpose of this study is to establish a first absolute chronology of the septentrional morocco Neolithic between 3000 and 7000 years before us and some improvements of the TL dating. The first part of the thesis contains some hypothesis about the morocco Neolithic and some problems to solve. Then we study the TL dating method along with new process to ameliorate the quality of the results like the shift of quartz TL peaks or the crushing of samples. The methods which were employed using 24 samples belonging to various civilisations are: the quartz inclusion method and the fine grain technique. For the dosimetry, several methods were used: determination of the K 2 O contents, alpha counting, site dosimetry using TL dosimeters and a scintillation counter. The results which were found bring some interesting answers to the archeologic question and ameliorate the chronologic schema of the Northern morocco Neolithic: development of the old cardial Neolithic in the North, and perhaps in the center of Morocco (the region of Rabat), between 5500 and 7000 before us. Development of the recent middle Neolithic around 4000-5000 before us, with a protocampaniforme (Skhirat), little older than the campaniforme recognized in the south of Spain. Development of the bronze age around 2000-4000 before us [fr
Boron autoradiography method applied to the study of steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gugelmeier, R.; Barcelo, G.N.; Boado, J.H.; Fernandez, C.
1986-01-01
The boron state, contained in the steel microestructure, is determined. The autoradiography by neutrons is used, permiting to obtain boron distribution images by means of additional information which is difficult to acquire by other methods. The application of the method is described, based on the neutronic irradiation of a polished steel sample, over which a celulose nitrate sheet or other appropriate material is fixed to constitute the detector. The particles generated by the neutron-boron interaction affect the detector sheet, which is subsequently revealed with a chemical treatment and can be observed at the optical microscope. In the case of materials used for the construction of nuclear reactors, special attention must be given to the presence of boron, since owing to the exceptionaly high capacity of neutron absorption, lowest quantities of boron acquire importance. The adaption of the method to metallurgical problems allows the obtainment of a correlation between the boron distribution images and the material's microstructure. (M.E.L.) [es
Nonstandard Finite Difference Method Applied to a Linear Pharmacokinetics Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwaseun Egbelowo
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We extend the nonstandard finite difference method of solution to the study of pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic models. Pharmacokinetic (PK models are commonly used to predict drug concentrations that drive controlled intravenous (I.V. transfers (or infusion and oral transfers while pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD interaction models are used to provide predictions of drug concentrations affecting the response of these clinical drugs. We structure a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD scheme for the relevant system of equations which models this pharamcokinetic process. We compare the results obtained to standard methods. The scheme is dynamically consistent and reliable in replicating complex dynamic properties of the relevant continuous models for varying step sizes. This study provides assistance in understanding the long-term behavior of the drug in the system, and validation of the efficiency of the nonstandard finite difference scheme as the method of choice.
Efficient electronic structure methods applied to metal nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Ask Hjorth
of efficient approaches to density functional theory and the application of these methods to metal nanoparticles. We describe the formalism and implementation of localized atom-centered basis sets within the projector augmented wave method. Basis sets allow for a dramatic increase in performance compared....... The basis set method is used to study the electronic effects for the contiguous range of clusters up to several hundred atoms. The s-electrons hybridize to form electronic shells consistent with the jellium model, leading to electronic magic numbers for clusters with full shells. Large electronic gaps...... and jumps in Fermi level near magic numbers can lead to alkali-like or halogen-like behaviour when main-group atoms adsorb onto gold clusters. A non-self-consistent NewnsAnderson model is used to more closely study the chemisorption of main-group atoms on magic-number Au clusters. The behaviour at magic...
Variance reduction methods applied to deep-penetration problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cramer, S.N.
1984-01-01
All deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations require variance reduction methods. Before beginning with a detailed approach to these methods, several general comments concerning deep-penetration calculations by Monte Carlo, the associated variance reduction, and the similarities and differences of these with regard to non-deep-penetration problems will be addressed. The experienced practitioner of Monte Carlo methods will easily find exceptions to any of these generalities, but it is felt that these comments will aid the novice in understanding some of the basic ideas and nomenclature. Also, from a practical point of view, the discussions and developments presented are oriented toward use of the computer codes which are presented in segments of this Monte Carlo course
Non-perturbative methods applied to multiphoton ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.
1982-09-01
The use of non-perturbative methods in the treatment of atomic ionization is discussed. Particular attention is given to schemes of the type proposed by Keldysh where multiphoton ionization and tunnel auto-ionization occur for high intensity fields. These methods are shown to correspond to a certain type of expansion of the T-matrix in the intra-atomic potential; in this manner a criterium concerning the range of application of these non-perturbative schemes is suggested. A brief comparison between the ionization rate of atoms in the presence of linearly and circularly polarized light is presented. (Author) [pt
On second quantization methods applied to classical statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.
1984-01-01
A method of expressing statistical classical results in terms of mathematical entities usually associated to quantum field theoretical treatment of many particle systems (Fock space, commutators, field operators, state vector) is discussed. It is developed a linear response theory using the 'second quantized' Liouville equation introduced by Schonberg. The relationship of this method to that of Prigogine et al. is briefly analyzed. The chain of equations and the spectral representations for the new classical Green's functions are presented. Generalized operators defined on Fock space are discussed. It is shown that the correlation functions can be obtained from Green's functions defined with generalized operators. (Author) [pt
Review of PCMS and heat transfer enhancement methods applied ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Most available PCMs have low thermal conductivity making heat transfer enhancement necessary for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially - available PCMs are suitable in the ...
E-LEARNING METHOD APPLIED TO TECHNICAL GRAPHICS SUBJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GOANTA Adrian Mihai
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents some of the author’s endeavors in creating video courses for the students from the Faculty of Engineering in Braila related to subjects involving technical graphics . There are also mentioned the steps taken in completing the method and how to achieve a feedback on the rate of access to these types of courses by the students.
Applied Fourier analysis from signal processing to medical imaging
Olson, Tim
2017-01-01
The first of its kind, this focused textbook serves as a self-contained resource for teaching from scratch the fundamental mathematics of Fourier analysis and illustrating some of its most current, interesting applications, including medical imaging and radar processing. Developed by the author from extensive classroom teaching experience, it provides a breadth of theory that allows students to appreciate the utility of the subject, but at as accessible a depth as possible. With myriad applications included, this book can be adapted to a one or two semester course in Fourier Analysis or serve as the basis for independent study. Applied Fourier Analysis assumes no prior knowledge of analysis from its readers, and begins by making the transition from linear algebra to functional analysis. It goes on to cover basic Fourier series and Fourier transforms before delving into applications in sampling and interpolation theory, digital communications, radar processing, medical i maging, and heat and wave equations. Fo...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.
1995-01-01
The German official method L 06.00-37 (Para. 35 German Act on Food Irradiation) is used for the identification of irradiated fat-containing food by GC-analysis of radiation-induced hydrocarbons. Simple modifications in sample preparation allow a distinctive improvement in detection possibilities and detection limits as well. The applicability of the modified method for the detection of irradiated ingredients in model-like processed food is shown. An identification of only 3% (irradiated fat to total fat ratio) irradiated ingredient (1,5 kGy) in processed food was possible. Additionally, the kind of irradiated ingredient could be identified by the pattern of radiation induced hydrocarbons. Their concentrations are corresponding with the fatty acid composition of the irradiated compound. (orig.) [de
Probabilist methods applied to electric source problems in nuclear safety
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carnino, A.; Llory, M.
1979-01-01
Nuclear Safety has frequently been asked to quantify safety margins and evaluate the hazard. In order to do so, the probabilist methods have proved to be the most promising. Without completely replacing determinist safety, they are now commonly used at the reliability or availability stages of systems as well as for determining the likely accidental sequences. In this paper an application linked to the problem of electric sources is described, whilst at the same time indicating the methods used. This is the calculation of the probable loss of all the electric sources of a pressurized water nuclear power station, the evaluation of the reliability of diesels by event trees of failures and the determination of accidental sequences which could be brought about by the 'total electric source loss' initiator and affect the installation or the environment [fr
Theoretical and applied aerodynamics and related numerical methods
Chattot, J J
2015-01-01
This book covers classical and modern aerodynamics, theories and related numerical methods, for senior and first-year graduate engineering students, including: -The classical potential (incompressible) flow theories for low speed aerodynamics of thin airfoils and high and low aspect ratio wings. - The linearized theories for compressible subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics. - The nonlinear transonic small disturbance potential flow theory, including supercritical wing sections, the extended transonic area rule with lift effect, transonic lifting line and swept or oblique wings to minimize wave drag. Unsteady flow is also briefly discussed. Numerical simulations based on relaxation mixed-finite difference methods are presented and explained. - Boundary layer theory for all Mach number regimes and viscous/inviscid interaction procedures used in practical aerodynamics calculations. There are also four chapters covering special topics, including wind turbines and propellers, airplane design, flow analogies and h...
Applying probabilistic methods for assessments and calculations for accident prevention
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1984-01-01
The guidelines for the prevention of accidents require plant design-specific and radioecological calculations to be made in order to show that maximum acceptable expsoure values will not be exceeded in case of an accident. For this purpose, main parameters affecting the accident scenario have to be determined by probabilistic methods. This offers the advantage that parameters can be quantified on the basis of unambigious and realistic criteria, and final results can be defined in terms of conservativity. (DG) [de
Applying flow chemistry: methods, materials, and multistep synthesis.
McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H
2013-07-05
The synthesis of complex molecules requires control over both chemical reactivity and reaction conditions. While reactivity drives the majority of chemical discovery, advances in reaction condition control have accelerated method development/discovery. Recent tools include automated synthesizers and flow reactors. In this Synopsis, we describe how flow reactors have enabled chemical advances in our groups in the areas of single-stage reactions, materials synthesis, and multistep reactions. In each section, we detail the lessons learned and propose future directions.
Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl
2007-01-01
In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.
Comparison Study of Subspace Identification Methods Applied to Flexible Structures
Abdelghani, M.; Verhaegen, M.; Van Overschee, P.; De Moor, B.
1998-09-01
In the past few years, various time domain methods for identifying dynamic models of mechanical structures from modal experimental data have appeared. Much attention has been given recently to so-called subspace methods for identifying state space models. This paper presents a detailed comparison study of these subspace identification methods: the eigensystem realisation algorithm with observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters computed from input/output data (ERA/OM), the robust version of the numerical algorithm for subspace system identification (N4SID), and a refined version of the past outputs scheme of the multiple-output error state space (MOESP) family of algorithms. The comparison is performed by simulating experimental data using the five mode reduced model of the NASA Mini-Mast structure. The general conclusion is that for the case of white noise excitations as well as coloured noise excitations, the N4SID/MOESP algorithms perform equally well but give better results (improved transfer function estimates, improved estimates of the output) compared to the ERA/OM algorithm. The key computational step in the three algorithms is the approximation of the extended observability matrix of the system to be identified, for N4SID/MOESP, or of the observer for the system to be identified, for the ERA/OM. Furthermore, the three algorithms only require the specification of one dimensioning parameter.
Empirical modeling and data analysis for engineers and applied scientists
Pardo, Scott A
2016-01-01
This textbook teaches advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Engineering and Applied Sciences to gather and analyze empirical observations (data) in order to aid in making design decisions. While science is about discovery, the primary paradigm of engineering and "applied science" is design. Scientists are in the discovery business and want, in general, to understand the natural world rather than to alter it. In contrast, engineers and applied scientists design products, processes, and solutions to problems. That said, statistics, as a discipline, is mostly oriented toward the discovery paradigm. Young engineers come out of their degree programs having taken courses such as "Statistics for Engineers and Scientists" without any clear idea as to how they can use statistical methods to help them design products or processes. Many seem to think that statistics is only useful for demonstrating that a device or process actually does what it was designed to do. Statistics courses emphasize creati...
Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
AbdEl-Kader, A.A.; Al-Ashkar, E.A.
2005-01-01
Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils
STOCHASTIC METHODS IN RISK ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimíra OSADSKÁ
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we review basic stochastic methods which can be used to extend state-of-the-art deterministic analytical methods for risk analysis. We can conclude that the standard deterministic analytical methods highly depend on the practical experience and knowledge of the evaluator and therefore, the stochastic methods should be introduced. The new risk analysis methods should consider the uncertainties in input values. We present how large is the impact on the results of the analysis solving practical example of FMECA with uncertainties modelled using Monte Carlo sampling.
Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector
Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco
2017-07-01
Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.
Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alchalabi, R.M. [BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1996-12-31
The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.
The lumped heat capacity method applied to target heating
Rickards, J.
2013-01-01
The temperature of metal samples was measured while they were bombarded by the beam from the a particle accelerator. The evolution of the temperature with time can be explained using the lumped heat capacity method of heat transfer. A strong dependence on the type of mounting was found. Se midió la temperatura de muestras metálicas al ser bombardeadas por el haz de iones del Acelerador Pelletron del Instituto de Física. La evolución de la temperatura con el tiempo se puede explicar usando ...
Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C.
2010-01-01
The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)
Artificial Intelligence Methods Applied to Parameter Detection of Atrial Fibrillation
Arotaritei, D.; Rotariu, C.
2015-09-01
In this paper we present a novel method to develop an atrial fibrillation (AF) based on statistical descriptors and hybrid neuro-fuzzy and crisp system. The inference of system produce rules of type if-then-else that care extracted to construct a binary decision system: normal of atrial fibrillation. We use TPR (Turning Point Ratio), SE (Shannon Entropy) and RMSSD (Root Mean Square of Successive Differences) along with a new descriptor, Teager- Kaiser energy, in order to improve the accuracy of detection. The descriptors are calculated over a sliding window that produce very large number of vectors (massive dataset) used by classifier. The length of window is a crisp descriptor meanwhile the rest of descriptors are interval-valued type. The parameters of hybrid system are adapted using Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm with fitness single objective target: highest values for sensibility and sensitivity. The rules are extracted and they are part of the decision system. The proposed method was tested using the Physionet MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database and the experimental results revealed a good accuracy of AF detection in terms of sensitivity and specificity (above 90%).
Frequency domain methods applied to forecasting electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trapero, Juan R.; Pedregal, Diego J.
2009-01-01
The changes taking place in electricity markets during the last two decades have produced an increased interest in the problem of forecasting, either load demand or prices. Many forecasting methodologies are available in the literature nowadays with mixed conclusions about which method is most convenient. This paper focuses on the modeling of electricity market time series sampled hourly in order to produce short-term (1 to 24 h ahead) forecasts. The main features of the system are that (1) models are of an Unobserved Component class that allow for signal extraction of trend, diurnal, weekly and irregular components; (2) its application is automatic, in the sense that there is no need for human intervention via any sort of identification stage; (3) the models are estimated in the frequency domain; and (4) the robustness of the method makes possible its direct use on both load demand and price time series. The approach is thoroughly tested on the PJM interconnection market and the results improve on classical ARIMA models. (author)
Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles
Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz
2017-10-01
Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.
Applying DEA sensitivity analysis to efficiency measurement of Vietnamese universities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of 30 doctorate-granting universities, the universities or the higher education institutes with PhD training programs, in Vietnam, applying the sensitivity analysis of data envelopment analysis (DEA. The study uses eight sets of input-output specifications using the replacement as well as aggregation/disaggregation of variables. The measurement results allow us to examine the sensitivity of the efficiency of these universities with the sets of variables. The findings also show the impact of variables on their efficiency and its “sustainability”.
Applying Simulation Method in Formulation of Gluten-Free Cookies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikitina Marina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available At present time priority direction in the development of new food products its developing of technology products for special purposes. These types of products are gluten-free confectionery products, intended for people with celiac disease. Gluten-free products are in demand among consumers, it needs to expand assortment, and improvement of quality indicators. At this article results of studies on the development of pastry products based on amaranth flour does not contain gluten. Study based on method of simulation recipes gluten-free confectionery functional orientation to optimize their chemical composition. The resulting products will allow to diversify and supplement the necessary nutrients diet for people with gluten intolerance, as well as for those who follow a gluten-free diet.
A new deconvolution method applied to ultrasonic images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallard, J.
1999-01-01
This dissertation presents the development of a new method for restoration of ultrasonic signals. Our goal is to remove the perturbations induced by the ultrasonic probe and to help to characterize the defects due to a strong local discontinuity of the acoustic impedance. The point of view adopted consists in taking into account the physical properties in the signal processing to develop an algorithm which gives good results even on experimental data. The received ultrasonic signal is modeled as a convolution between a function that represents the waveform emitted by the transducer and a function that is abusively called the 'defect impulse response'. It is established that, in numerous cases, the ultrasonic signal can be expressed as a sum of weighted, phase-shifted replicas of a reference signal. Deconvolution is an ill-posed problem. A priori information must be taken into account to solve the problem. The a priori information translates the physical properties of the ultrasonic signals. The defect impulse response is modeled as a Double-Bernoulli-Gaussian sequence. Deconvolution becomes the problem of detection of the optimal Bernoulli sequence and estimation of the associated complex amplitudes. Optimal parameters of the sequence are those which maximize a likelihood function. We develop a new estimation procedure based on an optimization process. An adapted initialization procedure and an iterative algorithm enables to quickly process a huge number of data. Many experimental ultrasonic data that reflect usual control configurations have been processed and the results demonstrate the robustness of the method. Our algorithm enables not only to remove the waveform emitted by the transducer but also to estimate the phase. This parameter is useful for defect characterization. At last the algorithm makes easier data interpretation by concentrating information. So automatic characterization should be possible in the future. (author)
Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products
Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.
2016-12-01
Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.
Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.
Said, Nadia; Engelhart, Michael; Kirches, Christian; Körkel, Stefan; Holt, Daniel V
2016-01-01
Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods.
Simplified Methods Applied to Nonlinear Motion of Spar Platforms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haslum, Herbjoern Alf
2000-07-01
Simplified methods for prediction of motion response of spar platforms are presented. The methods are based on first and second order potential theory. Nonlinear drag loads and the effect of the pumping motion in a moon-pool are also considered. Large amplitude pitch motions coupled to extreme amplitude heave motions may arise when spar platforms are exposed to long period swell. The phenomenon is investigated theoretically and explained as a Mathieu instability. It is caused by nonlinear coupling effects between heave, surge, and pitch. It is shown that for a critical wave period, the envelope of the heave motion makes the pitch motion unstable. For the same wave period, a higher order pitch/heave coupling excites resonant heave response. This mutual interaction largely amplifies both the pitch and the heave response. As a result, the pitch/heave instability revealed in this work is more critical than the previously well known Mathieu's instability in pitch which occurs if the wave period (or the natural heave period) is half the natural pitch period. The Mathieu instability is demonstrated both by numerical simulations with a newly developed calculation tool and in model experiments. In order to learn more about the conditions for this instability to occur and also how it may be controlled, different damping configurations (heave damping disks and pitch/surge damping fins) are evaluated both in model experiments and by numerical simulations. With increased drag damping, larger wave amplitudes and more time are needed to trigger the instability. The pitch/heave instability is a low probability of occurrence phenomenon. Extreme wave periods are needed for the instability to be triggered, about 20 seconds for a typical 200m draft spar. However, it may be important to consider the phenomenon in design since the pitch/heave instability is very critical. It is also seen that when classical spar platforms (constant cylindrical cross section and about 200m draft
Variational methods applied to problems of diffusion and reaction
Strieder, William
1973-01-01
This monograph is an account of some problems involving diffusion or diffusion with simultaneous reaction that can be illuminated by the use of variational principles. It was written during a period that included sabbatical leaves of one of us (W. S. ) at the University of Minnesota and the other (R. A. ) at the University of Cambridge and we are grateful to the Petroleum Research Fund for helping to support the former and the Guggenheim Foundation for making possible the latter. We would also like to thank Stephen Prager for getting us together in the first place and for showing how interesting and useful these methods can be. We have also benefitted from correspondence with Dr. A. M. Arthurs of the University of York and from the counsel of Dr. B. D. Coleman the general editor of this series. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction and Preliminaries . 1. 1. General Survey 1 1. 2. Phenomenological Descriptions of Diffusion and Reaction 2 1. 3. Correlation Functions for Random Suspensions 4 1. 4. Mean Free ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Ohtomo, Keizo; Matsui, Jun; Matsuo, Toyofumi
2003-01-01
In order to develop an advanced verification method for earthquake resistant performance on reinforced concrete underground structures, the applicability of two different types of soil modeling methods in numerical analysis were verified through non-linear dynamic numerical simulations of the large shaking table tests conducted using the model comprised of free-field ground or soils and a reinforced concrete two-box culvert structure system. In these simulations, the structure was modeled by a beam type element having a tri-linear curve of the relations between curvature and flexural moment. The soil was modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood model as well as an elasto-plastic constitutive model. The former model only employs non-linearity of shear modulus regarding strain and initial stress conditions, whereas the latter can express non-linearity of shear modulus caused by changes of mean effective stress during ground excitation and dilatancy of ground soil. Therefore the elasto-plastic constitutive model could precisely simulate the vertical acceleration and displacement response on ground surface, which were produced by the soil dilations during a shaking event of a horizontal base input in the model tests. In addition, the model can explain distinctive dynamic earth pressure acting on the vertical walls of the structure which was also confirmed to be related to the soil dilations. However, since both these modeling methods could express the shear force on the upper slab surface of the model structure, which plays the predominant role on structural deformation, these modeling methods were applicable equally to the evaluation of seismic performance similar to the model structure of this study. (author)
Apply Functional Modelling to Consequence Analysis in Supervision Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Gola, Giulio
2013-01-01
This paper will first present the purpose and goals of applying functional modelling approach to consequence analysis by adopting Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM). MFM Models describe a complex system in multiple abstraction levels in both means-end dimension and whole-part dimension. It contains...... consequence analysis to practical or online applications in supervision systems. It will also suggest a multiagent solution as the integration architecture for developing tools to facilitate the utilization results of functional consequence analysis. Finally a prototype of the multiagent reasoning system...... causal relations between functions and goals. A rule base system can be developed to trace the causal relations and perform consequence propagations. This paper will illustrate how to use MFM for consequence reasoning by using rule base technology and describe the challenges for integrating functional...
Concept of spatial channel theory applied to reactor shielding analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.L.; Engle, W.W. Jr.
1977-01-01
The concept of channel theory is used to locate spatial regions that are important in contributing to a shielding response. The method is analogous to the channel-theory method developed for ascertaining important energy channels in cross-section analysis. The mathematical basis for the theory is shown to be the generalized reciprocity relation, and sample problems are given to exhibit and verify properties predicted by the mathematical equations. A practical example is cited from the shielding analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in which a perspective plot of channel-theory results was found useful in locating streaming paths around the reactor cavity shield
Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis
Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.
1991-01-01
This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.
Super-convergence of Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to the Navier-Stokes Equations
Atkins, Harold L.
2009-01-01
The practical benefits of the hyper-accuracy properties of the discontinuous Galerkin method are examined. In particular, we demonstrate that some flow attributes exhibit super-convergence even in the absence of any post-processing technique. Theoretical analysis suggest that flow features that are dominated by global propagation speeds and decay or growth rates should be super-convergent. Several discrete forms of the discontinuous Galerkin method are applied to the simulation of unsteady viscous flow over a two-dimensional cylinder. Convergence of the period of the naturally occurring oscillation is examined and shown to converge at 2p+1, where p is the polynomial degree of the discontinuous Galerkin basis. Comparisons are made between the different discretizations and with theoretical analysis.
Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.
1991-01-01
The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)
Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.
1973-01-01
The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...
Analysis apparatus and method of analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique
Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same
Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L
2015-04-28
Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.
Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heng Luo,
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.
Perturbative methods applied for sensitive coefficients calculations in thermal-hydraulic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade Lima, F.R. de
1993-01-01
The differential formalism and the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) are applied to sensitivity analysis of thermal-hydraulics problems related to pressurized water reactor cores. The equations describing the thermal-hydraulic behavior of these reactors cores, used in COBRA-IV-I code, are conveniently written. The importance function related to the response of interest and the sensitivity coefficient of this response with respect to various selected parameters are obtained by using Differential and Generalized Perturbation Theory. The comparison among the results obtained with the application of these perturbative methods and those obtained directly with the model developed in COBRA-IV-I code shows a very good agreement. (author)
Nonlinear programming analysis and methods
Avriel, Mordecai
2012-01-01
This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.
Chemical methods of rock analysis
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D
1981-01-01
A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Hori, Masato; Asou, Ryoji; Usuda, Shigekazu
2006-01-01
The multiscale statistical process control (MSSPC) method is applied to clarify the elements of material unaccounted for (MUF) in large scale reprocessing plants using numerical calculations. Continuous wavelet functions are used to decompose the process data, which simulate batch operation superimposed by various types of disturbance, and the disturbance components included in the data are divided into time and frequency spaces. The diagnosis of MSSPC is applied to distinguish abnormal events from the process data and shows how to detect abrupt and protracted diversions using principle component analysis. Quantitative performance of MSSPC for the time series data is shown with average run lengths given by Monte-Carlo simulation to compare to the non-detection probability β. Recent discussion about bias corrections in material balances is introduced and another approach is presented to evaluate MUF without assuming the measurement error model. (author)
The reduction method of statistic scale applied to study of climatic change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernal Suarez, Nestor Ricardo; Molina Lizcano, Alicia; Martinez Collantes, Jorge; Pabon Jose Daniel
2000-01-01
In climate change studies the global circulation models of the atmosphere (GCMAs) enable one to simulate the global climate, with the field variables being represented on a grid points 300 km apart. One particular interest concerns the simulation of possible changes in rainfall and surface air temperature due to an assumed increase of greenhouse gases. However, the models yield the climatic projections on grid points that in most cases do not correspond to the sites of major interest. To achieve local estimates of the climatological variables, methods like the one known as statistical down scaling are applied. In this article we show a case in point by applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to the Guajira Region in the northeast of Colombia
Condition Monitoring of a Process Filter Applying Wireless Vibration Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pekka KOSKELA
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wireless vibration-based method for monitoring the degree of feed filter clogging. In process industry, these filters are applied to prevent impurities entering the process. During operation, the filters gradually become clogged, decreasing the feed flow and, in the worst case, preventing it. The cleaning of the filter should therefore be carried out predictively in order to avoid equipment damage and unnecessary process downtime. The degree of clogging is estimated by first calculating the time domain indices from low frequency accelerometer samples and then taking the median of the processed values. Nine different statistical quantities are compared based on the estimation accuracy and criteria for operating in resource-constrained environments with particular focus on energy efficiency. The initial results show that the method is able to detect the degree of clogging, and the approach may be applicable to filter clogging monitoring.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SABOU FELICIA
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SABOU FELICIA
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huh, Jae Sung; Kwak, Byung Man
2011-01-01
Robust optimization or reliability-based design optimization are some of the methodologies that are employed to take into account the uncertainties of a system at the design stage. For applying such methodologies to solve industrial problems, accurate and efficient methods for estimating statistical moments and failure probability are required, and further, the results of sensitivity analysis, which is needed for searching direction during the optimization process, should also be accurate. The aim of this study is to employ the function approximation moment method into the sensitivity analysis formulation, which is expressed as an integral form, to verify the accuracy of the sensitivity results, and to solve a typical problem of reliability-based design optimization. These results are compared with those of other moment methods, and the feasibility of the function approximation moment method is verified. The sensitivity analysis formula with integral form is the efficient formulation for evaluating sensitivity because any additional function calculation is not needed provided the failure probability or statistical moments are calculated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica
2015-07-01
In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana
2015-01-01
In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)
Seismic design and analysis methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varpasuo, P.
1993-01-01
Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis during the past ten years. In this study there are three areas of the center of gravity: (1) Random vibrations; (2) Soil-structure interaction and (3) The methods for determining structural response. The solution of random vibration problems is clarified with the aid of applications in this study and from the point of view of mathematical treatment and mathematical formulations it is deemed sufficient to give the relevant sources. In the soil-structure interaction analysis the focus has been the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. As a result it was obtained, that the description of the soil with the aid of frequency dependent impedance functions decreases the structural response and it is thus always the preferred method when compared to more conservative analysis types. From the methods to determine the C structural response the following four were tested: (1) The time history method; (2) The complex frequency-response method; (3) Response spectrum method and (4) The equivalent static force method. The time history appeared to be the most accurate method and the complex frequency-response method did have the widest area of application. (orig.). (14 refs., 35 figs.)
A practical guide to propensity score analysis for applied clinical research.
Lee, Jaehoon; Little, Todd D
2017-11-01
Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances. We also offer a tutorial that can be used to emulate the steps of PS analysis. Our goal is to provide information that will bring PS analysis within the reach of applied clinical researchers and practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A strategy for evaluating pathway analysis methods.
Yu, Chenggang; Woo, Hyung Jun; Yu, Xueping; Oyama, Tatsuya; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques
2017-10-13
Researchers have previously developed a multitude of methods designed to identify biological pathways associated with specific clinical or experimental conditions of interest, with the aim of facilitating biological interpretation of high-throughput data. Before practically applying such pathway analysis (PA) methods, we must first evaluate their performance and reliability, using datasets where the pathways perturbed by the conditions of interest have been well characterized in advance. However, such 'ground truths' (or gold standards) are often unavailable. Furthermore, previous evaluation strategies that have focused on defining 'true answers' are unable to systematically and objectively assess PA methods under a wide range of conditions. In this work, we propose a novel strategy for evaluating PA methods independently of any gold standard, either established or assumed. The strategy involves the use of two mutually complementary metrics, recall and discrimination. Recall measures the consistency of the perturbed pathways identified by applying a particular analysis method to an original large dataset and those identified by the same method to a sub-dataset of the original dataset. In contrast, discrimination measures specificity-the degree to which the perturbed pathways identified by a particular method to a dataset from one experiment differ from those identifying by the same method to a dataset from a different experiment. We used these metrics and 24 datasets to evaluate six widely used PA methods. The results highlighted the common challenge in reliably identifying significant pathways from small datasets. Importantly, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed dual-metric strategy by showing that previous comparative studies corroborate the performance evaluations of the six methods obtained by our strategy. Unlike any previously proposed strategy for evaluating the performance of PA methods, our dual-metric strategy does not rely on any ground truth
CARVEDILOL POPULATION PHARMACOKINETIC ANALYSIS – APPLIED VALIDATION PROCEDURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandra Catić-Đorđević
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Carvedilol is a nonselective beta blocker/alpha-1 blocker, which is used for treatment of essential hypertension, chronic stable angina, unstable angina and ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to describe carvedilol population pharmacokinetic (PK analysis as well as the validation of analytical procedure, which is an important step regarding this approach. In contemporary clinical practice, population PK analysis is often more important than standard PK approach in setting a mathematical model that describes the PK parameters. Also, it includes the variables that have particular importance in the drugs pharmacokinetics such as sex, body mass, dosage, pharmaceutical form, pathophysiological state, disease associated with the organism or the presence of a specific polymorphism in the isoenzyme important for biotransformation of the drug. One of the most frequently used approach in population PK analysis is the Nonlinear Modeling of Mixed Effects - NONMEM modeling. Analytical methods used in the data collection period is of great importance for the implementation of a population PK analysis of carvedilol in order to obtain reliable data that can be useful in clinical practice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of carvedilol is used to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the efficacy of the therapy. Analytical procedures used in other studies could not be fully implemented in our research as it was necessary to perform certain modification and validation of the method with the aim of using the obtained results for the purpose of a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Validation process is a logical terminal phase of analytical procedure development that provides applicability of the procedure itself. The goal of validation is to ensure consistency of the method and accuracy of results or to confirm the selection of analytical method for a given sample
Applying causal mediation analysis to personality disorder research.
Walters, Glenn D
2018-01-01
This article is designed to address fundamental issues in the application of causal mediation analysis to research on personality disorders. Causal mediation analysis is used to identify mechanisms of effect by testing variables as putative links between the independent and dependent variables. As such, it would appear to have relevance to personality disorder research. It is argued that proper implementation of causal mediation analysis requires that investigators take several factors into account. These factors are discussed under 5 headings: variable selection, model specification, significance evaluation, effect size estimation, and sensitivity testing. First, care must be taken when selecting the independent, dependent, mediator, and control variables for a mediation analysis. Some variables make better mediators than others and all variables should be based on reasonably reliable indicators. Second, the mediation model needs to be properly specified. This requires that the data for the analysis be prospectively or historically ordered and possess proper causal direction. Third, it is imperative that the significance of the identified pathways be established, preferably with a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach. Fourth, effect size estimates should be computed or competing pathways compared. Finally, investigators employing the mediation method are advised to perform a sensitivity analysis. Additional topics covered in this article include parallel and serial multiple mediation designs, moderation, and the relationship between mediation and moderation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Should methods of correction for multiple comparisons be applied in pharmacovigilance?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenza Scotti
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. In pharmacovigilance, spontaneous reporting databases are devoted to the early detection of adverse event ‘signals’ of marketed drugs. A common limitation of these systems is the wide number of concurrently investigated associations, implying a high probability of generating positive signals simply by chance. However it is not clear if the application of methods aimed to adjust for the multiple testing problems are needed when at least some of the drug-outcome relationship under study are known. To this aim we applied a robust estimation method for the FDR (rFDR particularly suitable in the pharmacovigilance context. Methods. We exploited the data available for the SAFEGUARD project to apply the rFDR estimation methods to detect potential false positive signals of adverse reactions attributable to the use of non-insulin blood glucose lowering drugs. Specifically, the number of signals generated from the conventional disproportionality measures and after the application of the rFDR adjustment method was compared. Results. Among the 311 evaluable pairs (i.e., drug-event pairs with at least one adverse event report, 106 (34% signals were considered as significant from the conventional analysis. Among them 1 resulted in false positive signals according to rFDR method. Conclusions. The results of this study seem to suggest that when a restricted number of drug-outcome pairs is considered and warnings about some of them are known, multiple comparisons methods for recognizing false positive signals are not so useful as suggested by theoretical considerations.
Applying Authentic Data Analysis in Learning Earth Atmosphere
Johan, H.; Suhandi, A.; Samsudin, A.; Wulan, A. R.
2017-09-01
The aim of this research was to develop earth science learning material especially earth atmosphere supported by science research with authentic data analysis to enhance reasoning through. Various earth and space science phenomenon require reasoning. This research used experimental research with one group pre test-post test design. 23 pre-service physics teacher participated in this research. Essay test was conducted to get data about reason ability. Essay test was analyzed quantitatively. Observation sheet was used to capture phenomena during learning process. The results showed that student’s reasoning ability improved from unidentified and no reasoning to evidence based reasoning and inductive/deductive rule-based reasoning. Authentic data was considered using Grid Analysis Display System (GrADS). Visualization from GrADS facilitated students to correlate the concepts and bring out real condition of nature in classroom activity. It also helped student to reason the phenomena related to earth and space science concept. It can be concluded that applying authentic data analysis in learning process can help to enhance students reasoning. This study is expected to help lecture to bring out result of geoscience research in learning process and facilitate student understand concepts.
A Study in the Founding of Applied Behavior Analysis Through Its Publications
Morris, Edward K.; Altus, Deborah E.; Smith, Nathaniel G.
2013-01-01
This article reports a study of the founding of applied behavior analysis through its publications. Our methods included hand searches of sources (e.g., journals, reference lists), search terms (i.e., early, applied, behavioral, research, literature), inclusion criteria (e.g., the field's applied dimension), and (d) challenges to their face and content validity. Our results were 36 articles published between 1959 and 1967 that we organized into 4 groups: 12 in 3 programs of research and 24 others. Our discussion addresses (a) limitations in our method (e.g., the completeness of our search), (b) challenges to the validity of our methods and results (e.g., convergent validity), and (c) priority claims about the field's founding. We conclude that the claims are irresolvable because identification of the founding publications depends significantly on methods and because the field's founding was an evolutionary process. We close with suggestions for future research. PMID:25729133
A study in the founding of applied behavior analysis through its publications.
Morris, Edward K; Altus, Deborah E; Smith, Nathaniel G
2013-01-01
This article reports a study of the founding of applied behavior analysis through its publications. Our methods included hand searches of sources (e.g., journals, reference lists), search terms (i.e., early, applied, behavioral, research, literature), inclusion criteria (e.g., the field's applied dimension), and (d) challenges to their face and content validity. Our results were 36 articles published between 1959 and 1967 that we organized into 4 groups: 12 in 3 programs of research and 24 others. Our discussion addresses (a) limitations in our method (e.g., the completeness of our search), (b) challenges to the validity of our methods and results (e.g., convergent validity), and (c) priority claims about the field's founding. We conclude that the claims are irresolvable because identification of the founding publications depends significantly on methods and because the field's founding was an evolutionary process. We close with suggestions for future research.
Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd, Christopher James
1997-01-01
Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO 2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion
Performance analysis of numeric solutions applied to biokinetics of radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mingatos, Danielle dos Santos; Bevilacqua, Joyce da Silva
2013-01-01
Biokinetics models for radionuclides applied to dosimetry problems are constantly reviewed by ICRP. The radionuclide trajectory could be represented by compartmental models, assuming constant transfer rates between compartments. A better understanding of physiological or biochemical phenomena, improve the comprehension of radionuclide behavior in the human body and, in general, more complex compartmental models are proposed, increasing the difficulty of obtaining the analytical solution for the system of first order differential equations. Even with constant transfer rates numerical solutions must be carefully implemented because of almost singular characteristic of the matrix of coefficients. In this work we compare numerical methods with different strategies for ICRP-78 models for Thorium-228 and Uranium-234. The impact of uncertainty in the parameters of the equations is also estimated for local and global truncation errors. (author)
Machine Learning Methods for Production Cases Analysis
Mokrova, Nataliya V.; Mokrov, Alexander M.; Safonova, Alexandra V.; Vishnyakov, Igor V.
2018-03-01
Approach to analysis of events occurring during the production process were proposed. Described machine learning system is able to solve classification tasks related to production control and hazard identification at an early stage. Descriptors of the internal production network data were used for training and testing of applied models. k-Nearest Neighbors and Random forest methods were used to illustrate and analyze proposed solution. The quality of the developed classifiers was estimated using standard statistical metrics, such as precision, recall and accuracy.
An input feature selection method applied to fuzzy neural networks for signal esitmation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok
2001-01-01
It is well known that the performance of a fuzzy neural networks strongly depends on the input features selected for its training. In its applications to sensor signal estimation, there are a large number of input variables related with an output. As the number of input variables increases, the training time of fuzzy neural networks required increases exponentially. Thus, it is essential to reduce the number of inputs to a fuzzy neural networks and to select the optimum number of mutually independent inputs that are able to clearly define the input-output mapping. In this work, principal component analysis (PAC), genetic algorithms (GA) and probability theory are combined to select new important input features. A proposed feature selection method is applied to the signal estimation of the steam generator water level, the hot-leg flowrate, the pressurizer water level and the pressurizer pressure sensors in pressurized water reactors and compared with other input feature selection methods
Resonating group method as applied to the spectroscopy of α-transfer reactions
Subbotin, V. B.; Semjonov, V. M.; Gridnev, K. A.; Hefter, E. F.
1983-10-01
In the conventional approach to α-transfer reactions the finite- and/or zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is used in liaison with a macroscopic description of the captured α particle in the residual nucleus. Here the specific example of 16O(6Li,d)20Ne reactions at different projectile energies is taken to present a microscopic resonating group method analysis of the α particle in the final nucleus (for the reaction part the simple zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is employed). In the discussion of suitable nucleon-nucleon interactions, force number one of the effective interactions presented by Volkov is shown to be most appropriate for the system considered. Application of the continuous analog of Newton's method to the evaluation of the resonating group method equations yields an increased accuracy with respect to traditional methods. The resonating group method description induces only minor changes in the structures of the angular distributions, but it does serve its purpose in yielding reliable and consistent spectroscopic information. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 16O(6Li,d)20Ne; E=20 to 32 MeV; calculated B(E2); reduced widths, dσdΩ extracted α-spectroscopic factors. ZRDWBA with microscope RGM description of residual α particle in 20Ne; application of continuous analog of Newton's method; tested and applied Volkov force No. 1; direct mechanism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, A.
1979-01-01
Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)
Application of Software Safety Analysis Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, G. Y.; Hur, S.; Cheon, S. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, S. J.; Koo, Y. H.
2009-01-01
A fully digitalized reactor protection system, which is called the IDiPS-RPS, was developed through the KNICS project. The IDiPS-RPS has four redundant and separated channels. Each channel is mainly composed of a group of bistable processors which redundantly compare process variables with their corresponding setpoints and a group of coincidence processors that generate a final trip signal when a trip condition is satisfied. Each channel also contains a test processor called the ATIP and a display and command processor called the COM. All the functions were implemented in software. During the development of the safety software, various software safety analysis methods were applied, in parallel to the verification and validation (V and V) activities, along the software development life cycle. The software safety analysis methods employed were the software hazard and operability (Software HAZOP) study, the software fault tree analysis (Software FTA), and the software failure modes and effects analysis (Software FMEA)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.
2002-07-01
These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.
2002-01-01
These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics
Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haaland, D.M.
1991-01-01
Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.
Raies, Arwa B.
2017-12-05
One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds\\' features may improve model\\'s performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.
Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.
2017-01-01
One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds' features may improve model's performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.
Applying Conjoint Analysis to Study Attitudes of Thai Government Organisations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natee Suriyanon
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This article presents the application of choice-based conjointanalysis to analyse the attitude of Thai government organisationstowards the restriction of the contractor’s right to claimcompensation for unfavourable effects from undesirable events.The analysis reveals that the organisations want to restrict only 6out of 14 types of the claiming rights that were studied. The rightthat they want to restrict most is the right to claim for additionaldirect costs due to force majeure. They are willing to pay between0.087% - 0.210% of the total project direct cost for restricting eachtype of contractor right. The total additional cost for restrictingall six types of rights that the organisations are willing to pay is0.882%. The last section of this article applies the knowledgegained from a choice based conjoint analysis experiment to theanalysis of the standard contract of the Thai government. Theanalysis reveals three types of rights where Thai governmentorganisations are willing to forego restrictions, but the presentstandard contract does not grant such rights.
Applying reliability centered maintenance analysis principles to inservice testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flude, J.W.
1994-01-01
Federal regulations require nuclear power plants to use inservice test (IST) programs to ensure the operability of safety-related equipment. IST programs are based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Many of these plants also use Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to optimize system maintenance. ASME Code requirements are hard to change. The process for requesting authority to use an alternate strategy is long and expensive. The difficulties of obtaining this authority make the use of RCM method on safety-related systems not cost effective. An ASME research task force on Risk Based Inservice Testing is investigating changing the Code. The change will allow plants to apply RCM methods to the problem of maintenance strategy selection for safety-related systems. The research task force is working closely with the Codes and Standards sections to develop a process related to the RCM process. Some day plants will be able to use this process to develop more efficient and safer maintenance strategies
Prompt gamma cold neutron activation analysis applied to biological materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossbach, M.; Hiep, N.T.
1992-01-01
Cold neutrons at the external neutron guide laboratory (ELLA) of the KFA Juelich are used to demonstrate their profitable application for multielement characterization of biological materials. The set-up and experimental conditions of the Prompt Gamma Cold Neutron Activation Analysis (PGCNAA) device is described in detail. Results for C, H, N, S, K, B, and Cd using synthetic standards and the 'ratio' technique for calculation are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable and complementary with respect to the elements being determined by INAA. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rekik, W.; Ketata, I.; Sellami, L.; Ben slima, M.; Ben Hamida, A.; Chtourou, K.; Ruan, S.
2011-01-01
This paper aims to explore the factor analysis when applied to a dynamic sequence of medical images obtained using nuclear imaging modality, Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This latter modality allows obtaining information on physiological phenomena, through the examination of radiotracer evolution during time. Factor analysis of dynamic medical images sequence (FADMIS) estimates the underlying fundamental spatial distributions by factor images and the associated so-called fundamental functions (describing the signal variations) by factors. This method is based on an orthogonal analysis followed by an oblique analysis. The results of the FADMIS are physiological curves showing the evolution during time of radiotracer within homogeneous tissues distributions. This functional analysis of dynamic nuclear medical images is considered to be very efficient for cancer diagnostics. In fact, it could be applied for cancer characterization, vascularization as well as possible evaluation of response to therapy.
The Evidence-Based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Slocum, Timothy A; Detrich, Ronnie; Wilczynski, Susan M; Spencer, Trina D; Lewis, Teri; Wolfe, Katie
2014-05-01
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a model of professional decision-making in which practitioners integrate the best available evidence with client values/context and clinical expertise in order to provide services for their clients. This framework provides behavior analysts with a structure for pervasive use of the best available evidence in the complex settings in which they work. This structure recognizes the need for clear and explicit understanding of the strength of evidence supporting intervention options, the important contextual factors including client values that contribute to decision making, and the key role of clinical expertise in the conceptualization, intervention, and evaluation of cases. Opening the discussion of EBP in this journal, Smith (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) raised several key issues related to EBP and applied behavior analysis (ABA). The purpose of this paper is to respond to Smith's arguments and extend the discussion of the relevant issues. Although we support many of Smith's (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) points, we contend that Smith's definition of EBP is significantly narrower than definitions that are used in professions with long histories of EBP and that this narrowness conflicts with the principles that drive applied behavior analytic practice. We offer a definition and framework for EBP that aligns with the foundations of ABA and is consistent with well-established definitions of EBP in medicine, psychology, and other professions. In addition to supporting the systematic use of research evidence in behavior analytic decision making, this definition can promote clear communication about treatment decisions across disciplines and with important outside institutions such as insurance companies and granting agencies.
Brezina, Tadej; Graser, Anita; Leth, Ulrich
2017-04-01
Space, and in particular public space for movement and leisure, is a valuable and scarce resource, especially in today's growing urban centres. The distribution and absolute amount of urban space—especially the provision of sufficient pedestrian areas, such as sidewalks—is considered crucial for shaping living and mobility options as well as transport choices. Ubiquitous urban data collection and today's IT capabilities offer new possibilities for providing a relation-preserving overview and for keeping track of infrastructure changes. This paper presents three novel methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths and applies them to the official Viennese streetscape surface database. The first two methods use individual pedestrian area polygons and their geometrical representations of minimum circumscribing and maximum inscribing circles to derive a representative width of these individual surfaces. The third method utilizes aggregated pedestrian areas within the buffered street axis and results in a representative width for the corresponding road axis segment. Results are displayed as city-wide means in a 500 by 500 m grid and spatial autocorrelation based on Moran's I is studied. We also compare the results between methods as well as to previous research, existing databases and guideline requirements on sidewalk widths. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these methods for monitoring and regression analysis and suggest future methodological improvements for increased accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismael de Moura Costa
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.
Complex Method Mixed with PSO Applying to Optimization Design of Bridge Crane Girder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Yan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In engineer design, basic complex method has not enough global search ability for the nonlinear optimization problem, so it mixed with particle swarm optimization (PSO has been presented in the paper,that is the optimal particle evaluated from fitness function of particle swarm displacement complex vertex in order to realize optimal principle of the largest complex central distance.This method is applied to optimization design problems of box girder of bridge crane with constraint conditions.At first a mathematical model of the girder optimization has been set up,in which box girder cross section area of bridge crane is taken as the objective function, and its four sizes parameters as design variables, girder mechanics performance, manufacturing process, border sizes and so on requirements as constraint conditions. Then complex method mixed with PSO is used to solve optimization design problem of cane box girder from constrained optimization studying approach, and its optimal results have achieved the goal of lightweight design and reducing the crane manufacturing cost . The method is reliable, practical and efficient by the practical engineer calculation and comparative analysis with basic complex method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, D.B.
1985-01-01
In the first half of 1984 a feasibility study was carried out with respect to the CSNI of the OECD/NEA inventory of methods for the analysis and evaluation of human factors in the control room of nuclear power plants. In order to enable an analysis of the methods to be made, an elementary categorization of the methods under field studies, laboratory studies and theoretical studies was performed. A further differentiation of these categories was used as the basis for a critical analysis and interpretation of the methods employed in the research plan. In the following sections, an explanation is given of the method categories used and the plans included in the investigation. A short representation is given of the breakdown of the applied methods into categories and an analysis is made of the results. Implications for research programs are discussed. (orig./GL) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pirkle, F.L.; Stablein, N.K.; Howell, J.A.; Wecksung, G.W.; Duran, B.S.
1982-11-01
One objective of the aerial radiometric surveys flown as part of the US Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was to ascertain the regional distribution of near-surface radioelement abundances. Some method for identifying groups of observations with similar radioelement values was therefore required. It is shown in this report that cluster analysis can identify such groups even when no a priori knowledge of the geology of an area exists. A method of convergent k-means cluster analysis coupled with a hierarchical cluster analysis is used to classify 6991 observations (three radiometric variables at each observation location) from the Precambrian rocks of the Copper Mountain, Wyoming, area. Another method, one that combines a principal components analysis with a convergent k-means analysis, is applied to the same data. These two methods are compared with a convergent k-means analysis that utilizes available geologic knowledge. All three methods identify four clusters. Three of the clusters represent background values for the Precambrian rocks of the area, and one represents outliers (anomalously high 214 Bi). A segmentation of the data corresponding to geologic reality as discovered by other methods has been achieved based solely on analysis of aerial radiometric data. The techniques employed are composites of classical clustering methods designed to handle the special problems presented by large data sets. 20 figures, 7 tables
Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis
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Árpád Gyéresi
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.
Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.
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Nadia Said
Full Text Available Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. D. Kliukvin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available There is theoretically investigated the influence of thermal dependence of air thermophysical properties on accuracy of heat transfer problems solution in a turbulent flow when using different methods of averaging the Navier-Stokes equations.There is analyzed the practicability of using particular method of averaging the NavierStokes equations when it’s necessary to clarify the solution of heat transfer problem taking into account the variability of air thermophysical properties.It’s shown that Reynolds and Favre averaging (the most common methods of averaging the Navier-Stokes equations are not effective in this case because these methods inaccurately describe behavior of large scale turbulent structures which strongly depends on geometry of particular flow. Thus it’s necessary to use more universal methods of turbulent flow simulation which are not based on averaging of all turbulent scales.In the article it’s shown that instead of Reynold and Favre averaging it’s possible to use large eddy simulation whereby turbulent structures are divided into small-scale and large-scale ones with subsequent modelling of small-scale ones only. But this approach leads to the necessarity of increasing the computational power by 2-3 orders.For different methods of averaging the form of additional terms of averaged Navier-Stokes equations in case of accounting pulsation of thermophysical properties of the air is obtained.On the example of a submerged heated air jet the errors (which occur when neglecting the thermal dependence of air thermophysical properties on averaged flow temperature in determination of convectional and conductive components of heat flux and viscous stresses are evaluated. It’s shown that the greatest increase of solution accuracy can be obtained in case of the flows with high temperature gradients.Finally using infinite Teylor series it’s found that underestimation of convective and conductive components of heat flux and
Common cause evaluations in applied risk analysis of nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taniguchi, T.; Ligon, D.; Stamatelatos, M.
1983-04-01
Qualitative and quantitative approaches were developed for the evaluation of common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants and were applied to the analysis of the auxiliary feedwater systems of several pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Key CCF variables were identified through a survey of experts in the field and a review of failure experience in operating PWRs. These variables were classified into categories of high, medium, and low defense against a CCF. Based on the results, a checklist was developed for analyzing CCFs of systems. Several known techniques for quantifying CCFs were also reviewed. The information provided valuable insights in the development of a new model for estimating CCF probabilities, which is an extension of and improvement over the Beta Factor method. As applied to the analysis of the PWR auxiliary feedwater systems, the method yielded much more realistic values than the original Beta Factor method for a one-out-of-three system
To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.
von Hippel, Ted; von Hippel, Courtney
2015-01-01
We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.
To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ted von Hippel
Full Text Available We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.
System Sensitivity Analysis Applied to the Conceptual Design of a Dual-Fuel Rocket SSTO
Olds, John R.
1994-01-01
This paper reports the results of initial efforts to apply the System Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) optimization method to the conceptual design of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle. SSA is an efficient, calculus-based MDO technique for generating sensitivity derivatives in a highly multidisciplinary design environment. The method has been successfully applied to conceptual aircraft design and has been proven to have advantages over traditional direct optimization methods. The method is applied to the optimization of an advanced, piloted SSTO design similar to vehicles currently being analyzed by NASA as possible replacements for the Space Shuttle. Powered by a derivative of the Russian RD-701 rocket engine, the vehicle employs a combination of hydrocarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen propellants. Three primary disciplines are included in the design - propulsion, performance, and weights & sizing. A complete, converged vehicle analysis depends on the use of three standalone conceptual analysis computer codes. Efforts to minimize vehicle dry (empty) weight are reported in this paper. The problem consists of six system-level design variables and one system-level constraint. Using SSA in a 'manual' fashion to generate gradient information, six system-level iterations were performed from each of two different starting points. The results showed a good pattern of convergence for both starting points. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the method, possible areas of improvement, and future work is included.
Applied genre analysis: a multi-perspective model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vijay K Bhatia
2002-04-01
Full Text Available Genre analysis can be viewed from two different perspectives: it may be seen as a reflection of the complex realities of the world of institutionalised communication, or it may be seen as a pedagogically effective and convenient tool for the design of language teaching programmes, often situated within simulated contexts of classroom activities. This paper makes an attempt to understand and resolve the tension between these two seemingly contentious perspectives to answer the question: "Is generic description a reflection of reality, or a convenient fiction invented by applied linguists?". The paper also discusses issues related to the nature and use of linguistic description in a genre-based educational enterprise, claiming that instead of using generic descriptions as models for linguistic reproduction of conventional forms to respond to recurring social contexts, as is often the case in many communication based curriculum contexts, they can be used as analytical resource to understand and manipulate complex inter-generic and multicultural realisations of professional discourse, which will enable learners to use generic knowledge to respond to novel social contexts and also to create new forms of discourse to achieve pragmatic success as well as other powerful human agendas.
SUCCESS CONCEPT ANALYSIS APPLIED TO THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cassio C. Montenegro Duarte
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This study evaluates the concept of success in project management that is applicable to the IT universe, from the classical theory associated with the techniques of project management. Therefore, it applies the theoretical analysis associated to the context of information technology in enterprises as well as the classic literature of traditional project management, focusing on its application in business information technology. From the literature developed in the first part of the study, four propositions were prepared for study which formed the basis for the development of the field research with three large companies that develop projects of Information Technology. The methodology used in the study predicted the development of the multiple case study. Empirical evidence suggests that the concept of success found in the classical literature in project management adjusts to the environment management of IT projects. Showed that it is possible to create the model of standard IT projects in order to replicate it in future derivatives projects, which depends on the learning acquired at the end of a long and continuous process and sponsorship of senior management, which ultimately results in its merger into the company culture.
Applying importance-performance analysis to patient safety culture.
Lee, Yii-Ching; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Weng, Shao-Jen; Hsieh, Liang-Po; Huang, Chih-Hsuan
2015-01-01
The Sexton et al.'s (2006) safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) has been widely used to assess staff's attitudes towards patient safety in healthcare organizations. However, to date there have been few studies that discuss the perceptions of patient safety both from hospital staff and upper management. The purpose of this paper is to improve and to develop better strategies regarding patient safety in healthcare organizations. The Chinese version of SAQ based on the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation is used to evaluate the perceptions of hospital staff. The current study then lies in applying importance-performance analysis technique to identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the safety culture. The results show that teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition and working conditions are major strengths and should be maintained in order to provide a better patient safety culture. On the contrary, perceptions of management and hospital handoffs and transitions are important weaknesses and should be improved immediately. Research limitations/implications - The research is restricted in generalizability. The assessment of hospital staff in patient safety culture is physicians and registered nurses. It would be interesting to further evaluate other staff's (e.g. technicians, pharmacists and others) opinions regarding patient safety culture in the hospital. Few studies have clearly evaluated the perceptions of healthcare organization management regarding patient safety culture. Healthcare managers enable to take more effective actions to improve the level of patient safety by investigating key characteristics (either strengths or weaknesses) that healthcare organizations should focus on.
Su, Hailin; Li, Hengde; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yangfan; Bao, Zhenmin
2017-02-01
Genomic selection is more and more popular in animal and plant breeding industries all around the world, as it can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. The objective of this study was to bring the advantages of genomic selection to scallop breeding. Two different genomic selection tools MixP and gsbay were applied on genomic evaluation of simulated data and Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) field data. The data were compared with genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) method which has been applied widely. Our results showed that both MixP and gsbay could accurately estimate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, and thereby could be applied for the analysis of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV). In simulated data from different scenarios, the accuracy of GEBV acquired was ranged from 0.20 to 0.78 by MixP; it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.67 by gsbay; and it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.61 by GBLUP. Estimations made by MixP and gsbay were expected to be more reliable than those estimated by GBLUP. Predictions made by gsbay were more robust, while with MixP the computation is much faster, especially in dealing with large-scale data. These results suggested that both algorithms implemented by MixP and gsbay are feasible to carry out genomic selection in scallop breeding, and more genotype data will be necessary to produce genomic estimated breeding values with a higher accuracy for the industry.
Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, D D; Bailey, G; Martin, J; Garton, D; Noorman, H; Stelcer, E; Johnson, P [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
1994-12-31
Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.
Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)
1993-12-31
Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.
Pair distribution function analysis applied to decahedral gold nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakotte, H; Silkwood, C; Kiefer, B; Karpov, D; Fohtung, E; Page, K; Wang, H-W; Olds, D; Manna, S; Fullerton, E E
2017-01-01
The five-fold symmetry of face-centered cubic (fcc) derived nanoparticles is inconsistent with the translational symmetry of a Bravais lattice and generally explained by multiple twinning of a tetrahedral subunit about a (joint) symmetry axis, with or without structural modification to the fcc motif. Unlike in bulk materials, five-fold twinning in cubic nanoparticles is common and strongly affects their structural, chemical, and electronic properties. To test and verify theoretical approaches, it is therefore pertinent that the local structural features of such materials can be fully characterized. The small size of nanoparticles severely limits the application of traditional analysis techniques, such as Bragg diffraction. A complete description of the atomic arrangement in nanoparticles therefore requires a departure from the concept of translational symmetry, and prevents fully evaluating all the structural features experimentally. We describe how recent advances in instrumentation, together with the increasing power of computing, are shaping the development of alternative analysis methods of scattering data for nanostructures. We present the application of Debye scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis towards modeling of the total scattering data for the example of decahedral gold nanoparticles. PDF measurements provide a statistical description of the pair correlations of atoms within a material, allowing one to evaluate the probability of finding two atoms within a given distance. We explored the sensitivity of existing synchrotron x-ray PDF instruments for distinguishing four different simple models for our gold nanoparticles: a multiply twinned fcc decahedron with either a single gap or multiple distributed gaps, a relaxed body-centered orthorhombic (bco) decahedron, and a hybrid decahedron. The data simulations of the models were then compared with experimental data from synchrotron x-ray total scattering. We present our experimentally
The x-rays fluorescence applied to the analysis of alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez, D.A.
1997-01-01
This work is based on the utilization of the Fluorescence of X Rays. This technique of non destructive trial, has the purpose to establish a routine method, for the control of the conformation of industrial samples used. It makes an analysis with a combination of the algorithms of Rasberry-Heinrich and Claisse-Thinh. Besides, the numerical implementation of non usual techniques in this type of analysis. Such as the Linear Programming applied to the solution of super determined systems, of equations and the utilization of methods of relaxation to facilitate the convergence to the solutions. (author) [es
Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis applied to coupled code calculations for a VVER plant transient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langenbuch, S.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Schmidt, K. D.
2004-01-01
The development of coupled codes, combining thermal-hydraulic system codes and 3D neutron kinetics, is an important step to perform best-estimate plant transient calculations. It is generally agreed that the application of best-estimate methods should be supplemented by an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to quantify the uncertainty of the results. The paper presents results from the application of the GRS uncertainty and sensitivity method for a VVER-440 plant transient, which was already studied earlier for the validation of coupled codes. For this application, the main steps of the uncertainty method are described. Typical results of the method applied to the analysis of the plant transient by several working groups using different coupled codes are presented and discussed The results demonstrate the capability of an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. (authors)
Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality
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FU Senzong
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taylor Mac Intyer Fonseca Junior
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This work evaluate seven estimation methods of fatigue properties applied to stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Experimental strain-life curves are compared to the estimations obtained by each method. After applying seven different estimation methods at 14 material conditions, it was found that fatigue life can be estimated with good accuracy only by the Bäumel-Seeger method for the martensitic stainless steel tempered between 300°C and 500°C. The differences between mechanical behavior during monotonic and cyclic loading are probably the reason for the absence of a reliable method for estimation of fatigue behavior from monotonic properties for a group of materials.
Dynamical Systems Analysis Applied to Working Memory Data
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Fidan eGasimova
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate weekly fluctuations in the working memory capacity (WMC assessed over a period of two years. We use dynamical system analysis, specifically a second order linear differential equation, to model weekly variability in WMC in a sample of 112 9th graders. In our longitudinal data we use a B-spline imputation method to deal with missing data. The results show a significant negative frequency parameter in the data, indicating a cyclical pattern in weekly memory updating performance across time. We use a multilevel modeling approach to capture individual differences in model parameters and find that a higher initial performance level and a slower improvement at the MU task is associated with a slower frequency of oscillation. Additionally, we conduct a simulation study examining the analysis procedure’s performance using different numbers of B-spline knots and values of time delay embedding dimensions. Results show that the number of knots in the B-spline imputation influence accuracy more than the number of embedding dimensions.
Confirmatory factor analysis applied to the Force Concept Inventory
Eaton, Philip; Willoughby, Shannon D.
2018-06-01
In 1995, Huffman and Heller used exploratory factor analysis to draw into question the factors of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Since then several papers have been published examining the factors of the FCI on larger sets of student responses and understandable factors were extracted as a result. However, none of these proposed factor models have been verified to not be unique to their original sample through the use of independent sets of data. This paper seeks to confirm the factor models proposed by Scott et al. in 2012, and Hestenes et al. in 1992, as well as another expert model proposed within this study through the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a sample of 20 822 postinstruction student responses to the FCI. Upon application of CFA using the full sample, all three models were found to fit the data with acceptable global fit statistics. However, when CFA was performed using these models on smaller sample sizes the models proposed by Scott et al. and Eaton and Willoughby were found to be far more stable than the model proposed by Hestenes et al. The goodness of fit of these models to the data suggests that the FCI can be scored on factors that are not unique to a single class. These scores could then be used to comment on how instruction methods effect the performance of students along a single factor and more in-depth analyses of curriculum changes may be possible as a result.
Du, L.; Shan, L.; Wang, B.; Li, H.; Xu, Z.; Staal, W.G.; Jia, F.
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of combined bumetanide and applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment in children with autism. METHODS: Sixty children diagnosed with autism according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision
August Dvorak (1894-1975): Early expressions of applied behavior analysis and precision teaching
Joyce, Bonnie; Moxley, Roy A.
1988-01-01
August Dvorak is best known for his development of the Dvorak keyboard. However, Dvorak also adapted and applied many behavioral and scientific management techniques to the field of education. Taken collectively, these techniques are representative of many of the procedures currently used in applied behavior analysis, in general, and especially in precision teaching. The failure to consider Dvorak's instructional methods may explain some of the discrepant findings in studies which compare the efficiency of the Dvorak to the standard keyboard. This article presents a brief background on the development of the standard (QWERTY) and Dvorak keyboards, describes parallels between Dvorak's teaching procedures and those used in precision teaching, reviews some of the comparative research on the Dvorak keyboard, and suggests some implications for further research in applying the principles of behavior analysis. PMID:22477993
Applied machine learning in greenhouse simulation; new application and analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Taki
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Prediction the inside environment variables in greenhouses is very important because they play a vital role in greenhouse cultivation and energy lost especially in cold and hot regions. The greenhouse environment is an uncertain nonlinear system which classical modeling methods have some problems to solve it. So the main goal of this study is to select the best method between Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM to estimate three different variables include inside air, soil and plant temperatures (Ta, Ts, Tp and also energy exchange in a polyethylene greenhouse in Shahreza city, Isfahan province, Iran. The environmental factors which influencing all the inside temperatures such as outside air temperature, wind speed and outside solar radiation were collected as data samples. In this research, 13 different training algorithms were used for ANN models (MLP-RBF. Based on K-fold cross validation and Randomized Complete Block (RCB methodology, the best model was selected. The results showed that the type of training algorithm and kernel function are very important factors in ANN (RBF and MLP and SVM models performance, respectively. Comparing RBF, MLP and SVM models showed that the performance of RBF to predict Ta, Tp and Ts variables is better according to small values of RMSE and MAPE and large value of R2 indices. The range of RMSE and MAPE factors for RBF model to predict Ta, Tp and Ts were between 0.07 and 0.12 °C and 0.28–0.50%, respectively. Generalizability and stability of the RBF model with 5-fold cross validation analysis showed that this method can use with small size of data groups. The performance of best model (RBF to estimate the energy lost and exchange in the greenhouse with heat transfer models showed that this method can estimate the real data in greenhouse and then predict the energy lost and exchange with high accuracy. Keywords: Black box method, Energy lost, Environmental situation, Energy
MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS APPLIED TO LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING
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Mariana Madruga de Brito
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a multi-criteria analysis (MCA tool for landslide susceptibility assessment in Porto Alegre municipality, southern Brazil. A knowledge driven approach was used, aiming to ensure an optimal use of the available information. The landslide conditioning factors considered were slope, lithology, flow accumulation and distance from lineaments. Standardization of these factors was done through fuzzy membership functions, and evaluation of their relative importance for landslide predisposition was supported by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, based on local expert knowledge. Finally, factors were integrated in a GIS environment using the weighted linear combination (WLC method. For validation, an inventory, including 107 landslide points recorded between 2007 and 2013 was used. Results indicated that 8.2% (39.40 km² of the study area are highly and very highly susceptible to landslides. An overall accuracy of 95% was found, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of 0.960. Therefore, the resulting map can be regarded as useful for monitoring landslide-prone areas. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the proposed method is effective for susceptibility assessment since it yielded meaningful results and does not require extensive input data.
Flows method in global analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duong Minh Duc.
1994-12-01
We study the gradient flows method for W r,p (M,N) where M and N are Riemannian manifold and r may be less than m/p. We localize some global analysis problem by constructing gradient flows which only change the value of any u in W r,p (M,N) in a local chart of M. (author). 24 refs
Statistical analysis and Kalman filtering applied to nuclear materials accountancy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annibal, P.S.
1990-08-01
Much theoretical research has been carried out on the development of statistical methods for nuclear material accountancy. In practice, physical, financial and time constraints mean that the techniques must be adapted to give an optimal performance in plant conditions. This thesis aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice, to show the benefits to be gained from a knowledge of the facility operation. Four different aspects are considered; firstly, the use of redundant measurements to reduce the error on the estimate of the mass of heavy metal in an 'accountancy tank' is investigated. Secondly, an analysis of the calibration data for the same tank is presented, establishing bounds for the error and suggesting a means of reducing them. Thirdly, a plant-specific method of producing an optimal statistic from the input, output and inventory data, to help decide between 'material loss' and 'no loss' hypotheses, is developed and compared with existing general techniques. Finally, an application of the Kalman Filter to materials accountancy is developed, to demonstrate the advantages of state-estimation techniques. The results of the analyses and comparisons illustrate the importance of taking into account a complete and accurate knowledge of the plant operation, measurement system, and calibration methods, to derive meaningful results from statistical tests on materials accountancy data, and to give a better understanding of critical random and systematic error sources. The analyses were carried out on the head-end of the Fast Reactor Reprocessing Plant, where fuel from the prototype fast reactor is cut up and dissolved. However, the techniques described are general in their application. (author)
Paired comparisons analysis: an axiomatic approach to ranking methods
Gonzalez-Diaz, J.; Hendrickx, Ruud; Lohmann, E.R.M.A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we present an axiomatic analysis of several ranking methods for general tournaments. We find that the ranking method obtained by applying maximum likelihood to the (Zermelo-)Bradley-Terry model, the most common method in statistics and psychology, is one of the ranking methods that
Methods in quantitative image analysis.
Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M
1996-05-01
histogram of an existing image (input image) into a new grey value histogram (output image) are most quickly handled by a look-up table (LUT). The histogram of an image can be influenced by gain, offset and gamma of the camera. Gain defines the voltage range, offset defines the reference voltage and gamma the slope of the regression line between the light intensity and the voltage of the camera. A very important descriptor of neighbourhood relations in an image is the co-occurrence matrix. The distance between the pixels (original pixel and its neighbouring pixel) can influence the various parameters calculated from the co-occurrence matrix. The main goals of image enhancement are elimination of surface roughness in an image (smoothing), correction of defects (e.g. noise), extraction of edges, identification of points, strengthening texture elements and improving contrast. In enhancement, two types of operations can be distinguished: pixel-based (point operations) and neighbourhood-based (matrix operations). The most important pixel-based operations are linear stretching of grey values, application of pre-stored LUTs and histogram equalisation. The neighbourhood-based operations work with so-called filters. These are organising elements with an original or initial point in their centre. Filters can be used to accentuate or to suppress specific structures within the image. Filters can work either in the spatial or in the frequency domain. The method used for analysing alterations of grey value intensities in the frequency domain is the Hartley transform. Filter operations in the spatial domain can be based on averaging or ranking the grey values occurring in the organising element. The most important filters, which are usually applied, are the Gaussian filter and the Laplace filter (both averaging filters), and the median filter, the top hat filter and the range operator (all ranking filters). Segmentation of objects is traditionally based on threshold grey values. (AB
Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.
2018-01-01
Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…
An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy
Gamso, Nancy M.
2011-01-01
The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koivistoinen Teemu
2007-01-01
Full Text Available As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD is designed for computing singular values (SVs of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an -by-1 or 1-by- array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ''time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD.'' In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal. This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs for ballistocardiogram (BCG data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alpo Värri
2007-01-01
Full Text Available As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD is designed for computing singular values (SVs of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an m-by-1 or 1-by-m array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ‘‘time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD.’’ In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal. This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs for ballistocardiogram (BCG data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.
Akhbardeh, Alireza; Junnila, Sakari; Koivuluoma, Mikko; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Värri, Alpo
2006-12-01
As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD) is designed for computing singular values (SVs) of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-by-1 or 1-by- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ''time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD).'' In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal). This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for ballistocardiogram (BCG) data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1982-12-14
The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.
Cabrelli, Carlos; Jaffard, Stephane; Molter, Ursula
2016-01-01
This volume is a selection of written notes corresponding to courses taught at the CIMPA School: "New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis: Sparse Representations, Compressed Sensing and Multifractal Analysis". New interactions between harmonic analysis and signal and image processing have seen striking development in the last 10 years, and several technological deadlocks have been solved through the resolution of deep theoretical problems in harmonic analysis. New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis focuses on two particularly active areas that are representative of such advances: multifractal analysis, and sparse representation and compressed sensing. The contributions are written by leaders in these areas, and covers both theoretical aspects and applications. This work should prove useful not only to PhD students and postdocs in mathematics and signal and image processing, but also to researchers working in related topics.
Solving system of DAEs by homotopy analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awawdeh, Fadi; Jaradat, H.M.; Alsayyed, O.
2009-01-01
Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to systems of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). The HAM is proved to be very effective, simple and convenient to give approximate analytical solutions to DAEs.
Digital dream analysis: a revised method.
Bulkeley, Kelly
2014-10-01
This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An exergy method for compressor performance analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGovern, J A; Harte, S [Trinity Coll., Dublin (Ireland)
1995-07-01
An exergy method for compressor performance analysis is presented. The purpose of this is to identify and quantify defects in the use of a compressor`s shaft power. This information can be used as the basis for compressor design improvements. The defects are attributed to friction, irreversible heat transfer, fluid throttling, and irreversible fluid mixing. They are described, on a common basis, as exergy destruction rates and their locations are identified. The method can be used with any type of positive displacement compressor. It is most readily applied where a detailed computer simulation program is available for the compressor. An analysis of an open reciprocating refrigeration compressor that used R12 refrigerant is given as an example. The results that are presented consist of graphs of the instantaneous rates of exergy destruction according to the mechanisms involved, a pie chart of the breakdown of the average shaft power wastage by mechanism, and a pie chart with a breakdown by location. (author)
Current status of neutron activation analysis and applied nuclear chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyon, W.S.
1990-01-01
A review of recent scientometric studies of citations and publication data shows the present state of NAA and applied nuclear chemistry as compared to other analytical techniques. (author) 9 refs.; 7 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.
Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del
2003-01-01
Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)
A Precise Method for Cloth Configuration Parsing Applied to Single-Arm Flattening
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Sun
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the contribution that visual perception affords to a robotic manipulation task in which a crumpled garment is flattened by eliminating visually detected wrinkles. In order to explore and validate visually guided clothing manipulation in a repeatable and controlled environment, we have developed a hand-eye interactive virtual robot manipulation system that incorporates a clothing simulator to close the effector-garment-visual sensing interaction loop. We present the technical details and compare the performance of two different methods for detecting, representing and interpreting wrinkles within clothing surfaces captured in high-resolution depth maps. The first method we present relies upon a clustering-based method for localizing and parametrizing wrinkles, while the second method adopts a more advanced geometry-based approach in which shape-topology analysis underpins the identification of the cloth configuration (i.e., maps wrinkles. Having interpreted the state of the cloth configuration by means of either of these methods, a heuristic-based flattening strategy is then executed to infer the appropriate forces, their directions and gripper contact locations that must be applied to the cloth in order to flatten the perceived wrinkles. A greedy approach, which attempts to flatten the largest detected wrinkle for each perception-iteration cycle, has been successfully adopted in this work. We present the results of our heuristic-based flattening methodology which relies upon clustering-based and geometry-based features respectively. Our experiments indicate that geometry-based features have the potential to provide a greater degree of clothing configuration understanding and, as a consequence, improve flattening performance. The results of experiments using a real robot (as opposed to simulated robot also confirm our proposition that a more effective visual perception system can advance the performance of cloth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄晓斌; 钟辉新
2012-01-01
This paper applies the content analysis method combined with visualization tools UCINET to extract the marketing strategies and corporate strategic intelligence from banner advertising of three China telecom operators＇ online business hall. The results show that the content analysis method can effectively extract the marketing strategy and corporate strategic intelligence of telecom operators. Moreover, the strategies extracted from advertising are in good agreement with the company＇ s real strategies. Therefore, the content analysis method is an effective method for extracting business online advertising intelligence.%运用内容分析法，借助可视化工具UCINET，分析中国三大电信运营商网络营业厅横幅广告中隐含的营销战略和企业战略情报。结果表明：通过网络广告内容分析法能有效地萃取电信运营商的营销战略和企业战略情报，而且萃取出的企业战略情报与企业的真实战略有较好的一致性，说明内容分析法是一种行之有效的商业网络广告情报萃取的方法。
What is the method in applying formal methods to PLC applications?
Mader, Angelika H.; Engel, S.; Wupper, Hanno; Kowalewski, S.; Zaytoon, J.
2000-01-01
The question we investigate is how to obtain PLC applications with confidence in their proper functioning. Especially, we are interested in the contribution that formal methods can provide for their development. Our maxim is that the place of a particular formal method in the total picture of system
Soft tissue cephalometric analysis applied to Himachali ethnic population
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isha Aggarwal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The modern society considers facial attractiveness as an important physical attribute. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face complicates accurate assessment of the soft tissue profile, and it is a known fact that facial features of different ethnic groups differ significantly. This study was undertaken to establish norms for Himachali ethnic population. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 100 normal individuals (50 males, 50 females. The cephalograms were analyzed by Arnett soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Males have thicker soft tissue structures and a more acute nasolabial angle than females. Males have longer faces and females have greater interlabial gap and maxillary incisor exposure. Males have more deep-set facial structures than females. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Differences were also noted between other ethnic groups and Himachali faces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yiin, L.-M.; Lu, S.-E.; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Lim, B.S.; Rhoads, G.G.
2004-01-01
We conducted a cleaning trial in 40 northern New Jersey homes where home renovation and remodeling (R and R) activities were undertaken. Two cleaning protocols were used in the study: a specific method recommended by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in the 1995 'Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing', using a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered vacuum cleaner and a tri-sodium phosphate solution (TSP); and an alternative method using a household vacuum cleaner and a household detergent. Eligible homes were built before the 1970s with potential lead-based paint and had recent R and R activities without thorough cleaning. The two cleaning protocols were randomly assigned to the participants' homes and followed the HUD-recommended three-step procedure: vacuuming, wet washing, and repeat vacuuming. Wipe sampling was conducted on floor surfaces or windowsills before and after cleaning to evaluate the efficacy. All floor and windowsill data indicated that both methods (TSP/HEPA and non-TSP/non-HEPA) were effective in reducing lead loading on the surfaces (P<0.001). When cleaning was applied to surfaces with initial lead loading above the clearance standards, the reductions were even greater, above 95% for either cleaning method. The mixed-effect model analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods. Baseline lead loading was found to be associated with lead loading reduction significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.077). Such relations were different between the two cleaning methods significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.066), with the TSP/HEPA method being favored for higher baseline levels and the non-TSP/non-HEPA method for lower baseline levels. For the 10 homes with lead abatement, almost all post-cleaning lead loadings were below the standards using either cleaning method. Based on our results, we recommend that
Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Poern, K.
1997-04-01
We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods
Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)
1997-04-01
We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.
Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Jun Ho [Inzest Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Sang [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.
Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Kun Sang
2017-01-01
This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.
Data Analysis Methods for Paleogenomics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen
(Danmarks Grundforskningfond) 'Centre of Excellence in GeoGenetics' grant, with additional funding provided by the Danish Council for Independent Research 'Sapere Aude' programme. The thesis comprises five chapters, all of which represent different projects that involved the analysis of massive amounts......, thanks to the introduction of NGS and the implementation of data analysis methods specific for each project. Chapters 1 to 3 have been published in peer-reviewed journals and Chapter 4 is currently in review. Chapter 5 consists of a manuscript describing initial results of an ongoing research project......The work presented in this thesis is the result of research carried out during a three-year PhD at the Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, under supervision of Professor Tom Gilbert. The PhD was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...
Formal methods applied to industrial complex systems implementation of the B method
Boulanger, Jean-Louis
2014-01-01
This book presents real-world examples of formal techniques in an industrial context. It covers formal methods such as SCADE and/or the B Method, in various fields such as railways, aeronautics, and the automotive industry. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of experience on the use of "formal methods" (based on formal techniques such as proof, abstract interpretation and model-checking) in industrial examples of complex systems, based on the experience of people currently involved in the creation and assessment of safety critical system software. The involvement of people from
Basic methods of isotope analysis; Osnovnye metody analiza izotopov
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ochkin, A V; Rozenkevich, M B
2000-07-01
The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weitman, J; Daaverhoeg, N; Farvolden, S
1970-07-01
In connection with fast neutron (n, {alpha}) cross section measurements a novel boron analysis method has been developed. The boron concentration is inferred from the mass spectrometrically determined number of helium atoms produced in the thermal and epithermal B-10 (n, {alpha}) reaction. The relation between helium amount and boron concentration is given, including corrections for self shielding effects and background levels. Direct and diffusion losses of helium are calculated and losses due to gettering, adsorption and HF-ionization in the release stage are discussed. A series of boron determinations is described and the results are compared with those obtained by other methods, showing excellent agreement. The lower limit of boron concentration which can be measured varies with type of sample. In e.g. steel, concentrations below 10-5 % boron in samples of 0.1-1 gram may be determined.
The Strategic Analysis of Enterprise Applying the SWOT Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kotsiubivska Kateryna I.
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The article is aimed at forming a list of the following SWOT factors: defining the main factors of influence of the external and the internal environment through an expert survey. The algorithm for conducting an expert survey has been clarified, allocating the main factors that, according to the survey results, have reached the maximum level of consensus among experts. In view of results of the survey conducted, i.e., their mathematical processing, we believe that it is appropriate to highlight the importance of such factors as the efficient management of the enterprise’s capital (including the optimization of its structure, the insufficient amount of financial resources (including the own, budget-based and foreign investment, and unpreparedness to risk on the part of managers. In the case in question, the experts agreed on the importance of the State participation in the overall development of the cultural sector in Ukraine. Prospect for further research will be formation of a SWOT matrix, which will enhance the efficiency of strategic management of financial resources of the enterprises in the cultural area, which will also provide consideration of cultural specificities, give the possibility of structuring the financial resources and allow the successful operation in the market conditions.
Data Analysis Methods for Library Marketing
Minami, Toshiro; Kim, Eunja
Our society is rapidly changing to information society, where the needs and requests of the people on information access are different widely from person to person. Library's mission is to provide its users, or patrons, with the most appropriate information. Libraries have to know the profiles of their patrons, in order to achieve such a role. The aim of library marketing is to develop methods based on the library data, such as circulation records, book catalogs, book-usage data, and others. In this paper we discuss the methodology and imporatnce of library marketing at the beginning. Then we demonstrate its usefulness through some examples of analysis methods applied to the circulation records in Kyushu University and Guacheon Library, and some implication that obtained as the results of these methods. Our research is a big beginning towards the future when library marketing is an unavoidable tool.
RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED IN OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ES Obe
aDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ... The analysis in this work is ... risk analysis, oil field, risk management, projects, investment opportunity. 1. .... own merit but since the company has limited.
Applying thematic analysis theory to practice: a researcher's experience.
Tuckett, Anthony G
2005-01-01
This article describes an experience of thematic analysis. In order to answer the question 'What does analysis look like in practice?' it describes in brief how the methodology of grounded theory, the epistemology of social constructionism, and the theoretical stance of symbolic interactionism inform analysis. Additionally, analysis is examined by evidencing the systematic processes--here termed organising, coding, writing, theorising, and reading--that led the researcher to develop a final thematic schema.
Chemometric methods and near-infrared spectroscopy applied to bioenergy production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liebmann, B.
2010-01-01
data analysis (i) successfully determine the concentrations of moisture, protein, and starch in the feedstock material as well as glucose, ethanol, glycerol, lactic acid, acetic acid in the processed bioethanol broths; (ii) and allow quantifying a complex biofuel's property such as the heating value. At the third stage, this thesis focuses on new chemometric methods that improve mathematical analysis of multivariate data such as NIR spectra. The newly developed method 'repeated double cross validation' (rdCV) separates optimization of regression models from tests of model performance; furthermore, rdCV estimates the variability of the model performance based on a large number of prediction errors from test samples. The rdCV procedure has been applied to both the classical PLS regression and the robust 'partial robust M' regression method, which can handle erroneous data. The peculiar and relatively unknown 'random projection' method is tested for its potential of dimensionality reduction of data from chemometrics and chemoinformatics. The main findings are: (i) rdCV fosters a realistic assessment of model performance, (ii) robust regression has outstanding performance for data containing outliers and thus is strongly recommendable, and (iii) random projection is a useful niche application for high-dimensional data combined with possible restrictions in data storage and computing time. The three chemometric methods described are available as functions for the free software R. (author) [de
Applying the Weighted Horizontal Magnetic Gradient Method to a Simulated Flaring Active Region
Korsós, M. B.; Chatterjee, P.; Erdélyi, R.
2018-04-01
Here, we test the weighted horizontal magnetic gradient (WG M ) as a flare precursor, introduced by Korsós et al., by applying it to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of solar-like flares. The preflare evolution of the WG M and the behavior of the distance parameter between the area-weighted barycenters of opposite-polarity sunspots at various heights is investigated in the simulated δ-type sunspot. Four flares emanated from this sunspot. We found the optimum heights above the photosphere where the flare precursors of the WG M method are identifiable prior to each flare. These optimum heights agree reasonably well with the heights of the occurrence of flares identified from the analysis of their thermal and ohmic heating signatures in the simulation. We also estimated the expected time of the flare onsets from the duration of the approaching–receding motion of the barycenters of opposite polarities before each single flare. The estimated onset time and the actual time of occurrence of each flare are in good agreement at the corresponding optimum heights. This numerical experiment further supports the use of flare precursors based on the WG M method.
A new clamp method for firing bricks | Obeng | Journal of Applied ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A new clamp method for firing bricks. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... To overcome this operational deficiencies, a new method of firing bricks that uses brick clamp technique that incorporates a clamp wall of 60 cm thickness, a six tier approach of sealing the top of the clamp (by combination of green bricks) ...
Determination methods for plutonium as applied in the field of reprocessing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-07-01
The papers presented report on Pu-determination methods, which are routinely applied in process control, and also on new developments which could supercede current methods either because they are more accurate or because they are simpler and faster. (orig./DG) [de
Non-Invasive Seismic Methods for Earthquake Site Classification Applied to Ontario Bridge Sites
Bilson Darko, A.; Molnar, S.; Sadrekarimi, A.
2017-12-01
How a site responds to earthquake shaking and its corresponding damage is largely influenced by the underlying ground conditions through which it propagates. The effects of site conditions on propagating seismic waves can be predicted from measurements of the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the soil layer(s) and the impedance ratio between bedrock and soil. Currently the seismic design of new buildings and bridges (2015 Canadian building and bridge codes) requires determination of the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 metres (Vs30) of a given site. In this study, two in situ Vs profiling methods; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Ambient Vibration Array (AVA) methods are used to determine Vs30 at chosen bridge sites in Ontario, Canada. Both active-source (MASW) and passive-source (AVA) surface wave methods are used at each bridge site to obtain Rayleigh-wave phase velocities over a wide frequency bandwidth. The dispersion curve is jointly inverted with each site's amplification function (microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) to obtain shear-wave velocity profile(s). We apply our non-invasive testing at three major infrastructure projects, e.g., five bridge sites along the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway in Windsor, Ontario. Our non-invasive testing is co-located with previous invasive testing, including Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test and downhole Vs data. Correlations between SPT blowcount and Vs are developed for the different soil types sampled at our Ontario bridge sites. A robust earthquake site classification procedure (reliable Vs30 estimates) for bridge sites across Ontario is evaluated from available combinations of invasive and non-invasive site characterization methods.
Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X Divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Missirlian, M.; Durocher, A.; Schlosser, J.; Farjon, J.-L.; Vignal, N.; Traxler, H.; Schedler, B.; Boscary, J.
2006-01-01
As heat exhaust capability and lifetime of plasma-facing component (PFC) during in-situ operation are linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of non-destructive testing must be operated during R-and-D and manufacturing phases. Within this framework, advanced non-destructive examination (NDE) methods are one of the key issues to achieve a high level of quality and reliability of joining techniques in the production of high heat flux components but also to develop and built successfully PFCs for a next generation of fusion devices. In this frame, two NDE infrared thermographic approaches, which have been recently applied to the qualification of CFC target elements of the W7-X divertor during the first series production will be discussed in this paper. The first one, developed by CEA (SATIR facility) and used with successfully to the control of the mass-produced actively cooled PFCs on Tore Supra, is based on the transient thermography where the testing protocol consists in inducing a thermal transient within the heat sink structure by an alternative hot/cold water flow. The second one, recently developed by PLANSEE (ARGUS facility), is based on the pulsed thermography where the component is heated externally by a single powerful flash of light. Results obtained on qualification experiences performed during the first series production of W7-X divertor components representing about thirty mock-ups with artificial and manufacturing defects, demonstrated the capabilities of these two methods and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application. This comparative study, associated to a cross-checking analysis between the high heat flux performance tests and these inspection methods by infrared thermography, showed a good reproducibility and allowed to set a detectable limit specific at each method. Finally, the detectability of relevant defects showed excellent coincidence with thermal images obtained from high heat flux
Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences
Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.
2009-09-01
and 50 years. Based on the injuries dated in the field and in the laboratory, and based on the location of the trees, 8 main events were dated for the last 30 years: 2005, 2003, 2000, 1998, 1997, 1995, 1993 and 1978. Additional results are in progress, such as the amount of rainfall responsible for the triggering of the events, estimation of the magnitude, and the influence of the channelization in the case of the Arenal River. The strength of Dendrogeomorphology in flood analysis has been demonstrated, especially in areas where the lack of historical documents, rainfall and flow data limits the use of traditional methods.
Water Permeability of Pervious Concrete Is Dependent on the Applied Pressure and Testing Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yinghong Qin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Falling head method (FHM and constant head method (CHM are, respectively, used to test the water permeability of permeable concrete, using different water heads on the testing samples. The results indicate the apparent permeability of pervious concrete decreasing with the applied water head. The results also demonstrate the permeability measured from the FHM is lower than that from the CHM. The fundamental difference between the CHM and FHM is examined from the theory of fluid flowing through porous media. The testing results suggest that the water permeability of permeable concrete should be reported with the applied pressure and the associated testing method.
Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.
Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel
2015-01-01
A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.
Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Cubas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers’ datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.
Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wells, C.
1992-10-01
The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yannan Hu
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. Methods We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. Results All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Conclusion Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects
An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis
Peerlings, J.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of
COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Valeriu
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.
Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell
2015-10-01
There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.
[Statistical analysis of articles in "Chinese journal of applied physiology" from 1999 to 2008].
Du, Fei; Fang, Tao; Ge, Xue-ming; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Sun, Jin-li
2010-05-01
To evaluate the academic level and influence of "Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology" through statistical analysis for the fund sponsored articles published in the recent ten years. The articles of "Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology" from 1999 to 2008 were investigated. The number and the percentage of the fund sponsored articles, the fund organization and the author region were quantitatively analyzed by using the literature metrology method. The number of the fund sponsored articles increased unceasingly. The ratio of the fund from local government significantly enhanced in the latter five years. Most of the articles were from institutes located at Beijing, Zhejiang and Tianjin. "Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology" has a fine academic level and social influence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.D. Lestiani
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.
2011-01-01
Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)
Diamond difference method with hybrid angular quadrature applied to neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes
2005-01-01
In this work we presents the results for the calculations of the disadvantage factor in thermal nuclear reactor physics. We use the one-group discrete ordinates (S N ) equations to mathematically model the flux distributions in slab lattices. We apply the diamond difference method with source iteration iterative scheme to numerically solve the discretized systems equations. We used special interface conditions to describe the method with hybrid angular quadrature. We show numerical results to illustrate the accuracy of the hybrid method. (author)
Ando, Yoshinobu; Eguchi, Yuya; Mizukawa, Makoto
In this research, we proposed and evaluated a management method of college mechatronics education. We applied the project management to college mechatronics education. We practiced our management method to the seminar “Microcomputer Seminar” for 3rd grade students who belong to Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology. We succeeded in management of Microcomputer Seminar in 2006. We obtained the good evaluation for our management method by means of questionnaire.
Bendinskaitė, Irmina
2015-01-01
Bendinskaitė I. Perspective for applying traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods to nurse’s continuing education, magister thesis / supervisor Assoc. Prof. O. Riklikienė; Departament of Nursing and Care, Faculty of Nursing, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. – Kaunas, 2015, – p. 92 The purpose of this study was to investigate traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods perspective to nurse’s continuing education. Material and methods. In a period fro...
How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals
O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch
2007-01-01
Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…
Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wells, C.
1992-10-01
The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.
Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wells, C
1992-10-01
The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.
Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Hoffmann, Rasmus; van Hedel, Karen; Mackenbach, Johan P
2017-04-20
The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE) have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching) can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects on population-level health inequalities. Increased use of the
Heisenberg principle applied to the analysis of speckle interferometry fringes
Sciammarella, C. A.; Sciammarella, F. M.
2003-11-01
Optical techniques that are used to measure displacements utilize a carrier. When a load is applied the displacement field modulates the carrier. The accuracy of the information that can be recovered from the modulated carrier is limited by a number of factors. In this paper, these factors are analyzed and conclusions concerning the limitations in information recovery are illustrated with examples taken from experimental data.
Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozonoff David
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.
Concluding Essay: On Applied Linguistics and Discourse Analysis.
Kaplan, Robert B.
1990-01-01
Discusses trends and problems in regarding discourse analysis as a viable paradigm that can govern research, focusing on such issues as the wide diversity and variety of research that can be considered discourse analysis, the predominant focus on English language, research approaches, and undefined variables affecting research outcomes. (seven…
Apparatus and method for applying an end plug to a fuel rod tube end
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rieben, S.L.; Wylie, M.E.
1987-01-01
An apparatus is described for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube, comprising: support means mounted for reciprocal movement between remote and adjacent positions relative to a nuclear fuel rod tube end to which an end plug is to be applied; guide means supported on the support means for movement; and drive means coupled to the support means and being actuatable for movement between retracted and extended positions for reciprocally moving the support means between its respective remote and adjacent positions. A method for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube is also described
Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei
2000-01-01
The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation
Using non-parametric methods in econometric production analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne
Econometric estimation of production functions is one of the most common methods in applied economic production analysis. These studies usually apply parametric estimation techniques, which obligate the researcher to specify the functional form of the production function. Most often, the Cobb...... results—including measures that are of interest of applied economists, such as elasticities. Therefore, we propose to use nonparametric econometric methods. First, they can be applied to verify the functional form used in parametric estimations of production functions. Second, they can be directly used...
Sensitivity analysis of the Two Geometry Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wichers, V.A.
1993-09-01
The Two Geometry Method (TGM) was designed specifically for the verification of the uranium enrichment of low enriched UF 6 gas in the presence of uranium deposits on the pipe walls. Complications can arise if the TGM is applied under extreme conditions, such as deposits larger than several times the gas activity, small pipe diameters less than 40 mm and low pressures less than 150 Pa. This report presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the TGM. The impact of the various sources of uncertainty on the performance of the method is discussed. The application to a practical case is based on worst case conditions with regards to the measurement conditions, and on realistic conditions with respect to the false alarm probability and the non detection probability. Monte Carlo calculations were used to evaluate the sensitivity for sources of uncertainty which are experimentally inaccessible. (orig.)
Homotopy analysis method for neutron diffusion calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavdar, S.
2009-01-01
The Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), proposed in 1992 by Shi Jun Liao and has been developed since then, is based on a fundamental concept in differential geometry and topology, the homotopy. It has proved useful for problems involving algebraic, linear/non-linear, ordinary/partial differential and differential-integral equations being an analytic, recursive method that provides a series sum solution. It has the advantage of offering a certain freedom for the choice of its arguments such as the initial guess, the auxiliary linear operator and the convergence control parameter, and it allows us to effectively control the rate and region of convergence of the series solution. HAM is applied for the fixed source neutron diffusion equation in this work, which is a part of our research motivated by the question of whether methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation that yield straightforward expressions but able to provide a solution of reasonable accuracy exist such that we could avoid analytic methods that are widely used but either fail to solve the problem or provide solutions through many intricate expressions that are likely to contain mistakes or numerical methods that require powerful computational resources and advanced programming skills due to their very nature or intricate mathematical fundamentals. Fourier basis are employed for expressing the initial guess due to the structure of the problem and its boundary conditions. We present the results in comparison with other widely used methods of Adomian Decomposition and Variable Separation.
Method to detect substances in a body and device to apply the method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voigt, H.
1978-01-01
The method and the measuring disposition serve to localize pellets doped with Gd 2 O 3 , lying between UO 2 pellets within a reactor fuel rod. The fuel rod is penetrating a homogeneous magnetic field generated between two pole shoes. The magnetic stray field caused by the doping substances is then measured by means of Hall probes (e.g. InAs) for quantitative discrimination from UO 2 . The position of the Gd 2 O 3 -doped pellets is determined by moving the fuel rod through the magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the homogeneous field. The measuring signal is caused by the different susceptibility of Gd 2 O 3 with respect to UO 2 . (DG) [de
Signed directed social network analysis applied to group conflict
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zheng, Quan; Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier
2015-01-01
Real-world social networks contain relationships of multiple different types, but this richness is often ignored in graph-theoretic modelling. We show how two recently developed spectral embedding techniques, for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric) and for signed graphs (relationships...... are both positive and negative), can be combined. This combination is particularly appropriate for intelligence, terrorism, and law enforcement applications. We illustrate by applying the novel embedding technique to datasets describing conflict in North-West Africa, and show how unusual interactions can...
Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio
2010-09-15
This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.
Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis
Sanders, Chris
2013-01-01
Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di
Thermoeconomic analysis applied to an alternative wastewater treatment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Silveira, Jose Luz; Mattos dos Reis, Luiz Octavio [Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Oscare Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil)
2010-10-15
This work develops a methodology for the determination of costs associated to products generated in a small wastewater treatment station. The methodology begins with plant units identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics features to each point indicated in its process diagram. Following, a functional diagram and a formulation are developed in exergetic basis, describing all equations for these points, which are the constraints for optimisation and are used to determine costs associated to products generated in a Small Wastewater Treatment Station - SWTS. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical system based on SWTS plants and presents consistent results when compared to values based on previous experiments and evaluations. (author)
Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.
2011-01-01
The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.
Bending stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints applied with a use of finite element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milan Šimek
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Presented work focuses on bending moment stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints with a use of Finite Element Method. The joints are created from Minifix and Rondorfix cams combined with non-glued wooden dowels. Laminated particleboard 18 mm of thickness is used as a connected material. The connectors were chosen such as the most applied kind in furniture industry for the case furniture. All gained results were reciprocally compared to each other and also in comparison to experimental testing by the mean of stiffness. The non-linear numerical model of chosen joints was successfully created using the software Ansys Workbench. The detailed analysis of stress distribution in the joint was achieved with non-linear numerical simulation. A relationship between numerical simulation and experimental testing was showed by comparison stiffness tangents. A numerical simulation of RTA joint loads also demonstrated the important role of non-glued dowels in the tested joints. The low strength of particleboard in the tension parallel to surface (internal bond is the most likely the cause of the joint failure. Results are applicable for strength designing of furniture with the aid of Computer Aided Engineering.
Commissioning methods applied to the Hunterston 'B' AGR operator training simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacking, D.
1985-01-01
The Hunterston 'B' full scope AGR Simulator, built for the South of Scotland Electricity Board by Marconi Instruments, encompasses all systems under direct and indirect control of the Hunterston central control room operators. The resulting breadth and depth of simulation together with the specification for the real time implementation of a large number of highly interactive detailed plant models leads to the classic problem of identifying acceptance and acceptability criteria. For example, whilst the ultimate criterion for acceptability must clearly be that within the context of the training requirement the simulator should be indistinguishable from the actual plant, far more measurable (i.e. less subjective) statements are required if a formal contractual acceptance condition is to be achieved. Within the framework, individual models and processes can have radically different acceptance requirements which therefore reflect on the commissioning approach applied. This paper discusses the application of a combination of quality assurance methods, design code results, plant data, theoretical analysis and operator 'feel' in the commissioning of the Hunterston 'B' AGR Operator Training Simulator. (author)
Safety relief valve alternate analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.
1981-01-01
An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)
Computational modeling applied to stress gradient analysis for metallic alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iglesias, Susana M.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Monine, Vladimir I.
2009-01-01
Nowadays composite materials including materials reinforced by particles are the center of the researcher's attention. There are problems with the stress measurements in these materials, connected with the superficial stress gradient caused by the difference of the stress state of particles on the surface and in the matrix of the composite material. Computer simulation of diffraction profile formed by superficial layers of material allows simulate the diffraction experiment and gives the possibility to resolve the problem of stress measurements when the stress state is characterized by strong gradient. The aim of this paper is the application of computer simulation technique, initially developed for homogeneous materials, for diffraction line simulation of composite materials and alloys. Specifically we applied this technique for siluminum fabricated by powder metallurgy. (author)
Non-parametric order statistics method applied to uncertainty propagation in fuel rod calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arimescu, V.E.; Heins, L.
2001-01-01
Advances in modeling fuel rod behavior and accumulations of adequate experimental data have made possible the introduction of quantitative methods to estimate the uncertainty of predictions made with best-estimate fuel rod codes. The uncertainty range of the input variables is characterized by a truncated distribution which is typically a normal, lognormal, or uniform distribution. While the distribution for fabrication parameters is defined to cover the design or fabrication tolerances, the distribution of modeling parameters is inferred from the experimental database consisting of separate effects tests and global tests. The final step of the methodology uses a Monte Carlo type of random sampling of all relevant input variables and performs best-estimate code calculations to propagate these uncertainties in order to evaluate the uncertainty range of outputs of interest for design analysis, such as internal rod pressure and fuel centerline temperature. The statistical method underlying this Monte Carlo sampling is non-parametric order statistics, which is perfectly suited to evaluate quantiles of populations with unknown distribution. The application of this method is straightforward in the case of one single fuel rod, when a 95/95 statement is applicable: 'with a probability of 95% and confidence level of 95% the values of output of interest are below a certain value'. Therefore, the 0.95-quantile is estimated for the distribution of all possible values of one fuel rod with a statistical confidence of 95%. On the other hand, a more elaborate procedure is required if all the fuel rods in the core are being analyzed. In this case, the aim is to evaluate the following global statement: with 95% confidence level, the expected number of fuel rods which are not exceeding a certain value is all the fuel rods in the core except only a few fuel rods. In both cases, the thresholds determined by the analysis should be below the safety acceptable design limit. An indirect
Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira
2013-09-28
We develop an efficient Ewald method of molecular dynamics simulation for calculating the electrostatic interactions among charged and polar particles between parallel metallic plates, where we may apply an electric field with an arbitrary size. We use the fact that the potential from the surface charges is equivalent to the sum of those from image charges and dipoles located outside the cell. We present simulation results on boundary effects of charged and polar fluids, formation of ionic crystals, and formation of dipole chains, where the applied field and the image interaction are crucial. For polar fluids, we find a large deviation of the classical Lorentz-field relation between the local field and the applied field due to pair correlations along the applied field. As general aspects, we clarify the difference between the potential-fixed and the charge-fixed boundary conditions and examine the relationship between the discrete particle description and the continuum electrostatics.
Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod research
Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.
2014-05-01
Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum/maximum size of objects that can be studied, the degree of post-processing needed and availability. The main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells. In particular we present a method for precise buoyancy calculation. Therefore, cephalopod shells were scanned together with different reference bodies, an approach developed in medical sciences. It is necessary to know the volume of the reference bodies, which should have similar absorption properties like the object of interest. Exact volumes can be obtained from surface scanning. Depending on the dimensions of the study object different computed tomography techniques were applied.
Benthic microalgal production in the Arctic: Applied methods and status of the current database
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Woelfel, Jana; Karsten, Ulf
2009-01-01
The current database on benthic microalgal production in Arctic waters comprises 10 peer-reviewed and three unpublished studies. Here, we compile and discuss these datasets, along with the applied measurement approaches used. The latter is essential for robust comparative analysis and to clarify ...
Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik
2008-01-01
satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...
Applying Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Persons with Dementia
Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C.; Sadowski, Katherine Ann
2011-01-01
Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may…
Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis
Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee
2010-01-01
This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…
Visual Analytics Applied to Image Analysis : From Segmentation to Classification
Rauber, Paulo
2017-01-01
Image analysis is the field of study concerned with extracting information from images. This field is immensely important for commercial and scientific applications, from identifying people in photographs to recognizing diseases in medical images. The goal behind the work presented in this thesis is
Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis
Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John
1995-01-01
The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines
Spectroscopic analysis applied to temperature measurement in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fieffe-Prevost, P.
1978-01-01
The plasma temperature is defined only if the plasma is in a state near thermodynamic equilibrium. This plasma state is analysed in detail and spectroscopic methods for measuring the temperature are discussed. As an application the hydrogen arc of the National Institute of Metrology of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (Paris) is briefly described [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, J.
2015-01-01
NPP Control and Monitoring System has been recognised as extreme and safe as well as large scale product, thus it was one of the most major design activities that fully, accurately and operationally functional analysis. The results of functional analysis would be employed as initial instruction through the whole lifecycle of NPP Control and Monitoring System. In this paper, it was discovered that several disadvantages of present functional analysis methods included FAST, The Subtract and Operate Procedure and Functional Procedure Method; owing to the identity methods enveloped here was the combination of Functional Tree and System Structure, as well as its decomposition steps; and RCS Inventory Control function which is defined as one of the most significant control functions in Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirement Document has been employed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method; the analysis results of RCS Inventory function has been applied to direct the design and implementation of related displays, here the functional display of RCS Inventory Control function has been implemented on NuCON which is originated by SNPAS. Owing to the analyzing results, it would be ensured that the accuracy of information displayed to operators, thus the operator would be aware the condition of systems and then make the proper move to ensure the safety and productivity of NPP based on the received data. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zambach, Sine; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup
2009-01-01
By applying formal terminological methods to model an ontology within the domain of enzyme inhibition, we aim to clarify concepts and to obtain consistency. Additionally, we propose a procedure for implementing this ontology in OWL with the aim of obtaining a strict structure which can form...
Method of applying single higher order polynomial basis function over multiple domains
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Lysko, AA
2010-03-01
Full Text Available A novel method has been devised where one set of higher order polynomial-based basis functions can be applied over several wire segments, thus permitting to decouple the number of unknowns from the number of segments, and so from the geometrical...
21 CFR 111.320 - What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination?
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination? 111.320 Section 111.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...
Splendor and misery of the distorted wave method applied to heavy ions transfer reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mermaz, M.C.
1979-01-01
The success and failure of the Distorted Wave Method (DWM) applied to heavy ion transfer reactions are illustrated by few examples: one and multi-nucleon transfer reactions induced by 15 N and 18 O on 28 Si target nucleus performed on the vicinity of Coulomb barrier respectively at 44 and 56 MeV incident energy
A nodal method applied to a diffusion problem with generalized coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laazizi, A.; Guessous, N.
1999-01-01
In this paper, we consider second order neutrons diffusion problem with coefficients in L ∞ (Ω). Nodal method of the lowest order is applied to approximate the problem's solution. The approximation uses special basis functions in which the coefficients appear. The rate of convergence obtained is O(h 2 ) in L 2 (Ω), with a free rectangular triangulation. (authors)
Trends in Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: China and the West.
Yihong, Gao; Lichun, Li; Jun, Lu
2001-01-01
Examines and compares current trends in applied linguistics (AL) research methods in China and the West. Reviews AL articles in four Chinese journals, from 1978-1997, and four English journals from 1985 to 1997. Articles are categorized and subcategorized. Results show that in China, AL research is heading from non-empirical toward empirical, with…
Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T
1987-01-01
Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.
Environmental analysis applied to schools. Methodologies for data acquisition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andriola, L.; Ceccacci, R.
2001-01-01
The environment analysis is the basis of environmental management for organizations and it is considered as the first step in EMAS. It allows to identify, deal with the issues and have a clear knowledge on environmental performances of organizations. Schools can be included in the organizations. Nevertheless, the complexity of environmental issues and applicable regulations makes very difficult for a school, that wants to implement an environmental management system (EMAS, ISO 14001, etc.), to face this first step. So, it has been defined an instrument, that is easy but complete and coherent with reference standard, to let schools choose their process for elaborating the initial environmental revue. This instrument consists, essentially, in cards that, if completed, facilitate the drafting of the environmental analysis report [it
Fatigue Analysis of Tubesheet/Shell Juncture Applying the Mitigation Factor for Over-conservatism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Deog Ji; Kim, Kyu Hyoung; Lee, Jae Gon
2009-01-01
If the environmental fatigue requirements are applied to the primary components of a nuclear power plant, to which the present ASME Code fatigue curves are applied, some locations with high level CUF (Cumulative Usage Factor) are anticipated not to meet the code criteria. The application of environmental fatigue damage is still particularly controversial for plants with 60-year design lives. Therefore, it is need to develop a detailed fatigue analysis procedure to identify the conservatisms in the procedure and to lower the cumulative usage factor. Several factors are being considered to mitigate the conservatism such as three-dimensional finite element modeling. In the present analysis, actual pressure transient data instead of conservative maximum and minimum pressure data was applied as one of mitigation factors. Unlike in the general method, individual transient events were considered instead of the grouped transient events. The tubesheet/shell juncture in the steam generator assembly is the one of the weak locations and was, therefore, selected as a target to evaluate the mitigation factor in the present analysis