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Sample records for analysis issues relating

  1. ISSUES RELATED TO A REASONABLENESS OF EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Eliza MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In most companies, there is ongoing conflict between managers in charge of covering costs (finance and accounting and managers in charge of satisfying customers (marketing and sales. Accounting journals warn against prices that fail to cover full costs, while marketing journals argue that customer willingness-to-pay must be the sole driver of prices. This article will further explain these reasons to conduct an independent reasonableness of executive/professional practitioner compensation analysis. In addition, this article will discuss many of the typical factors that the independent analyst will consider in assessing the reasonableness of executive compensation for controversy, taxation, corporate planning, and corporate governance purposes.

  2. Framing Islam-related issues during GE13: An analysis of Malaysian mainstream newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Maznina A.Manaf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The two major political coalitions in Malaysia are Barisan Nasional  (BN and Pakatan Rakyat (PR, which are dominated by the Malay-Muslim majority. During the 13th national election, to gain public votes, the government used mainstream newspapers to frame Islam-related issues. This research focuses on the characterisation and information reported about Islam and Muslims during the 13th General Election. Using content analysis, we examine the coverage of such issues by the mainstream newspapers: Berita Harian, Utusan Malaysia, New Straits Times, and The Star. This analysis aims to provide a holistic review of the scope of the coverage during the period with a focus on how the Malaysian government framed Islam-related issues through the print media in order to gain the Malay votes. A total of 178 news articles were analysed, from which we found that 15 dominant issues were reported in the newspapers during that period. Among the most frequently reported Islam-related issues were hudud (prescribed punishments, Islamic state, and kalimah Allah (the word “Allah”, which were predominantly covered by the Malay newspapers. In addition, the data indicated that most of the news were inclined towards supporting the ruling coalition, i.e., Barisan Nasional.

  3. Methodological and theoretical issues in the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    S Walby

    1994-01-01

    The aim in this paper is to contribute to the development of a research agenda for the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe. Its focus is the clarification of the methodological and theoretical issues involved. Several different indices of gender inequality are assessed. It is argued that it is important to distinguish between the form and degree of patriarchy, rather than assuming that these are closely associated. Data from the EC and Scandinavia are used to illustrate...

  4. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  5. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  6. How Older Adults and Their Families Perceive Family Talk about Aging-Related EOL Issues: A Dialectical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Nichole; Child, Jeffrey T; Lin, Mei-Chen; Savery, Carol; Bosley, Tammy

    2017-04-17

    For older adults, approaching end-of-life (EOL) brings unique transitions related to family relationships. Unfortunately, most families greatly underestimate the need to discuss these difficult issues. For example, parents approaching EOL issues often struggle with receiving assistance from others, avoiding family conflict, and maintaining their sense of personhood. In addition, discussions of EOL issues force family members to face their parents' mortality, which can be particularly difficult for adult children to process emotionally. This study explored aging issues identified by aging parents and their families as they traverse these impending EOL changes. Ten focus groups of seniors ( n = 65) were conducted. Focus groups were organized according to race (African-American/European-American), gender, and whether the older adult was living independently or in an assisted care facility. When asked open-ended questions about discussing aging and EOL issues with family members, participants revealed tensions that led us to consider Relational Dialectics Theory as a framework for analysis. The predominant tension highlighted in this report was certainty versus uncertainty, with the two sub-themes of sustained life versus sustained personhood and confronting versus avoiding EOL issues. For these data, there were more similarities than differences as a result of gender, race, or living situation than one might expect, although culture and financial status were found to be influential in the avoidance of EOL discussions. The results of this study help to provide additional insight into relational dialectics related to aging, EOL, and the importance of communication in facilitating family coping.

  7. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  8. A Review of Issues Related to Data Acquisition and Analysis in EEG/MEG Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puce, Aina; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2017-05-31

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are non-invasive electrophysiological methods, which record electric potentials and magnetic fields due to electric currents in synchronously-active neurons. With MEG being more sensitive to neural activity from tangential currents and EEG being able to detect both radial and tangential sources, the two methods are complementary. Over the years, neurophysiological studies have changed considerably: high-density recordings are becoming de rigueur; there is interest in both spontaneous and evoked activity; and sophisticated artifact detection and removal methods are available. Improved head models for source estimation have also increased the precision of the current estimates, particularly for EEG and combined EEG/MEG. Because of their complementarity, more investigators are beginning to perform simultaneous EEG/MEG studies to gain more complete information about neural activity. Given the increase in methodological complexity in EEG/MEG, it is important to gather data that are of high quality and that are as artifact free as possible. Here, we discuss some issues in data acquisition and analysis of EEG and MEG data. Practical considerations for different types of EEG and MEG studies are also discussed.

  9. A Review of Issues Related to Data Acquisition and Analysis in EEG/MEG Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Puce

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG are non-invasive electrophysiological methods, which record electric potentials and magnetic fields due to electric currents in synchronously-active neurons. With MEG being more sensitive to neural activity from tangential currents and EEG being able to detect both radial and tangential sources, the two methods are complementary. Over the years, neurophysiological studies have changed considerably: high-density recordings are becoming de rigueur; there is interest in both spontaneous and evoked activity; and sophisticated artifact detection and removal methods are available. Improved head models for source estimation have also increased the precision of the current estimates, particularly for EEG and combined EEG/MEG. Because of their complementarity, more investigators are beginning to perform simultaneous EEG/MEG studies to gain more complete information about neural activity. Given the increase in methodological complexity in EEG/MEG, it is important to gather data that are of high quality and that are as artifact free as possible. Here, we discuss some issues in data acquisition and analysis of EEG and MEG data. Practical considerations for different types of EEG and MEG studies are also discussed.

  10. Gender relations and economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US.

  11. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  12. The Press Relations of a Local School District: An Analysis of the Emergence of School Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jon R.; Guenter, Cornelius

    Press coverage of a suburban midwest school district is analyzed as a set of time series of observations including the amount and quality of coverage. Possible shifts in these series because of the emergence of controversial issues are analyzed statistically using the Integrated Moving Average Time Series Model. Evidence of significant shifts in…

  13. Analysis of articles in weekly magazines on scientific issues related to Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Kazumi; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2012-01-01

    The large area was polluted by the radioactive fallout released after the nuclear fuel meltdown of Fukushima first nuclear plant of Tokyo electric power company. The news media that reported the accident were required to have scientific knowledge on the structure of the nuclear reactor and the physics and health issues of the radioactivity. In this paper, we focus on how the weekly magazines reported this critical accident. The weekly magazines are not regarded as a neutral news media. Rather, their articles in general strongly reflect the editorial opinions. In this sense, the weekly magazines are 'biased media'. So, there are many points to discuss from the view point of the science communication. We analyze the articles appeared in the seven major weekly magazines published during the first half year after the earthquake. We found that the differences in the scientific literacy between magazines are reflected, for example, in selection of the experts who made comments in articles. (author)

  14. Geometrically motivated hyperbolic coordinate conditions for numerical relativity: Analysis, issues and implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Carles; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela-Luque, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    We study the implications of adopting hyperbolic-driver coordinate conditions motivated by geometrical considerations. In particular, conditions that minimize the rate of change of the metric variables. We analyze the properties of the resulting system of equations and their effect when implementing excision techniques. We find that commonly used coordinate conditions lead to a characteristic structure at the excision surface where some modes are not of outflow type with respect to any excision boundary chosen inside the horizon. Thus, boundary conditions are required for these modes. Unfortunately, the specification of these conditions is a delicate issue as the outflow modes involve both gauge and main variables. As an alternative to these driver equations, we examine conditions derived from extremizing a scalar constructed from Killing's equation and present specific numerical examples

  15. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  16. Cancer survivors. Work related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela N; Beck, Martha L; Stava, Charles; Sellin, Rena V

    2002-05-01

    New and more effective treatments for cancer have resulted in individuals living longer with a better quality of life. Many more survivors are employed in the workplace. Cancer is no longer only an issue for survivors and their families; it has become an issue for the employer and the workplace. This article describes survey results of 4,364 long term cancer survivors in which they were asked to respond to items describing their ability to work, job discrimination, and quality of life. Thirty-five percent of survivors were working at the time they completed the survey, and 8.5% considered themselves unable to work. This research has shown that age, gender, ethnic group, and cancer type affected the working status of the survivors. Of survivors continuing to work, 7.3% indicated they had experienced job discrimination. The results indicate most cancer survivors do not perceive employment related problems, and are readily assimilated into the work force. Job discrimination and the ability to work is a quality of life issue.

  17. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development IV: Fish Mortality Resulting From Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbak, Susan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reichle, Donna R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shriner, Carole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide summary information for use by potential developers and regulators of small-scale hydroelectric projects (defined as existing dams that can be retrofitted to a total site capacity of ≤30 MW), where turbine-related mortality of fish is a potential issue affecting site-specific development. Mitigation techniques for turbine-related mortality are not covered in this report.

  18. Accounting-related transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, M.; Bjorn, P.; Pate, G.

    1999-01-01

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  19. Robustness-related issues in speaker recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an overview of speaker recognition technologies with an emphasis on dealing with robustness issues. Firstly, the book gives an overview of speaker recognition, such as the basic system framework, categories under different criteria, performance evaluation and its development history. Secondly, with regard to robustness issues, the book presents three categories, including environment-related issues, speaker-related issues and application-oriented issues. For each category, the book describes the current hot topics, existing technologies, and potential research focuses in the future. The book is a useful reference book and self-learning guide for early researchers working in the field of robust speech recognition.

  20. Brain death and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.; Mushtaq, S.; Jamil, K.; Ahmed, S.

    2003-01-01

    Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)

  1. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  2. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  3. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue 57: Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, H.W.

    1993-10-01

    Actuation of Fire Protection Systems (FPS) in Nuclear Power Plants have resulted in adverse interactions with equipment important to safety. Precursor operational experience has shown that 37% of all FPS actuations damaged some equipment, and 20% of all FPS actuations have resulted in a plant transient and reactor trip. On an average 0.17 FPS actuations per reactor year have been experienced in nuclear power plants in this country. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment''. The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations contained in this report can significantly reduce risk, and that these improvements can be warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). However, plant specific analyses are required in order to identify such improvements. Generic analyses can not serve to identify improvements that could be warranted for individual, specific plants. Plant specific analyses of the type needed for this purpose are underway as part of the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program

  4. Development of core technology for KNGR system design; detailed analysis and related issue evaluation for MMI testing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon University, Whasung (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This study evaluated man-machine interface (MMI) features of the advanced control room of Korea Next Generation Reactor. Major issues to be evaluated included: (1) supportability of large display panel (LDP) during passive monitoring (2) supportability of work station display (WSD) for interpretation and planning (3) supportability of combination of alarm, WSD, LDP and computerized procedure system (CPS) for interpretation and planning during single and multiple fault event, (4) supportability of softcontrol (SC) during simple operator-paced control task, (5) supportability of softcontrol (SC) during conditional operator-paced control task, and (6) supportability of alarm system for emergent operation procedure. Four operator teams of RO, TO, and SRO participated the test scenarios consisting of AOP and EOP. Performance data measuring situation awareness, workload, operation errors, and team work and operators' opinions for MMI features of advanced control room were collected during the experiment. Operators showed positive responses for issues (1) supportability of LDP during passive monitoring (2) supportability of WSD for interpretation and planning (3) supportability of combination of alarm, WSD, LDP and CPS for interpretation and planning during single and multiple fault event, (4) supportability of alarm system for normal operation procedure, while they suggested some needs to improve for issues: (1) supportability of softcontrol (SC) during simple and conditional operator-paced control task, (2) supportability of alarm system for emergent situation. 7 refs., 36 figs., 83 tabs. (Author)

  5. Issues related to field testing in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts

  6. Problems and Issues Related to Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Symposium participants identified policy issues in these areas related to alternative education for at-risk youth: choice, equity, public perception, definition, philosophy, stakeholder involvement, evaluation, staffing, curriculum, governance, and financing. Public discourse and policy discussion were considered essential to implementing…

  7. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  8. Global sensitivity analysis of a model related to memory formation in synapses: Model reduction based on epistemic parameter uncertainties and related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasiri, Don; Liang, Jingyi; He, Yao; Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2017-04-21

    We investigate the epistemic uncertainties of parameters of a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of CaMKII-NMDAR complex related to memory formation in synapses using global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The model, which was published in this journal, is nonlinear and complex with Ca 2+ patterns with different level of frequencies as inputs. We explore the effects of parameter on the key outputs of the model to discover the most sensitive ones using GSA and partial ranking correlation coefficient (PRCC) and to understand why they are sensitive and others are not based on the biology of the problem. We also extend the model to add presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles release to have action potentials as inputs of different frequencies. We perform GSA on this extended model to show that the parameter sensitivities are different for the extended model as shown by PRCC landscapes. Based on the results of GSA and PRCC, we reduce the original model to a less complex model taking the most important biological processes into account. We validate the reduced model against the outputs of the original model. We show that the parameter sensitivities are dependent on the inputs and GSA would make us understand the sensitivities and the importance of the parameters. A thorough phenomenological understanding of the relationships involved is essential to interpret the results of GSA and hence for the possible model reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 8 Center; the U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan; and the U.S.-China Energy...January 25, 2010. 28 Liu Shengjun, “How to Better Use Forex Reserves,” China Daily, January 13, 2010. 29 Paul R. La Monica, “China Still Likes Us…For...or commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration technology, improve energy efficiency , or renewable energy sources. H.R. 2454 Waxman

  10. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JLO COMPANY ESTABLISHMENT ISSUE IN ONLINE MEDIA AND MEDIA RELATIONS TREATMENT OF JASA MARGA COMPANY (ANALISIS WACANA ISU PENDIRIAN PT. JLO DI MEDIA ONLINE DAN TREATMENT MEDIA RELATIONS PT. JASA MARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icha Bella Widawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. discourse Analysis of Coverage in the Online Media Liputan6.com. Regarding to Establishment Issue of New Subsidiary PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi ( PT . JLO . The research is about coverage analysis to see the implementatiom issue management through me-dia relations activations at online media by Jasa Marga’s Public Relations Officer. This study aims to determine the discourse analysis of coverage regarding to establishment issue of new subsidiary PT. JLO in the online media and to see how Jasa Marga’s public relations of-ficer exercises issue management through media relations activations to handle the issues. Using the discourse analysis method with Halliday model of analysis. The results showed that the discourse in the news are based on fact that really happened. News content is served with a different point of view and very objective. The Media shows its position as a netral posi-tion between two sides of subjects, objective, and reporting the truth to the public. it shows that media relations activations is not bring much influence to the emerging issues and nega-tive news in the media. The conclusion of this study is the coverage was experiencing news balance between negative tone and positive tone after PRO did the media relations activations. But does not eliminate the negative news regarding the issue of the establish-ment of a subsidiary JLO. Abstrak. artikel ini merupakan sebuah analisis wacana pemberitaan di Media Online Liputan6.com mengenai Isu Pendirian Anak Usaha Baru PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi (PT. JLO serta melihat Implementasi Manajemen Isu Melalui Media Relations pada Media Online yang Dilakukan Oleh Humas Jasa Marga dengan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menge-tahui analisis wacana dari Informasi pemberitaan mengenai isu pendirian anak usaha baru Jasa Marga, PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi (JLO di media online Liputan6.com dan melihat bagaimana manajemen isu melalui kegiatan media relations dilakukan untuk mengatasi isu

  11. Labour Rights Protection in Industrial Relations Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Adi Susanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many violations of the terms of employment at Surabaya, employment protection  and working conditions for workers who are not provided by employers to the maximum, according to the legislation in force, while the legal protection for workers constrained because of the weakness in the system of employment law, both the substance and the culture built by governments and companies. How To Cite: Susanto, E. (2015. Labour Rights Protection in Industrial Relations Issues. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 109-120. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.78

  12. Exploring work-related issues on corporate sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I

    2015-01-01

    In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.

  13. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  14. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  15. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    global issues on which the Obama Administration has sought to work with China are the international financial crisis, climate change, and nuclear non-proliferation. In remarks in July 2009, President Obama declared that partnership between the United States and China was a prerequisite for progress on many of the most pressing global challenges. Continuing major bilateral issues in the relationship include trade and...into the Obama Administration, U.S. officials point to some successes in their efforts to work with China on global issues , including

  16. Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney C. Abreu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

  17. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  18. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  19. Issues related to cooperative implementation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This note by the secretariat seeks to focus discussions on some key issues regarding the design and functioning of the three new mechanisms, such as issues concerning mandates, cross-cutting as well as issues concerning individual mechanisms. The note addresses each mechanism separately in view of different origins, approaches, participants and possible applications. Reference is, however, made to similarities among the mechanisms, in particular where coordination of work on methodological and institutional issues and inter-institutional collaboration are concerned. The note suggests, in its concluding part, elements of a work programme up to and, to some extent, beyond COP 4. It draws upon the views submitted by Parties (document FCCC/SB/1998/MISC.1), contains reflections by the secretariat and builds on its consultations with other organizations having activities, under way or planned, that could contribute to the design or operation of the mechanisms. (au)

  20. Global issues related to enteric viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination of infants has significantly reduced rotavirus disease and mortality.

  1. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems A review of the security and privacy related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. METHODS: Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in

  2. Epidemiological issues related to dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    When a dose reconstruction is performed around some nuclear site, a decision has to be made as to whether an epidemiologic study should be performed there and, if so, what form the study should take. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of epidemiologic and biostatistical issues that help determine whether an epidemiologic study around a nuclear facility is worthwhile doing from a scientific standpoint. We are all aware that public health and sociopolitical concerns often assume considerable importance in these decisions, but they will not be considered here. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  4. Management issues in automated audit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Hochberg, J.G.; Wilhelmy, S.K.; McClary, J.F.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses management issues associated with the design and implementation of an automated audit analysis system that we use to detect security events. It gives the viewpoint of a team directly responsible for developing and managing such a system. We use Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) as a case in point. We examine issues encountered at Los Alamos, detail our solutions to them, and where appropriate suggest general solutions. After providing an introduction to NADIR, we explore four general management issues: cost-benefit questions, privacy considerations, legal issues, and system integrity. Our experiences are of general interest both to security professionals and to anyone who may wish to implement a similar system. While NADIR investigates security events, the methods used and the management issues are potentially applicable to a broad range of complex systems. These include those used to audit credit card transactions, medical care payments, and procurement systems.

  5. Statistical analysis of aging trend of mechanical properties in ethylene propylene rubber-insulated safety-related cables sampled from containments (Denryoko Chuo Kenkyusho Hokoku, December 2013 issue)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Norikazu; Kanegami, Masaki; Misaka, Hideki; Homma, Hiroya; Okamoto, Tatsuki

    2013-01-01

    As for polymeric insulations used in nuclear power plant safety cables, it is known that the present prediction model sometimes estimates the service life conservatively. In order to sophisticate the model to reflect to the aging in containments, disconnections between the prediction and realities are needed to be clarified. In the present paper, statistical analysis has been carried out on various aging status of insulations removed from domestic containments. Aging in operational environment is found to be slower than the one expected from acceleration aging test results. Temperature dependence of estimated lifetime on Arrhenius plot also suggests that elementary chemical reaction dominant under the two aging conditions is different, which results in apparent difference in activation energies and pre-exponential factors. Following two kinds of issues are found necessary to be clarified for the model sophistication; temperature change in predominant degradation chemical processes, and the effect of low oxygen concentration environment in boiling water reactor type containment. (author)

  6. Economic issues relating to power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.N.; Mohan, Rakesh

    1998-01-01

    Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promote equitable growth. The slow pace of progress is a matter for concern. Effectiveness of many of the policy initiatives of government is also dependent on providing well thought out policy supports. (author)

  7. Editorial: Special Issue on Experimental Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Roger

    2018-04-01

    The vibratory analyses are particularly present today in the various fields of industry, from aeronautics to manufacturing, from machining and maintenance to civil engineering, to mention a few areas, which have made this special issue a true need. The International Journal of Mechanics & Industry compiles a Special Issue on Experimental Vibration Analysis. More than thirty manuscripts were received by the international scientific committee on the 6th congress AVE2016 and only eight papers have been selected after completing a careful and rigorous peer-review process for the Special Issue, which are briefly summarized below.

  8. Issues related to the Fermion mass problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz Adam

    1998-09-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Each illustrates a different aspect of the fermion mass issue in elementary particle physics. In the first part, the possibility of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of uniform magnetic and electric fields is investigated. The system is studied nonperturbatively with the use of basis functions compatible with the external field configuration, the parabolic cylinder functions. It is found that chiral symmetry, broken by a uniform magnetic field, is restored by electric field. Obtained result is nonperturbative in nature: even the tiniest deviation of the electric field from zero restores chiral symmetry. In the second part, heavy quarkonium systems are investigated. To study these systems, a phenomenological nonrelativistic model is built. Approximate solutions to this model are found with the use of a specially designed Pade approximation and by direct numerical integration of Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with experimental measurements of respective meson masses. Good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results is found. Advantages and shortcommings of the new approximation method are analysed. In the third part, an extension of the standard model of elementary particles is studied. The extension, called the aspon model, was originally introduced to cure the so called strong CP problem. In addition to fulfilling its original purpose, the aspon model modifies the couplings of the standard model quarks to the Z boson. As a result, the decay rates of the Z boson to quarks are altered. By using the recent precise measurements of the decay rates Z → bb and Z /to [/it c/=c], new constraints on the aspon model parameters are found.

  9. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.220 Related Title III issues. Other related Title III requirements...

  10. Nuclear power and related safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, Eulinia M.

    2009-01-01

    There are a cluster of trends that reinforce the importance of nuclear power on the world scene. Energy is the essential underpinning for economic and societal progress and, as the developing world advances, the demand for energy is growing significantly. At the same time, the carbon-intensive sources of energy on which the world has traditionally relied - in particular, coal, oil, and natural gas - pose grave threats because the growing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will bring about climate and ocean acidification. At the same time, rising and volatile fossil fuel prices, coupled with concerns about the security of supplies of oil and gas, enhance interest in sources of energy that do not pose the same costs and risks. As an important part of the world's response to these threats, many countries are embarking on either new or expanded nuclear power programs, more commonly referred to as a nuclear renaissance. The construction of nuclear power plants is under consideration in over thirty countries that do not currently use nuclear power. For new entrants that may have experience in constructing and operating large-scale industrial and infrastructure projects, they may not be fully familiar with the unique requirements of nuclear power and may not be fully recognize the major commitments and understandings that they must assume. Additionally, an understanding of the full range of obligations may have diminished in those countries with only one or a few reactors and where nuclear construction has not been undertaken for a long time. It is therefore in the interest of all to ensure that every country with a nuclear power program has the resources, expertise, authority and capacity to assure safety in a complete and effective manner and is committed to doing so. This presentation will outline some of the more important national infrastructure considerations including nuclear safety issues for launching a nuclear power program. An update on the

  11. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences...... feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context...

  12. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 4 - Analysis of opportunity costs and issues related to regional energy resilience. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Based on the outputs from the first three tasks, a suite of coherent pathways towards the overall target of 75% residential local energy consumption was created, and the costs and benefits for the region were calculated. This was undertaken via a scenario analysis which also highlighted the risks and robustness of the different options within the pathways. In addition to a direct economic comparison between the different pathways, more qualitative issues were described, including potential local employment, environmental benefits and disadvantages, etc. The main tool utilised in this analysis was a tailor made Excel energy model that includes mechanisms for analysing improvements in the CVRD energy system down to an area level, for example renewable energy in residential buildings, renewable energy generation, and the effects of energy efficiency improvements. For the industrial, commercial, and transport sectors, simple and generic forecasts and input possibilities were included in the model. The Excel 'technology cost' and 'energy' models are accompanied with a user manual so that planners within the CVRD can become well

  13. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting 1998 (Issues) presents a series of nine papers covering topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98), as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets. AEO98, DOE/EIA-0383(98), published in December 1997, presents national forecasts of energy production, demand, imports, and prices through the year 2020 for five cases -- a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. The forecasts were prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), using EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The papers included in Issues describe underlying analyses for the projections in AEO98 and the forthcoming Annual Energy Outlook 1999 and for other products of EIA`s Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Their purpose is to provide public access to analytical work done in preparation for the midterm projections and other unpublished analyses. Specific topics were chosen for their relevance to current energy issues or to highlight modeling activities in NEMS. 59 figs., 44 tabs.

  14. Summary of activities on CSS related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriaux, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are two nuclear power plants. One 60Mw BWR for research purposes in Dodewaard, and one PWR 450 Mw IN Borssele. Both of these NPPs are undergoing an extensive upgrading. These plants use several CSS-like systems. These systems are primarily aimed to support and monitor safe and correct operation of the process or to detect specific (e.g. mechanical) problems in an early stage. The NPP in Dodewaard is upgrading its training simulator and process presentation system (''Datalogger''). The activities related to the CRP are mainly within the framework of the Dodewaard plant. This final national report will give an overview of these activities with particular emphasis on the replacement of the Datalogger system. Some additional information is given on trends in CSSs as used in fossil power plants. (author). 2 figs

  15. Ethical issues related to screening for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M; Hedley, Paula L; Gjerris, Mickey; Christiansen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2-8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening test for PE does not only involve an evaluation of technical feasibility and clinical efficacy, it also requires an analysis of how the test influences the conditions and choices for those tested. This study evaluates state-of-the-art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Web Based Research Mapping and Analysis: ICT-AGRI's Meta Knowledge Base Centralizes ICT and Robotics Development in Agriculture and Related Environmental Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen C. Mertens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample research is conducted on ICT, automation and robotics in agriculture and related environmental issues. ICT and Robotics innovations are rapidly emerging and have the ability to revolutionize future farming through their major impacts on productivity and profitability. Unfortunately human and financial resources and efforts are fragmented and limited. This led to the creation of the ICT-AGRI ERA-NET that provides a central structured framework. Its main objective is to strengthen and coordinate European research regarding ICT and robotics in agriculture. Besides the creation of the Meta Knowledge Base (MKB, a common European research agenda will be developed and common research calls are launched. The Meta Knowledge Base (http://db-ictagri.eu is attempting to map all relevant research and development within the selected research area. To accomplish the mapping, two types of information are collected: research profiles and research postings. To organize the postings, a three-dimensional task-technology oriented framework was designed. The results indicated that the three axes: task, technology and scope seemed insufficient to describe the whole research area. Therefore, an improved framework was developed. By extending the task-technology oriented framework with a process-control–information system, a useful framework was designed.

  17. Emerging Issues and Opportunities Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Sharlene A.

    This paper discusses 14 issues related to gender equity in intercollegiate athletics, including: (1) the cost dilemma, in which institutions have to cut men's sports to introduce women's sports; (2) equal pay for the coaches of men's and women's teams; (3) the gender of coaches, namely men coaching women's teams; (4) peer harassment among…

  18. On the Issue of Labor Relations Discontinuance by Staff Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to consideration of issues related to the procedure of labor law contract termination by staff reduction. The author, analyzing the judicial practice, gives practical recommendations on the procedure of employment relationships discontinuance

  19. Assessment of combustion and related issues in the DWPF and ITP waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a review of the safety analyses described in the DWPF Safety Analysis Report, the combustion analysis of the ITP Tanks 48 and 49, and presents conclusions drawn from interviews staff on issues related to accident analysis, in particular on issues related to combustion phenomena. The major objectives of this report are to clarify the issues related to the modes of combustion and expected loads on process vessels and structures and, in addition, to offer recommendations which would improve the defense-in-depth posture of the DWPF

  20. Public Relations Manager Involvement in Strategic Issue Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzen, Martha M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study that seeks to build theoretical understanding of how public relations practitioner involvement in one type of strategic organizational decision making--strategic issue diagnosis--is related to shared values with top management, diagnosis accuracy, strategy pursued, and the power of the public relations function. (TB)

  1. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.

    1999-01-01

    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  2. Variations analysis of the Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Zambrano B, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues is understood as the relative importance the society gives to various topics that collectively conform the environmental issues. Based on the hypothesis that this structure behavior and its definition vary with time, proposals are presented related to the concepts and a working plan allowing performing the structure's dynamic analysis. A method is described to gather information based on the systematic reading of a nation wide newspaper during a period time. A comparison is done between the resulting structure and several aspects as the environmental legislation, government plans and summits and environmental milestones

  3. Engineering approach to relative quantitative assessment of safety culture and related social issues in NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon, V.; Gladyshev, M.; Malkin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The report is devoted to presentation of engineering approach and software tool developed for Safety Culture (SC) assessment as well as to the results of their implementation at Smolensk NPP. The engineering approach is logic evolution of the IAEA ASSET method broadly used at European NPPs in 90-s. It was implemented at Russian and other plants including Olkiluoto NPP in Finland. The approach allows relative quantitative assessing and trending the aspects of SC by the analysis of evens features and causes, calculation and trending corresponding indicators. At the same time plant's operational performances and related social issues, including efficiency of plant operation and personnel reliability, can be monitored. With the help of developed tool the joint team combined from personnel of Smolensk NPP and RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' ('KI') issued the SC self-assessment report, which identifies: families of recurrent events, main safety and operational problems ; their trends and importance to SC and plant efficiency; recommendations to enhance SC and operational performance

  4. 76 FR 63573 - Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-10] Roundtable on Issues Relating to Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... Consumer Protection Act (the ``Act''), which relates to reporting requirements regarding conflict minerals... of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries. On December...

  5. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  6. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development

  7. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development.

  8. U.S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    Time,” Economia , Fall 2003. 49 Esquivel, Gerardo, and José Antonio Rodríguez-López, “Technology, trade, and wage inequality in Mexico before and after...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications...25 JAN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S.- Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and

  9. Issues related to EM management of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Roberson, K.; Meloin, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    This document is a summary of the important issues involved in managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). Issues related to civilian SNF activities are not discussed. DOE-owned SNF is stored primarily at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and West Valley Demonstration Project. Smaller quantities of SNF are stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a wide variety of fuel types, including both low and high enrichment fuels from weapons production, DOE reactors, research and development programs, naval programs, and universities. Most fuel is stored in pools associated with reactor or reprocessing facilities. Smaller quantities are in dry storage. Physical conditions of the fuel range from excellent to poor or severely damaged. An issue is defined as an important question that must be answered or decision that must be made on a topic or subject relevant to achieving the complimentary objectives of (a) storing SNF in compliance with applicable regulations and orders until it can be disposed, and (b) safely disposing of DOE's SNF. The purpose of this document is to define the issues; no recommendations are made on resolutions. As DOE's national SNF management program is implemented, a system of issues identification, documentation, tracking, and resolution will be implemented. This document is an initial effort at issues identification. The first section of this document is an overview of issues that are common to several or all DOE facilities that manage SNF. The common issues are organized according to specific aspects of spent fuel management. This is followed by discussions of management issues that apply specifically to individual DOE facilities. The last section provides literature references

  10. Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials

  11. Attachment-related mental representations: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2008-12-01

    Bowlby's concept of mental working models of self, attachment figures, and the social world has been theoretically generative as a bridge between early relational experience and the beliefs and expectations that color later relationships. Contemporary attachment researchers, following his example, are applying new knowledge of children's conceptual development to their study of attachment-related mental representations in children and adults. The contributors to this special issue highlight recent advances in how the mental representations arising from attachment security should be conceptualized and studied, and identify a number of important directions for future work. This paper introduces the special issue by summarizing the major ideas of Bowlby and his followers concerning the nature and development of mental working models, points of theoretical clarity and uncertainty, and challenges in assessing these representations, as well as profiling each of the contributions to this issue.

  12. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled.

  13. An exploration of issues relating to feminism and nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, B; Biley, F C

    1992-08-01

    This paper explores the issue of feminism in relation to nursing and nurse education. As a result of this exploration, the authors suggest there is a need for a move away from traditional patriarchal approaches to nurse education, towards an educational programme based on empowerment principles that maximises the potential of feminine patterns of thinking.

  14. Ethical issues in trauma-related research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elana; Risch, Elizabeth; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2006-09-01

    ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING ABOUT TRAUMA-RELATED STUDIES requires a flexible approach that counters assumptions and biases about victims, assures a favorable ethical cost-benefit ratio, and promotes advancement of knowledge that can benefit survivors of traumatic stress. This paper reviews several ethical issues in the field of traumatic stress: benefit and risks in trauma-related research, whether trauma-related research poses unique risks and if so what those might be, informed consent and mandatory reporting, and supervision of trauma-related research. For each topic, we review potential ethical issues, summarize the research conducted thus far to inform ethical practice, and recommend future practice, research questions and policies to advance the field so that research on trauma can continue to be a win-win situation for all stakeholders in the research enterprise.

  15. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, C P; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; MacFarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  16. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, C P; Leslie, K E; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; Macfarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods

  17. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-03-01

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  18. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce. It is predicted that this trend will go on. The study on electronic commerce could be summed up into three main components: First, according to the phase of the trade, it could be divided into advertisement, purchase, delivery and payment. Second, issues on electronic commerce in the international trade; such as the issue that leads to the unfairness and non-neutrality of the searching engine in international service trade. Besides, domain name, trademarks and the issue of middleman which exist at the moment in the electronic commerce are activated and will also be discussed. Third, issues of the trade policy related to the electronic commerce. For instance, the kernel principles which support the multi-trade regulation, including transparency, indiscrimination, anti-dumping, flexible trade, government arrangement, tariff and competition policy and so on. Under this background, we should explore way in formulating hypotheses with preconceived issues, validating the electronic commerce trade on the spot, actualizing the study on the application of electronic commerce coming with the GATS regulation, seeking the countermeasure in the future trade policy, such as benefit policy to the electronic commerce department and electronic commerce strategy approach of certain enterprises, etc.

  19. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  20. Legal issues relating to the Ontario FIT contract - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the legal issues related to the Ontario FIT contract, which includes the FIT waiver agreement, WTO challenge, FIT extension, political risk assessment and issues related to unforeseen events beyond human control (force majeure). The risk of termination of the FIT waiver is omitted for convenience by OPA but timing implications relating to the FIT waiver are included. The binding agreement for supply of generating equipment is also presented and the term sheet for turbine equipment and bill of purchase being understood as binding agreements is questioned. Political risks relate to existing contracts, lawsuit risks and changes to the REA process. Change in government and the implications of minority government can be added to the political risks. A successful WTO challenge has been assumed and the possible implications are discussed. Some of them include risk to FIT contracts already issued; changes in DC requirements and in FIT contract pricing and re-pricing of construction and turbine equipment supply contracts if DC requirements are relaxed.

  1. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 2: Human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; Technical issues related to rulemakings; Risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; High burn-up fuel research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following: (1) human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; (2) technical issues related to rulemakings; (3) risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; and (4) high burn-up fuel research

  2. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 2: Human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; Technical issues related to rulemakings; Risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; High burn-up fuel research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following: (1) human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; (2) technical issues related to rulemakings; (3) risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; and (4) high burn-up fuel research. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Issues related to development of Indian photovoltaic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    1993-01-01

    As is the case of most energy deficient countries in the tropics, India offers an enormous potential for use of photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the demand in true commercial sense has not yet been created. The constraints for market development are not only related to the cost but also to several local parameters. The paper highlights these issues and constraints and suggests a market development strategy. (author)

  4. The united fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A. V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The United Fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues was created in Russian-Belarusian Information Center on the Problems of the Consequences of the Catastrophe at Chernobyl NPP branch RSRUE 'Institute of Radiology' Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus. It contains accumulated during the post-Chernobyl period systematized maps, scientific and practical, educational, documentary, journalistic, artistic, photographic and other information. (authors)

  5. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    China called for a boycott on Japanese goods and defaced Japanese retail stores. Japanese auto manufacturers experienced sharp declines in sales in...TPP is now an agreement under negotiation among the original four countries plus the United States, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Malaysia , and...Inside U.S. Trade, April 27, 2012. 44 World Trade Online , April 5, 2012. Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 25

  6. Environmentally related taxes in OECD countries: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Economic instruments, including environmentally related taxes, play an increasing role in the environmental policies of developed countries. This publication addresses the use of environmental taxes and their effectiveness in reducing environmental damage. It finds these taxes are a powerful tool for implementing environmental strategy. It also describes obstacles to increased use of such taxes (e.g. concerns about competitiveness and distributional effects) and suggests ways to overcome such barriers. Particular attention is given to issues and options related to taxes on greenhouse gases. 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  8. LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION ISSUES RELATED TO MIGRANTS ARRIVING TO HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Miklos Komives

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration flows appearing in the recent years have gained central relevance in Hungary. Previously people were having no opinion about the current situation of issues related to migration but the increased media attention lead to the development of mixed attitudes among people. Some people feel sorry for the families who are coming from the war zones and lost their homes, others have fear of losing their position at work, or their families because of the acts they have heard from the media and they are hostile to the issue of integration whether it is about education or the labour market. According to the statistical data; in the third quarter of 2015, more than hundred thousand asylum-seekers arrived to Hungary, which dropped drastically in the fourth quarter caused by the significant transformation of the asylum process. This study is intended to serve two objectives: first describe the comprehensive picture of labour market attitudes towards migrants and secondly to identify factors that affect the employment of foreigners in Hungary using secondary data sources. Based on this analysis those questions can be formulated, which may constitute a basis for further labour market researches for the integration of migrants. From our point of view there are vital aspects of the migrants’ successful social integration; we have to integrate the migrants who are coming to our country and plan to stay for a longer time to the field of education and the labour market. The social integration of migrants in a country is closely linked to employment, to the integration into the labour market, and in many cases one of the obstacles in this regard is the prejudiced behaviour and negative attitudes towards migrants which manifests itself as the discrimination in the labour market. The results of the European Commission confirm that in Hungary the ethnicity as a variable appears to be the second on the list of the most serious discrimination factors

  9. Issues related to the use of genetic material and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, E; Jacobs, L A

    2000-04-01

    To review issues regarding the use of genetic materials and information. Professional literature, regional and federal legislation. An analysis is provided of the relationship among advances in genetic technology, use of genetic material and information, and the development of laws that protect the interests of donors, researchers, and insurers. Rapid technological achievements have generated complex questions that are difficult to answer. The Human Genome Project began and the scientific discoveries were put to use before adequate professional and public debate on the ethical, legal, social, and clinical issues. The term "proper use" of genetic material and information is not defined consistently. An incomplete patchwork of protective state and federal legislation exists. Many complicated issues surround the use and potential misuse of genetic material and information. Rapidly advancing technology in genetics makes it difficult for regulations that protect individuals and families to keep pace. Oncology nurses need to recognize their role as change agents, understand genetic technology, and advocate for patients by participating in the debate on the proper use and prevention of misuse of genetic material and information.

  10. Mixing of immiscible fluids in chaotic flows and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The basis goal of this work was to obtain a basic understanding of mixing of immiscible fluids leading to the determination of flow conditions which result in efficient breakup and dispersion of one mass of fluid in the bulk of another. Related issues were the prediction of the morphological structures and drop size distribution for a given set of operating conditions. The primary motivation for these investigations was to produce basic knowledge leading to increased understanding of industrial processes involving blending, agitation, emulsification, and dissolution

  11. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  12. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, D.; Watt, C. [Griffith Univ. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  13. The strategic year 2015 - international issues analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, Pascal; Alex, Bastien; Baccarini, Luca; Bauer, Alain; Bertho, Alain; Bessis, Sophie; Billion, Didier; Brisset, Jean-Vincent; Carlotti, Jean-Etienne; Chaouad, Robert; Delcour, Laure; Dubien, Arnaud; Gobillard, Julie; Hugon, Philippe; Huissoud, Jean-Marc; Jacquemot, Pierre; Kourliandsky, Jean-Jacques; Le Corre, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Georges; Matelly, Sylvie; Maulny, Jean-Pierre; Mazzucchi, Nicolas; Migault, Philippe; Quere, Stephane; Snegaroff, Thomas; Soullez, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Russian-Ukrainian crisis, assertion of China's power in Asia, jihad threat in Iraq, continued conflict in Syria, withdraw temptation in the US, violence in Central African Republic and Southern Soudan, democracy fatigue in Europe, violent transition in Venezuela and downturn of Latin American giants, the world geopolitical order seems to be undergoing major change. The Strategic year 2015 book aims at understanding and deepening the issues of this change thanks to 197 country fact-sheets, 7 regional sheets, many regional and thematic maps, a chronological recall of the highlights of the year, some bibliographic references and a world statistical yearbook with the essential data. A specific chapter is devoted to climatic change and its consequences on energy and environmental issues

  14. Methodological issues related to studies of lead mobilization during menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkowitz Gertrud S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been a substantial decline in lead exposure in the United States during the past two decades, mobilization of existing lead stored in bone potentially represents an important endogenous source of exposure for menopausal women. It has been hypothesized that lead may be mobilized from skeletal stores during conditions of high bone turnover, such as during menopause. However, such mobilization has not been documented in prospective studies. This discussion is focussed on some of the methodological difficulties to be anticipated in longitudinal studies of lead mobilization specific to menopause and the issues that need to be taken into account when evaluating the results of such studies. To evaluate whether lead mobilization occurs during menopause, a prospective repeated measures design is needed using X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone and serial measurements of blood lead. Potential confounders and effect modifiers also need to be taken into account in the statistical analysis.

  15. Application of coupled codes for safety analysis and licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is given on the development and the advantages of coupled codes which integrate 3D neutron kinetics into thermal-hydraulic system codes. The work performed within GRS by coupling the thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET and the 3D neutronics code QUABOX/CUBBOX is described as an example. The application of the coupled codes as best-estimate simulation tools for safety analysis is discussed. Some examples from German licensing practices are given which demonstrate how the improved analytical methods of coupled codes have contributed to solve licensing issues related to optimized and more economical use of fuel. (authors)

  16. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  17. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: cristianemanetti@hotmail.com, e-mail: katia_tanimoto@hotmail.com, e-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  18. Multiple system responses program: Identification of concerns related to a number of specific regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.; Casada, M.L.; Palko, L.E.; Roberts, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the activities and results of the Multiple System Responses (MSR) program conducted by the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the MSR program was to gather and review documentation for several unresolved safety issues and related programs of interest, and from that documentation, describe any additional potential safety concerns. The MSR program provides information that will aid the NRC staff in making an assessment of the relative safety significance of the concerns through the established prioritization process. Judgments were not made regarding the validity of the concerns expressed by others. Rather, the concerns were documented and potential safety issues were developed and defined as specifically as possible. Twenty-one potential safety issues were developed from the documented concerns. Additional information was gathered to support the NRC efforts in reviewing these issues for prioritization. 73 refs., 2 tabs

  19. III-V nanoelectronics and related surface/interface issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The conventional logic gate architecture is not suitable for high-density integration of quantum devices which are non-robust and extremely structure- and charge-sensitive. In this paper, our novel hexagonal binary-decision-diagram (BDD) quantum circuit approach for III-V nanoelectronics is reviewed and related critical surface/interface issues for high-density integration are discussed. First, the basic concept and actual implementation method of our approach are explained, giving examples of novel BDD quantum integrated circuits where nanowire networks are controlled by nanoscale Schottky wrap gates. For high-density integration, growth of embedded sub-10 nm III-V quantum wire networks by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned substrates is described, including effects of atomic hydrogen irradiation and kinetic control of wire width. The key processing issue lies in understanding and control of nanostructure surfaces/interfaces. Behavior of nanoscale Schottky gates, recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) studies of surface states, and successful removal of surface states by MBE-grown silicon interface control layer are discussed

  20. Ethical issues related to epilepsy care in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    There are three major issues of ethical concern related to epilepsy care in the developing world. First, is it ethical for a developing country to channel its limited resources from direct epilepsy care to research? The main considerations in addressing this question are the particular research questions to be addressed and whether such research will bring direct benefits to the local community. Second, in a country with limited resources, when does ignoring the high treatment gap become an ethical issue? This question is of particular concern when the community has enough resources to afford treatment for its poor, yet is not providing such care because of gross wastage and misallocation of the national resources. Third, do countries with plentiful resources have an ethical responsibility to help relieve the high epilepsy treatment gap of poor countries? Indeed, we believe that reasonable health care is a basic human right, and that human rights transcend national boundaries. Although health care is usually the responsibility of the nation-state, many modern states in the developing world are arbitrary creations of colonization. There is often a long process from the establishment of a political-legal state to a mature functional nation. During the long process of nation building, help from neighboring countries is often required.

  1. Kurdish men's experiences of migration-related mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Al-Windi, Ahmad; Johansson, Leena Maria; Saleh-Stattin, Nuha

    2011-10-01

    The migration process may impose stress on the mental health of immigrants. To describe the experiences of immigrant men of Kurdish ethnicity during and after migration to Sweden with regard to mental health issues. Using the grounded theory method, we conducted a focus group interview with four Kurdish men and in-depth individual interviews with 10 other Kurdish men. A model with two major themes and interlinked categories was developed. The themes were (1) protective factors for good mental health (sense of belonging, creation and re-creation of Kurdish identity, sense of freedom, satisfaction with oneself) and (2) risk factors for poor mental health (worry about current political situation in the home country, yearning, lack of sense of freedom, dissatisfaction with Swedish society). The study provides insights into the psychological and emotional experiences of immigrant men of Kurdish ethnicity during and after migration to Sweden. It is important for primary health care providers to be aware of the impact that similar migration-related and life experiences have on the health status of immigrants, and also to be aware that groups are comprised of unique individuals with differing experiences and reactions to these experiences. The findings highlight the common themes of the men's experiences and suggest ways to ameliorate mental health issues, including feeling like one is seen as an individual, is a full participant in society, and can contribute to one's own culture.

  2. Safety issues relating to the design of fusion power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, R.R.; Wong, K.Y.; Russell, S.B.

    1986-06-01

    In order to make fusion power a viable future source of energy, it will be necessary to ensure that the cost of power for fusion electric generation is competitive with advanced fission concepts. In addition, fusion power will have to live up to its original promise of being a more radiologically benign technology than fission, and be able to demonstrate excellent operational safety performance. These two requirements are interrelated, since the selection of an appropriate safety philosophy early in the design phase could greatly reduce or eliminate the capital costs of elaborate safety related and protective sytems. This paper will briefly overview a few of the key safety issues presently recognized as critical to the ultimate achievement of licensable, environmentally safe and socially acceptable fusion power facilities. 12 refs

  3. Effect of splenectomy on liver cirrhosis and related surgical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Degang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis experience certain changes in spleen morphology and function, and there is always a controversy over whether to perform splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis. As a surgical treatment of recurrent portal hypertension complicated by esophagogastric variceal bleeding, splenectomy can reduce portal venous pressure, reduce the possibility of gastrointestinal bleeding, and correct the reduced white blood cell count and platelet count. It can also protect the liver by improving liver function, promoting regeneration of hepatocytes, and inhibiting the progression of liver fibrosis. With reference to available clinical and laboratory data, this article reviews the effect of splenectomy on the cirrhotic liver and related issues such as selection of surgical procedures and prevention and treatment of postoperative complications, in order to promote splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  4. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  5. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document consists of papers which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. Topics include: The Potential Impact of Technological Progress on U.S. Energy Markets; The Outlook for U.S. Import Dependence; Fuel Economy, Vehicle Choice, and Changing Demographics, and Annual Energy Outlook Forecast Evaluation

  6. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  7. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Compiler issues associated with safety-related software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinauer, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    A critical issue in the quality assurance of safety-related software is the ability of the software to produce identical results, independent of the host machine, operating system, or compiler version under which the software is installed. A study is performed using the VIPRE-0l, FREY-01, and RETRAN-02 safety-related codes. Results from an IBM 3083 computer are compared with results from a CYBER 860 computer. All three of the computer programs examined are written in FORTRAN; the VIPRE code uses the FORTRAN 66 compiler, whereas the FREY and RETRAN codes use the FORTRAN 77 compiler. Various compiler options are studied to determine their effect on the output between machines. Since the Control Data Corporation and IBM machines inherently represent numerical data differently, methods of producing equivalent accuracy of data representation were an important focus of the study. This paper identifies particular problems in the automatic double-precision option (AUTODBL) of the IBM FORTRAN 1.4.x series of compilers. The IBM FORTRAN version 2 compilers provide much more stable, reliable compilation for engineering software. Careful selection of compilers and compiler options can help guarantee identical results between different machines. To ensure reproducibility of results, the same compiler and compiler options should be used to install the program as were used in the development and testing of the program

  9. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  10. Validation issues for depletion and criticality analysis in burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Dehart, M.D.; Gauld, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews validation issues associated with implementation of burnup credit in transport, dry storage, and disposal. The issues discussed are ones that have been identified by one or more constituents of the United States technical community (national laboratories, licensees, and regulators) that have been exploring the use of burnup credit. There is not necessarily agreement on the importance of the various issues, which sometimes is what creates the issue. The broad issues relate to the paucity of available experimental data (radiochemical assays and critical experiments) covering the full range and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel in away-from-reactor systems. The paper will also introduce recent efforts initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide technical information that can help better assess the value of different experiments. The focus of the paper is on experience with validation issues related to use of burnup credit for transport and dry storage applications. (author)

  11. Pain-related psychological issues in hand therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tokiko; Pelletier, René; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Harris, Patrick; Choinière, Manon

    Literature review. Pain is a subjective experience that results from the modulation of nociception conveyed to the brain via the nervous system. Perception of pain takes place when potential or actual noxious stimuli are appraised as threats of injury. This appraisal is influenced by one's cognitions and emotions based on her/his pain-related experiences, which are processed in the forebrain and limbic areas of the brain. Unarguably, patients' psychological factors such as cognitions (eg, pain catastrophizing), emotions (eg, depression), and pain-related behaviors (eg, avoidance) can influence perceived pain intensity, disability, and treatment outcomes. Therefore, hand therapists should address the patient pain experience using a biopsychosocial approach. However, in hand therapy, a biomedical perspective predominates in pain management by focusing solely on tissue healing. This review aims to raise awareness among hand therapists of the impact of pain-related psychological factors. This literature review allowed to describe (1) how the neurophysiological mechanisms of pain can be influenced by various psychological factors, (2) several evidence-based interventions that can be integrated into hand therapy to address these psychological issues, and (3) some approaches of psychotherapy for patients with maladaptive pain experiences. Restoration of sensory and motor functions as well as alleviating pain is at the core of hand therapy. Numerous psychological factors including patients' beliefs, cognitions, and emotions alter their pain experience and may impact on their outcomes. Decoding the biopsychosocial components of the patients' pain is thus essential for hand therapists. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Survey of Solver-Related Geometry and Meshing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, James; Daniel, Derick; Gudenkauf, Jared; Hine, David; Sideroff, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern in the computational fluid dynamics community that mesh generation is a significant bottleneck in the CFD workflow. This is one of several papers that will help set the stage for a moderated panel discussion addressing this issue. Although certain general "rules of thumb" and a priori mesh metrics can be used to ensure that some base level of mesh quality is achieved, inadequate consideration is often given to the type of solver or particular flow regime on which the mesh will be utilized. This paper explores how an analyst may want to think differently about a mesh based on considerations such as if a flow is compressible vs. incompressible or hypersonic vs. subsonic or if the solver is node-centered vs. cell-centered. This paper is a high-level investigation intended to provide general insight into how considering the nature of the solver or flow when performing mesh generation has the potential to increase the accuracy and/or robustness of the solution and drive the mesh generation process to a state where it is no longer a hindrance to the analysis process.

  13. Security Requirements – Analysis of the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Needs about security are matters little taken into account when managing requirements engineering , and when considered in the life cycle of the system , they tend to become a general list of functions, as password of protection , firewalls , virus detection tools , and other similar. But in fact, they cannot be considered as requirements of security, because they are implementation mechanisms to try to meet unspecified requirements, as an authenticated access. As a result, the security requirements for the system are ignored, which are required to protect essential services and assets, besides, when are specified, is not considered the prospect of future attacks. This paper describes the need for a systematic approach to managing security requirements engineering, in order to help avoid the problem of generic lists and take into account the future perspective. Several related approaches are described and also are provided references additional material that can help requirements engineers to ensure that their products be taken into account, effectively , the security requirements.

  14. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart L. Rottier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  15. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  16. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  17. Editorial: Special Issue on Algorithms for Sequence Analysis and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Mäkinen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Algorithms is dedicated to approaches to biological sequence analysis that have algorithmic novelty and potential for fundamental impact in methods used for genome research.

  18. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  19. The Concept of Cultural Relativity in Moral Judgments Concerning Gender-Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. R.; And Others

    The comparative study was designed to determine whether cultural relativism and ethical reasoning develop in a hierarchical manner when applied to culturally different phenomena. The phenomena investigated were moral judgments concerning gender-related issues. Thirty-six first through sixth-grade students from two private schools and 130…

  20. Issues in radiology related to the new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkin, M.

    1982-01-01

    A number of interrelated issues facing radiology have been highlighted by our new technologies. The issues discussed in this presentation are: subspecialization of radiology; the use of economic analyses (CEA/CBA) to judge the cost effectiveness of radiologic procedures, the alleged overuse of radiologic examinations; and the need for the diagnostic radiologist to become more actively involved in patient management

  1. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Methodological Issues in HIV/AIDS Social Research in Nigeria ... convaincue au commencement de l'étude qu'une étude sur l'interaction entre le VIH/sida et les questions sensibles comme les ..... One of the vexed issues was the requirement.

  2. Issues and scenarios for nuclear waste management systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1980-11-01

    The Planning and Analysis Branch of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Waste Management Programs is developing a new systems integration program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was requested to perform a brief scoping analysis of what scenarios, questions, and issues should be addressed by the systems integration program. This document reports on that scoping analysis

  3. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  4. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue.

  5. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbach, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)

  6. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerback, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. This paper summarizes a study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) Legal Considerations, (2) Liability, (3) Staffing and Operations, (4) Costs, (5) Relationship to Off-site Forces, (6) Management and Control, (7) Transportation

  7. Issues in the Analysis of Focus Groups: Generalisability, Quantifiability, Treatment of Context and Quotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicsek, Lilla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some concerns related to the analysis of focus groups: (a) the issue of generalisation; (b) the problems of using numbers and quantifying in the analysis; (c) how the concrete situation of the focus groups could be included in the analysis, and (d) what formats can be used when quoting from focus groups. Problems with…

  8. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  9. Issues in risk analysis of passive LWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.W.; Pratt, W.T.; Amico, P.J.; Gallagher, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses issues which bear on the question of how safety is to be demonstrated for ''simplified passive'' light water reactor (LWR) designs. First, a very simplified comparison is made between certain systems in today's plants. comparable systems in evolutionary designs, and comparable systems in the simplified passives. in order to introduce the issues. This discussion is not intended to describe the designs comprehensively, but is offered only to show why certain issues seem to be important in these particular designs. Next, an important class of accident sequences is described; finally, based on this discussion, some priorities in risk analysis are presented and discussed

  10. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems. A review of the security and privacy related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in literature. Ensuring secure health information exchange across organizations requires a standardization of security measures that goes beyond organizational boundaries, such as global definitions of professional roles, global standards for patient consent and semantic interoperable audit logs. As to be able to fully address the privacy and security issues in interoperable EHRs and the long-life virtual EHR it is necessary to realize a paradigm shift from storing all incoming information in a local system to retrieving information from external systems whenever that information is deemed necessary for the care of the patient.

  11. Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    bring about a compromise solution to Iraq’s sectarian violence and insurgency. Nevertheless, should the Administration heed the main recommendations of...Committee (NLC), a New York-based human rights advocacy group, issued a 161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified

  12. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  13. Neglected Issues Relating to African Health Systems: An Incentive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Several issues that affect access to and quality of health care for the poor and ... Conferences will be held at local, district and national levels to share the results of the ... Minister Bibeau announces appointments of IDRC's President and new ...

  14. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  15. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  16. Thinking, Relating and Choosing: Resolving the issue of Faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Which is worse: Doing evil or being evil? If we are free to define ourselves through our choices, as existentialism posits, then the latter is worse. This paper attempts to resolve the issue of the difference between religious (group) ethics and the ethics of a person of faith that embraces individuals with an existential ...

  17. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  18. Global hydrobelts: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, M.; Kummu, M.; Dürr, H. H.

    2012-08-01

    appropriate for water-relative global analysis and reporting than conventional continental or political divisions.

  19. Review of spent fuel related issues in SKB's SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    2000-01-01

    The solid waste form 'spent fuel' constitutes both the dominant radionuclide source as well as a first radionuclide retention barrier of a planned future high level nuclear waste isolation systems in deep granite formations. In order to evaluate the performance of spent fuel as part of the multibarrier containment system in a deep repository, the radionuclide release properties in groundwater must be predicted over very long time periods. Radionuclide release is not an inherent materials property of the fuel but depends, besides fuel specific parameters, mainly on time but as well on the geochemical and hydraulic environment of the disposal location. The study SR 97 documents the large effort of SKB to assess the long-term performance of a repository containing spent nuclear fuel. Scenario and consequence analyses are clearly described, considering major physical and chemical interactions of the various components of the multi-barrier isolation system. The approach attempts to assess both a realistic and a pessimistic evolution scenario. The present report attempts to evaluate whether this approach is thoroughly carried through to assess the performance of spent nuclear fuel in a repository. Main issues are radionuclide inventories and inventory distribution between structural parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, potential fuel alteration prior to water access, as well as models for fuel matrix dissolution and instant release fractions. Uncertainties in radionuclide inventories are discussed and were found for many radionuclides to be higher than assumed in SR 97. This is particularly true for Cl-36. This nuclide is a potential key biosphere dose contributor in various international safety assessments. Of particular importance are uncertainties related to the partition of radionuclides between metallic parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, since inventories of metallic parts are considered to be released instantaneously. Using C-14 as an

  20. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  1. Modeling issues in nuclear plant fire risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses various issues associated with current models for analyzing the risk due to fires in nuclear power plants. Particular emphasis is placed on the fire growth and suppression models, these being unique to the fire portion of the overall risk analysis. Potentially significant modeling improvements are identified; also discussed are a variety of modeling issues where improvements will help the credibility of the analysis, without necessarily changing the computed risk significantly. The mechanistic modeling of fire initiation is identified as a particularly promising improvement for reducing the uncertainties in the predicted risk. 17 refs., 5 figs. 2 tabs

  2. Structural Integrity and Aging-Related Issues of Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    inherently damage lolerant , any damage- inspection in critical locations where tests have indicated tolerant features in airframe design only enhances...required, so European Rotorcraft Forum. Marseilles, France, 15- that helicopters are equipped with such features as fly- 17 September 1998 . by-wire and...fatigue Evaluation of structural integrity issues of aging helicopters. The Structure," 29 April, 1998 . extended safe-life approach encompasses the best

  3. Maritime transportation risk analysis: Review and analysis in light of some foundational issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Many methods and applications for maritime transportation risk analysis have been presented in the literature. In parallel, there is a recent focus on foundational issues in risk analysis, with calls for intensified research on fundamental concepts and principles underlying the scientific field. This paper presents a review and analysis of risk definitions, perspectives and scientific approaches to risk analysis found in the maritime transportation application area, focusing on applications addressing accidental risk of shipping in a sea area. For this purpose, a classification of risk definitions, an overview of elements in risk perspectives and a classification of approaches to risk analysis science are applied. Results reveal that in the application area, risk is strongly tied to probability, both in definitions and perspectives, while alternative views exist. A diffuse situation is also found concerning the scientific approach to risk analysis, with realist, proceduralist and constructivist foundations co-existing. Realist approaches dominate the application area. Very few applications systematically account for uncertainty, neither concerning the evidence base nor in relation to the limitations of the risk model in relation to the space of possible outcomes. Some suggestions are made to improve the current situation, aiming to strengthen the scientific basis for risk analysis. - Highlights: • Risk analyses in maritime transportation analysed in light of foundational issues. • Focus on definitions, perspectives and scientific approaches to risk analysis. • Probability-based definitions and realist approaches dominate the field. • Findings support calls for increased focus on foundational issues in risk research. • Some suggestions are made to improve the current situation

  4. LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE SHARIAH ADVISORY COUNCIL IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhashimah Mohd Yasin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has always aspired to be the hub for Islamic banking and finance. Various measures have been, and are being, carried out to promote Malaysia as an international Islamic banking and financial centre. As the backbone for this, the national Shariah Advisory Council (SAC has been established under the auspices of the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958 (CBMA. Under the CBMA, the SAC has been conferred a statutory function as the authority for the ascertainment of Islamic law for the purposes of Islamic banking, as well as business and other types of Islamic financial businesses. In 2009, the CBMA 1958 was replaced and repealed. With the coming into force of the CBMA 2009, the role and functions of the SAC was reinforced and upgraded in terms of appointments of members and, most importantly, that the Shariah rulings pursuant to any reference made to the SAC by the Civil court or arbitrator concerning Shariah matters shall be binding on the Islamic financial institutions as well as on the court and any arbitrator. The issue of whether or not the SAC is the final arbiter on Islamic banking and finance disputes or, in other words, there is no longer a process of judicial review where it involves Shariah matters, will be the highlight of this paper. To what extent does the post CBMA 2009 solve the binding nature of the SAC upon the Civil courts of Malaysia as its rulings and directives are only relevant to ‘Shariah’ issues? What would be the situations if the issues of the Islamic banking and finance cases are deemed not to amount to a ‘Shariah’ issue, but are purely on banking, land matters or contractual interpretations? Has there any actual legal reform been brought about by this amendment or is it merely a cosmetic changes? If the court were to be bound by the SAC rulings, does this not usurp the independence of the judiciary which is the corner stone of the principle of separation of powers between the executive, the legislature and

  5. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  6. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elby, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell's inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ''modal'' interpretations pick out the desired ''preferred'' basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ''explain'' EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ''watered down'' causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks

  7. Environmental issues related to oil and gas access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniuk, T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation discussed the environmental issues that petroleum companies face in northeast British Columbia. Petroleum exploration, development, production, abandonment and transportation activities in the province must follow provincial and federal regulations as well as government policies and guidelines which define environmental assessment, protection, and mitigation standards. A discussion about the regulatory framework in British Columbia can be found in the 'British Columbia Oil and Gas Handbook' which is available on the INTERNET at http://natural.gov.bc.ca/handpubs/oilgashb/bcoghb.htm. It was suggested that companies wishing to conduct drilling or exploration activities in sensitive areas should allow extra time (up to one year) to obtain approval for such activities. British Columbia's environmental setting includes five zones - the Alpine Tundra, the Spruce-Willow-Birch zone, the Engelmannn Spruce-Subalpine Fir forests, the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, and the Boreal White and Black Spruce zone. Four discrete oil and gas guideline zones with differing standards have been developed. These are: (1) the Northern Rocky Mountains, (2) the Northeastern Slopes, (3) the Southeastern Slopes, and (4) the Northern Plains. A set of interim environmental guidelines are in effect to direct activity away from any sensitive area. Three sub-regional land use planning areas have also been established in the Prince George Forest Region which includes Dawson Creek, Fort St. John and Fort Nelson. Petroleum operators in these regions are obliged to deal with issues regarding aboriginal involvement, stream crossings, access management, and air quality. 40 refs

  8. Contemporary Expert Debates on the SCO-Related Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Evgen'evich Denisov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its establishment the SCO has always attracted a lot of expert attention. The SCO Forum was founded in 2006 to bring together for annual debates experts from all member-states. Within this format in-depth discussions took place in April 2016 in Dushanbe, which hosted this year conference of the SCO Forum. Participating experts and officials reviewed problems of security, economic cooperation (including transport and water-energy issues and SCO enlargement, the latter being one of the most debatable. Experts presented some new thesis on all these problems, in particular on the enlargement issue. These new thesis are summed up in this article. Besides, the SCO Forum this year had many statements on the organization approaching a sort of new phase in its development. This line of discussions may lead in the future to even more active debates on SCO's role in the world. This article puts emphasis on the new elements of these debates and reviews major experts' attitudes within this line of discussion on the SCO being in front of a new stage of development.

  9. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  10. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF MUON G-2 AND ACCELERATOR RELATED ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, H.N.; BUNCE, G.; CAREY, R.M.; CUSHMAN, P.; DANBY, G.T.; DEBEVEC, P.T.; DEILE, M.; DENG, H.; DENINGER, W.; DHAWAN, S.K.; MENG, W.

    2001-01-01

    A precision measurement of the anomalous g value, a μ =(g-2)/2, for the positive muon has been made using high intensity protons available at the Brookhaven AGS. The result based on the 1999 data a μ =11659202(14)(6) x 10 10 (1.3ppm) is in good agreement with previous measurements and has an error one third that of the combined previous data. The current theoretical value from the standard model is a μ (SM)=11659159.6(6.7) x 10 10 (0.57 ppm) and differ by over 2.5 standard deviation with experiment. Issues with reducing systematic errors and enhancing the injection and storage efficiencies are discussed

  11. Survey on Issues related to National Nuclear Promotion Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Lee, Youngcheol; Jeong, I. K.; Kim, Hyunjun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Sungwon; Moon, Keehwan; Chung, Whansam

    2013-06-01

    Ο Major issues surrounding nuclear are including suspicions about nuclear safety, spent-fuel management, acquiring the advanced R and D capabilities and making the nuclear a creative industry Ο Solid measures for securing safety should be formulated and implemented for reducing public anxiety of nuclear use Ο The long-term R and D performance system from a scientific perspective should be established for expanding Research and Development for safer use of nuclear Ο The spent-fuel management policy should be determined through publicizing process Ο Establishing small and medium enterprises-oriented supply system of reactors and SMRs and Encouraging the radiation fusion technology industrialization for promoting creative industry utilizing nuclear

  12. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, K; Lim, H W; Suzuki, T; Katayama, I; Hamzavi, I; Lan, C C E; Goh, B K; Anbar, T; Silva de Castro, C; Lee, A Y; Parsad, D; van Geel, N; Le Poole, I C; Oiso, N; Benzekri, L; Spritz, R; Gauthier, Y; Hann, S K; Picardo, M; Taieb, A

    2012-05-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner's phenomenon (KP); and 'autoimmune vitiligo'. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term 'vitiligo' be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including 'mixed vitiligo' in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that 'autoimmune vitiligo' should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, K.; Lim, H. W.; Suzuki, T.; Katayama, I.; Hamzavi, I.; Lan, C. C. E.; Goh, B. K.; Anbar, T.; de Castro, C. Silva; Lee, A. Y.; Parsad, D.; van Geel, N.; Le Poole, I. C.; Oiso, N.; Benzekri, L.; Spritz, R.; Gauthier, Y.; Hann, S. K.; Picardo, M.; Taieb, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner’s phenomenon (KP); and ‘autoimmune vitiligo’. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term ‘vitiligo’ be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including ‘mixed vitiligo’ in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that ‘autoimmune vitiligo’ should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:22417114

  14. Teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues: complexity, contributions and limitations of an educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuce Campos de Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This reflection refers to teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues. Whereas such matters take into account the impact of scientific development in society, including ethical aspects and encompass dilemmas involving a wide range of prospects for its resolution, we propose analysis of the complexity that is inherent in their teaching. Thus, we aimed to analyze different spaces and teaching time that produce and are produced in close linkage between theory and practice, as well as their contributions and limitations. The study required a dynamic conversation system that led to the analysis indicators. The issue of sustainability was shown to be feasible for educational planning as cover technical and scientific knowledge, ethical, social and economic pressures. The collective production allowed understand arguments and reflective-creative processes. The lived relations in schools has accompanied and limited the ideas expressed on the socio-scientific issues. We understand that the simultaneity of research and reflection in the sociocultural context has strengthened teacher formation.

  15. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-01-01

    The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce...

  16. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  17. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  18. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.

  19. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2007-01-01

    Human biomonitoring is a promising tool for assessing environmental exposure and its potential relation with biomarkers, diseases and/or disorders in humans including children. Research with children is essential; however, if the research questions can be resolved by recruitment of adults it is n...

  20. Fuzzy Relational Databases: Representational Issues and Reduction Using Similarity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Testemale, Claudette

    1987-01-01

    Compares and expands upon two approaches to dealing with fuzzy relational databases. The proposed similarity measure is based on a fuzzy Hausdorff distance and estimates the mismatch between two possibility distributions using a reduction process. The consequences of the reduction process on query evaluation are studied. (Author/EM)

  1. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours : measurement issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease as a result of overweight and obesity calls for in-depth examination of the main causes of behavioural actions responsible for weight gain. Since weight gain is the result of a positive energy balance, these behavioural actions are referred to as 'energy balance-related

  2. American intergovernmental relations: foundations, perspectives, and issues, 5th ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Christensen, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    With the addition of brand new co-editor, Robert Christensen, this trusted reader is back in a fresh and insightful fifth edition. To the general structure that has made American Intergovernmental Relations so enduring, the editors have added a new section that incorporates the importance of law and

  3. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  4. Current ethical and legal issues in health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Emilia; Kalokairinou, Louiza; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2017-09-01

    A variety of health-related genetic testing is currently advertized directly to consumers. This article provides a timely overview of direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) and salient ethical issues, as well as an analysis of the impact of the recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices on DTC GT. DTC GT companies currently employ new testing approaches, report on a wide spectrum of conditions and target new groups of consumers. Such activities raise ethical issues including the questionable analytic and clinical validity of tests, the adequacy of informed consent, potentially misleading advertizing, testing in children, research uses and commercialization of genomic data. The recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices may limit the offers of predisposition DTC GT in the EU market.

  5. Issues relating to the siting of tritium-fueled fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, H.J.; Holland, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A preconceptual design study and safety analysis of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) was conducted in 1984 for the Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the calculations and comparisons related to TFCX siting and environmental issues such as radiological doses to the public living near the facility. Included are discussions of (a) routine and accidental releases of tritium, (b) routine releases of activated air, (c) direct radiation (including ''skyshine''), and (d) seismic criteria. Other potential issues are also discussed including the amount of tritium that might be retained in the graphite armor in the torus, the possible severity of magnet accidents, and the extent of damage due to plasma disruptions. The conclusions drawn from these calculations should be applicable to some of the other planned ignited core experiments that have operating parameters similar to those of TFCX

  6. Issues relating to the siting of tritium-fueled fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, H.J.; Holland, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A preconceptual design study and safety analysis of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) was conducted in 1984 for the Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the calculations and comparisons related to TFCX siting and environmental issues such as radiological doses to the public living near the facility. Included are discussions of (a) routine and accidental releases of tritium, (b) routine releases of activated air, (c) direct radiation (including skyshine), and (d) seismic criteria. Other potential issues are also discussed including the amount of tritium that might be retained in the graphite armor in the torus, the possible severity of magnet accidents, and the extent of damage due to plasma disruptions. The conclusions drawn from these calculations should be applicable to some of the other planned ignited core experiments that have operating parameters similar to those of TFCX

  7. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...... for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  8. Vestibular and balance issues following sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Hale, Troy D

    2015-01-01

    To review relevant literature regarding the effect of concussion on vestibular function, impairments, assessments and management strategies. REASONING: Dizziness and balance impairments are common following sport-related concussion. Recommendations regarding the management of sport-related concussion suggest including tests of balance within the multifactorial assessment paradigm for concussive injuries. The literature was searched for guidelines and original studies related to vestibular impairments following concussion, oculomotor and balance assessments and treatment or rehabilitation of vestibular impairments. The databases searched included Medline, CINAHL, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2013. Dizziness following concussion occurs in ∼67-77% of cases and has been implicated as a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Balance impairments also occur after concussion and last 3-10 days post-injury. Assessments of balance can be done using both clinical and instrumented measures with success. Vestibular rehabilitation has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with vestibular impairments, with one study demonstrating success in decreasing symptoms and increasing function following concussion. Best practices suggest that the assessment of vestibular function through cranial nerve, oculomotor and balance assessments are an important aspect of concussion management. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation for improving patient outcomes.

  9. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1979-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 2 focuses on the integrability, continuity, and differentiability of random functions, as well as functional analysis, measure theory, operator theory, and numerical analysis.The selection first offers information on the optimal control of stochastic systems and Gleason measures. Discussions focus on convergence of Gleason measures, random Gleason measures, orthogonally scattered Gleason measures, existence of optimal controls without feedback, random necessary conditions, and Gleason measures in tensor products. The text then elaborates on an

  10. KDD for science data analysis: Issues and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyad, U.; Haussler, D.; Stolorz, P.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the massive data sets collected by scientific instruments demands automation as a prerequisite to analysis. There is an urgent need to create an intermediate level at which scientists can operate effectively; isolating them from the massive sizes and harnessing human analysis capabilities to focus on tasks in which machines do not even remotely approach humans-namely, creative data analysis, theory and hypothesis formation, and drawing insights into underlying phenomena. We give an overview of the main issues in the exploitation of scientific datasets, present five case studies where KDD tools play important and enabling roles, and conclude with future challenges for data mining and KDD techniques in science data analysis

  11. Women in development : issues for economic and sector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Women in Development Division

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights issues and action plans concerning women in economic and sector analysis and in project design. The paper focuses on the majority of women who are poor. It emphasizes measures to include women in development that contribute to economic performance, poverty reduction, slower population growth, and other broad development objectives. The paper concludes that women already contribute far more economically than is usually recognized. By expanding women's economic choices, ou...

  12. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  13. Review: Groundwater resources and related environmental issues in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aibing; Zhang, Yilong; Zhang, Eryong; Li, Zhenghong; Yu, Juan; Wang, Huang; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Yao

    2018-05-01

    As an important component of water resources, groundwater plays a crucial role in water utilization in China and an irreplaceable role in supporting economic and social development, especially in the northern arid and semi-arid plains and basin areas, which are densely populated and relatively short of surface-water resources. This paper comprehensively reviews and discusses the regional hydrogeological conditions, the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater, the groundwater quality, and the actuality of groundwater exploitation and utilization in China. Meanwhile, aiming at the environmental problems induced by overexploitation to meet the sharply increasing water demand, this paper puts forward the major tasks for the next few years in terms of groundwater exploitation control, conservation and management.

  14. Main safety issues related to IPSN severe accident research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeComte, C.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed at IPSN concerning accident studies on nuclear installations is focused on the characterization of accidental sequences with three major aims: prevention, mitigation, and organization of counter-measures. As criteria to optimize all efforts made to improve nuclear safety, the radioactive dispersal in the environment must be quantified as function of internal and external radioactive products transfers. During the short-term phase of the accident, potential radioactive releases can be evaluated by the realistic code system ESCADRE. This system is validated by numerous analytical studies related to containment and fission product behavior. It will be further qualified by the results of the global experiments performed in the PHEBUS FP facility at IPSN

  15. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. Some issues related to evidence-based implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E Carlsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty.

  17. [Depressive disorder and issues related to DiabetIMSS beneficiaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Espinosa, Mario; Trujillo-Olivera, Laura Elena

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is the leading cause of death in people from 15 to 64 years in Mexico, and other regions in the world. For the chronic nature of diabetes and complications caused by inadequate metabolic control, patients may have mood disorders such as depression. Several studies have demonstrated higher prevalence of depression in diabetic patients than in general population. Our objective: is to determine prevalence and factors associated with depressive disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in DiabetIMSS during 2010. Analytical study with random probability sampling. The analysis included prevalence, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The Center Epidemiological Studies Depression Instrument was used. Prevalence of depression was 32.7% at 95% CI = 26.4-38.9%), 67.3% for women, 32.7 % for men; good metabolic control was 51.9%, CI = 95% (45.13-58.66%). We found a higher prevalence of depressive disorders than in the general population, no statistical association with glycemic control, keeping a greater proportion of women as well as the main aspect of depression associated with the perception of emotional support. We discuss DiabetIMSS program effectiveness.

  18. Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L

    2018-04-13

    The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.

  19. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  20. An analysis of business issues in a telestroke project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunyoung; Khasanshina, Elena V; Mathiassen, Lars; Hess, David C; Wang, Sam; Stachura, Max E

    2007-01-01

    A telehealth network based at the Medical College of Georgia was established in 2003 to treat stroke patients in remote hospitals. In the first three years, more than 400 patients were evaluated at nine rural hospitals. A total of 65 patients (16%) were treated with tissue plasminogen activator (approximately half of them in less than 2 h). Although clinically successful, the system reached the point at which it would either further diffuse or die out. We examined the roles played by internal and external factors in the development of the system. We interviewed 25 individuals in five hospitals (the hub hospital and four rural hospitals). Important business issues were identified that would need to be addressed in order to expand the project and make it self-sustaining. The external factors were economic, legal and market issues. The internal factors were organizational, technical and educational issues. Early identification and negotiation of business issues related to project implementation are likely to be important in diffusion and sustainability.

  1. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental...

  2. Issues in data monitoring and interim analysis of trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A M; Altman, D G; Babiker, A B; Campbell, M K; Clemens, F J; Darbyshire, J H; Elbourne, D R; McLeer, S K; Parmar, M K B; Pocock, S J; Spiegelhalter, D J; Sydes, M R; Walker, A E; Wallace, S A

    2005-03-01

    To address issues about data monitoring committees (DMCs) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Electronic databases. Handsearching of selected books. Personal contacts with experts in the field. Systematic literature reviews of DMCs and small group processes in decision-making; sample surveys of: reports of RCTs, recently completed and ongoing RCTs and policies of major organisations involved in RCTs; case studies of four DMCs; and interviews with experienced DMC members. All focused on 23 prestated questions. Although still a minority, RCTs increasingly have DMCs. There is wide agreement that nearly all trials need some form of data monitoring. Central to the role of the DMC is monitoring accumulating evidence related to benefit and toxicity; variation in emphasis has been reflected in the plethora of names. DMCs for trials performed for regulatory purposes should be aware of any special requirements and regulatory consequences. Advantages were identified for both larger and smaller DMCs. There is general agreement that a DMC should be independent and multidisciplinary. Consumer and ethicist membership is controversial. The chair is recognised as being particularly influential, and likely to be most effective if he or she is experienced, understands both statistical and clinical issues, and is facilitating in style and impartial. There is no evidence available to judge suggested approaches to training. The review suggested that costs should be covered, but other rewards must be so minimal as to not affect decision-making. It is usual to have a minimum frequency of DMC meetings, with evidence that face-to-face meetings are preferable. It is common to have open sessions and a closed session. A report to a DMC should cover benefits and risks in a balanced way, summarised in an accessible style, avoiding excessive detail, and be as current as possible. Disadvantages of blinded analyses seem to outweigh advantages. Information about comparable studies should be

  3. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 3 focuses on the continuity, integrability, and differentiability of random functions, including operator theory, measure theory, and functional and numerical analysis. The selection first offers information on the qualitative theory of stochastic systems and Langevin equations with multiplicative noise. Discussions focus on phase-space evolution via direct integration, phase-space evolution, linear and nonlinear systems, linearization, and generalizations. The text then ponders on the stability theory of stochastic difference systems and Marko

  4. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  5. A Cross-Case Analysis of Gender Issues in Desktop Virtual Reality Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Martens, Jon; Washington, Andre; Steele, Debra; Washburn, Earlene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender-related issues in using new desktop virtual reality (VR) technology as a learning tool in career and technical education (CTE). Using relevant literature, theory, and cross-case analysis of data and findings, the study compared and analyzed the outcomes of two recent studies conducted by a research team at Oklahoma State…

  6. An Analysis of Policy Issues in Natural Gas Industry Restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    This report explores controversial issues and problems that could emerge in the process of implementing the government's restructuring plan for natural gas industry and aims to suggest policy directions regarding the restructuring. To begin with, it examines current conditions surrounding natural gas industry including domestic demand and supply conditions, world LNG market trend, structural changes of the industry in OECD countries, possibilities of introducing effective competition and assignment of existing import contracts. In doing so, we probe whether the direction of the natural gas industry restructuring is proper and suggest that the results be reflected when a more detailed restructuring implementation plan is formulated. Also, this report suggests possible schemes related to major institutional changes expected by the basic restructuring plan and the detailed restructuring implementation plan announced by the government. First, it presents several alternative ways to properly divide up the import/wholesales section of Korea Gas Corporation. Second, it examines critical issues such as the method of using gas supply facilities and gas balancing mechanism, and presents adoptable alternatives for each issue. These issues constitute the core of network and market operation rules which need to be in place when adopting an open access system, which in turn is a prerequisite for sales competition. Third, the report examines price systems, including gas commodity pricing and rate-making design for transportation service, by first anticipating the direction of changes in gas rate regulation. Specifically, it presents possible ways to design the service rate for each function of pipeline network and import terminals, and discusses controversial issues in determining total cost-of-service and allocating the cost-of-service to each functional service offered such as distance-related rates, interruptible service rate. Lastly, in relation to the opening of retail

  7. Inclusion of ethical issues in dementia guidelines: a thematic text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, Hannes; Mertz, Marcel; Schmidhuber, Martina; Neitzke, Gerald; Strech, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) aim to improve professionalism in health care. However, current CPG development manuals fail to address how to include ethical issues in a systematic and transparent manner. The objective of this study was to assess the representation of ethical issues in general CPGs on dementia care. To identify national CPGs on dementia care, five databases of guidelines were searched and national psychiatric associations were contacted in August 2011 and in June 2013. A framework for the assessment of the identified CPGs' ethical content was developed on the basis of a prior systematic review of ethical issues in dementia care. Thematic text analysis and a 4-point rating score were employed to assess how ethical issues were addressed in the identified CPGs. Twelve national CPGs were included. Thirty-one ethical issues in dementia care were identified by the prior systematic review. The proportion of these 31 ethical issues that were explicitly addressed by each CPG ranged from 22% to 77%, with a median of 49.5%. National guidelines differed substantially with respect to (a) which ethical issues were represented, (b) whether ethical recommendations were included, (c) whether justifications or citations were provided to support recommendations, and (d) to what extent the ethical issues were explained. Ethical issues were inconsistently addressed in national dementia guidelines, with some guidelines including most and some including few ethical issues. Guidelines should address ethical issues and how to deal with them to help the medical profession understand how to approach care of patients with dementia, and for patients, their relatives, and the general public, all of whom might seek information and advice in national guidelines. There is a need for further research to specify how detailed ethical issues and their respective recommendations can and should be addressed in dementia guidelines. Please see later in the article for the Editors

  8. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility Issues in Media Releases: A Stakeholder Analysis of Australian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Reinig

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates Australia's four major national banks, analysing the use of media releases in the marketing and communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR. Using content analysis, the extent and nature of the media releases issued in 2006, and aimed at specific stakeholders, is determined for each bank. The findings indicate that over one-third of the banks' media releases discuss CSR, predominantly communicating issues related to community involvement. Furthermore, customers and communities are found to be the intended audiences for the majority of the CSR-related media releases.

  10. Key Health Information Technologies and Related Issues for Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future of Health Information Technology (HIT) requires applying a systematic approach when conducting foresight studies. The aim of this study was to identify key health information technologies and related issues for Iran until 2025. This was a qualitative study and the participants included experts and policy makers in the field of health information technology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed by using framework analysis and MAXQDA software. The findings revealed that the development of national health information network, electronic health records, patient health records, a cloud-based service center, interoperability standards, patient monitoring technologies, telehealth, mhealth, clinical decision support systems, health information technology and mhealth infrastructure were found to be the key technologies for the future. These technologies could influence the economic, organizational and individual levels. To achieve them, the economic and organizational obstacles need to be overcome. In this study, a number of key technologies and related issues were identified. This approach can help to focus on the most important technologies in the future and to priorities these technologies for better resource allocation and policy making.

  11. Giftedness Counseling in Germany: Consultation Reasons and Issues and Their Relations to Gender, Age, and Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Nele; Koop, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, parents can request counseling and assessment of school-related learning and behavioral issues from either independent counseling centers or school-based ones. Focusing on giftedness consultations at independent counseling centers, the goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the reasons for and the issues discussed…

  12. Some critical issues in special needs education as they relate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines five critical issues in special education as they relate to visual impairment vis a vis mercy killing (euthanasia), gender, seclusion, castration and genetic engineering. Literature in the five stated issues was reviewed to provide an insight into these areas with particular reference to visual impairment.

  13. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  14. Analysis and control of issues that delay pharmaceutical projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallam Sai Nandeswara Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Every project will have certain objectives and service levels to be achieved. The success of a project depends on several dimensions like time, cost/budget, quality, etc. and managing a project involves completing the project within time, within budget and with quality to satisfy the users. Because of the significance of health, pharmaceutical companies realized the importance of project management methods and techniques to make available the life saving drugs in time to the needy patients and hospitals. In literature, there is meager information about pharmaceutical project management oriented towards analysis of issues and factors that contribute to the failure or success of projects. This study attempts to analyse different issues that contribute to time delays in pharmaceutical product-based projects, group them under a finite set of prominent factors and identify remedial measures to control those delays. The feedback of project people of some big pharmaceutical firms of Indian sub-continent was collected for this purpose. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA has been used to reduce the reasons for time delays to a limited number of prominent factors and the EFA model has been further examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA for its validation. Remedial measures under each factor of time delays have been gathered and a framework designed to mitigate the time delays in pharmaceutical projects. The derived factors that delay the pharmaceutical projects include resource, monitoring & control, scheduling and planning problems. Important remedial measures like blended resource approach, estimation and forecast of shortage of labour and skills, regular quality training, etc. have been recommended.

  15. Neutron activation analysis as analytical tool of environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) ia applicable to the sample of wide range of research fields, such as material science, biology, geochemistry and so on. However, respecting the advantages of NAA, a sample with small amounts or a precious sample is the most suitable samples for NAA, because NAA is capable of trace analysis and non-destructive determination. In this paper, among these fields, NAA of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sample is discussed emphasizing on the use of obtained data as an analytical tool of environmental issue. Concentration of PM in air is usually very low, and it is not easy to get vast amount of sample even using a high volume air sampling devise. Therefore, high sensitive NAA is suitable to determine elements in PM samples. Main components of PM is crust oriented silicate, and so on in rural/remote area, and carbonic materials and heavy metals are concentrated in PM in urban area, because of automobile exhaust and other anthropogenic emission source. Elemental pattern of PM reflects a condition of air around the monitoring site. Trends of air pollution can be traced by periodical monitoring of PM by NAA method. Elemental concentrations in air change by season. For example, crustal elements increase in dry season, and sea salts components increase their concentration when wind direction from sea is dominant. Elements that emitted from anthropogenic sources are mainly contained in fine portion of PM, and increase their concentration during winter season, when emission from heating system is high and air is stable. For further analysis and understanding of environmental issues, indicator elements for various emission sources, and elemental concentration ratios of some environmental samples and source portion assignment techniques are useful. (author)

  16. Several issues related to regional environmental investigation to inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xinshan; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the goal of carrying out regional environmental investigation and review of recent environmental investigations toward inland nuclear power plant(NPP) site, and combined with the characteristics between inland and coastal sites, this paper is to make deeply analysis on population distribution, environmental characteristics, feasibility of performing emergency plan, characteristics of received water and external human-induced incident of NPP vicinity, then advance several significant issues related regional environmental investigation to inland sites, and make comparison with the investigation to coastal sites. Meantime, on guarantee of the integrity of collected materials during investigation, this paper also makes several proposals to provide reference for carrying out regional environmental investigation to inland NPP site. (authors)

  17. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  18. 75 FR 64710 - Joint Public Roundtable on Issues Related to the Clearing of Credit Default Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... certain issues related to the clearing of Credit Default Swaps in the context of the Agencies rulemaking... comments must be in English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to either...

  19. Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance...

  20. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  1. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariani Ahmad Nizaruddin, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adliah Mhd-Ali, Mohd Makmor-Bakry Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs.Participants and methods: A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner.Results and discussion: Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents’ medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes.Conclusion: There are important issues

  2. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  3. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  4. Selected legal and institutional issues related to Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, V. P.

    1979-06-01

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), an attractive alternative to traditional energy sources, is still in the early stages of development. To facilitate OTEC commercialization, it is essential that a legal and institutional framework be designed now so as to resolve uncertainties related to OTEC development, primarily involving jurisdictional, regulatory, and environmental issues. The jurisdictional issues raised by OTEC use are dependent upon the site of an OTEC facility and its configuration; i.e., whether the plant is a semipermanent fixture located offshore or a migrating plant ship that provides a source of energy for industry at sea. These issues primarily involve the division of authority between the Federal Government and the individual coastal states. The regulatory issues raised are largely speculative: they involve the adaptation of existing mechanisms to OTEC operation. Finally, the environmental issues raised center around compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as well as international agreements. 288 references.

  5. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin, Mariani; Omar, Marhanis-Salihah; Mhd-Ali, Adliah; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner. Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents' medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes. There are important issues related to medication management in RACFs which require a need to establish policy and guidelines.

  6. Popper and Dingle on special relativity and the issue of symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Allen Clark

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper and Herbert Dingle engaged in a fascinating debate concerning the kind of theory the special theory of relativity is. One of the issues was whether applications of the theory could be made consistent with the principle of relativity, a cornerstone of the theory itself. The principle of relativity seems to imply some sort of symmetry in results obtained for similar experiments as observed in two different inertial reference frames. Peter Hayes has recently dealt with the Dingle-Popper debate on this matter, as well as other issues. The present paper seeks to clarify what kind of symmetry is appropriate in a situation discussed by Popper, Dingle, and Hayes.

  7. Information Retrieval System Design Issues in a Microcomputer-Based Relational DBMS Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Dietmar

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the file structure requirements for a microcomputer-based information retrieval system using FoxPro, a relational database management system (DBMS). Issues relating to the design and implementation of such systems are discussed, and two possible designs are examined in terms of space economy and practicality of implementation. (15…

  8. University Intervention into Community Issues as Dialogic Public Relations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines a study of the wastewater collection and treatment issues of Little Rock and North Little Rock, Arkansas by University of Arkansas at Little Rock personnel and how it constitutes dialogic public relations. The paper defines dialogic public relations using Kent and Taylor's work and then uses their criteria to describe how this…

  9. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of... consumer protection and civil rights laws and regulations related to air transportation. The Enforcement... travelers, and to ensure safe and adequate service in air transportation. Filing a complaint using a web...

  10. Introduction to the Special Issue: New and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of "Language Learning" presents an interdisciplinary state-of-the-art overview of current approaches to linguistic relativity. It contains empirical and theoretical studies and reflections on linguistic relativity from a variety of perspectives, such as associative learning, conceptual transfer, multilingual awareness,…

  11. Difficulties are multiplying - topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1985-01-01

    The report points out topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal, yet leaves no doubt that the technical-scientific concept for nuclear waste disposal incorporated into the nuclear energy law in 1976 was a success. Nonetheless it is desirable that there should be persistent efforts especially on the part of parliament when issuing legislation or statutory orders to reach greater clearness and thus predictability in areas where technology has been proven by many years of practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. THE PRACTICE OF ECT IN INDIA : ISSUES RELATING YO THE ADMINISTRATION OF ECT

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, A.K.; Andrade, Chittaranjan; Reddy, M. Venkataswamy

    1992-01-01

    A questionnaire on ECT, tapping altitudes, opinions and usage, was mailed to all medical members of the Indian Psychiatric Society whose addresses were known; 263 (28.8%) responded. This paper, the first in a series that presents the results of the survey, provides demographic data on the respondents and covers issues relating to the administration of ECT. Specific issues discussed include the ECT personnel, location of the ECT facility, certain ECT prescription patterns, psychiatrist-patient...

  13. Something fishy? News media presentation of complex health issues related to fish consumption guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Amelia; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-11-01

    The news media are an important source of dietary information. Understanding news content, particularly the portrayal of risks and benefits of certain foods, is relevant for effective public health communication. Fish consumption may reduce risk for CVD and aid neonatal development, but recent work shows public confusion about the benefits of fish, challenged by the evidence of mercury and other contaminants in fish. We present an analysis of the messages about fish in US news media over 15 years, identifying trends in coverage and highlighting implications of current messaging. We conducted a descriptive text analysis and coded for manifest content: locality of focus, story frame, reference to studies, inclusion of government guidelines and portrayal of uncertainty. We identified chronological patterns and analysed the data for statistically significant relationships between media source and content. News stories were selected from five daily newspapers and five television networks (1993-2007). We analysed 310 health-related news stories on fish. Risk messages outweighed benefit messages four to one, and health benefits only became prominent after 2002. No difference existed in coverage topic by news source. Fish consumption has increasingly become a national issue. With the bulk of messages about fish consumption focused on risk, the benefits may be lost to consumers. This gap creates a need for public health to work with news media to more effectively communicate benefits and risks around fish consumption and health and to consider options for communicating tailored information where it can be more readily utilised.

  14. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented

  15. 股权众筹:制度构建与疑义相析%To Build the Equity Crowdfunding:System Construction and the Analysis on Related Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健

    2015-01-01

    股权众筹作为互联网浪潮下新兴产物,一直处于“蛮生长状态。存在着法律地位不明、市场准入缺失以及投资者利益保障不利等诸多法律风险。《私募股权众筹融资管理办法(试行)(征求意见稿)》的出台,明确了股权众筹的法律地位,将股权众筹定性为非公开发行,并制定了配套的市场准入规则和合格投资者范围。但是,出于对新生事物的警惕,“征求意见稿”的监管手段和条件过于严苛,不利于股权众筹行业的发展,对此,本文提出相关建议。%As a new product of the Internet popularity, the equity crowdfunding has been in a state of the unorderly growth. There exist many legal risks such as ambiguous legal status, lack of the market access and insufficient investors’ interest protection. The is-suance of Measures for the Administration of Private Equity Crowdfunding (trial) (draft) clarifies the legal status of the equity crowd-funding, classifies equity crowdfunding to the non-public issuance, and makes corresponding rules on the market access and the range the qualified investors. However, out of alert for new things, the regulatory measures and conditions of the draft are too harsh to be good to the development of the equity crowdfunding. Therefore, the paper puts forward related suggestions.

  16. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    inland water resources IOA. Recent internal study references related to environmental input-output table, pollution discharge analysis and environmental impact assessment had taken the leading position. Pollution discharge analysis mainly aiming at CO2 discharge had been regard as a new hotspot of environmental IOA. Environmental impact assessment was an important direction of inland environmental IOA in recent years. Key study issues including Domestic Technology Assumption(DTA) and Sectoral Aggregation(SA) had been mentioned remarkably. It was pointed out that multiply multi-region input-output analysis(MIOA) may be helpful to solve DTA. Because there was little study using effective analysis tools to quantify the bias of SA and the exploration of the appropriate sectoral aggregation degree was scarce, research dedicating to explore and solve these two key issues was deemed to be urgently needed. According to the study status, several points of outlook were proposed in the end.

  17. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump

  18. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies,'' DOE considered...

  19. Patients' Perspectives on Information and Communication About Sexual and Relational Issues in Rheumatology Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Ylva; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Haugen, Mona-Iren; Kjeken, Ingvild; Zangi, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Men and women with rheumatic diseases report a significantly negative impact on multiple areas of life, including sexuality. Research indicates that patients want to discuss sexual issues with health professionals (HPs) in rheumatology care but these issues are rarely addressed in consultations. The objective of the present study was to explore patients' experiences of communication with HPs about disease-related sexual issues, their perceptions of the relevance of these issues in rheumatology care and their preferences for how these topics should be handled. A qualitative design was used and 18 semi-structured interviews were performed, including eight women and ten men with inflammatory rheumatic joint diseases, aged 29-62 years. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically. Four main themes were derived from the interviews: (i) relevance of sexual issues; (ii) vital conditions for communication; (iii) individual preferences in mode and timing of information and communication; and (iv) benefits of information and communication. The participants expressed that, although sexual issues are relevant, necessary conditions for good communication are largely lacking. HPs' knowledge, experience and personal skills, as well as having sufficient time were essential. HPs lack of initiating sexual topics contributed to uncertainty about whether their sexual challenges were disease related and whether it was a legitimate topic to discuss in rheumatology care. Patients wanted HPs to possess knowledge about possible disease-related challenges in sexual life and intimate relationships, and to facilitate communication about these aspects. There is a need to develop practice guidelines to enable HPs to integrate sexual issues as an aspect of healthcare delivery in a patient-friendly manner. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe{sub 2}- based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues.

  1. Environmental issues related to commercialization of CulnSe2- based photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberspacher, C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most promising materials for low-cost thin film photovoltaic cells is copper indium selenide (CuInSe 2 or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental issues related to the sources of raw materials, their usage, and the disposal and/or recycling of products at the end of their useful life. This paper focuses on three specific environmental issues related to CIS technology: (i) Economics of the use and re-use of materials; (ii) regulations on environmental disposal and waste handling, and (iii) logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of products by industries faced with comparable environmental issues

  2. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4 th International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  3. Are Australians concerned about nanoparticles? A comparative analysis with established and emerging environmental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2015-02-01

    Introducing new technologies into society raises considerable public concern. We determine the public concern about nanoparticles, and compare this concern to other environmental health issues such as wind farms and coal seam gas production. A repeat cross sectional survey examining views on environmental health issues, risk, chemicals and trust was undertaken in more than 1,300 Australian residents in 2000 and 2013. Logistic regression and principal component analysis was used to investigate predictors of nanoparticle concern and identify a component structure for environmental health issues that could explain a trend of future nanoparticle concern. Australians have a relatively low level of concern about the risks of nanoparticles to health when compared to their concerns about other environmental health issues. Items associated with concern included gender, a general wish to avoid chemicals and possibly trust in politicians. Concern over nanoparticles clustered with similar views on technological risks. Current public concern over the risks of nanoparticles is low. However, a reframing of the issue towards 'chemicals' is likely to have a negative effect on risk perceptions. This paper raises questions about appropriate channels for the effective communication of risk. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Psychometric evaluation of the Environmental Reality Shock-Related Issues and Concerns instrument for newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Yeo, Jung Hee; Park, Hyunjeong; Sin, Kyung Mi; Jones, Cheryl B

    2018-02-01

    Reality shock is a critical representation of the gap between nursing education and clinical practice and it is important to explore the level of reality shock among nurses. However, there is no relevant instrument to assess the level of reality shock in South Korea. The purpose of this is to determine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Environmental Reality Shock-Related Issues and Concerns instrument. A cross-sectional study design was used in this study. The data collection was conducted in selected 15 hospitals in South Korea. A convenience sample of 216 newly graduated nurses participated in the study. The Korean version of the Environmental Reality Shock-Related Issues and Concerns instrument was developed through the forward-backward translation technique, and revision based on feedback from expert groups. The internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and the construct validity was determined via exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The Korean version of the Environmental Reality Shock-Related Issues and Concerns has reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.91). Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors including job, relationships, expectations, private life, and performance, which explained 61.92% of variance. The factor loadings ranged from 0.451 to 0.832. The five-factor structure was validated by confirmatory factor analysis (RMR0.9). It was concluded that the Korean version of the Environmental Reality Shock-Related Issues and Concerns instrument has satisfactory construct validity and reliability to measure the reality shock of newly graduated nurses in South Korea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-01-01

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis

  6. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  7. Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Earp, Jeffrey; Klemke, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Earp, J., & Klemke, R. (2011, 21 September). Introducing GaLA: Serious Game potentials, challenges and TEL-related issues. Presented at TEL-Think-Tank Workshop at the 6th European conference on Technology enhanced learning: towards ubiquitous learning (EC-TEL 2011), Palermo, Italy.

  8. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  9. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  10. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  11. Fundamental issues in the manufacturing of nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) and related nanosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Alapatt, G.F.; Gupta, N.; Poole, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructures in dimension below about 10 nm show interesting properties because of the effect of low-dimension physics. However, to utilize these properties in practice to commercialize NEMS and related nano-systems require an extremely precise manufacturing process. This paper briefly evaluates the fundamental issues involved in manufacturing the nano-scale systems.

  12. 78 FR 9020 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Further Comment on Specific Issues Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... adjust the Remote Areas Fund usage allowance requirement to reflect consumer behavior, and if so, how... files, audio format), send an email to [email protected] or call the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau... issues relating to the implementation of the Remote Areas Fund as a portable consumer subsidy program, as...

  13. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Nuclear fuel cycle issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, R.

    1997-01-01

    The range of issues relating to exemption and clearance within the nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. It is concluded that current regulatory systems and the underpinning technical criteria are potentially inflexible and over-conservative, resulting in an imbalance in the use of society's resources. Proposals are developed for establishing practical requirements which would ensure that resource allocation is commensurate with the magnitude of the risks and in broad proportion to the other risks affecting society. Such an approach would be consistent with the concept of sustainability and could support wider public acceptance of these issues. Within this approach the practical distinction between exemption and clearance is challenged. (author)

  14. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  15. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the behaviour of a

  16. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove (comp.)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge of the climate-related conditions and processes relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Can. The report also includes a concise background description of the climate system. The report includes three main chapters: A description of the climate system (Chapter 2); Identification and discussion of climate-related issues (Chapter 3); and, A description of the evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment (Chapter 4). Chapter 2 includes an overview of present knowledge of the Earth climate system and the climate conditions that can be expected to occur in Sweden on a 100,000 year time perspective. Based on this, climate-related issues relevant for the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository are identified. These are documented in Chapter 3 'Climate-related issues' to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. Finally, in Chapter 4, 'Evolution of climate-related conditions for the safety assessment' an evolution for a 120,000 year period is presented, including discussions of identified climate-related issues of importance for repository safety. The documentation is from a scientific point of view not exhaustive, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of a safety assessment. As further described in the SR-Can Main Report and in the Features Events and Processes report, the content of the present report has been audited by comparison with FEP databases compiled in other assessment projects. This report follows as far as possible the template for documentation of processes regarded as internal to the repository system. However, the term processes is not used in this report, instead the term issue has been used. Each issue includes a set of processes together resulting in the

  17. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  18. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  19. Analysis of safety issues in household meat consumption in Odeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the safety problems with household meat consumption in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun state, Nigeria. The objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents; assess the level of awareness of safety issues in households' meat consumption; and evaluate the ...

  20. A Sociobiological Analysis Of Resource Control Issues | Nnadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting the stand point that humans are part of the animal kingdom, the sociobiological phenomena of metamorphosis, aggression and territoriality are introduced into the fray. They are then juxtaposed to the issue of resource control and applied to improve understanding and, hopefully, management of the former.

  1. Islamic Religious Leaders in Israel as Social Agents for Change on Health-Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dar, Michal; Obeid, Samira

    2017-12-01

    Islamic religious leaders (IRLs) have the potential to influence health education, health promotion, and positive health outcomes among their own communities. This study aims to examine the role and effectiveness of Arab Muslim religious leaders, in Israel, as social agents for change on health-related issues, focusing on reduction in infant mortality, prematurity, and congenital malformations attributed to consanguineous marriage. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to 127 IRLs, in 2012, to gain insights into practice, attitudes, and perceptions of IRLs toward their role as social agents for change on health-related issues. The results indicate that two-thirds (58%) of the surveyed IRLs have provided frequent advice on issues related to preventing infant mortality, congenital malformation, and prematurity over the past two years. Most IRLs indicated that they have keen interest in their communities' health matters (97%) and regard dealing with them as part of their job (85%). The study identified three enabling factors that had significant influence on the IRLs' attitude. These influences are: awareness and knowledge of the health issues, the perception that these issues and their impact on the community are part of their responsibility, and the empowerment they felt through the participation in the Ministry of Health (Northern Region Health Office) educational seminar series, in the year 2000. The main conclusion from this study indicates that IRLs are effective social agents for change and that the educational interventions can be a useful and effective strategy to encourage IRLs to cooperate with health providers and promote public health among their own communities.

  2. Google and Women's Health-Related Issues: What Does the Search Engine Data Reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baazeem, Mazin; Abenhaim, Haim

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the gaps in public knowledge of women's health related issues has always been difficult. With the increasing number of Internet users in the United States, we sought to use the Internet as a tool to help us identify such gaps and to estimate women's most prevalent health concerns by examining commonly searched health-related keywords in Google search engine. We collected a large pool of possible search keywords from two independent practicing obstetrician/gynecologists and classified them into five main categories (obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, urogynecology/menopause and oncology), and measured the monthly average search volume within the United States for each keyword with all its possible combinations using Google AdWords tool. We found that pregnancy related keywords were less frequently searched in general compared to other categories with an average of 145,400 hits per month for the top twenty keywords. Among the most common pregnancy-related keywords was "pregnancy and sex' while pregnancy-related diseases were uncommonly searched. HPV alone was searched 305,400 times per month. Of the cancers affecting women, breast cancer was the most commonly searched with an average of 247,190 times per month, followed by cervical cancer then ovarian cancer. The commonly searched keywords are often issues that are not discussed in our daily practice as well as in public health messages. The search volume is relatively related to disease prevalence with the exception of ovarian cancer which could signify a public fear.

  3. Contributions to the Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Rena M; Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G

    2011-02-01

    This special issue on gender-related content analysis is the second of two parts (see Rudy et al. 2010b). The current special issue is more diverse than was the first in the number of countries that are represented and in the variety of media genres and content types that are included. The primary aim of this paper is to outline some of the contributions of the individual papers in this second special issue. Some of these advancements and innovations include (a) examining underresearched measures, countries, time spans, sexual orientations, and individual media programs; (b) addressing both international and intranational differences in gender-role portrayals; (c) comparing multiple content formats within the same media unit; (d) updating past findings to take into consideration the current media landscape; (e) employing established measures in novel ways and novel contexts; (f) uncovering limitations in established intercultural measures and media-effects theories; (g) suggesting variables that could predict additional differences in gender-role portrayals; (h) adopting virtually identical methods and measures across distinct content categories in order to facilitate comparisons; (i) conducting multiple tests of a given hypothesis; (j) examining, from multiple perspectives, the implications of racial differences in gender portrayals; and (k) examining the implications of underrepresentation of women and the perspectives that women hold. In addition to the original content-analytical research presented in this special issue, two reviews, one methodological and the other analytical, offer recommendations of procedures and perspectives to be implemented in future research.

  4. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  5. Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

    2010-10-01

    The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed.

  6. Experimental programs and facilities for ASTRID development related to the Severe Accident Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, C.; Suteau, C.; Trotignon, L.; Willermoz, G.; Ducros, G.; Courouau, J.L.; Ruggieri, J.M.; Serre, F.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental program has been launched in order to gain new data in support of the severe accident studies related to the ASTRID demonstrator. The main new issues with respect to the historic experimental database are mainly related to new design options: heterogeneous core with thick pins; new materials; new severe accident mitigation systems such as - corium discharge channels; - core-catcher with sacrificial materials; - some issues remaining open as Fuel Coolant Interaction. Experiments are needed both in-pile and out of pile: - Depending on the objectives, the out of pile experiments can be conducted - with simulant; - with prototypic corium; - or with irradiated fuel. A new large scale corium facility, FOURNAISE, must be built to fulfill this program. Already, experimental R&D started in existing facilities, such as VITI or CORRONA

  7. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâldea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”. This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators. It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively. To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves.

  8. An interpretation of schedule 1 of the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Wakerley, M.W.

    2000-09-01

    Schedule 1 of the UK's Radioactive Substances Act 1993 was originally Schedule 3 of the 1960 Act of the same name. It is possible that different methods are currently being employed to interpret how Schedule 1 should be used. This report provides an interpretation and guidance on this and related issues. It is primarily for technical specialists already familiar with the workings of the Act. This report covers the period 1999/2000

  9. Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    official definition of asymmetric warfare , considering that its use was redundant to irregular warfare [30]. 2 Such as the Lanchester Equations...RTP-MP-MSG-069 23 - 1 Using Agent Based Distillation to Explore Issues Related to Asymmetric Warfare Martin Adelantado, Jean-Michel Mathé...shows that both conventional and asymmetric warfare are characterised by nonlinear behaviours and that engagement is a Complex Adaptive System (CAS

  10. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  11. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders? Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in May–June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents’ opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, w...

  12. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  13. Numerical issues for liquid-metal boiling transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The large liquid-to-vapor density ratio of a boiling liquid-metal leads to a very abrupt change of the two-phase mixture density at the inception of boiling. Unfortunately, the strong dependence of mixture density on pressure leads to a key numerical issue that adversely affects the behavior of numerical solutions. The difficulties can be reduced by using techniques that acknowledge this functional behavior at the start of boiling. Some of the methods used include a spatially averaged density function, mathematical smoothing, and under relaxation. Nonequilibrium two-fluid models also seem to offer aid in obtaining reliable numerical solutions. (author)

  14. Analysis of print media coverage of nuclear power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.; Montano, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    224 newspaper articles were sampled from four newspapers, extrapolating to about 2850 nuclear power articles from 1972 to 1976. 124 magazine articles were found in four magazines (Time, Business Week, Scientific American, Environment). The newspapers wee found to run close coverage of nuclear power issues. The articles were mainly (45%) focused on reactors and reactor operation. The articles were judged to be antinuclear more often than pronuclear (only Scientific American discussed benefits more than costs). The same general conclusion was reached for articles on nuclear waste management

  15. Analysis of textbooks in terms of interpretation of global issues

    OpenAIRE

    Brodníček, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary world, when the whole world is connected, the fact saying that anything what happens on the other side of the world does not have influence to our lives is not truthful anymore. We live in an era of globalization. Therefore, it is important to focus on the global issues already at school and also on the way in which they concern us. However, it should be borne in the mind that, the most important thing is the way, how teachers explain it to their students. The main aim of ...

  16. Surface erosion issues and analysis for dissipative divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.; Hayden, D.B.; Turkot, R.B. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    Erosion/redeposition is examined for the sidewall of a dissipative divertor using coupled impurity transport, charge exchange, and sputtering codes, applied to a plasma solution for the ITER design. A key issue for this regime is possible runaway self-sputtering, due to the effect of a low boundary density and nearly parallel field geometry on redeposition parameters. Net erosion rates, assuming finite self-sputtering, vary with wall location, boundary conditions, and plasma solution, and are roughly of the following order: 200--2000 angstrom/s for beryllium, 10--100 angstrom/s for vanadium, and 0.3--3 angstrom/s for tungsten

  17. Sovereignty: analysis of its current issues in certain countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Koščo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The purpose of my article work is analyzing of the issue of sovereignty in international law. Originality of my article is that events described in the text are for people little known. Method: In the text I used to describe the method. Result: I evaluated the most important facts and influences for States Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Tibet and South Sudan. Society: The lives of people in the above countries, the history and present. Limitation: I clarified the important facts and dates, also bring comparison between past and the future.

  18. Finding online health-related information: usability issues of health portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel Koybasi, Nergis A; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    As Internet and computers become widespread, health portals offering online health-related information become more popular. The most important point for health portals is presenting reliable and valid information. Besides, portal needs to be usable to be able to serve information to users effectively. This study aims to determine usability issues emerging when health-related information is searched on a health portal. User-based usability tests are conducted and eye movement analyses are used in addition to traditional performance measures. Results revealed that users prefer systematic, simple and consistent designs offering interactive tools. Moreover, content and partitions needs to be shaped according to the medical knowledge of target users.

  19. Proceedings of the fifth national symposium on environment: focal theme environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.N.; Bapat, V.N.; Desai, M.V.M.

    1996-02-01

    The fifth National Symposium on Environment was held in Calcutta from February 28 to March 1, 1996. It focused on environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy. Some of the topics covered are coal mining and related environmental issues, chromium mining and associated environmental problems, heavy metals especially nuclear materials and the environmental management strategies, arsenic contamination in water in West Bengal areas and radiological issues related to fertilizers and gypsum industries. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  20. Issues Related to University Education in Ukraine in the Context of Globalization, European Integration and Bologna Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Bosenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of issued linked to the development of Ukrainian education in the contexts of globalization, European integration and Bologna Process. The needs for reforms related to the university education in Ukraine is linked with job market and social services, including educational services, globalization of economics and IT technologies: enhancing of socio-economical and pedagogical processes, informatization in society, transition to ‘knowledge societies’, changing the system f values, expanding the core of university education, emergence and distribution of innovative technologies, freedom of choice in electing the university curriculum, fundamentalization and humanization of education etc.

  1. Current issues and challenges in global analysis of parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Wu-Ki

    2007-01-01

    A new implementation of precise perturbative QCD calculation of deep inelastic scattering structure functions and cross sections, incorporating heavy quark mass effects, is applied to the global analysis of the full HERA I data sets on NC and CC cross sections, in conjunction with other experiments. Improved agreement between the NLO QCD theory and the global data sets are obtained. Comparison of the new results to that of previous analysis based on conventional zero-mass parton formalism is made. Exploratory work on implications of new fixed-target neutrino scattering and Drell-Yan data on global analysis is also discussed. (author)

  2. Pedagogical issues for effective teaching of biosignal processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandham, William A; Hamilton, David J

    2010-01-01

    Biosignal processing and analysis is generally perceived by many students to be a challenging topic to understand, and to become adept with the necessary analytical skills. This is a direct consequence of the high mathematical content involved, and the many abstract features of the topic. The MATLAB and Mathcad software packages offer an excellent algorithm development environment for teaching biosignal processing and analysis modules, and can also be used effectively in many biosignal, and indeed bioengineering, research areas. In this paper, traditional introductory and advanced biosignal processing (and analysis) syllabi are reviewed, and the use of MATLAB and Mathcad for teaching and research is illustrated with a number of examples.

  3. NursingQuest: supporting an analysis of nursing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassendowski, Sandra L

    2007-02-01

    With the development and use of new strategies, practices, applications, and resources in technology, the teaching and learning context is shifting. Nurse educators are challenged to create instructional strategies that appeal to the newer generation of students and have the potential to enhance learning. Effective learning programs for these students require new digital communication skills, new pedagogies, and new practices. Nursing students should not be seeking the right answer as much as they should be seeking appropriate information and then developing approaches to issues or resolutions for problems. The focus of the teaching and learning context is shifting from the individual to the group, with the purpose of constructing new knowledge from available information. This article discusses the value of WebQuest activities as inquiry-oriented strategies and the process of adapting the WebQuest format for the development of a strategy called NursingQuest.

  4. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

    1979-11-01

    Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

  5. Unsolved issues related to thermal-hydraulics in the suppression chamber during Fukushima Daiichi accident progressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizokami, Shinya; Yamada, Daichi; Honda, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami hit the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Fukushima Daiichi Units 1-3 lost all DC and AC power supplies, which set in motion a chain of events that led to releases of radioactivity to the environment. Since then, TEPCO has made many efforts to investigate the accident progressions and the status of the reactors and containment vessels. However, there still exist several tens of unsolved issues to be investigated for the fully understanding of the accident. In this paper, we introduce the unsolved issues related to thermal-hydraulics in the suppression chamber during the Fukushima Daiichi accident progressions. Especially, in Units 2 and 3, there are possibilities that thermal stratification inside their suppression chambers played an important role. It is important that these phenomena are addressed following both theoretical and experimental approaches as support to severe accident simulations. (author)

  6. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-01-01

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture

  7. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  8. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for "informed and reflective" speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would bring

  9. Global Nursing Issues and Development: Analysis of World Health Organization Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Hui; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte; Molasiotis, Alex

    2015-11-01

    To analyze World Health Organization (WHO) documents to identify global nursing issues and development. Qualitative content analysis. Documents published by the six WHO regions between 2007 and 2012 and with key words related to nurse/midwife or nursing/midwifery were included. Themes, categories, and subcategories were derived. The final coding reached 80% agreement among three independent coders, and the final coding for the discrepant coding was reached by consensus. Thirty-two documents from the regions of Europe (n = 19), the Americas (n = 6), the Western Pacific (n = 4), Africa (n = 1), the Eastern Mediterranean (n = 1), and Southeast Asia (n = 1) were examined. A total of 385 units of analysis dispersed in 31 subcategories under four themes were derived. The four themes derived (number of unit of analysis, %) were Management & Leadership (206, 53.5), Practice (75, 19.5), Education (70, 18.2), and Research (34, 8.8). The key nursing issues of concern at the global level are workforce, the impacts of nursing in health care, professional status, and education of nurses. International alliances can help advance nursing, but the visibility of nursing in the WHO needs to be strengthened. Organizational leadership is important in order to optimize the use of nursing competence in practice and inform policy makers regarding the value of nursing to promote people's health. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Technical and perceptual issues on head-related transfer functions sets for use in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela

    of binaural synthesis in providing a realistic and/or convincing virtual sonic experience relies largely on technical and perceptual issues inherent to the HRTFs and their use, particularly on how well the spectral features of the HRTFs used match those of the listener. This PhD thesis focused on identifying...... the spectral features that cue sound localization in the mid-sagittal plane. Listening tests were conducted from which groups of individual and non-individual HRTFs that evoked the same direction were obtained. Analysis of these HRTFs suggested that the relevant spectral cues covered a broad range...

  11. System for decision analysis support on complex waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    A software system called the Waste Flow Analysis has been developed and applied to complex environmental management processes for the United States Department of Energy (US DOE). The system can evaluate proposed methods of waste retrieval, treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal. Analysts can evaluate various scenarios to see the impacts to waste slows and schedules, costs, and health and safety risks. Decision analysis capabilities have been integrated into the system to help identify preferred alternatives based on a specific objectives may be to maximize the waste moved to final disposition during a given time period, minimize health risks, minimize costs, or combinations of objectives. The decision analysis capabilities can support evaluation of large and complex problems rapidly, and under conditions of variable uncertainty. The system is being used to evaluate environmental management strategies to safely disposition wastes in the next ten years and reduce the environmental legacy resulting from nuclear material production over the past forty years

  12. Geographic Resolution Issues in RAM Transport Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Transport risk analyses based on the RADTRAN code have been met with continual demands for increased spatial resolution of variations in population densities and other parameters employed in the calculation of risk estimates for transport of radioactive material (RAM). With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs) large quantities of data required to describe transport routes, which may extend to hundreds of kilometers, with high resolution (e.g. 1 km segments) can be handled without inordinate expense. This capability has raised a question concerning the maximum resolution of available input data and compatibility with RADTRAN computational models. Quantitative examinations are presented of spatial resolution issues in the calculation of incident-free doses and accident dose risks. For incident-free calculations, the effect of decreasing route-segment length on accuracy, in view of the model employed, is examined, and means of reducing total data input to the RADTRAN calculations, without loss of meaningful resolution of population concentrations, are presented. In the case of accident-risk calculations, the ability to detail population density under very large dispersal plumes permits comparison of plume modelling to actual data. In both types of calculations, meaningful limits to geographic extent are suggested. (author)

  13. Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: data analysis issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fade, S A; Swift, J A

    2011-04-01

    Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Hospital Malnutrition Related to Fasting and Underfeeding: Is It an Ethical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Moya, Diego; Plascencia Gaitán, Alejandra; Ornelas Camacho, Denisse; Arenas Márquez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a relevant clinical issue present in about 50% of patients that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Because of the relation of malnutrition with chronic and acute inflammatory processes secondary to disease, nutrition therapy is considered an important medical treatment. However, there is little discussion about the impact of another critical issue related to hospital malnutrition, that is, lack of appropriate food or nutrition therapy given to the patients. Unnecessary fasting practices and the use of inappropriate nutrition prescriptions result in underfeeding that can be a related or direct cause of hospital malnutrition, independent of disease or inflammatory state. Suboptimal prescription of oral, enteral, and parenteral nutrition should be analyzed and discussed from an ethical perspective since this practice has the potential to harm patients. In addition, absence or inadequate provision of nutrition may present barriers for improved patient outcomes and could be prevented by simply recognizing lack of knowledge, skills, or experience in nutrition and entrusting nutrition prescription to interdisciplinary teams with clinicians well prepared in nutrition sciences. This article reviews potential barriers to the prevention or treatment of hospital malnutrition and proposes specific actions that can help clinicians to overcome and implement optimal nutrition not just as medical therapy but also as a basic comfort care that may help patients nutritionally, clinically, physically, and emotionally. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

  16. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  17. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  18. Acoustic and wind speed data analysis as an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, R.J.; MacKinnon, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines how the output from a cup anemometer, used for wind speed measurement, can be recorded on magnetic tape and analysed using instrumentation normally employed to measure acoustic data. The purpose of this being to allow true simultaneous analysis of acoustic and wind speed data. NEL's NWTC (National Wind Turbine Centre) Anemometer Calibration Facility is used to compare pulsed and analogue outputs from a typical anemometer to the data obtained from a pitot/static tube for a range of different wind speeds. The usefulness of 1/24- and 1/12-octave analysis is examined and accuracy limits are derived for the 'acoustic' approach to wind speed measurement. The allowable positions for anemometer locations are also discussed with reference to currently available standards and recommended practices. (Author)

  19. Methodological issues underlying multiple decrement life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, C J; Avery, R C; Littman, G S; Potter, R G

    1977-02-01

    In this paper, the actuarial method of multiple decrement life table analysis of censored, longitudinal data is examined. The discussion is organized in terms of the first segment of usage of an intrauterine device. Weaknesses of the actuarial approach are pointed out, and an alternative approach, based on the classical model of competing risks, is proposed. Finally, the actuarial and the alternative method of analyzing censored data are compared, using data from the Taichung Medical Study on Intrauterine Devices.

  20. 17 CFR 230.488 - Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination transactions. 230.488 Section... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Investment Companies; Business Development Companies § 230.488 Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination...

  1. [Materiality Analysis of Health Plans Based on Stakeholder Engagement and the Issues Included at ISO 26000:2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano Santiago, Miguel Angel; Rivera Lirio, Juana María

    2017-01-18

    Health plans of the Spanish autonomous communities can incorporate sustainable development criteria in its development. There have been no analysis or proposals about development and indicators. The goal is to add a contribution to help build better health plans aimed at sustainable development and help to manage economic, social and environmental impacts of health systems criteria. We used a variation of the RAND/UCLA or modified Delphi technique method. The process consisted of a bibliographical and context matters and issues related to health and social responsibility analysis based on ISO 26000: 2010. A survey by deliberately to a selection of 70 expert members of the identified stakeholders was carried out and a discussion group was held to determine the consensus on the issues addressed in the survey sample. The research was conducted in 2015. From the literature review 33 health issues included in ISO 26000:2010 were obtained. 7 survey proved relevant high consensus, 8 relevance and average consensus and 18 with less relevance and high level of dissent. The expert group excluded 4 of the 18 subjects with less consensus. 29 issues included 33 at work, divided into 7 subjects contained in the guide ISO 26000 of social responsibility, were relevant stakeholders regarding possible inclusion in health plans. Considering the direct relationship published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) among the issues ISO 26000 and the economic, social and environmental indicators in GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) in its G4 version, a panel with monitoring indicators related to relevant issues were elaborated.

  2. Coming out of the Dark: Content Analysis of Articles Pertaining to Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues in Couple and Family Therapy Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Erica E.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study seeks to extend previous research regarding literature related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals by presenting the results from a content analysis of GLB studies in CFT-related journals from 1996 to 2010. Results of the analysis revealed a 238.8% increase in…

  3. Developing a research agenda on ethical issues related to using social media in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samantha A; Van Veghel, Dennis; Dekker, Lukas

    2015-07-01

    The consequences of using publicly available social media applications specifically for healthcare purposes are largely unaddressed in current research. Where they are addressed, the focus is primarily on issues of privacy and data protection. We therefore use a case study of the first live Twitter heart operation in the Netherlands, in combination with recent literature on social media from other academic fields, to identify a wide range of ethical issues related to using social media for health-related purposes. Although this case reflects an innovative approach to public education and patient centeredness, it also illustrates the need for institutions to weigh the various aspects of use and to develop a plan to deal with these on a per case basis. Given the continual development of technologies, researchers may not yet be able to oversee and anticipate all of the potential implications. Further development of a research agenda on this topic, the promotion of guidelines and policies, and the publication of case studies that reveal the granularity of individual situations will therefore help raise awareness and assist physicians and institutions in using social media to support existing care services.

  4. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  5. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills G, Scott; Neuhauser, Sieglinde

    2000-01-01

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale

  6. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...... affairs, and (3) with regards to the transformation of European Union governance in troubled times. These three research avenues highlight how not only European governance itself has evolved in a changing world, but also how the analysis of interests, institutions, and policy-making has morphed...

  7. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  8. The Issues of Human Rights in the India-U.S. Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Aleksey I.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of India-U.S. relations during the period of Narendra Modi’s government and Barack Obama’s administration. The author analyzes the dynamics of cooperation development after the victory of Bharatiya Janata Party in the 2014 Parliamentary elections in India and studies the key directions of bilateral agenda. The current condition of India-U.S. strategic dialogue and the influence of human rights issues on the countries’ cooperation are characterized. Since 2014 the states’ cooperation has been growing rapidly. The bilateral investment, trade and economic interdependence have significantly increased. Some experts and mass media note that Barack Obama and Narendra Modi are having friendly relations. From a different angle, a number of agreements between countries still remain unaccomplished. For instance, the U.S. support for India’s permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, its accession to APEC and the implementation of nuclear deal have yet to be turned into achievement. Together with strengthening the bilateral strategic dialogue, the U.S. has intensified the criticism of India’s human rights record. The main part of it includes the cases of religious intolerance, which are observed in the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom reports and the remarks given by U.S. lawmakers and official representatives, including the Ambassador to India. Washington’s careful attention to the human rights issues and religious violence in particular is one of the major irritants in the U.S.-India relations. The engagement of Indian Americans in the local U.S. politics and their lobbying efforts in the context of U.S.-India relations are revealed. The author outlines the near-terms perspectives of bilateral cooperation.

  9. INDIAN CAPITAL MARKET REVIEW: ISSUES, DIMENSIONS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shamim Ansari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an efficient capital market is to mobilize funds from those who have it and route each them to those who can utilize it in the best possible way. India’s financial market is multi-facet but not balanced. It has state of art equity market but relatively less developed and immature corporate bond market. The Indian capital market in the recent year has undergone a lot of innovation in term regulation and mode of operation. A well developed corporate bond market is also essential for financial system stability, efficiency and overall economic growth. However, If we look at the scenario of capital market in India we find that Indian households have traditionally preferred parking their surpluses in bank deposits, government savings schemes and less than 10% of their investments in financial assets in shares, debentures and mutual funds. The Indian capital market has recently put the worst behind and moved towards strong growth. In this back drop the present paper aims to (i identify various grey points of Indian capital market; (ii Evaluated how it performed during post financial crisis period; and (iii suggests necessary policy reforms for a relatively mature capital market.

  10. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Hendrickson, Stacey M.L.; Forester, John A.; Tran, Tuan Q.; Lois, Erasmia

    2010-01-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies is presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  11. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  12. Some of the issues of modern Russian historiography towards Kazakh-Dzhungarian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turganzhan Tulebaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Kazakh people and the Dzhungar Khanate in the 17th - the first half of the 18th centuries was an important milestone in the development of Kazakh sovereignty. Kazakh Khanate had its own place in the development of international relations of the Central Asian countries. The historiography of this problem is very wide. For many years many researchers of post-Soviet, Western, Central Asian countries dedicated their work to this issue. Russian historiography is notable among others for its features. The article discusses some concepts of the modern Russian scientists regarding Kazakh-Dzhungarian relations. Russian historiography of Kazakh-Dzhungarian relations started to develop from the pre-revolutionary period and continues to these days. Kazakhstan scientists of the Soviet period also contributed to the study of international relations in Central Asia in the 17th-18th centuries in line with the required methodological and ideological direction. However, at present in connection with the sovereignization and becoming independent states of the post-Soviet countries, there is some differentiation in the areas of Russian and Kazakh social sciences and humanities. Today our society intentionally seeks to rethink the key milestones of the passed way, know itself and define its new place in the contemporary reality. Therefore, the Russian research on the history of international relations is especially relevant to the public

  13. Identification of unresolved safety issues relating to nuclear power plants. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report describes the review undertaken over the last year that resulted in identifying 17 issues as Unresolved Safety Issues. In addition, the report provides specific discussions of why certain issues were not included. The report also provides a brief background discussion describing Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act and the NRC program for the resolution of generic issues described in NUREG-0410

  14. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  15. Safety issues related to the intermediate heat storage for the EU DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpignano, Andrea [NEMO group, Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Savoldi, Laura; Sobrero, Giulia; Uggenti, Anna Chiara [NEMO group, Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Zanino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zanino@polito.it [NEMO group, Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • IHS affects only the PHTS and the BoP (Balance of Plant). • PIEs list does not change but IHS influences PIEs evolution. • Additional issues to be addressed in PIEs study due to the implementation of HIS. • No safety/operational major obstacles were found for IHS concept. - Abstract: The functional deviations able to compromise system safety in the EU DEMO Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) with intermediate heat storage (IHS) based on molten salts are identified and compared to the deviations identified with PHTS without IHS. The resulting safety issues for the Balance of Plant (BoP) have been taken into account. Functional Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FFMEA) is used to highlight the Postulated Initiating Events (PIE) of incident/accident sequences and to provide some safety insights during the preliminary design. The architecture of the system with IHS does not introduce new PIE with respect to the case without IHS, but it modifies some of them. In particular the two Postulated Initiating Events that are affected by the presence of IHS are the LOCA in the tubes of the HX between primary and intermediate circuit and the loss of heat sink for the first wall or the breeding zone. In fact the IHS introduces some advantages concerning the stability of the secondary circuit, but some weaknesses are associated to the physical-chemical nature of molten salts, especially oxidizing power, corrosive nature and risk of solidification. These issues can be managed in the design by the introduction of new safety functions.

  16. Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Clemencia M; Stines, Elsie M; Granado, Herta S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to determine the health-equity issues that relate to childhood obesity. Health-equity issues related to childhood obesity were identified by analyzing food environment, natural and built environment, and social environment. The authors searched Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science, using the keywords "children" and "obesity." Specific terms for each environment were added: "food desert," "advertising," "insecurity," "price," "processing," "trade," and "school" for food environment; "urban design," "land use," "transportation mode," "public facilities," and "market access" for natural and built environment; and "financial capacity/poverty," "living conditions," "transport access," "remoteness," "social support," "social cohesion," "working practices," "eating habits," "time," and "social norms" for social environment. Inclusion criteria were studies or reports with populations under age 12, conducted in the United States, and published in English in 2005 or later. The final search yielded 39 references (16 for food environment, 11 for built environment, and 12 for social environment). Most food-environment elements were associated with obesity, except food insecurity and food deserts. A natural and built environment that hinders access to physical activity resources and access to healthy foods increased the risk of childhood obesity. Similarly, a negative social environment was associated with childhood obesity. More research is needed on the effects of food production, living conditions, time for shopping, and exercise, as related to childhood obesity. Most elements of food, natural and built, and social-environments were associated with weight in children under age 12, except food insecurity and food deserts. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica

  18. Laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas; Dreier, Thomas; Chen, Weidong; Kearny, Sean; Kulatilaka, Waruna

    2017-04-10

    This Applied Optics feature issue on laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at the LACSEA 2016 Fifteenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America.

  19. Review of technical issues related to the failure of Rosemount pressure transmitters due to fill oil loss. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Gaertner, J.P.; Burns, E.T.; Horn, A.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-08-01

    Rosemount pressure transmitters are extensively used in both safety and non-safety applications in US nuclear power plants. They are used to measure pressure, flow, and water level. Rosemount pressure transmitter models 1151, 1152, 1153A, 1153, and 1154 use a fill oil to hydraulically transmit process pressure exerted on outer isolating diaphragms to internal diaphragms. The resulting deflection of the internal diaphragms changes the distance between them and a central diaphragm separating the transmitter interior into two volumes. The change in distance is measured as a change in electrical capacitance between the isolating diaphragms and the central diaphragm and can be related to differential pressure. The fill oil also functions as a dielectric. It has been well established that this fill oil can potentially leak over time, decreasing transmitter accuracy and increasing transmitter response time. Ultimately, the transmitter can fail. An extensive effort has been expended by the nuclear power industry collectively to analyze this issue and develop technically sound and reasonable requirements to mitigate the effects of oil loss in Rosemount pressure transmitters. Despite this, technical concerns have still been raised regarding the technical validity of the past analyses of this problem and its scope. In May 1993, the NRC created an internal group to comprehensively review the Rosemount issue and the NRC's action in addressing it to ensure that all available technical information has been considered. Because this issue remains of active technical interest and because the past work on this subject has been done by many different groups and organizations, EPRI has prepared this report to thoroughly document the current technical understanding of this issue, to perform additional analysis, and to identify any appropriate additional technical research activities regarding oil loss in Rosemount pressure transmitters

  20. Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD.

  1. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Deeb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  2. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Asma; Akle, Mariette; Al Ozairi, Abdulla; Cameron, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  3. Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD. PMID:14651376

  4. Materials-related issues in the safety and licensing of nuclear fusion facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; Merrill, B.; Cadwallader, L.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Panayotov, D.; Pinna, T.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Reyes, S.; Shimada, M.; Willms, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion power holds the promise of electricity production with a high degree of safety and low environmental impact. Favourable characteristics of fusion as an energy source provide the potential for this very good safety and environmental performance. But to fully realize the potential, attention must be paid in the design of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) or a commercial power plant to minimize the radiological hazards. These hazards arise principally from the inventory of tritium and from materials that become activated by neutrons from the plasma. The confinement of these radioactive substances, and prevention of radiation exposure, are the primary goals of the safety approach for fusion, in order to minimize the potential for harm to personnel, the public, and the environment. The safety functions that are implemented in the design to achieve these goals are dependent on the performance of a range of materials. Degradation of the properties of materials can lead to challenges to key safety functions such as confinement. In this paper the principal types of material that have some role in safety are recalled. These either represent a potential source of hazard or contribute to the amelioration of hazards; in each case the related issues are reviewed. The resolution of these issues lead, in some instances, to requirements on materials specifications or to limits on their performance.

  5. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    The dependency of the U.S. economy on crude oil imported from politically unstable countries, escalating energy demand world wide, growing nationwide environmental consciousness, and the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) government mandates are some of the primary factors that have provided a favorable environment for the growth and development of the U.S. ethanol industry. The first essay derives decision rules for a discrete-time dynamic hedging model in a multiple commodity framework under expected utility maximization and basis risk. It compares hedging performance of three types of hedging models, namely constant hedging, time-varying static hedging model and the new dynamic hedging rule derived in this study. Findings show that natural gas futures contracts were effective instruments for hedging ethanol spot price risk before March, 2005, when ethanol futures trading was initiated on the CBOT. However, post-March, 2005, corn and ethanol futures contracts proved to be efficient hedging instruments. Results also indicate that ethanol producers may effectively decrease variance of cumulative cash flows by hedging using ethanol, natural gas and corn futures prices using the traditional techniques. The study concludes that using the new dynamic hedge model in a three period and two commodity set up, producers can effectively reduce variance of cumulative cash flow by 13.2% as compared to the 'no hedge' scenario. In my second essay, I use choice based, conjoint analysis methods to estimate consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative transportation fuels in the U.S. In this study, I consider unleaded gasoline and ethanol, which may be derived from corn or three different sources of cellulosic biomass as alternative transportation fuels. Results suggest that age and household income are some of the socioeconomic variables that significantly influence consumer's choice behavior. Results indicate considerable consumer preference heterogeneity. Welfare effects are

  6. Waste management regulatory compliance issues related to D ampersand D activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitch, J.P.; Arnold, S.E.; Burwinkle, T.; Daugherty, D.

    1994-01-01

    The waste management activities at ORNL related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of radioactively contaminated buildings are divided into four categories: Operational facilities, inactive or surplus facilities, future facilities planning, and D ampersand D activities. This paper only discusses regulatory issues related to inactive or surplus facilities. Additionally, rather than attempting to address all resulting waste streams and related regulations, this paper highlights only a few of the ORNL waste streams that present key regulatory issues

  7. How to govern physician-hospital exchanges: contractual and relational issues in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate contractual mechanisms in physician-hospital exchanges. The concepts of risk-sharing and the nature of physician-hospital exchanges - transactional versus relational - were studied. Two qualitative case studies were performed in Belgium. Hospital executives and physicians were interviewed to develop an in-depth understanding of contractual and relational issues that shape physician-hospital contracting in acute care hospitals. The underlying theoretical concepts of agency theory and social exchange theory were used to analyse the data. Our study found that physician-hospital contracting is highly complex. The contract is far more than an economic instrument governing financial aspects. The effect of the contract on the nature of exchange - whether transactional or relational - also needs to be considered. While it can be argued that contractual governance methods are increasingly necessary to overcome the difficulties that arise from the fragmented payment framework by aligning incentives and sharing financial risk, they undermine the necessary relational governance. Relational qualities such as mutual trust and an integrative view on physician-hospital exchanges are threatened, and may be difficult to sustain, given the current fragmentary payment framework. Since health care policy makers are increasing the financial risk borne by health care providers, it can be argued that this also increases the need to share financial risk and to align incentives between physician and hospital. However, our study demonstrates that while economic alignment is important in determining physician-hospital contracts, the corresponding impact on working relationships should also be considered. Moreover, it is important to avoid a relationship between hospital and physician predominantly characterized by transactional exchanges thereby fostering an unhealthy us-and-them divide and mentality. Relational exchange is a valuable alternative to contractual

  8. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on local site related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, K.M.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry on local site related issues begins by setting the proposed development within the context of local authority planning policies for the area. The implications of the development in terms of overall land needs, construction, access, buildings and works both temporary and permanent, are described. Environmental impacts, aesthetic and socio-economic factors are considered including possible effects on agriculture, nature conservation, water supply, transport and employment. (UK)

  9. Senior Seminar Focusing on Societal Issues Related to Chemistry and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B., III; Johnston, Murray V.; Panar, Manuel

    2000-12-01

    The lack of a clearly defined content or structure provided the opportunity to transform a one-credit, pass-fail senior seminar course into a meaningful capstone experience for chemistry and biochemistry majors. In addition to individual and class exercises associated with employment, graduate school, communication skills, and professional ethics, small groups of students worked together to create informative Web sites that took positions on important societal issues related to chemistry. Each group presented a seminar and responded to questions from their peers and two or more unannounced visitors, "wild cards" who often had expertise in the seminar topic. Throughout the course, the instructors placed particular emphasis on developing students' ability to work cooperatively, locate and evaluate information, make informed judgments based on available information, and logically develop and defend their positions. Input from a retired industrial chemist helped define these skill elements.

  10. Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yung K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Steering Committee for Surface Modeling and Grid Generation (SMAGG) sponsored a workshop on surface modeling, grid generation, and related issues in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions at Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, May 9-11, 1995. The workshop provided a forum to identify industry needs, strengths, and weaknesses of the five grid technologies (patched structured, overset structured, Cartesian, unstructured, and hybrid), and to exchange thoughts about where each technology will be in 2 to 5 years. The workshop also provided opportunities for engineers and scientists to present new methods, approaches, and applications in SMAGG for CFD. This Conference Publication (CP) consists of papers on industry overview, NASA overview, five grid technologies, new methods/ approaches/applications, and software systems.

  11. Ice issues relating to the Kashagan phase II development, North Caspian Sea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croasdale, Ken [KRCA, Calgary (Canada); Verlaan, Paul [Shell Development Kashagan, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The ice conditions in the north Caspian Sea are challenging for the Kashagan field development. The climatic conditions of the area are extreme, with cold winters (-30 degrees C) and hot summers (+40 degrees C). The presence and the quantity of ice are also highly variable from year to year. This paper investigated the major ice-related issues affecting the Kashagan structures and pipelines. An extensive description of the ice environment was provided. Ice design criteria for the offshore rock islands, the pipelines and the layout of the ice protection barriers around the islands were presented. It was found that the ice design methods used in Arctic areas have required some adaptations to meet Caspian conditions. All the islands were designed with an ice encroachment zone to reduce the hazardous effect of the ice rubble encroaching. Rock sloped barriers and steel barriers were implanted around the islands to protect the logistical areas.

  12. Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Bath, Kevin G.; Berg, Anne T.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Jensen, Frances E.; Kanner, Andres M.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Whittemore, Vicky H.; Winawer, Melodie R.; Patel, Manisha; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness—such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine—occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quality of life, complicate treatment, and increase mortality. In fact, it has been suggested that comorbidities can have a greater effect on quality of life in people with epilepsy than the seizures themselves. There is increasing recognition of the frequency and impact of cognitive and behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy, highlighted in the 2012 Institute of Medicine report on epilepsy. Comorbidities have also been acknowledged, as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Benchmark area for research in epilepsy. However, relatively little progress has been made in developing new therapies directed specifically at comorbidities. On the other hand, there have been many advances in understanding underlying mechanisms. These advances have made it possible to identify novel targets for therapy and prevention. As part of the International League Against Epilepsy/American Epilepsy Society workshop on preclinical therapy development for epilepsy, our working group considered the current state of understanding related to terminology, models, and strategies for therapy development for the comorbidities of epilepsy. Herein we summarize our findings and suggest ways to accelerate development of new therapies. We also consider important issues to improve research including those related to methodology, nonpharmacologic therapies, biomarkers, and infrastructure. PMID:23909853

  13. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  14. Evaluation of systems interactions in nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the activities related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI)A-17, ''Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants,'' and also includes the NRC staff's conclusions based on those activities. The staff's technical findings provide the framework for the final resolution of this unresolved safety issue. The final resolution will be published later as NUREG-1229. 52 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Shutdown decay heat removal analysis: Plant case studies and special issues: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Cramond, W.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Hatch, S.W.

    1989-04-01

    Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-45. The overall objectives of the USI A-45 program were to evaluate the safety adequacy of decay heat removal (DHR) systems in existing light water reactor nuclear power plants and to assess the value and impact (benefit-cost) of alternative measures for improving the overall reliability of the DHR function. To provide the technical data required to meet these objectives a program was developed that examined the state of DHR system reliability in a sample of existing plants. This program identified potential vulnerabilities and identified and established the feasibility of potential measures to improve the reliability of the DHR function. A value/impact (V/I) analysis of the more promising of such measures was conducted and documented. This report summarizes those studies. In addition, because of the evolving nature of V/I analyses in support of regulation, a number of supporting studies related to appropriate procedures and measures for the V/I analyses were also conducted. These studies are also summarized herein. This report only summarizes findings of technical studies performed by Sandia National Laboratories as part of the program to resolve this issue. 46 refs., 7 figs., 124 tabs

  16. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  17. Resolution of issues related to alternative RCS injection in the absence of containment sump recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles L Kling; Stephen S Barshay; Mathew C Jacob; Michael J Friedman

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: On June 9, 2003 the US NRC issued Bulletin No. 2003-01 that deals with the potential impact of debris blockage on containment sump recirculation at PWRs during a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). In response to the bulletin, the Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) is in the process of developing procedural and operational strategies for their Fort Calhoun Station (FCS) to address the issues raised. Westinghouse provided engineering support to OPPD in identifying and resolving issues related to alternative means of supplying safety injection water to the reactor coolant system (RCS) in the absence of containment sump recirculation. Nuclear power plants are designed to protect the core following a LOCA by providing a continuous supply of cooling water to the core. In the long term, the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) inventory will be depleted and core heat removal accomplished via recirculation of water previously injected into the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) and collected in the containment sump. Debris generated within the containment as a result of the impingement of fluid jets in the Zone of Influence (ZOI) of the RCS break and containment wash down may find its way into the containment sump. As the safety injection pumps take suction from the sump, in the recirculation mode of operation, the debris suspended in the sump water could begin to accumulate in the sump screen that is located in the recirculation path. Should sufficient debris accumulate on the sump screen, a flow blockage could potentially develop. This would result in insufficient safety injection pump NPSH, thereby impairing the recirculation mode of injection into RCS. Potential debris blockage and prevention of sump recirculation may be addressed by refilling the RWST with water and injecting this water directly into the core. This paper identifies and attempts to resolve several issues related to this alternative mode of RCS injection. In particular, the

  18. Regulatory compliance issues related to the White Oak Creek Embayment time-critical removal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.; Kimmel, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    In September 1990, Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) discovered high levels of Cesium-137 present in surface sediments at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC) Embayment. WOC receives the majority of surface water drainage from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Following this discovery, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems pursued stabilizing sediment migration under provisions of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Section 300.400 et. seq. as a time-critical removal action. However, significant uncertainty exists concerning the applicability of NCP procedural requirements designed for conducting US EPA-led, Superfund-financed response actions, because NCP Subpart K dealing with response actions at federal facilities has not been promulgated. In addition, relatively new guidance exists from DOE concerning National Environmental Policy Act documentation requirements for categorical exclusions associated with conducting removal actions at DOE facilities. A proactive approach was taken to identify issues and involve appropriate state and federal regulatory agencies. This approach required achieving consensus among all involved parties and identification of all applicable or relevant and appropriate regulatory requirements related to the removal action. As a result, this project forms a framework for conducting future time-critical removal actions at federal facilities

  19. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: historical, ethical, and legal issues associated with prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration.

  20. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  1. Economy, Geopolitics, environment: the triple gas issue in the relations between the Eu and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, D.

    2008-01-01

    With the political tinge it has recently acquired, natural gas has taken a central position in the relations between the EU and Russia Besides energy security, the issue has three levels: the first is the opening of markets or the maintaining of monopolies, as much in Russia as in the European Union. The line of fracture is complex, and at present, in spite of rhetoric support on the opening of markets, it is rather their protection which is on the agenda. The second level is that of energy diplomacy Brussels and Moscow come face to face primarily in Central Asia, on the basis of interests and using diametrically opposite instrument. However, their policies are characterised by weighty constraints. The third level is that of the fight against climatic change. Soaring in this field, there are several convergencies between the policies of Brussels and Moscow, particularly in terms of energy efficiency. With this new order, gas could watch itself grow in significance, or otherwise drop, in which case the relation between the EU and Russian would not go uninfluenced. (author)

  2. Constrained principal component analysis and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Takane, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    In multivariate data analysis, regression techniques predict one set of variables from another while principal component analysis (PCA) finds a subspace of minimal dimensionality that captures the largest variability in the data. How can regression analysis and PCA be combined in a beneficial way? Why and when is it a good idea to combine them? What kind of benefits are we getting from them? Addressing these questions, Constrained Principal Component Analysis and Related Techniques shows how constrained PCA (CPCA) offers a unified framework for these approaches.The book begins with four concre

  3. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues

  4. Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation Analysis and the Third-Person Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Donald L.; West, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    A television content analysis and survey of 419 community respondents supports the hypothesis that media stereotypes affect public attitudes toward mental health issues. A content analysis of network, prime-time television demonstrates that portrayals are violent, false, and negative. The mentally disordered are portrayed as 10 times more likely…

  5. An overview of economic and technical issues related to LWR MOX fuel usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.P.; Varley, G.; Goldstein, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present comparisons of the economics of MOX versus UO 2 fuels. In addition to the economics of the front end, the scope of the comparison will include the back end of the fuel cycle. Management of spent MOX fuel assemblies presents utilities with some technical issues that can complicate spent fuel pool operation. Alternative spent fuel management methods, such as dry storage of spent MOX fuel assemblies, will also be discussed. Differences in decay heat loads versus time for spent MOX and UO 2 fuel assemblies will be presented. This difference is one of the main problems confronting spent fuel managers relative to MOX. The difference in decay heat loads will serve as the basis for a performance overview of the various spent fuel technologies available today. The economics of the front end of MOX will be presented relative to UO 2 fuel. Availability of MOX manufacturing capability will also be discussed, along with a discussion of its impact on future MOX fabrication prices. The in-core performance of MOX will be compared to that of UO 2 fuel with similar performance characteristics. The information will include highlights of nuclear design and related operational considerations such as: Reactivity reduction with burnup is slower for MOX fuel than for UO 2 fuel; Spectral hardening resulting in lower control rod worths and a lower soluble boron worth; and more negative moderator, void and fuel temperature coefficients. A comparison of Westinghouse and ABB-CE core designs for use on disposition of weapons MOX in 12- and 18-month cycles will be presented. (author)

  6. Issues of work intensity, pace, and sustainability in relation to work context and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which

  7. Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Vaughan, D.S.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Kumar, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas

  8. Vocational technical and adult education: Status, trends and issues related to electronic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are analyzed, and trends and issues are discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large scale electronic delivery in vocational/technical and adult education. Issues connected with vocational/technical education are investigated, with emphasis on those issues in the current spotlight which are relevant to the possibilities of electronic delivery. The current role of media is examined in vocational/technical instruction.

  9. Special Issue of Selected Papers from Visualization and Data Analysis 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, David L.; Wong, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    This special issue features the best papers that were selected from the 18th SPIE Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA 2011). This annual conference is a major international forum for researchers and practitioners interested in data visualization and analytics research, development, and applications. VDA 2011 received 42 high-quality submissions from around the world. Twenty-four papers were selected for full conference papers. The top five papers have been expanded and reviewed for this special issue.

  10. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  11. Addressing Practical Issues Related Tto Nursing Care For International Visitors To Hiroshima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Nishikawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  12. Management issues related to effectively implementing a nutrition education program using peer educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J

    2001-01-01

    To explore the influence of administrative aspects of a nutrition education program with peer educators delivering the program. Telephone interviews with peer educators trained to deliver La Cocina Saludable, a nutrition education program for Hispanics. Open- and closed-ended questions. Abuelas (grandmothers) recruited and trained as peer educators for the program. The sample included peer educators no longer teaching (22%), currently teaching (30%), and who never taught after training. Motives and incentives for becoming peer educators, challenges for peer educators, and reasons peer educators withdrew from the program. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data from the closed-ended questions. Qualitative analysis was applied to data from open-ended questions. Working with community and learning about nutrition were prime motivators. Recruiting participants and coordination of classes appeared to be major challenges. Personal issues and traveling in a large geographic area were cited as the main reasons for quitting. The effectiveness of using peer educators for La Cocina Saludable may be improved through empowerment, additional training, a structured and equitable reimbursement system, and assistance to carry out administrative tasks.

  13. Rethinking the costs related to global warming. A survey of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, P.

    1995-01-01

    One approach to the economic analysis of global warming seeks to balance the costs of damage from or adaptation to it with the costs of mitigating it. The costs of adaptation and damage have been estimated using techniques of environmental evaluation, but are subject to a wide margin of uncertainty. The costs of mitigation, principally by reducing the emissions of CO 2 , have been estimated using different kinds of economic models, some of the results of which have suggested that very little abatement of carbon emissions is justified before the costs of abatement exceed the benefits of it in terms of foregone damage and adaptation costs. The paper analyses the extent to which this conclusion is a function of the modelling assumptions and techniques used, rather than likely practical outcomes, with regard to the models' treatment of unemployed resources, revenue recycling, prior distortions in the economy due to the tax system and possible dynamic effects from the introduction of a carbon-energy tax. It concludes that, with different and arguably more appropriate treatment of the above issues, especially when the secondary benefits of reducing CO 2 emissions are also taken into account, it is not clear that even substantial reductions in the use of fossil fuels will incur net costs, especially if there is the prospect of even moderate costs from global warming. 4 figs., 8 tabs., 95 refs

  14. A concept analysis of relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to conduct a concept analysis of the phenomenon of relational aggression. With the increases in violence among our youth, the topic of aggression, and more specifically relational aggression, has gained an increasing interest. Discussion of relational aggression is imperative because it lends credence to a type of aggression not readily studied in previous decades. A new understanding of relational aggression will aide in future nursing and multidisciplinary research studies and will guide health promotion interventions to alleviate the consequences of relational aggression for adolescent girls. Therefore, with an increased knowledge about the consequences of relational aggression the nurse can provide appropriate nursing interventions to combat the detriment associated with it.

  15. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I report, emphasizing some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology, on the status of the development of “doubly-special” relativistic (“DSR” theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, possibly relevant for the Planck-scale/quantum-gravity realm. I also give a true/false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the қ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  16. Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur-Rehman, Salim; Mushtaq, Zarina; Zahoor, Tahir; Jamil, Amir; Murtaza, Mian Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. However, biotechnological method utilizes agricultural and forestry wastes which offer the possibilities of economic production of xylitol by reducing required energy. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Various fermentation process inhibitors are produced during chemical hydrolysis that reduce xylitol production, a detoxification step is, therefore, necessary. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature, time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. Xylitol has application and potential for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. This review describes recent research developments related to bioproduction of xylitol from agricultural wastes, application, health, and safety issues.

  17. Modelling approaches to thermal pollution in inland aquatic systems and issues related to its environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.N.; Nair, R.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Guidelines for the safe discharge of thermal effluents in aquatic environmental systems both surface water and marine coastal out falls has become very relevant to Indian environmental conditions with its rich biodiversity. While aquatic ecology may form the basis for such guidelines, the need for regulatory approach to the related issues has become the prime mover in thermal discharge problems. This is more so since the impacts considered are under short term and long term exposure conditions where the bio acclimatization and thermal stress factors may come to cross roads. Constant temperatures and cyclic temperature elevations also causes differential thermal stress which could be site specific. The recent notification by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) revising the temperature limit for discharge of condenser cooling water from thermal power plants into coastal areas using sea water from 5 deg to 7 degC over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies. Discussions on whether the limiting temperature is to be achieved at the point of discharge or within a specified zone of the thermal plume is currently being debated. The act also stipulates installation of cooling towers using water from rivers, lakes and reservoirs irrespective of the plant location and capacity. For existing thermal plants the rise in temperature of the condenser cooling water from inlet to the let of the condenser shall not be more than 10 degC. (author)

  18. Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. Both BWRs and PWRs are considered in this report. Emergency core cooling systems require a clean, reliable water source to maintain long-term recirculation following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). PWRs rely on the containment emergency sump to provide such a water supply to residual heat removal pumps and containment spray pumps. BWRs rely on pump suction intakes in the suppression pool or wet well to provide water to residual heat removal and core spray systems. Thus, the technical findings in this report provide information on post-LOCA recirculation. These findings have been derived from extensive experimental studies, generic plant studies, and assessments of sumps used for long-term cooling. Results of hydraulic tests have shown that the potential for air ingestion is less severe than previously hypothesized. The effects of debris blockage on NPSH margin must be dealt with on a plant-specific basis. These findings have been used to develop revisions to Regulatory Guide 1.82 and Standard Review Plan Section 6.2.2 (NUREG-0800)

  19. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis-related groups and similar casemix systems: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, G; Reid, B

    2001-05-01

    With the increasing recognition and application of casemix for managing and financing healthcare resources, the evaluation of alternative versions of systems such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) has been afforded high priority by governments and researchers in many countries. Outside the United States, an important issue has been the perceived need to produce local versions, and to establish whether or not these perform more effectively than the US-based classifications. A discussion of casemix evaluation criteria highlights the large number of measures that may be used, the rationale and assumptions underlying each measure, and the problems in interpreting the results. A review of recent evaluation studies from a number of countries indicates that considerable emphasis has been placed on the predictive validity criterion, as measured by the R2 statistic. However, the interpretation of the findings has been affected greatly by the methods used, especially the treatment and definition of outlier cases. Furthermore, the extent to which other evaluation criteria have been addressed has varied widely. In the absence of minimum evaluation standards, it is not possible to draw clear-cut conclusions about the superiority of one version of a casemix system over another, the need for a local adaptation, or the further development of an existing version. Without the evidence provided by properly designed studies, policy-makers and managers may place undue reliance on subjective judgments and the views of the most influential, but not necessarily best informed, healthcare interest groups.

  20. Legal Issues Related to Donation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.

  1. Monitoring, Tracking, and Recording Pancreas-Related Health Issues in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikos, Theofilos; Zisi, Iliana; Katsini, Christina; Raptis, George E.; Kotsopoulos, Stavros

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring of pancreas-related health issues in real-time and outside the medical room is a challenge in the wide e-health domain. This paper introduces WHEAMO, a novel e-health platform which employs medical implants (biosensors), which function as antennas, planted in the pancreas. WHEAMO uses wireless in-body propagation to track, monitor, and record critical parameters, such as glucose. The signal reaches the skin and then it is propagated in an indoor environment (e.g., medical room) over to a terminal equipped with adaptive, user-configurable, and intelligent mechanisms which provide personalized recommendations to varying WHEAMO users (e.g., medical personnel, health care workers, patients). The personalized nature of the provided recommendations is based on patients unique characteristics via a sophisticated knowledge-base. The fundamentals of in-body and on-body wireless propagation and channel characterization have been studied in a series of published works. Researchers have tested both electric-field (dipole) and magnetic-field (patch, loop) antennas. Another important aspect concerns the frequency band in which the signal propagation will occur. Among the frequencies that have gathered scientific and academic interest are the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band at 402-405 MHz, the 900 MHz channel and the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio band at 2.45 GHz.

  2. Gender Issues and Related Social Stigma Affecting Patients with a Disorder of Sex Development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Shabir, Iram; Marumudi, Eunice; George, Tony Sam; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2017-02-01

    Children with disorders of sex development (DSD) manifest at birth with malformed genitalia or later with atypical pubertal development. Those born with malformed genitalia are often diagnosed at birth. However, in resource-poor countries like India, where not all births are supervised by healthcare workers, some of these children remain undiagnosed until puberty or even later. The aim of this study was to assess the gender issues and psychosocial problems of children with DSD. Participants included 205 children with DSD (103 with 46,XX DSD and 102 with 46,XY DSD). Both the children with DSD and their parents underwent semistructured interviews by a clinical psychologist. The birth of a child with DSD was perceived as a major medical and social problem by parents from all socioeconomic strata. Mothers were distressed as many believed the DSD condition was transmitted through the mother. Children who were not diagnosed and treated during infancy or early childhood experienced considerable social discrimination not only from relatives and friends but also from medical and paramedical staff in hospitals. Several patients had been operated during infancy without an etiological diagnosis and without provision of adequate information to the parents. Some children had problems related to complications of surgery. Most teenage patients with 5α-reductase-2 deficiency reared as females presented with gender dysphoria, while children with androgen insensitivity (except for one) or with gonadal dysgenesis developed a gender identity concordant with their gender of rearing. Parents of children with DSD preferred a male gender assignment for their children (if that was possible) because of the social advantages of growing up male in a patriarchal society.

  3. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  4. Evaluation of Generic Issue 57: Effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Bohn, M.; Lynch, J.; Ross, S.; Brosseau, D.

    1992-12-01

    Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate and also have experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged safety-related equipment. A review of the impact of past occurrences of both types of such events and their impact on plant safety systems, an analysis of the risk impacts of such events on nuclear power plant safety, and a cost-benefit analysis of potential corrective measures have been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios ranged from inadvertent actuation caused by human error to hardware failure, and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen root causes, where applicable, was performed on generically applicable scenarios. This document, Volume 4, contains appendices E and F of this report

  5. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  6. Climate and climate-related issues for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document current scientific knowledge on climate and climate-related conditions, relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment SR-Site. The report also presents a number of dedicated studies on climate and selected climate-related processes of relevance for the assessment of long term repository safety. Based on this information, the report presents a number of possible future climate developments for Forsmark, the site selected for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden (Figure 1-1). The presented climate developments are used as basis for the selection and analysis of SR-Site safety assessment scenarios in the SR-Site main report /SKB 2011/. The present report is based on research conducted and published by SKB as well as on research reported in the general scientific literature

  7. Steam generator thermal hydraulic design & functional architecture features and related operational and reliability issues requiring consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarner, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Proper thermal hydraulic design and functional architecture are critical to successful steam generator operation and long term reliability. The evolution of steam generators has been a gradual learning process that has benefited from continuous industry operational experience (OPEX). Inadequate thermal hydraulic design can lead to numerous degradation mechanisms such as excessive deposition, corrosion, flow and level instabilities, fluid-elastic instabilities and tube wear. The functional architecture determines the health of the tube bundle and the other internals during manufacturing, handling and operation. It also determines thermal performance as well as establishing global thermal-hydraulic characteristics such as water level shrink and swell response. This paper discusses the range of operational and reliability issues and relates them to the thermal hydraulic attributes and functional architecture of steam generators (many SG reliability issues are further discussed in other presentations at this conference). In pursuing such issues, the paper focuses on the four major features of the equipment, identifying in each case the goals and requirements such features must meet. Typical approaches and the means by which such requirements are addressed in current equipment are discussed. The four features are: 1. Tubing Material and Tube Bundle Heat Transfer Performance; a. Two materials are in current use – Alloy 690 TT and Alloy 800. Both are good materials with excellent performance records which serve their owners very well (the reliability attributes of Alloy 800 and 690 are discussed in other papers at this conference). Caution is advised in the supply of any material: – material quality is only assured by what is specified to material suppliers in procurement specifications – i.e. - all the knowledge and research in the world assures nothing if its findings are not reflected in procurement requirements. b. Heat transfer performance in addition to being

  8. Regulatory analysis for Generic Issue 23: Reactor coolant pump seal failure. Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaukat, S K; Jackson, J E; Thatcher, D F

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the regulatory/backfit analysis for Generic Issue 23 (GI-23), 'Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure'. A backfit analysis in accordance with 10 CFR 50.109 is presented in Appendix E. The proposed resolution includes quality assurance provisions for reactor coolant pump seals, instrumentation and procedures for monitoring seal performance, and provisions for seal cooling during off-normal plant conditions involving loss of all seal cooling such as station blackout. Research, technical data, and other analyses supporting the resolution of this issue are summarized in the technical findings report (NUREG/CR-4948) and cost/benefit report (NUREG/CR-5167). (author)

  9. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Aslanides

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  10. Technical issues relating to the statistical parametric mapping of brain SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Cordato, N.; Hutton, B.F.; Lau, Y.H.; Evans, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) is a software tool designed for the statistical analysis of functional neuro images, specifically Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and more recently SPECT. This review examines some problems associated with the analysis of SPECT. A comparison of a patient group with normal studies revealed factors that could influence results, some that commonly occur, others that require further exploration. To optimise the differences between two groups of subjects, both spatial variability and differences in global activity must be minimised. The choice and effectiveness of co registration method and approach to normalisation of activity concentration can affect the optimisation. A small number of subject scans were identified as possessing truncated data resulting in edge effects that could adversely influence the analysis. Other problems included unusual areas of significance possibly related to reconstruction methods and the geometry associated with nonparallel collimators. Areas of extra cerebral significance are a point of concern - and may result from scatter effects, or mis registration. Difficulties in patient positioning, due to postural limitations, can lead to resolution differences. SPM has been used to assess areas of statistical significance arising from these technical factors, as opposed to areas of true clinical significance when comparing subject groups. This contributes to a better understanding of the effects of technical factors so that these may be eliminated, minimised, or incorporated in the study design. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Water Framework Directive : Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting water quality under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  12. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Habitats and Birds Directives: Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting habitats and species under the Habitats and Birds Directives, versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  13. 78 FR 33843 - Request for Comments on Issues Related to Incidental Findings That Arise in the Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... specific bioethical, legal, and social issues related to potential scientific and technological advances... related areas of science and technology. The Bioethics Commission is charged with identifying and... establishing ``no return'' policies, or stipulations in advance of clinical intervention, research, and/or...

  14. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa Ndlovu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. Methods: The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. Results: There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9% had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7% had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7% had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3% claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7% claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2% or neighbourhood (20; 37.8% exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts’ exposure criteria. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to

  15. India's nuclear power programme present status, future prospects and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Y.S.R.

    1998-01-01

    India is poorly placed in terms of world energy resources, while 16% of world's population lives in India, only 6% of coal and 0.6% of oil and gas reserves exist in the country. Moreover, the distribution of primary commercial energy resources is quite skewed. However, India is endowed with vast reserves of thorium. The energy potential of our modest uranium resources and sizeable thorium resources has been estimated to be six times that of our total coal reserves. Though during last fifty years since independence, India has made tremendous progress in the energy sector where the use of commercial energy has increased by ten folds. Electricity used during the same period has increased by eighty times. In spite of such an impressive growth the country, due to population growth, finds itself in the almost lowest bracket with regard to per capita consumption which is many fold lower than the world average. India as of today is a net energy importing country. The demand for energy, in particular electricity that has established to be the most efficient and convenient source, is projected to grow at 7-8% per annum for coming two decades. In such a demand scenario it is imperative that all the resources of energy must be judiciously utilised. However, with the depletion of fossil fuels and resulting possible price shocks a long-term energy security is required for the country. The paper deals with the role nuclear power can play in meeting the country's short term and long term demands, progress made and related issues. (author)

  16. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Haighton

    Full Text Available Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over.Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51-90 years and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50-95 years were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent.Participants' alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people.Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced alcohol problems themselves.

  17. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Naude, Jim teWater; Murray, Jill

    2013-01-24

    Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART) and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9%) had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7%) had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7%) had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3%) claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7%) claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2%) or neighbourhood (20; 37.8%) exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts' exposure criteria. This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to South Africa as many countries continue to mine and use

  18. THE NIGERIAN GAS MASTER-PLAN, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, ISSUES AFFECTING POWER SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Gas Master-Plan, Investment Opportunities, Challenges, Issues Affecting Power Sector: an Analysis. The objective of this article is to contribute towards understanding of the Nigerian Gas Master Plan (NGMP/Plan and its bifurcations with key socio-economic development factors. I applied the method of discourse to bring to being some points that have hitherto been unknown about the Master-plan and its inter-relationships and bifurcations. Elaborated here are the spectacular gains that have accrued to the Latin American country, Trinidad and Tobago, from its recent development of natural gas resources. This was considered suitable and significant here for highlighting that if such spectacular achievements could be realized from Trinidad and Tobago’s relatively smaller gas deposit (15.3 tcf, probable reserves (8.4 tcf, possible reserves (6.2 tcf would be by far greater considering Nigeria’s larger natural gas reserves (184 tcf wealth as earlier stated. I show that the Plan is well designed relevant to addressing Nigeria’s current development needs generally. It presents potentials for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth by harnessing the country’s abundant natural gas reserves. The Plan enumerates/ elaborates huge investment opportunities. Some challenges likely to be faced in the implementation/management of the Plan are already being surmounted as recent reports show that some of its key investments have been realized and the required infrastructure are being provided. Regarding the issues in the Master-plan that are likely to affect and are affecting Nigeria’s power sector development, I reckon that they are mostly positive factors due to the way the plan promises to stimulate electricity generation in our country.

  19. Legal issues relating to the use of surrogate mothers in the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  1. Technical findings related to Generic Issue 23: Reactor coolant pump seal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruger, C.J.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Reactor coolant pumps contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized coolant from the reactor coolant system to the containment. These seals have the potential to leak, and a few have degraded and even failed resulting in a small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). As a result, ''Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure,'' Generic Issue 23 was established. This report summarizes the findings of a technical investigation generated as part of the program to resolve this issue. These technical findings address the various fact-finding issue tasks developed for the action plan associated with the generic issue, namely background information on seal failure, evaluation of seal cooling, and mechanical- and maintenance-induced failure mechanisms. 46 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Biometric Identifiers and Border Security: 9/11 Commission Recommendations and Related Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Daniel; Krouse, William

    2005-01-01

    .... This report provides an overview of biometric technologies and the major U.S. biometric border screening systems, including US-VISIT, and discusses issues such as cost, performance, and user acceptance...

  3. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  4. Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Claudio, Jaime O; Rachul, Christen; Wang, Jean C Y; Minden, Mark D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-03-08

    Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw consent and nearly all wanted to be

  5. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  6. Development of a support system to make economic and technical assessments for the issues relating to plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, T.; Soneda, N.; Sakai, T.

    1994-01-01

    To realize the life extension of nuclear power plants, overall evaluation for the plant is required, which covers technology, economy such as cost of repair or/and replacement of components, and regal regulations for licensing. A prototype of integrated assessment support system for life extension ''INPLEX'' have developed in order to evaluate the technical and economic issues relating to the plant life extension and to make a life extension scenario. Analysis procedure of INPLEX is as follows. A comparison of the cost between the life extension and the reconstruction is made to see whether the life extension is cost effective or not. Next, components required detailed assessments are selected, and the residual life assessment of these components are made. After those procedures life extension measures are selected and the implementation time schedule is set on the basis of the formulas for predicting the degradation of the components and the component reliability data. Finally the implementation time schedule is optimized from the viewpoint of economy, and the life extension scenario is proposed. INPLEX also has the data base ''PRINS'', in which information and data related to life extension are registered, such as component degradation experiences, degradation management methodologies, degradation mitigation measures, and so on. PRINS can be referred at any time during the operation of INPLEX

  7. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  8. The development and issues of nursing education in China: a national data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Li-ming; Ke, Ying-ying; Zheng, Jing; Wan, Li-hong

    2015-02-01

    The development of and the issues arising in the nursing educational sector as the provider for nursing workforce have drawn increasing attention. To describe the development of nursing education in mainland China and to analyze related issues. A retrospective, descriptive study with secondary data analysis. The scale and composition of nursing education programs from 2006 to 2012 in mainland China were analyzed, and changes in the scale of the nursing workforce from 2002 to 2013 were compared to facilitate an interpretation of nursing education. The scale of initial nursing education was large and expanded rapidly. In 2012, the total recruitment was 515,710, including 39,747 (7.71%) students training for a baccalaureate degree, 143,726 (27.87%) students training for an advanced diploma, and 332,237 (64.42%) students training in secondary diploma programs. The nursing workforce in China grew dramatically, with an increase of 120,000 to 286,000 nurses each year since 2006, but the nurse shortage remained existed (there were only 2.05 nurses per 1000 population, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 1:1 in 2013). The recruitment of nursing students per 1000 population was greater in the west (0.51) and middle (0.40) regions than in the east region (0.28), while the number of nurses per 1000 population had the opposite pattern (1.71, 1.75, and 2.02 nurses per 1000 population in the west, middle, and east regions, respectively) in 2012. Nursing education in China has developed rapidly, and some issues require attention. We suggest that initial nursing education be improved by increasing the recruitment to advanced diploma and baccalaureate programs and decreasing the recruitment to secondary diploma programs and by ensuring the quality of education. Multiple strategies should be taken to effectively raise the social status and prestige of the nursing profession and to ease the nurse shortage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Small Models for Big Issues : Exploratory System Dynamics Modelling and Analysis for Insightful Crisis Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to explain and illustrate different exploratory uses of small System Dynamics models for analysis and decision support in case of dynamically complex issues that are deeply uncertain. The applied focuss of the paper is the field of inter/national safety and security.

  10. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production

  11. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  12. A preliminary examination of audience-related communications issues for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, C.W.

    1991-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project will estimate radiation doses people may have received from exposure to radioactive materials released during past operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project was initiated in response to public concerns about possible health impacts from past releases of radioactive materials from Hanford. The TSP recognized early in the project that special mechanisms would be required to effectively communicate to the many different concerned audiences. Accordingly, the TSP directed PNL to examine methods for communicating causes and effects of uncertainties in the dose estimates. After considering the directive and discussing it with the Communications Subcommittee of the TSP, PNL undertook a broad investigation of communications methods to consider for inclusion in the TSP's current communications program. As part of this investigation, a literature review was conducted regarding risk communications. A key finding was that, in order to successfully communicate risk-related information, a thorough understanding of the knowledge level, concerns and information needs of the intended recipients (i.e., the audience) is necessary. Hence, a preliminary audience analysis was conducted as part of the present research. This report summarizes the results of this analysis. 1 ref., 9 tabs.

  13. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  14. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  15. Scientific Productivity on Research in Ethical Issues over the Past Half Century: A JoinPoint Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Luan, Nguyen Thien; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Hieu, Mai Van; Hirayama, Kenji; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-09-01

    Ethics is one of the main pillars in the development of science. We performed a JoinPoint regression analysis to analyze the trends of ethical issue research over the past half century. The question is whether ethical issues are neglected despite their importance in modern research. PubMed electronic library was used to retrieve publications of all fields and ethical issues. JoinPoint regression analysis was used to identify the significant time trends of publications of all fields and ethical issues, as well as the proportion of publications on ethical issues to all fields over the past half century. Annual percent changes (APC) were computed with their 95% confidence intervals, and a p-value years (from 1996 to 2013). When comparing the absolute number of ethics related articles (APEI) to all publications of all fields (APAF) on PubMed, the results showed that the proportion of APEI to APAF statistically increased during the periods of 1965-1974, 1974-1986, and 1986-1993, with APCs of 11.0, 2.1, and 8.8, respectively. However, the trend has gradually dropped since 1993 and shown a marked decrease from 2002 to 2013 with an annual percent change of -7.4%. Scientific productivity in ethical issues research on over the past half century rapidly increased during the first 30-year period but has recently been in decline. Since ethics is an important aspect of scientific research, we suggest that greater attention is needed in order to emphasize the role of ethics in modern research.

  16. Some issues related to the development of nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panggabean, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Indonesia being a member of ASEAN belongs to the group of developing country. If Indonesia decides to embark on the establishment of nuclear power plan then the country will have no choice but to discuss the following issues: Safe operation of the plant and management of the nuclear waste. Safe operation of the power plant is important not only from the point of view of hazards to human being, or economic loss, or even death, but equally important it is also from the psychological point of view in that not to loose the society's confidence in the overall nuclear power plant programme in the future. The issue of safe operation involves both a safely designed system as well as skilled personnels to execute a well designed operation procedure. The issue of nuclear safety is getting more and more attention lately for various, some due to a deep concern about the quality of the inherent safety of the nuclear power plant to be built, others may just use their emotion to ask question like ''what its''. The issue of nuclear waste is as fundamental as the plant safety. Common people make very little difference between an atomic bomb and waste from a nuclear power plant. Another issue is one of transfer of technology which needs to be tied up with the overall industrialization process, meaning that embarking on nuclear power programme needs to contribute to local industrial activities, at least for some parts or components which can be manufactured locally. (author)

  17. Relational Analysis for Delivery of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Bauer, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    substantially improves the precision of the results obtained while being able to deal with the full generality of the syntax of processes. The analysis reveals a feasible complexity for practical examples and gives rise to a fast prototype. We use this prototype to automatically prove the correct delivery......Many techniques exist for statically computing properties of the evolution of processes expressed in process algebras. Static analysis has shown how to obtain useful results that can both be checked and computed in polynomial time. In this paper we develop a static analysis in relational form which...... of messages for the implementation of an accident service, which is based on multiplexed communication, a crucial feature of global computing applications....

  18. Stakeholders' perspective on issues and challenges associated with care and treatment of aging-related cognitive impairment disorders in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Monika; Islam, Amina M; Thompson, James P; Matchar, David B

    2011-11-01

    An expanding elderly population poses challenges for the provision of care and treatment for age-related physical and mental disorders. Cognitive impairment (CI)/dementia is one such mental disorder that is on the rise in Singapore and has concomitant implications for social and health systems. The objective of this study is to understand the perspectives of prominent stakeholders about current and future issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia among the elderly in Singapore. Using indepth interviews, this qualitative study obtained the views of multiple stakeholders on issues and challenges associated with CI/dementia in Singapore. The 30 individuals interviewed as part of the study included clinicians, policy-makers, researchers, community workers, administrators, and caregivers. Using a framework approach, interview texts were indexed into domains and issues by utilizing NVivo 9.0 software. The stakeholders expressed concerns related to multiple domains of the CI/dementia care system: attitude and awareness, economics, education, family caregiving, inputs to care system, living arrangements, prevention, screening and diagnosis, and treatment and management of care. Within each domain, multiple issues and challenges were identified by respondents. The study identifies a complex set of inter-related issues and challenges that are associated with the care and treatment of people with CI/dementia. The results suggest that CI and dementia profoundly affect patients, families, and communities and that the issues related to the two disorders are truly system-wide. These findings lay the foundation for utilization of a systems approach to studying CI/dementia and provide an analytic framework for future research on complex health care issues.

  19. Recurring Themes across Fractal Issues Facing International Students: A Thematic Analysis of 2016 Dissertations and Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna; Gaulee, Uttam

    2017-01-01

    This section shares recent dissertations and theses with the "Journal of International Students" readers. There were about 139 graduate dissertations and theses related to the issues and challenges of international students in 2016. The complete versions of these selected dissertations are available in the ProQuest, Michigan-based…

  20. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  1. Issues related to the USEPA probabilistic standard for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper asks whether some of the fundamental bases for the 1985 USEPA standard on disposal of high level radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191) warrant re-examination. Similar questions also apply to the bases for the radioactive waste disposal requirements proposed by most other countries. It is suggested that the issue of intergenerational equity has been dealt with from too narrow a perspective. Not only should radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal be regulated from a consistent philosophic basis, but the regulation of waste disposal itself should be embedded in the broader issues of intergenerational conservation of options, conservation of quality, and conservation of access. (author). 25 refs

  2. Discussion of some issues in assessing nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and in related assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses some noticeable issues in drafting assessment report of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts and relevant aspects needed to be considered from the point of view of comprehensive environmental assessment. The considerable issue are principles of radioactive waste management, optimization of radiation protection and collective dose, and uncertainty of the assessment. Implementing reporting system on assessment of nuclear and radiation environmental impacts would improve environmental protection for nuclear and radiation facilities. However, trade's, regional , country and global assessment of environmental impacts has to be enhanced. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop methodology of qualitative and quantitative comprehensive assessment

  3. Mixed thermal convection: fundamental issues and analysis of the planar case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACQUES PADET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to renew interest on mixed thermal convection research and to emphasize three issues that arise from the present analysis: (i a clear definition of the reference temperature in the Boussinesq approximation; (ii a practical delimitation of the three convective modes, which are the forced convection (FC, mixed convection (MC and natural (or free convection (NC; (iii and, finally, a uniform description of the set FC/MC/NC in the similarity framework. The planar case, for which analytical solutions are available, allows a detailed illustration of the answers here advanced to the above issues.

  4. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  5. Ethical Issues Relative to Autonomy and Personal Control in Independent and Cognitively Impaired Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues surrounding health care for independent elders, those in long-term care, and those with cognitive impairments, as well as death, dying, euthanasia, and assisted suicide. Suggests that nurses should focus on older adults' choice, autonomy, and personal control. (SK)

  6. Forces and Issues Related to Curriculum and Instruction, 7-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Alan R.; Crosswhite, F. Joe

    1970-01-01

    This unit is divided into three chapters concerned with Emerging Issues: 1890-1920," Mathematics Education on the Defensive: 1920-45," and Reform, Revolution, and Reaction." Of particular interest are discussions of the aims and impact of the Report of the Committee of Ten," The 1923 Report" and the Cambridge Report.…

  7. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  8. Turkish Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Picture Books Reflecting LGBT-Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Hakan; Ulusoy, Mustafa; Lamme, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    This research study focuses on Turkish preservice teachers' perceptions of children's picture books containing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues to lend support to encouraging diversity in teacher education programs and elementary school classrooms. The authors proposed that reading, listening, and responding to diverse children's…

  9. Teachers' Controversial Issue Decisions Related to Race, Gender, and Religion during the 2008 Presidential Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Using the 2008 Presidential Election as a case of curricular controversy, the author describes how six high school government teachers responded to the racial, gender, and religious diversity included on the presidential tickets of the two major political parties. Teachers had to decide whether the issue of Americans challenging the tradition of…

  10. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  11. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders’ Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, F.; Clausen, J.; Allison, B.Z.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  12. An Exploration of School Leadership Issues Relating to the "December Dilemma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anna L.; Vasek, Austin; Davis, Derek

    2012-01-01

    School leadership is required to navigate difficult issues concerning the religious liberties of their students. December is a month filled with secular and religious holidays. It is the one month on the school calendar filled with joyous cultural celebrations. However, it can also become a quandary for leadership when attempting to balance the…

  13. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  14. 76 FR 22340 - Further Inquiry Into Tribal Issues Relating to Establishment of a Mobility Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, Auctions and Spectrum Access Division: Scott Mackoul... comment on those proposals. What issues should receive priority in a flow of information and exchange of... are pending proposals regarding utilization of spectrum over Tribal lands that could benefit from the...

  15. Education of the handicapped child: Status, trend, and issues related to electronic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, D.

    1973-01-01

    This study is part of a broader investigation of the role of large-scale educational telecommunications systems. Thus, data are analyzed and trends and issues discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large-scale electronic delivery of education for the handicapped.

  16. Shock analysis: Three useful new relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.J.; Burton, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years a variety of methods for analyzing hydromagnetic shocks have been developed. The Rankine-Hugoniot relations on which the analyses are based are sufficiently complex and involve sufficiently large numbers of variables that in specific instances a decision must be made on how to proceed. The authors analyses have tended to emphasize the magnetic field (B) and velocity (V) as the starting point since they are typically the most accurately determined measurables. They authors have also tended to carry out the analysis in a reference frame aligned, and moving, with the shock. Three new relations have been derived which are generally useful. (1) The shock speed can be calculated from the upstream and downstream values of B and V independent of the shock normal or its direction relative to the upstream field. (2) An explicit relation is derived relating the angles between the jump in velocity, the shock normal, and the upstream field. (3) From the magnetic field and two-dimensional velocity measurements, which are frequently all that are available, it is possible to infer the third component of the upstream-downstream velocity jump

  17. A Review: Passive System Reliability Analysis – Accomplishments and Unresolved Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Arun Kumar, E-mail: arunths@barc.gov.in [Reactor Engineering Division, Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Chandrakar, Amit [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Vinod, Gopika [Reactor Safety Division, Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-10-10

    Reliability assessment of passive safety systems is one of the important issues, since safety of advanced nuclear reactors rely on several passive features. In this context, a few methodologies such as reliability evaluation of passive safety system (REPAS), reliability methods for passive safety functions (RMPS), and analysis of passive systems reliability (APSRA) have been developed in the past. These methodologies have been used to assess reliability of various passive safety systems. While these methodologies have certain features in common, but they differ in considering certain issues; for example, treatment of model uncertainties, deviation of geometric, and process parameters from their nominal values. This paper presents the state of the art on passive system reliability assessment methodologies, the accomplishments, and remaining issues. In this review, three critical issues pertaining to passive systems performance and reliability have been identified. The first issue is applicability of best estimate codes and model uncertainty. The best estimate codes based phenomenological simulations of natural convection passive systems could have significant amount of uncertainties, these uncertainties must be incorporated in appropriate manner in the performance and reliability analysis of such systems. The second issue is the treatment of dynamic failure characteristics of components of passive systems. REPAS, RMPS, and APSRA methodologies do not consider dynamic failures of components or process, which may have strong influence on the failure of passive systems. The influence of dynamic failure characteristics of components on system failure probability is presented with the help of a dynamic reliability methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis of a benchmark problem of Hold-up tank shows the error in failure probability estimation by not considering the dynamism of components. It is thus suggested that dynamic reliability methodologies must be

  18. Pregnancy-related anxiety: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrampour, Hamideh; Ali, Elena; McNeil, Deborah A; Benzies, Karen; MacQueen, Glenda; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Evidence suggests that pregnancy-related anxiety is more strongly associated with maternal and child outcomes than general anxiety and depression are and that pregnancy-related anxiety may constitute a distinct concept. However, because of its poor conceptualization, the measurement and assessment of pregnancy-related anxiety have been limited. Efforts to analyze this concept can significantly contribute to its theoretical development. The first objective of this paper was to clarify the concept of pregnancy-related anxiety and identify its characteristics and dimensions. The second aim was to examine the items of current pregnancy-related anxiety measures to determine the dimensions and attributes that each scale addresses, noting any gaps between the current assessment and the construct of the concept. A concept analysis was conducted to examine the concept of pregnancy-related anxiety. To obtain the relevant evidence, several databases were searched including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO's SocINDEX, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE. A modified approach based on Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing. 5th ed; 2011) was used. Qualitative or quantitative studies published in English that explored or examined anxiety during pregnancy or its dimensions prospectively or retrospectively were included. Thirty eight studies provided data for the concept analysis. Three critical attributes (i.e., affective responses, cognitions, and somatic symptoms), three antecedents (i.e., a real or anticipated threat to pregnancy or its outcomes, low perceived control, and excessive cognitive activity, and four consequences (i.e., negative attitudes, difficulty concentrating, excessive reassurance-seeking behavior, and avoidance behaviors) were identified. Nine dimensions for pregnancy-related anxiety were determined, and a definition of the concept was proposed. The most frequently reported dimensions included anxiety

  19. Construction Delay Analysis Techniques—A Review of Application Issues and Improvement Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Braimah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The time for performance of a project is usually of the essence to the employer and the contractor. This has made it quite imperative for contracting parties to analyse project delays for purposes of making right decisions on potential time and/or cost compensation claims. Over the years, existing delay analysis techniques (DATs for aiding this decision-making have been helpful but have not succeeded in curbing the high incidence of disputes associated with delay claims resolutions. A major source of the disputes lies with the limitations and capabilities of the techniques in their practical use. Developing a good knowledge of these aspects of the techniques is of paramount importance in understanding the real problematic issues involved and their improvement needs. This paper seeks to develop such knowledge and understanding (as part of a wider research work via: an evaluation of the most common DATs based on a case study, a review of the key relevant issues often not addressed by the techniques, and the necessary improvements needs. The evaluation confirmed that the various techniques yield different analysis results for the same delay claims scenario, mainly due to their unique application procedures. The issues that are often ignored in the analysis but would also affect delay analysis results are: functionality of the programming software employed for the analysis, resource loading and levelling requirements, resolving concurrent delays, and delay-pacing strategy. Improvement needs by way of incorporating these issues in the analysis and focusing on them in future research work are the key recommendations of the study.

  20. Modernism and Postmodernism: A Study of the Islamic Teachings with Special Reference to the Related Issues of Pakistani Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdul Muhaimin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study elaborates the difference and connection between modernism and postmodernism eras while highlighting their backgrounds. The research highlights the teachings of Islam in terms of modernism and postmodernism. The research brings to light the influence of modernism and postmodernism on Muslim societies. What are the far reaching impacts of the modernism and postmodernism eras of Muslim societies and how well a common Muslim is equipped to address the issues related to postmodernism. The study primarily focuses on the related issues in Pakistani society and explains the role and the influence of religious scholars of their understanding of the terms modernism and postmodernism. The study focuses on the awareness of the ’Ulamā in addressing these global challenges and subsequently the future of Pakistani society. The study has an element of quantitative research and it indicates towards the on ground realities on the issue with the help of a latest survey on modernism and postmodernism.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  2. Two scale damage model and related numerical issues for thermo-mechanical high cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Kane, A.; Seyedi, M.; Sermage, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    On the idea that fatigue damage is localized at the microscopic scale, a scale smaller than the mesoscopic one of the Representative Volume Element (RVE), a three-dimensional two scale damage model has been proposed for High Cycle Fatigue applications. It is extended here to aniso-thermal cases and then to thermo-mechanical fatigue. The modeling consists in the micro-mechanics analysis of a weak micro-inclusion subjected to plasticity and damage embedded in an elastic meso-element (the RVE of continuum mechanics). The consideration of plasticity coupled with damage equations at micro-scale, altogether with Eshelby-Kroner localization law, allows to compute the value of microscopic damage up to failure for any kind of loading, 1D or 3D, cyclic or random, isothermal or aniso-thermal, mechanical, thermal or thermo-mechanical. A robust numerical scheme is proposed in order to make the computations fast. A post-processor for damage and fatigue (DAMAGE-2005) has been developed. It applies to complex thermo-mechanical loadings. Examples of the representation by the two scale damage model of physical phenomena related to High Cycle Fatigue are given such as the mean stress effect, the non-linear accumulation of damage. Examples of thermal and thermo-mechanical fatigue as well as complex applications on real size testing structure subjected to thermo-mechanical fatigue are detailed. (authors)

  3. Geoethical issues in long-term assessment of geohazards and related mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Long-term assessment of large-impact and relatively (or very) infrequent geohazards like earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions is nowadays a common practice for geoscientists and many groups have been and are involved in producing global and regional hazard maps in response of an increasing demand of the society. Though the societal needs are the basic motivations for such studies, often this aspect is not pondered enough and a lack of communication between geoscientists and the society might be a serious limit to the effective exploitation of the hazard assessment products and to the development of adequate mitigation policies. This paper is an analysis of the role of geoscientists in the process of the production of long-term assessments of dangerous natural phenomena (such as mapping of seismic, tsunami and volcanic hazards), with special emphasis given to the role of communicators and disseminators (with respect to the general public, to authorities, to restricted specialized audiences…), but also of providers of active support to the planners who should be given key elements for making decision. Geoethics imposes geoscientists to take clear and full responsibilities on the products resulting from their assessments, but also to be aware that these products are valuable insofar they are scientifically sound, known, understandable, and utilizable by a wide universe of users.

  4. Exposure Based Health Issues Project Report: Phase I of High Level Tank Operations, Retrieval, Pretreatment, and Vitrification Exposure Based Health Issues Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Bowers, Harold N.; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Brady, William H.; Ladue, Buffi; Samuels, Joseph K.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to understand the ''big picture'' of worker health and safety which includes fully recognizing the vulnerabilities and associated programs necessary to protect workers at the various DOE sites across the complex. Exposure analysis and medical surveillance are key aspects for understanding this big picture, as is understanding current health and safety practices and how they may need to change to relate to future health and safety management needs. The exposure-based health issues project was initiated to assemble the components necessary to understand potential exposure situations and their medical surveillance and clinical aspects. Phase I focused only on current Hanford tank farm operations and serves as a starting point for the overall project. It is also anticipated that once the pilot is fully developed for Hanford HLW (i.e., current operations, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal), the process and analysis methods developed will be available and applicable for other DOE operations and sites. The purpose of this Phase I project report is to present the health impact information collected regarding ongoing tank waste maintenance operations, show the various aspects of health and safety involved in protecting workers, introduce the reader to the kinds of information that will need to be analyzed in order to effectively manage worker safety

  5. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  6. EXPERTISE OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Bogaturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of political analysis in the fi eld of international relations. The author discusses the key rules, standards and requirements of correct political research as well as basic criteria of analytical correctness. The author formulates typology of analytical papers, assesses the state of environment and working conditions for today’s experts, analysis key problems and diffi culties at the stage of empirical data selection (including verifi cation of information sources, while choosing analytical methods and formulating conclusions. The article gives advice for experts, how to organize research, deal with diffi culties and fi nd non-standard solutions.

  7. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  8. Factors Affecting Recruitment and Attrition in Randomised Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pregnancy-Related Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Close

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs investigating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM for pregnancy-related issues have encountered issues with recruitment and attrition. Little is known about the cause of these issues. Methods. Data was gathered from an antenatal CAM randomised controlled trial. During foetal anomaly appointments, women meeting inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the trial. Numbers of women invited and eligible were recorded. Reasons for noninterest were noted and analysed. Focus groups exploring trial experience of participants were also conducted. Findings. Of the 428 women invited to participate, 376 were eligible and just under a quarter participated. Reasons for nonparticipation included concerns about CAM and lack of interest in participation in research. Other factors negatively affecting recruitment included recruitment timing, competition for participants, limited support from staff, and inadequate trial promotion. Factors encouraging recruitment included being interested in research and seeking pain relief. Reasons for dropping out were time constraints, travel issues, work commitments, and pregnancy issues. Several women in the sham and usual care group dropped out due to dissatisfaction with treatment allocation. Conclusion. CAM researchers must explore problems encountered with recruitment and attrition so that evidence-based implementation strategies to address the issues can be developed.

  9. SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION ON THE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is the preface or editors note to the dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies," that was...

  10. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Review of spent fuel related issues in SKB's SR 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grambow, B. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes (France). SUBATECH-Laboratory

    2000-12-01

    The solid waste form 'spent fuel' constitutes both the dominant radionuclide source as well as a first radionuclide retention barrier of a planned future high level nuclear waste isolation systems in deep granite formations. In order to evaluate the performance of spent fuel as part of the multibarrier containment system in a deep repository, the radionuclide release properties in groundwater must be predicted over very long time periods. Radionuclide release is not an inherent materials property of the fuel but depends, besides fuel specific parameters, mainly on time but as well on the geochemical and hydraulic environment of the disposal location. The study SR 97 documents the large effort of SKB to assess the long-term performance of a repository containing spent nuclear fuel. Scenario and consequence analyses are clearly described, considering major physical and chemical interactions of the various components of the multi-barrier isolation system. The approach attempts to assess both a realistic and a pessimistic evolution scenario. The present report attempts to evaluate whether this approach is thoroughly carried through to assess the performance of spent nuclear fuel in a repository. Main issues are radionuclide inventories and inventory distribution between structural parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, potential fuel alteration prior to water access, as well as models for fuel matrix dissolution and instant release fractions. Uncertainties in radionuclide inventories are discussed and were found for many radionuclides to be higher than assumed in SR 97. This is particularly true for Cl-36. This nuclide is a potential key biosphere dose contributor in various international safety assessments. Of particular importance are uncertainties related to the partition of radionuclides between metallic parts of the fuel assembly and the fuel matrix, since inventories of metallic parts are considered to be released instantaneously. Using C-14 as

  11. Structural Analysis of Wendelstein 7-X: Main Results and Critical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator project at Greifswald, Germany, is to demonstrate that the stellarator is a viable option for a fusion power-plant. The construction phase of W7-X is quite advanced, and the project has entered the assembly stage. The main W7-X structural components are the magnet system (MS) and the cryostat system, the latter comprising the outer vessel (OV), the plasma vessel (PV) and the ports. Both systems are supported by the Machine Base (MB). The W7-X '' pentagonal '' basic magnet system, composed of 50 non planar coils and 20 planar coils, is capable to generate a magnetic field up to 3 Tesla at the plasma axis. The weight of the coils and the electromagnetic (EM) loads are transferred to a central support structure by two central support elements (CSEs) per each coil. The complexity of the magnet system is caused not only by the complicated configuration of the non-planar coils, but also by contact-sliding interfaces between adjacent coils as well as between winding pack and coil cases, and by the bolted CSEs relying on flange openings. The OV and PV are interconnected by 299 ports with bellows, by the PV horizontal centering system, and by the MB via the vertical supports. Due to the large number of openings, both vessels are relatively flexible. The reliable prediction of a structural behavior of W7-X is not possible without a set of finite element (FE) models. A special strategy has been developed for the structural analysis which is under implementation now. The MS system is highly sensitive to parameter variations which is the main reason that the analysis strategy is based on completely independent FE global models (GM) realized in ANSYS, ADINA, and ABAQUS. The cryostat system ANSYS GM includes the OV, the PV, the ports with bellows, and the MB; an independent analysis of the components without taking into account their interactions would not be accurate enough. The local analyses of W7-X components are being

  12. Conference on Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this collection are a sampling of some of the research presented during the conference “Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics”, held in May of 2015 at Purdue University in honor of the 60th birthday of Rodrigo Bañuelos. A wide variety of topics in probability theory is covered in these proceedings, including heat kernel estimates, Malliavin calculus, rough paths differential equations, Lévy processes, Brownian motion on manifolds, and spin glasses, among other topics.

  13. The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankevich Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers certain historiographical aspects of the Vilnius issue as an international problem. The author analyses the origins of the Polish-Lithuanian conflict, the role of the struggle for Vilnius in the general context of the Polish-Lithuanian confrontation, and the origin and nature of Lithuanian nationalism. The article also examines historiographical perspectives on the seizure of Vilnius by the troops of the Polish general, L. Żeligowsky, and the international consequences of the violation of the Suwałki Agreement. The author pays special attention to the positions of western powers, the decision of the Conference of Ambassadors on March 15, 1923, and the mediation of the League of Nations in the territorial dispute between Lithuania and Poland. The article considers the existing historiographical concepts and evaluations of the role of the Soviet diplomacy in the Vilnius issue. The author identifies new trends in the contemporary historiography of the Vilnius problem.

  14. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance

  15. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Aggarwal, S.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  16. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Aggarwal, S.K. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  17. Technical issues related to NUREG 0800, Chapter 18: Human Factors Engineering/Standard Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities

  18. Anticipating issues related to increasing preimplantation genetic diagnosis use: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S; Chung, Wendy; Sauer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) poses numerous clinical, social, psychological, ethical, legal and policy dilemmas, many of which have received little attention. Patients and providers are now considering and using PGD for a widening array of genetic disorders, and patients may increasingly seek 'designer babies.' In the USA, although governmental oversight policies have been discussed, few specific guidelines exist. Hence, increasingly, patients and providers will face challenging ethical and policy questions of when and for whom to use PGD, and how it should be financed. These issues should be better clarified and addressed through collection of data concerning the current use of PGD in the USA, including factors involved in decision making about PGD use, as well as the education of the various communities that are, and should be, involved in its implementation. Improved understanding of these issues will ultimately enhance the development and implementation of future clinical guidelines and policies.

  19. How would we deal with radiation related issues in high school educational programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Kuniko

    1999-01-01

    Current educational curriculum will be more improved and the materials in schools will be somewhat different by the year of 2002 when students have two days off in a week. It is a well known fact that recent Japanese people's level of understanding about Science and Technology is the second from the bottom among OECD nations and, as a matter of fact, few schools are dealing with scientific issues such as atomic energy or radiation. High school teachers need to survey what students know about atomic power and radiation, how deep they studied in previous schools and what kind of interest they have in conservation of world energy sources or environmental issues discussed today. Through questionnaires to 328 students, it became clear that they were most interesting to the effect of radiation or radioactivity on any kind of things in the environment, and that they want to know solutions for those problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layers and Garbage disposal. (M. Suetake)

  1. Work-Related Issues Facing Nurse Anesthetists During Deployment on a Military Operation Other Than War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    transferability ( Denzin & Lincoln , 1994; Morse & Field, 1995; Wilson, 1993). Denzin and Lincoln (1994) note that in qualitative research, the terms credibility...DEPLOYMENT ISSUES 56 Denzin , N.K., & Lincoln ,Y.S. (Eds.)(1994). Handbook of qualitative research. (pp. 1-17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Department of the...Association of Operating Room Nurses, 62, 875-883. Strauss, A., Corbin, J. (1994). Grounded theory methodology. In Denzin , N.K., & Lincoln , Y.S

  2. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  3. OPINION OF YOUTH ON ISSUES AND CHALLENGES RELATED TO EMPLOYMENT: A STUDY IN MYSORE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohan A.K

    2017-01-01

    Employment status is one of the developmental indicators of nation. For this two things are vital, one is availability of employment opportunities and second is skillful workforce. Employment and skills are linked with many other social, economic and demographic factors. India is hoping to excel economically using its youth power. Hence many skill development programmes linked with employment options are being provided to youth by government and non-government agencies. However, the issue of ...

  4. Agri-food supply chains and sustainability-related issues: evidence from across the Scottish agri-food economy

    OpenAIRE

    Leat, Philip M.K.; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of agri-food supply chains on the sustainability-related activities and decisions of Scottish farmers, as well as the treatment of sustainability issues by food processors and retailers themselves. It is based on 8 whole chain case studies covering some of Scotland’s major agricultural products. The cases identify differing levels of understanding and activities related to sustainability, but widespread acknowledgement that sustainability involves the develop...

  5. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-06-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed.

  6. Technical findings and regulatory analysis for Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3, ''Containment Integrity Check''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains the technical findings and regulatory analysis for Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3, ''Containment Integrity Check.'' An evaluation of the containment isolation history from 1965 to 1983 reveals that (except for a small number of events) containment integrity has been maintained and that the majority of reported events have been events related to exceeding Technical Specification limits (or 0.6 of the allowable leakage level). In addition, more recent risk analyses have shown that allowable leakage rates even if increased by a factor of 10 would not significantly increase risk. Potential methods of continuous monitoring are identified and evaluated. Therefore, these technical findings and risk evaluations support closure of Generic Safety Issue II.E.4.3

  7. Nonlinear association criterion, nonlinear Granger causality and related issues with applications to neuroimage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chenyang; Feng, Jianfeng

    2016-03-15

    Quantifying associations in neuroscience (and many other scientific disciplines) is often challenged by high-dimensionality, nonlinearity and noisy observations. Many classic methods have either poor power or poor scalability on data sets of the same or different scales such as genetical, physiological and image data. Based on the framework of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we proposed a new nonlinear association criteria (NAC) with an efficient numerical algorithm and p-value approximation scheme. We also presented mathematical justification that links the proposed method to related methods such as kernel generalized variance, kernel canonical correlation analysis and Hilbert-Schmidt independence criteria. NAC allows the detection of association between arbitrary input domain as long as a characteristic kernel is defined. A MATLAB package was provided to facilitate applications. Extensive simulation examples and four real world neuroscience examples including functional MRI causality, Calcium imaging and imaging genetic studies on autism [Brain, 138(5):13821393 (2015)] and alcohol addiction [PNAS, 112(30):E4085-E4093 (2015)] are used to benchmark NAC. It demonstrates the superior performance over the existing procedures we tested and also yields biologically significant results for the real world examples. NAC beats its linear counterparts when nonlinearity is presented in the data. It also shows more robustness against different experimental setups compared with its nonlinear counterparts. In this work we presented a new and robust statistical approach NAC for measuring associations. It could serve as an interesting alternative to the existing methods for datasets where nonlinearity and other confounding factors are present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  9. U.S. Public Relations from an International Perspective: Curricular Issues and Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.; Ogbondah, Chris W.

    This paper establishes a rationale for international public relations courses in the curricula of university public relations education in the U.S. and outlines the content of such courses. Disagreements between practitioners and educators on a blueprint for public relations education are documented. Developments pointing to a crucial need for…

  10. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 115, enhancement of the reliability of the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdekas, D.L.

    1989-05-01

    Generic Issue 115 addresses a concern related to the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor protection system for plants using the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System (SSPS). Several options for improving the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor trip function for these plants and their effect on core damage frequency (CDF) and overall risk were evaluated. This regulatory analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits associated with the various options for enhancing the reliability of the Westinghouse SSPS and provides insights for consideration and industry initiatives. No new regulatory requirements are proposed. 25 refs., 11 tabs

  11. Integrated systems for NGS data management and analysis: open issues and available solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio eBianchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have deeply changed our understanding of cellular processes by delivering an astonishing amount of data at affordable prices; nowadays, many biology laboratories have already accumulated a large number of sequenced samples. However, managing and analyzing these data poses new challenges, which may easily be underestimated by research groups devoid of IT and quantitative skills. In this perspective, we identify five issues that should be carefully addressed by research groups approaching NGS technologies. In particular, the five key issues to be considered concern: 1 adopting a laboratory management system (LIMS and safeguard the resulting raw data structure in downstream analyses; 2 monitoring the flow of the data and standardizing input and output directories and file names, even when multiple analysis protocols are used on the same data; 3 ensuring complete traceability of the analysis performed; 4 enabling non-experienced users to run analyses through a graphical user interface (GUI acting as a front-end for the pipelines; 5 relying on standard metadata to annotate the datasets, and when possible using controlled vocabularies, ideally derived from biomedical ontologies. Finally, we discuss the currently available tools in the light of these issues, and we introduce HTS-flow, a new workflow management system (WMS conceived to address the concerns we raised. HTS-flow is able to retrieve information from a LIMS database, manages data analyses through a simple GUI, outputs data in standard locations and allows the complete traceability of datasets, accompanying metadata and analysis scripts.

  12. Regulatory issues associated with exclusion, exemption, and clearance related to the mining and minerals processing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.; Woude, S. van der; Keenan, N.; Guy, S.

    1997-01-01

    The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance have been established in international recommendations and, standards for radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in recent years. The consistent application of these concepts has given rise to various problems in different spheres of use. This is particularly the case in the mining and minerals processing industries dealing with materials exhibiting elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. This paper takes the South African mining industry as an example and highlights some of the issues that have arisen in applying these concepts within a regulatory control regime. (author)

  13. Experimental activities related to safety systems of PWR NPPs (900 MWe). Sump screen plugging issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicena, I.; Soltesz, B.; Batalik, J.; Gubco, V.; Liska, M.; Galusekova, D.; Klementova, A.; Mattei, J. M.; Armand, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this presentation authors present the sump plugging issue - ability of the filtration systems to catch debris (generated during the LOCA accident) to maintain the recirculating water the CSS and the ECCS need. Assessment has been focused upon the CPY series 900 MW e (28 reactors). Typical involved debris is: - the insulation for all the plants is made of glass wool (45 kg/m 3 ). Glass-wool is contained in sheet metal panels using attachment mechanism; - paints; - concrete; -dust. Effect of water chemistry on debris and filtration process ELISA loop is described.

  14. Title V Applicability Issues Related to the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Analysis on European Future of Macedonia: The Greek Obstacles on the Name Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdula Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia as a candidate for admission to the European Union (EU hasdifficulty in meeting the criteria for membership, but also in solving problems thatarise with the name of the country. In the framework of this paper will analyzeinternational relationsMacedonia-EU, in particular importance will be given tothe impact that makesGreece from within as a member of the EU. Also, willanalyze the decision of the International Court of Justice relating to compliancewith the Interim Agreement betweenGreece andMacedonia, its potential impacts,and will analyze the opinions of citizens about this issue. At the end, conclusionsand recommendations are issued in order to facilitate the path ofMacedoniatowards the EU.

  16. GRS/ISTec strategy for the treatment of gas-related issues for repositories located in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller-Lyda, I.; Javeri, V.; Muller, W.

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of gas-related issues for repositories located in rock salt by GRS and ISTec has followed a strategy which has been developed with increasing complexity and degree of detail in the past. The strategy today clearly indicates the direction to establish a comprehensive safety case and the work that remains to be done. For gas generation mainly long-term aspects are an issue to increase accuracy of predictions. Physical modelling especially for HLW is still incomplete with regard to the coupling of fluid flow with geomechanics, solution/precipitation effects and geochemistry. The appropriate tools to transform the physical models into numerical solutions are at hand in principle but have to be further developed collaterally to the physical modelling. The first full-scale demonstration of safety regarding gas issues in rock salt will have to be provided for the licensing of the Morsleben repository shut-down in the near future. (authors)

  17. A critical review and analysis of ethical issues associated with the artificial pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintal, A; Messier, V; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Racine, E

    2018-04-25

    The artificial pancreas combines a hormone infusion pump with a continuous glucose monitoring device, supported by a dosing algorithm currently installed on the pump. It allows for dynamic infusions of insulin (and possibly other hormones such as glucagon) tailored to patient needs. For patients with type 1 diabetes the artificial pancreas has been shown to prevent more effectively hypoglycaemic events and hyperglycaemia than insulin pump therapy and has the potential to simplify care. However, the potential ethical issues associated with the upcoming integration of the artificial pancreas into clinical practice have not yet been discussed. Our objective was to identify and articulate ethical issues associated with artificial pancreas use for patients, healthcare professionals, industry and policymakers. We performed a literature review to identify clinical, psychosocial and technical issues raised by the artificial pancreas and subsequently analysed them through a common bioethics framework. We identified five sensitive domains of ethical issues. Patient confidentiality and safety can be jeopardized by the artificial pancreas' vulnerability to security breaches or unauthorized data sharing. Public and private coverage of the artificial pancreas could be cost-effective and warranted. Patient selection criteria need to ensure equitable access and sensitivity to patient-reported outcomes. Patient coaching and support by healthcare professionals or industry representatives could help foster realistic expectations in patients. Finally, the artificial pancreas increases the visibility of diabetes and could generate issues related to personal identity and patient agency. The timely consideration of these issues will optimize the technological development and clinical uptake of the artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Computational issues in the analysis of nonlinear two-phase flow dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mauricio A. Pinheiro [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados. Div. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: pinheiro@ieav.cta.br; Podowski, Michael Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, NY (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the issue of computer simulations of flow-induced instabilities in boiling channels and systems. A computational model is presented for the time-domain analysis of nonlinear oscillations in interconnected parallel boiling channels. The results of model testing and validation are shown. One of the main concerns here has been to show the importance in performing numerical testing regarding the selection of a proper numerical integration method and associated nodalization and time step as well as to demonstrate the convergence of the numerical solution prior to any analysis. (author)

  19. The Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues (K-Stori: Rationale and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Na Cho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures to address gender-specific health issues are essential due to fundamental, biological differences between the sexes. Studies have increasingly stressed the importance of customizing approaches directed at women’s health issues according to stages in the female life cycle. In Korea, however, gender-specific studies on issues affecting Korean women in relation to stages in their life cycle are lacking. Accordingly, the Korean Study of Women’s Health-Related Issues (K-Stori was designed to investigate life cycle-specific health issues among women, covering health status, awareness, and risk perceptions. Methods K-Stori was conducted as a nationwide cross-sectional survey targeting Korean women aged 14–79 years. Per each stage in the female life cycle (adolescence, childbearing age, pregnancy & postpartum, menopause, and older adult stage, 3000 women (total 15,000 were recruited by stratified multistage random sampling for geographic area based on the 2010 Resident Registration Population in Korea. Specialized questionnaires per each stage (total of five were developed in consultation with multidisciplinary experts and by reflecting upon current interests into health among the general population of women in Korea. This survey was conducted from April 1 to June 31, 2016, at which time investigators from a professional research agency went door-to-door to recruit residents and conducted in-person interviews. Discussion The study’s findings may help with elucidating health issues and unmet needs specific to each stage in the life cycle of Korean women that have yet to be identified in present surveys.

  20. Kyoto protocol and related issues; Chikyu ondanka boshi Kyoto kaigi (COP3) to sono kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y. [Global Industrial Social Progress Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-30

    The Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3) will be held in Kyoto in December 1997. Described herein are the current status and issues of the convention. USA and Japan, which hold important keys to set up the abatement target, have issued no proposals concretely at the current AGBM (Ad-hoc Group Berlin Mandate) 7, and the conference for the concrete targets will be decided in the next AGBM 8 to be held in October. The final target will be set by the ministerial segment of COP3, because the negotiations for the treaty are political in nature. USA proposes reduction at a uniform, realistic rate, and Japan proposes reduction at a uniform rate or setting up the emission target per capita, each being different from reduction at a much higher uniform rate proposed by EU. Within EU, however, 10% out of 15% reduction rate it proposes is agreed by the member countries, and the remaining rate of % may not be agreed. It is necessary for the advanced parties to set up realistic and legally binding solutions, including ratification by USA, which can persuade the developing countries. tab.1

  1. How would we deal with radiation related issues in high school educational programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Kuniko [Attached High School of Akita Keizai Houka Univ., Akita (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Current educational curriculum will be more improved and the materials in schools will be somewhat different by the year of 2002 when students have two days off in a week. It is a well known fact that recent Japanese people's level of understanding about Science and Technology is the second from the bottom among OECD nations and, as a matter of fact, few schools are dealing with scientific issues such as atomic energy or radiation. High school teachers need to survey what students know about atomic power and radiation, how deep they studied in previous schools and what kind of interest they have in conservation of world energy sources or environmental issues discussed today. Through questionnaires to 328 students, it became clear that they were most interesting to the effect of radiation or radioactivity on any kind of things in the environment, and that they want to know solutions for those problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layers and Garbage disposal. (M. Suetake)

  2. Hydrogen related safety issues in the context of containments of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markendeya, S.G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Assessment of risk due to hydrogen released during postulated hypothetical accident scenarios in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been an important area of R and D studies world over. The issues, such as appropriate methodologies for estimation of hydrogen source term and for hydrogen dispersion calculations, technology development for hydrogen mitigation in containment of NPPs and assessment of damage due to deflagration/detonation of hydrogen (if it occurs) are being addressed as a part of some of the multidisciplinary study programs currently underway in BARC. While a significant overall progress has been achieved in general as a result of these programs, requirements of further fine-tuning of these studies have also emerged. The present paper takes a brief look at the current state-of the-art technology available to address these issues. The progress of R and D studies underway at BARC has also been critically reviewed in the paper to bring out necessary planning of further studies so as to enhance the safety of Indian NPPs

  3. Military Personnel Dilemmas: Perspectives on Gender-Related Issues. A Selected List of Resource Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Psychopatho- logy In Men: A Psychodynar,.ic Analysis Of I!omosexuality, Trans- sexualismt, Plnd Transvestism ." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF...identity and sexual behavior are markedly aberrant; homosexuality, transsexualism, and transvestism . For each disorder a psychodynamic analysis of the

  4. Students as Non-Standard Employees. Exploring Work Related Issues in Students’ Perceptions on their Term-time Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of an explorative study that aimed at exploring work related issues in students’ perceptions of their job as atypical employees. An individual picture of the experienced work reality of students is drawn according to work task, flexible working hours, instructions...... and training opportunities, students’ relations to other employees, and social integration. By adopting a qualitative design, I was able to emphasize the subjective perspective of students describing their very own experiences as flexible workers. The study revealed various perceptions of students working...... as flexible employees and related this picture to current empirical and theoretical research in the field of non-standard employment....

  5. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  6. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  7. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  8. ATTITUDES OF PEOPLE IN THE THAI CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY SECTOR ON ISSUES RELATED TO DELAY IN THE APPROVAL OF SUBMITTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visuth Chovichien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated attitudes in the Thai construction industry sector towards 21 issues related to “delay in the approval of submittals” that may initiate conflicts among various parties. Knowledge gained from this study can be applied to the analyses of the completeness and appropriateness of contract conditions and to improve contract drafting. The attitudes of the majority of people in the industry towards several issues related to the time frame for the approval of submittals, compensation for cost increases and profit losses, and time frames for notifications of delayed approval and claim submission were found to be inconsistent with existing conditions in standard contracts. Various issues that are not covered in the standard contract forms, such as the time frame for providing reminders and the types of time loss and direct costs that can be claimed, were also found to have high tendencies to initiate conflicts between contracting parties. Finally, we also found that the organisational affiliation of the respondents (i.e., employer or contractor influenced their attitudes towards some, but not all, contractual issues.

  9. Individual, work-, and flight-related issues in F-16 pilots reporting neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loose, Veerle; van den Oord, Marieke; Burnotte, Frédéric; van Tiggelen, Damien; Stevens, Veerle; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neck pain is a common problem in F-16 pilots. A cross-sectional survey was used to determine the self-reported 1-yr prevalence of neck pain and to compare individual, work-related, and flight-related characteristics in F-16 pilots with and without neck pain. METHOD: There were 90 male

  10. Relations between Parenting Style and Children's Play Behavior. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela

    2001-01-01

    Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)

  11. The Quality of Online Health-Related Information – an Emergent Consumer Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nădăşan Valentin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become one of the main means of communication used by people who search for health-related information. The quality of online health-related information affects the users’ knowledge, their attitude, and their risk or health behaviour in complex ways and influences a substantial number of users in their decisions regarding diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  12. Analysis of students critical thinking skills in socio-scientific issues of biodiversity subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, A. R.; Purwianingsih, W.; Nuraeni, E.

    2018-05-01

    Critical thinking is a skills the which students should have in order to face 21st century demands. Critical thinking skills can help people in facing their daily problems, especially problems roommates relate to science. This research is aimed to analyze students critical thinking skills in socio-scientific issues of biodiversity subject. The method used in this research was descriptive method. The research subject is first-grade students’ in senior high school. The data collected by interview and open-ended question the which classified based on framework : (1) question at issue, (2) information (3) purpose (4) concepts (5) assumptions, (6) point of view, (7) interpretation and inference, and (8) implication and consequences, then it will be assessed by using rubrics. The result of the data showed students critical thinking skills in socio-scientific issues of biodiversity subject is in low and medium category. Therefore we need a learning activity that is able to develop student’s critical thinking skills, especially regarding issues of social science.

  13. Barriers to radiotherapy utilization: Consumer perceptions of issues influencing radiotherapy-related decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Puma; King, Madeleine; Stockler, Martin; Costa, Daniel; Milross, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential and cost-effective cancer treatment, but it is underutilized in Australia. We aimed to quantify consumers' perceptions of factors that influence RT decisions. A cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted in March-August 2012. Potential participants were invited to complete an electronic survey disseminated through multiple patient support and advocacy groups throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Study invitations were also placed in local newspapers across NSW with hard copy surveys mailed to respondents. Current or past cancer patients (and carers) who had been offered RT were eligible to participate regardless of their RT decision. Of the 1191 participants (electronic, n = 1153; hard copy, n = 38), 91% were female, most (88%) were current or past patients, and 78% had accepted RT. Issues commonly perceived to be moderate to strong influencers of RT decisions were: concern about acute and long-term side effects; management of side effects; fear and anxiety regarding RT; lack of awareness of RT; lack of local availability of RT; and lack of RT information resources. Those who declined RT were significantly more likely to highlight practical difficulties with receiving RT. Although availability of RT is well recognized, other issues such as fear and anxiety about RT and perceived side effects appear to feature prominently in consumers' decisions. Perceived practical difficulties with receiving RT may have influenced those who declined RT. There may be a need for information resources, support services and interventions to increase awareness of RT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  15. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  16. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  17. Can the EVIDEM Framework Tackle Issues Raised by Evaluating Treatments for Rare Diseases: Analysis of Issues and Policies, and Context-Specific Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Khoury, Hanane; Willet, Jacob; Rindress, Donna; Goetghebeur, Mireille

    2016-03-01

    The multiplicity of issues, including uncertainty and ethical dilemmas, and policies involved in appraising interventions for rare diseases suggests that multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on a holistic definition of value is uniquely suited for this purpose. The objective of this study was to analyze and further develop a comprehensive MCDA framework (EVIDEM) to address rare disease issues and policies, while maintaining its applicability across disease areas. Specific issues and policies for rare diseases were identified through literature review. Ethical and methodological foundations of the EVIDEM framework v3.0 were systematically analyzed from the perspective of these issues, and policies and modifications of the framework were performed accordingly to ensure their integration. Analysis showed that the framework integrates ethical dilemmas and issues inherent to appraising interventions for rare diseases but required further integration of specific aspects. Modification thus included the addition of subcriteria to further differentiate disease severity, disease-specific treatment outcomes, and economic consequences of interventions for rare diseases. Scoring scales were further developed to include negative scales for all comparative criteria. A methodology was established to incorporate context-specific population priorities and policies, such as those for rare diseases, into the quantitative part of the framework. This design allows making more explicit trade-offs between competing ethical positions of fairness (prioritization of those who are worst off), the goal of benefiting as many people as possible, the imperative to help, and wise use of knowledge and resources. It also allows addressing variability in institutional policies regarding prioritization of specific disease areas, in addition to existing uncertainty analysis available from EVIDEM. The adapted framework measures value in its widest sense, while being responsive to rare disease

  18. Energy Demand and Supply Analysis and Outlook - Energy Forecast for 2001 and Policy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang; Ryu, Ji Chul [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has grown at impressive rates during the last 3 decades, along with the economic growth. The global concern about the environment issue and the restructuring in Korea energy industry has an effect on the pattern and trend of energy demand in Korea. Under the situation, this research are focusing on the analysis of energy consumption and forecast of energy demand. First of all, we analyze the trends and major characteristics of energy consumption, beginning with 1970s and up to the third quarter of 2000. In the analysis of energy consumption by energy types, we also perform qualitative analysis on the trends and characteristics of each energy types, including institutional analysis. In model section, we start with the brief description of synopsis and outline the survey on empirical models for energy demand. The econometric model used in KEEI's short-term energy forecast is outlined, followed by the result of estimations. The 2001 energy demand forecast is predicted in detail by sectors and energy types. In the year 2001, weak demand is projected to continue through the First Half, and pick up its pace of growth only in the Second Half. Projected total demand is 201.3 million TOE or 4.4% growth. In the last section, the major policy issues are summarized in three sub-sections: the restructuring in energy industry, the security of energy demand and supply, international energy cooperation including south-north energy cooperation. (author). 86 refs., 43 figs., 73 tabs.

  19. EPA Issues November 15, 2010 Memorandum: Integrated Reporting and Listing Decisions Related to Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The memorandum provides information to assist regions and states in preparing and reviewing Integrated Reports related to ocean acidification (OA) impacts under Sections 303(d), 305(b) and 314 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  20. Issues Related to Experience & Automated Agent Technology in Synthetic Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coovert, Michael D; Riddle, Dawn L; Gordon, Thomas; Miles, Donald; Hoffman, Kimberly; King, Thomas; Elliott, Linda; Dalrymple, Mathieu; Schiflett, Samual; Chaiken, Scott

    2001-01-01

    .... Elliott, Stoyen and Chaiken (2000) note the limits of human cognitive processing relative to this demand and suggest agent technology has the potential to offer effective information and decision support the human operator...

  1. Review of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues for transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Engineering Applications Section (NEAS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been involved for over 25 years with the development and application of computational tools for use in analyzing the criticality safety and shielding features of transportation packages carrying radioactive material (RAM). The majority of the computational tools developed by ORNL/NEAS have been included within the SCALE modular code system (SCALE 1995). This code system has been used throughout the world for the evaluation of nuclear facility and package designs. With this development and application experience as a basis, this paper highlights a number of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues that confront the designer and reviewer of a new RAM package. Changes in the types and quantities of material that need to be shipped will keep these issues before the technical community and provide challenges to future package design and certification

  2. THE UNITED RESCUE SYSTEM IN BULGARIA. CURRENT RESOURCE RELATED ISSUES AND PROSPECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Baleva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems related to securing the Bulgarian system for disaster management with the necessary resources for its proper functioning. The main challenges for the united rescue system in the country are analyzed, including those related to ensuring the system with the necessary material, financial and human resources. Some possibilities for solving these problems with the use of funds from the European Union are presented.

  3. A pilot study exploring awareness among general public toward issues related to medication safety in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0 and descriptive statistics were reported where appropriate. Results: Majority of the respondents (n=292, 61.3% stated that they were well aware of the possible side effects of their current medications. A total of 196 respondents (41.17% believed that all medicines registered in Malaysia are safe to use as these medicines have no side effects. About 40.33% (n=192 of the respondents claimed that they share their unused medicines with family and friends who are having similar illness. Majority of respondents 57.7% (n=275 were satisfied with the drug information provided by the healthcare professionals. This study also found that more than 80% of the respondents (n=409 did report that they read the labels of their medication before using. Conclusions: In this study, it was revealed that there is a moderate level of public knowledge regarding medication safety. It is evident that public underestimates the risk of their medications. There is a general lack of awareness and understanding among the public especially toward side effects.

  4. Major issues in threat analysis and resolving such problems: an addendum to the GAP analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Surasinghe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of regions that warrant conservation attention is a top priority among global environmental concerns. Conventionally, this objective was achieved via recognizing natural landscapes based on the number of IUCN Red Listed species, percentage of endemism and species diversity. A recent innovation in conservation biology is the use of GIS-based threat analysis models to identify key areas of conservation importance. Compared with GAP Analysis, which only identifies biodiversity-rich unprotected lands, threat analysis serves as a rigorous tool in conservation planning which specifically recognizes threats and habitat suitability to different taxa based on a spatially-explicit analysis. Threat analysis is a highly flexible process which involves building up a model with multiple independent (without autocorrelations variables that both positively and negatively affect distribution and population persistence of a concerned species. Parameters include rate of land-use change, population density, population growth rate, land management regimes, protection status, habitat suitability and land stewardship. Threat analysis models can be used to understand the current status of a particular species (or a community and can be used to project future trends about the species under consideration. This publication provides an overview of uses of GIS-based threat analyses in conservation biology and provides insights on the limitations of these models and the directions that should be taken in future.

  5. A survey analysis of acoustic trauma related to MR scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Kamiya, Naoki; Sone, Michihiko; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Yamada, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    The maximum limit of MR scanner noise and necessity of ear protection is defined in the IEC standard (IEC60601-2-33) of MR safety. With improvements in MR scanner performance, pulse sequences generating higher scanning noise have been used clinically. In this study, we investigated the factors significantly related to potential acoustic trauma cases (PATC) after MR examinations. To consider the future direction for MR safety and prevention of acoustic trauma, issues related to noise generation by MR scanners and acoustic trauma were systematically reviewed. A statistical analysis was performed using the data set from a survey (n=974) conducted in 2010 by the Japanese Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (JSMRM) safety committee. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to extract the characteristics of the responders. With this classification as a reference, tests of independence and a residual analysis were employed to evaluate the factors related to PATC. No significant relationship was observed between the ear protection policy and the incidence or the reported outcome of PATC. While the two main clusters out of the six clusters extracted were associated with who reported the PATC and the confirmation process of the acoustic noise level of MR scanners, no cluster was associated with the frequency of PATC. An absence of PATC was significantly less reported (p=0.03) and more PATC was reported (p=0.04) by facilities with 3T MR systems. Although the total frequency was 4 cases, it should be noted that persistent hearing disturbances are a possible consequence of MR examinations. Neither the condition of the subjects nor the ear protection method was significantly related to the probability of PATC, suggesting the difficulty of predicting the potential risk of acoustic trauma. It is recommended to more systematically follow up PATC cases and clarify the risk factors. (author)

  6. Management of ethical issues related to care of seriously ill dialysis patients in free-standing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Hanson, Laura C; Gilet, Constance A; Jo, Minjeong; Reed, Teresa J; Hladik, Gerald A

    2014-09-01

    There are few data on the frequency and current management of clinical ethical issues related to care of seriously ill dialysis patients in free-standing dialysis facilities. To examine the extent of clinical ethical challenges experienced by care providers in free-standing facilities and their perceptions about how those issues are managed. A total of 183 care providers recruited from 15 facilities in North Carolina completed a survey regarding the occurrence and management of ethical issues in the past year. Care plan meetings were observed at four of the facilities for three consecutive months. Also, current policies and procedures at each of the facilities were reviewed. The two most frequently experienced challenges involved dialyzing frail patients with multiple comorbidities and caring for disruptive/difficult patients. The most common ways of managing ethical issues were discussions in care plan meetings (n = 47) or discussions with the clinic manager (n = 47). Although policies were in place to guide management of some of the challenges, respondents were often not aware of those policies. Also, although participants reported that ethical issues related to dialyzing undocumented immigrants were fairly common, no facility had a policy for managing this challenge. Participants suggested that all staff obtain training in clinical ethics and communication skills, facilities develop ethics teams, and there be clear policies to guide management of ethical challenges. The scope of ethical challenges was extensive, how these challenges were managed varied widely, and there were limited resources for assistance. Multifaceted efforts, encompassing endeavors at the individual, facility, organization, and national levels, are needed to support staff in improving the management of ethical challenges in dialysis facilities. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  8. Subway-Related Trauma: An Urban Public Health Issue with a High Case-Fatality Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Simon G; DiMaggio, Charles J; Wall, Stephen; Sim, Vasiliy; Frangos, Spiros G; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Bukur, Marko; Tandon, Manish; Todd, S Rob; Marshall, Gary T

    2018-05-09

    Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016. Descriptive epidemiology of patient demographics, incident details, injuries, and outcomes were analyzed. Over 15 years, 254 patients were admitted for subway-related trauma. The mean (standard error of the mean) age was 41 (1.0) years, 80% were male (95% confidence interval [CI] 74-84%) and median Injury Severity Score was 14 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-24). The overall case-fatality rate was 10% (95% CI 7-15%). The most common injuries were long-bone fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic amputations. Median length of stay was 6 days (IQR 1-18 days). Thirty-seven percent of patients required surgical intervention. At the time of injury, 55% of patients (95% CI 49-61%) had a positive urine drug or alcohol screen, 16% (95% CI 12-21%) were attempting suicide, and 39% (95% CI 33-45%) had a history of psychiatric illness. Subway-related trauma is associated with a high case-fatality rate. Alcohol or drug intoxication and psychiatric illness can increase the risk of this type of injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  10. Issues related to diagnosing oral lichen planus among oral pathologists in South India: A pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanketh, D Sharathkumar; Srinivasan, Samuel Raj; Patil, Shankargouda; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we simulated clinical scenarios by explicitly describing the history and clinical and histological features of hypothetical patients presenting with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion, and epithelial dysplasia in a self-designed questionnaire. By doing so, we aimed to elicit a diagnosis from oral pathologists and trainees, analyze their responses, appraise issues, and propose solutions regarding the diagnosis of OLP. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 oral pathologists and trainees in South India. Six questions were designed to assess awareness of the diagnostic aspects of OLP. Ten questions were hypothetical clinical scenarios (HCS) devised to evaluate respondents' knowledge of diagnostic guidelines and the criteria used by the respondents to render a diagnosis. There were 60 of 100 responses to the questionnaire. More than half the respondents were aware of the World Health Organization and modified guidelines of OLP. We observed considerable variations in diagnoses for the HCS. Our study illustrates the ambiguity in rendering an accurate diagnosis, despite adequate guidelines. Based on the responses for the HCS, we hypothesized that changes in the distribution (unilateral or bilateral) and clinical characteristic of OLP, and habits of patients, have a significant bearing on the clinical and final diagnoses of the lesion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Radioactivity in books printed in Japan. Its source and relation to the year of issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Asaya

    1996-01-01

    The radioactivities of the naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K) and a fallout nuclide 137 Cs) in books produced in Japan in the 20th century were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry to obtain information on radiation emitted from books. The respective concentration ranges of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were 0.2-6.4, 0.4-11.2, 0.3-11.3, 1-112, and 0-3.6 Bq kg -1 . X-ray diffraction spectra of the papers used in book printing showed that pyrophyllite, talc, kaolinite, and calcium carbonate were contained as fillers. A comparison of the radioactivity contents of the pulp and filler indicated that most of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 228 Th in the books was present in the filler whereas 137 Cs was in the pulp. The pattern of the concentration of each nuclide vs. the year of issue of the book was investigated. Patterns for the naturally occurring radionuclides were similar and were explained by the kinds of filler used. The pattern for 137 Cs differed from the patterns of the naturally occurring radionuclides, having a marked peak in the mid-1960s. (author)

  12. Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreiro, Raquel; Solbes, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology. The results indicate that students have significant difficulties understanding the origin of life on Earth, despite exposure to the topic by way of the assigned textbooks. The students were often unaware of past or present achievements in the search for life within the Solar System and beyond, topics that are far less commonly seen in textbooks. Student questionnaire answers also indicated that students had problems in reasoning and critical thinking when asked for their opinions on issues such as the potential for life beyond Earth, the question of whether UFOs exist, or what our place is in the Universe. Astrobiology might help initiate student awareness as to current thinking on these matters and should be considered for general science education.

  13. Integrity, standards, and QC-related issues with big data in pre-clinical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, John F; Ung, Matthew; Escalante-Chong, Renan; Ross, Jermaine; Zhang, Jenny; Cha, Yoonjeong; Lysaght, Andrew; Funt, Jason; Kusko, Rebecca

    2018-06-01

    The tremendous expansion of data analytics and public and private big datasets presents an important opportunity for pre-clinical drug discovery and development. In the field of life sciences, the growth of genetic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data is partly driven by a rapid decline in experimental costs as biotechnology improves throughput, scalability, and speed. Yet far too many researchers tend to underestimate the challenges and consequences involving data integrity and quality standards. Given the effect of data integrity on scientific interpretation, these issues have significant implications during preclinical drug development. We describe standardized approaches for maximizing the utility of publicly available or privately generated biological data and address some of the common pitfalls. We also discuss the increasing interest to integrate and interpret cross-platform data. Principles outlined here should serve as a useful broad guide for existing analytical practices and pipelines and as a tool for developing additional insights into therapeutics using big data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of pregnancy-related issues in multiple sclerosis patients: the need for an interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Maria Pia; Bertolotto, Antonio; Brunelli, Roberto; Cavalla, Paola; Goretti, Benedetta; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Patti, Francesco; Pozzilli, Carlo; Provinciali, Leandro; Rizzo, Nicola; Strobelt, Nicola; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Trojano, Maria; Comi, Giancarlo

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), most probably autoimmune in origin, usually occurring in young adults with a female/male prevalence of approximately 3:1. Women with MS in the reproductive age may face challenging issues in reconciling the desire for parenthood with their condition, owing to the possible influence both on the ongoing or planned treatment with the possible consequences on the disease course and on the potential negative effects of treatments on foetal and pregnancy outcomes. At MS diagnosis, timely counselling should promote informed parenthood, while disease evolution should be assessed before making therapeutic decisions. Current guidelines advise the discontinuation of any treatment during pregnancy, with possible exceptions for some treatments in patients with very active disease. Relapses decline during pregnancy but are more frequent during puerperium, when MS therapy should be promptly resumed in most of the cases. First-line immunomodulatory agents, such as interferon-β (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA), significantly reduce the post-partum risk of relapse. Due to substantial evidence of safety with the use of GA during pregnancy, a recent change in European marketing authorization removed the pregnancy contraindication for GA. This paper reports a consensus of Italian experts involved in MS management, including neurologists, gynaecologists and psychologists. This consensus, based on a review of the available scientific evidence, promoted an interdisciplinary approach to the management of pregnancy in MS women.

  15. Scientific and ethical issues related to deep brain stimulation for disorders of mood, behavior, and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabins, Peter; Appleby, Brian S; Brandt, Jason; DeLong, Mahlon R; Dunn, Laura B; Gabriëls, Loes; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Haber, Suzanne N; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Mari, Zoltan; Mayberg, Helen S; McCann, Evelyn; Mink, Sallie P; Rasmussen, Steven; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Vawter, Dorothy E; Vitek, Jerrold L; Walkup, John; Mathews, Debra J H

    2009-09-01

    A 2-day consensus conference was held to examine scientific and ethical issues in the application of deep brain stimulation for treating mood and behavioral disorders, such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The primary objectives of the conference were to (1) establish consensus among participants about the design of future clinical trials of deep brain stimulation for disorders of mood, behavior, and thought and (2) develop standards for the protection of human subjects participating in such studies. Conference participants identified 16 key points for guiding research in this growing field. The adoption of the described guidelines would help to protect the safety and rights of research subjects who participate in clinical trials of deep brain stimulation for disorders of mood, behavior, and thought and have further potential to benefit other stakeholders in the research process, including clinical researchers and device manufactures. That said, the adoption of the guidelines will require broad and substantial commitment from many of these same stakeholders.

  16. Relation between film character and wafer alignment: critical alignment issues on HV device for VLSI manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chuan; Lee, Chih-Hsiung; Lin, Hsun-Peng; Peng, Chiou-Shian

    1998-06-01

    Several continuous splits for wafer alignment target topography conditions to improve epitaxy film alignment were applied. The alignment evaluation among former layer pad oxide thickness (250 angstrom - 500 angstrom), drive oxide thickness (6000 angstrom - 10000 angstrom), nitride film thickness (600 angstrom - 1500 angstrom), initial oxide etch (fully wet etch, fully dry etch and dry plus wet etch) will be split to this experiment. Also various epitaxy deposition recipe such as: epitaxy source (SiHCl2 or SiCHCl3) and growth rate (1.3 micrometer/min approximately 2.0 micrometer/min) will be used to optimize the process window for alignment issue. All the reflectance signal and cross section photography of alignment target during NIKON stepper alignment process will be examined. Experimental results show epitaxy recipe plays an important role to wafer alignment. Low growth rate with good performance conformity epitaxy lead to alignment target avoid washout, pattern shift and distortion. All the results (signal monitor and film character) combined with NIKON's stepper standard laser scanning alignment system will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Practical issues relating to soil column chromatography for sorption parameter determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Erping; Schmidt, Torsten C; Haderlein, Stefan B

    2010-08-01

    Determination of sorption distribution coefficients (K(d)) of organic compounds by a dynamic soil column chromatography (SCC) method was developed and validated. Eurosoil 4, quartz, and alumina were chosen as exemplary packing materials. Heterocyclic aromatic compounds were selected in the validation of SCC. The prerequisites of SCC with regard to column dimension, packing procedure, and sample injection volume are discussed. Reproducible soil column packing was achieved by addition of a pre-column and an HPLC pump for subsequent compression of the packed material. Various methods to determine retention times from breakthrough curves are discussed and the use of the half mass method is recommended. To dilute soil with inert material can prevent column-clogging and help to complete experiments in a reasonable period of time. For the chosen probe compounds, quartz rather than alumina proved a suitable dilution material. Non-equilibrium issue can be overcome by conducting the experiments under different flowrates and/or performing numerical simulation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ASTRID SFR prototype steam generator design evolution related to safety and cost issues - 15236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woaye Hune, A.; Gerber, A.; Pirus, J.P.; Soucille, L.; Rodriguez, G.; Beauchamp, F.

    2015-01-01

    One option of the ASTRID prototype power conversion systems (PCS) is the steam cycle based on the Rankine cycle, which has been implemented in the past in France in the Phenix and Superphenix Sodium Fast Reactors, and is also being implemented in other SFRs in construction in the world (Russia, India, China). This paper is placed in the context of the Rankine cycle ameliorations and in particular on the Steam Generator (SG), developed by AREVA, from the safety point of view without significant penalty on cost. Therefore significant progresses are expected to reduce sodium/water reaction accident scenario impact as much by prevention as by mitigation. ASTRID project performed a thorough comparison of SG designs with regard to these safety requirements but also including increased sodium/water segregation (inlet and outlet of sodium implemented at the bottom of the SG), material issues and cost considerations. The design is based today on a monolithic SG with alloy 800 helical tubes but equipped with geometric specificities necessary for allowing the use of a single component per secondary loop. (authors)

  19. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R ampersand D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ''strawman'' or ''point-of-departure'' plant layout that resulted from this study

  20. Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreiro, Raquel; Solbes, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology. The results indicate that students have significant difficulties understanding the origin of life on Earth, despite exposure to the topic by way of the assigned textbooks. The students were often unaware of past or present achievements in the search for life within the Solar System and beyond, topics that are far less commonly seen in textbooks. Student questionnaire answers also indicated that students had problems in reasoning and critical thinking when asked for their opinions on issues such as the potential for life beyond Earth, the question of whether UFOs exist, or what our place is in the Universe. Astrobiology might help initiate student awareness as to current thinking on these matters and should be considered for general science education. Key Words: Astrobiology-Students' views-Science education. Astrobiology 17, 91-99.

  1. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Power System Technical Performance Issues Related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    The aim of this TB is to serve as a practical guide for preparing models and performing studies necessary during the assessment of the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with a large share of (long) AC cables. The brochure follows all phases of planning and analysis of a typical underground...

  3. Relative efficacy of drugs: an emerging issue between regulatory agencies and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.

  4. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P.; Zeidan, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  5. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P. [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Modelling and High Performance Computing, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Zeidan, D. [School of Basic Sciences and Humanities, German Jordanian University, Amman (Jordan)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE LICENSED TOURIST GUIDES’ EVOLUTION OF ROMANIA AND CRITICAL ISSUES AFFECTING THEIR ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina TĂTAR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study refers to the licensed tourist guides of Romania during 1998-2016, namely their numerical evolution during this time series as well as an analysis of their numerical evolution by different types of tourist guides, be they national, local or specialized. The statistical analysis showed an increment from 24 tourist guides in the year 1998 to 4,335 licensed tour guides in 2016. The analysis is supplemented by current issues and shortcomings affecting the tourist guiding activity of Romania, as revealed by the tourist guides present at the annual tourist guides’ national conferences, various stringent problems raised and debated within these encounters and highlighted by this study as well as proposals for a better functioning for this segment of tourism entrepreneurs.

  7. Issues encountered in a qualitative secondary analysis of help-seeking in the prodrome to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Brenda M; Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M

    2007-10-01

    Primary data are rarely used explicitly as a source of data outside of the original research purpose for which they were collected. As a result, qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) has been described as an "invisible enterprise" for which there is a "notable silence" amongst the qualitative research community. In this paper, we report on the methodological implications of conducting a secondary analysis of qualitative data focusing on parents' narratives of help-seeking activities in the prodrome to psychosis. We review the literature on QSA, highlighting the main characteristics of the approach, and discuss issues and challenges encountered in conducting a secondary analysis. We conclude with some thoughts on the implications for conducting a QSA in children's mental health services and research.

  8. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 125.II.7 ''Reevaluate Provision to Automatically Isolate Feedwater from Steam Generator During a Line Break''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdekas, D.L.

    1988-09-01

    Generic Issue 125.II.7 addresses the concern related to the automatic isolation of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) to a steam generator with a broken steam or feedwater line. This regulatory analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits associated with the removal of the AFW automatic isolation and concludes that no new regulatory requirements are warranted. 21 refs., 7 tabs

  9. Issues in Athletic Administration: A Content Analysis of Syllabi from Intercollegiate Athletics Graduate Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Eddie; Brown, Alan; Sieben, Nicole P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined courses focused on intercollegiate athletics in sport-related graduate programs (e.g., Sport Leadership, Sport Management, and Athletic/Sport Administration). A content analysis of course syllabi was used to determine the alignment of course scope and content. Analysis included course type (i.e., required or elective),…

  10. Problems and Issues in Higher Education: Perspectives on Iran-United States Educational Relations and Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review evaluates the writings and opinions of Americans and Iranians on relations and influences between institutions of higher education in Iran and the United States before and after the 1979 revolution. The review explores the arrival of modern western education in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey where a traditional education system had prevailed…

  11. A psychology literature study on modality related issues for multimodal presentation in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The motivation of this psychology literature study is to obtain modality related guidelines for real-time information presentation in crisis management environment. The crisis management task is usually companied by time urgency, risk, uncertainty, and high information density. Decision makers

  12. Key Issues in the United States-Iranian Relations 1980 – 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the views of Palmer and Perkins, (2007) “these are times that try men's souls”. The statement corroborates the America relations with Iran since the mid-1980s, when the United States, Israel and other Western Powers started accusing Iran of Uranium enrichment toward pursuing a nuclear weapons capability, a situation ...

  13. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice

  14. ISSUES RELATED TO THE ACCOUNTING TREATMENT OF THE TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS DEPRECIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danciu Radu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of accounting depreciation is an older concern of this study's authors on the incidence over the true and fair view of the earning and the net value of the non- current assets. Proceeding from the consideration that the present depreciation methods, acknowleged by the accounting standards and regulations are not sufficient to render the reality of the irreversible impairment of the fixed assets nor that of the material and immaterial investment recovery we performed a research on the indicators reported by 20 companies in Cluj county and we applied a questionnaire to each entity on the depreciation methods used, their incidence on the true and fair view and their proposals for the completion of the depreciation methods. The objective of the research is to identify the most appropriate depreciation methods, truthfully illustrating the effects of the irreversible impairment on the net asset and on the earning, to introduce the excluded assests in the cathegory of the non-current assets ( like property and plant, goodwill, intangible assets created with ones own strengths and the enforcement of appropriate treatments to the revaluation differences and their own overhead investments. The International Accounting Standard IAS 16 - Property, plant and equipment refers to three depreciation methods: the straightline method, the diminishing balance method and the technical depreciation method (units of production method. In Romania only two of these methods are accepted: the straightline method, the diminishing balance method and the accelerated method was additionally instilled, which is used internationally in exceptional situations and not currently. The results of the research led us to the following conclusions: - for the depreciation of the machinery, facilities and technological equipments it is recommended to use the technical depreciation method or the units of production method; -taking into consideration the financial conception on

  15. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  16. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  17. A review of health, planning, insurance and property value issues related to active solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, R.; Spencer, L.; Digby, G.; Battye, L.

    1996-01-01

    The research reported here considers the potential health risks, local authority planning implications, insurance and property value aspects of solar water heating systems. The United Kingdom market for this technology is also discussed. Methodologies employed, including literature reviews, telephone and postal survey and re-analysis of a 1995 survey, are explained. No major problems are identified in any of the target areas although recommendations for water temperature management and coordinated local authority policies on renewable energy are given. (UK)

  18. An analysis on the issues of the rights of spouses in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zawawi Bin Abu Bakar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze problems regarding mutual rights of Muslims married couple in Malaysia. It has drawn the attention of many researchers to carry out studies on this issue since there have been accusations and complaints on the implementation of the Islamic Family Law (IFL by the Syariah Court, which is said to have discriminated the wife/women of their rights. The qualitative approach research employed interviews and content analysis as method of study on the Islamic Family Law as well as on the documented cases. The results of the research showed that among the most disputable cases were matters related to polygamy, fasakh, jointly acquired property and children custodian. Conversely, all data were analyzed by using the qualitative data analysis, concluded that the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia has infact implemented the concept of equality.

  19. Fundamental Issues Related to the Origin of Melatonin and Melatonin Isomers during Evolution: Relation to Their Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Xian Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin and melatonin isomers exist and/or coexist in living organisms including yeasts, bacteria and plants. The levels of melatonin isomers are significantly higher than that of melatonin in some plants and in several fermented products such as in wine and bread. Currently, there are no reports documenting the presence of melatonin isomers in vertebrates. From an evolutionary point of view, it is unlikely that melatonin isomers do not exist in vertebrates. On the other hand, large quantities of the microbial flora exist in the gut of the vertebrates. These microorganisms frequently exchange materials with the host. Melatonin isomers, which are produced by these organisms inevitably enter the host’s system. The origins of melatonin and its isomers can be traced back to photosynthetic bacteria and other primitive unicellular organisms. Since some of these bacteria are believed to be the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts these cellular organelles may be the primary sites of melatonin production in animals or in plants, respectively. Phylogenic analysis based on its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT, indicates its multiple origins during evolution. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin and its isomer are also present in the domain of archaea, which perhaps require these molecules to protect them against hostile environments including extremely high or low temperature. Evidence indicates that the initial and primary function of melatonin and its isomers was to serve as the first-line of defence against oxidative stress and all other functions were acquired during evolution either by the process of adoption or by the extension of its antioxidative capacity.

  20. Combining MCDA and risk analysis: dealing with scaling issues in the multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Rob; Salling, Kim Bang

    the progression factor 2 is used for calculating scores of alternatives and √2 for calculation of criteria weights when transforming the verbal judgments stemming from pair wise comparisons. However, depending on the decision context, the decision-makers aversion towards risk, etc., it is most likely......This paper proposes a new decision support system (DSS) for applying risk analysis and stochastic simulation to the multiplicative AHP in order to deal with issues concerning the progression factors. The multiplicative AHP makes use of direct rating on a logarithmic scale, and for this purpose...