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Sample records for analysis instruments add

  1. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  2. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  3. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  4. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  5. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in Assessing Psychopathology in Individuals with Mental Retardation: Between and within Instrument Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, William F.; Passmore, Corie E.; Sewell, Hollie M.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 58 adults with mental retardation and mental disorders found few correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD). The major exception was the Mania scale of the MMPI, which correlated moderately well with the ADD Schizophrenia and Dementia scales. (Contains…

  6. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  7. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  8. MetaEasy: A Meta-Analysis Add-In for Microsoft Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kontopantelis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines or integrates the results ofseveral independent clinical trials considered by the analyst to be `combinable' (Huque1988. However, completeness and user-friendliness are uncommon both in specialisedmeta-analysis software packages and in mainstream statistical packages that have to relyon user-written commands. We implemented the meta-analysis methodology in an Mi-crosoft Excel add-in which is freely available and incorporates more meta-analysis models(including the iterative maximum likelihood and prole likelihood than are usually avail-able, while paying particular attention to the user-friendliness of the package.

  9. A Mainstreaming: Analysis of a Policy Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Charlotte; Jacquot, Sophie; Le Galès, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In the world of public policy, waves of innovations and new policy developments are usually followed by movements of rationalisation. Most policy domains, in the EU as elsewhere, progressively become institutionalised, a sedimentation of institutions and policy instruments progressively creating a mille feuilles within which contradictions take place, hence the drive in due course either to add another layer, to change the institution or to create new instruments to rationalise existing on...

  10. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in assessing psychopathology in individuals with mental retardation : between and within instrument associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDaniel, WF; Passmore, CE; Sewell, HM

    2003-01-01

    An abbreviated version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the MMPI-168(L), modified for use with clients who have moderate or mild mental retardation, was administered to 58 clients, most of whom had co-existing dual psychiatric diagnoses. Another recently developed instrument, the

  11. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  12. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  13. Analysis of instrumentation technology for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary that development requirements, techniques to be developed, and development tasks and approach are established to develop the SMART instrumentation system. It is important to establish the development strategies for input for developing SMART instrumentation system. To meet above needs, the industry general and nuclear instrumentation techniques were analyzed and reviewed, respectively, based on the classification of instrumentation to analyze the industrial instrumentation techniques, and analysis results which described the inherent merits and demerits of each technique can be used for inputs to select the instruments for SMART. For the instrumentation techniques for nuclear environments, the major instrumentation techniques were reviewed, and the instrumentation system were established. The following development approaches were established based on the development requirements and the analysis results of research and development trends of industrial and nuclear instrumentation techniques. (author). 90 refs., 38 tabs., 33 figs

  14. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. PMID:20176408

  15. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface.

  16. LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  18. Instrumented DMT: review and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hao; Haegeman, Wim; Peiffer, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of the Marchetti DMT, instrumented DMTs have been fabricated and investigated for different purposes such as automatic data acquisition, better understanding of the standard Marchetti DMT, dealing with difficult soils or achieving soil stiffness at additional strain levels. In this article, the modification to the displacement measurement and pore-pressure system are reviewed, and a quantitative research on pressure-displacement curves and unload-reload modulus is prese...

  19. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  20. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  1. Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes

  2. Surveillance of nuclear instruments by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron noise analysis allows the surveillance of nuclear instruments. The method consists in the calculation of an indicator of detector good operating by a signal analysis technique. A change of this indicator shows a degradation of the static and dynamic detector behaviour. Examples of applications in nuclear plants are given

  3. Survivorship analysis of pedicle spinal instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, P C; Weiland, D J; Carlow, J J

    1991-08-01

    Between 1985 and 1989, the senior author performed 120 consecutive pedicle instrumentation cases--78 Steffee (VSP) procedures and 42 procedures using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Posterolateral or posterior fusions using autogenous iliac bone graft were performed across the instrumented vertebrae in all cases. Survivorship analysis was used to calculate a predicted cumulative rate of success for this series of patients over 10 years postoperative follow-up. The criteria of failure of pedicular instrumentation or "death" of an implant were defined as 1) screw bending, 2) screw breakage, 3) infection, 4) loosening of implants, 5) any rod or plate hardware problems, or 6) removal of hardware due to a neurologic complication. Out of 526 pedicle screws (175 Cotrel-Dubousset screws, 351 VSP screws) there were 22 problem screws (22/526 = 4.18%). Six screws had bent, none were infected, 16 screws had broken, and none were loose. The 22 problem screw events occurred in 12 patients. In seven patients, the instrumentation failure was an incidental radiographic finding, in that patients had a solid posterolateral fusion. The remaining five patients had screw breakage in association with a pseudarthrosis. Life table calculations predicted the survivorship of instrumentation without complications would be 80% at 10 years postoperative follow-up. Actuarial analysis predicted the survivorship of solid posterolateral fusion at 90% at 10 years follow-up. This survivorship rate is similar to those predicted at 10 years follow-up for other more widely used orthopedic surgical implants such as total hip arthroplasty components.

  4. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  5. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  6. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents. PMID:25992312

  7. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents.

  8. New Developments at NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John; Herring, Ellen L.; Brown, Tammy L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) has developed new methods to provide an instrument study in one week's engineering time. The final product is recorded in oral presentations, models and the analyses which underlie the models.

  9. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  10. Confirmation of Down syndrome critical region by FISH analysis in a patient with add(21)(p11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Naomichi; Niikawa, Norio [Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Mikawa, Makoto [Kitami Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-04

    We have studied a patient with clinical Down syndrome (DS) who has a mosaic 46, XX/46, XX, 21p+ karyotype. The patient was born at 39 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 3,025 g to healthy parents. At age 2 months, she was diagnosed clinically to have DS; she had flat facies, upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, telecanthus, flat nasal bridge, abnormal dentition, malformed ears, short neck, short fingers, clinodactyly with single flexion crease of the fifth fingers, hyperextension of joints, pes planus, distal axial triradii, and bilateral tibial arch patterns. Chromosome analysis showed mosaicism consisting of a normal 46,XX cell line and a line with a 21p+ chromosome, the final karyotype being mos46,XX[57]/46,XX,add(21)(p11)[43]. Although the origin of an additional segment on chromosome 21 was not identified with conventional banding analyses, it was suspected to represent partial trisomy 21 on the basis of clinical manifestations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  11. New Developments at NASA's Instrument Synthesis & Analysis Laboratory (ISAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John; Brown, Tammy L.; Herring, Ellen L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the work of NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL). The work of the ISAL has substantially reduced the time required to develop an instrument concept. The document reviews the design process in detail and planned interaction with the end user of the instrument.

  12. Combining Two Large MRI Data Sets (AddNeuroMed and ADNI) Using Multivariate Data Analysis to Distinguish between Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Muehlboeck, J.-Sebastian;

    volume and mean cortical thickness. Conclusions: Multivariate data analysis is a powerful tool for distinguishing between different patient groups. The AddNeuroMed, ADNI and combined cohorts showed similar patterns of atrophy and the predictive power was very similar. This demonstrates that the methods...

  13. Hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument uses a number-oriented microprocessor sequenced by a single component microprocessor. The incorporation of new CMOS integrated circuits makes possible complex analysis in a small, easily operated, battery-powered unit. The instrument solves an immediate problem with threshold setting of plastic scintillators and promises numerous other applications

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  15. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  16. Analysis of cryptocurrencies as standard financial instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes cryptocurrencies as financial instruments. Firstly, we introduced the main features of cryptocurrencies and summarized the brief history. We found out that price of the most famous cryptocurrency Bitcoin follows the hypothesis of efficient markets and it immediately react on publicly announce information. Furthermore, Bitcoin can be seen as standard economic good that is priced by interaction of supply and demand on the market. These factors can be driven by macro financia...

  17. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  18. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  19. Qualitative Analysis after Instrumentation Using Manual Stainless Steel and Rotary Nickel Titanium Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key Fabiano Souza PEREIRA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare qualitatively the instrumentation (areastouched by the endodontic instruments with manual stainless steeland rotary nickel titanium files.Method: 32 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars with a singlecanal and a single apical foramen were examined in vitro. Thecanals were instrumented by the crown-down technique using Ktypefiles and taper .04 Profile files, obtaining a surgical diametercorresponding to a #30 instrument. Next, impression material wasinjected into the root canals. After material setting, the teeth weredecalcified to obtain canal impression. To evaluate the quality ofroot canal instrumentation, the images of the impressions weretransmitted to a 29-inch tv using a video camera coupled to anoperative microscope at ×20 magnification and moderate lightintensity. The examined surfaces were classified as EXCELLENT(smooth surfaces indicating that the walls were touched by theinstrument, GOOD (surfaces with irregularities and REGULAR(surfaces with irregularities, presence of anatomic complexities,like isthmuses, accessory canals, delta, etc.Results: The analysis of the root thirds and surfaces showed apredominance of the REGULAR classification of instrumentationfor both types of instruments. The worst results were found on thepalatal surface and apical third.Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference(p>0.05 between the manual stainless steel and rotary nickeltitanium instrumentation techniques when the impressions of theroot thirds and surfaces were analyzed qualitatively.

  20. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  2. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; Wang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  3. Analysis of Performance Limitations in Fiber Bragg Grating Based Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer due to Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahiuddin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— Wavelength  division  multiplexing  (WDM optical networks  are  attracting  more  and  more attention because of their ability to provide  increased capacity and  flexibility. Optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM  becomes  a  key  component  to  add  or  drop wavelengths  in  high  bit  rate  optical  networks. Crosstalk  in OADM  often degrades  the performance of WDM  system  drastically.  In  this  article,  we  have developed  analytical model  for  low  crosstalk  of  fiber Bragg  grating  based  OADM  with  isolator. We  have also  derived  analytical  expressions  for  relative intensity noise (RIN, bit error rate (BER and power penalty to evaluate the performance limitations of this OADM. Results show that crosstalk, RIN and BER of the  proposed  OADM  are significantly  lower  and provide better performance than the existing OADMs.

  4. THEORY AND APPLICATION OF WAVELET ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT LIBRARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Lin; QIN Shuren; LIU Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Some new theory and algorithms on wavelet analysis are proposed, including continuous wavelet transform (CWT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet package transform (WPT),wavelet denosing and mother wavelet selection, etc. Using the component-based hierarchy mode, the platform for virtual instrument (Ⅵ) is constructed, and the functions such as data sampling, data analysis and data present, etc are provided. Subsequently, the wavelet analysis library is designed and developed. The library consists of expert system, experienced database, development platform and abundant wavelet analysis functional module, which together implement general and special wavelet analysis in the field of mechanical engineering, energy source, transportation and biomedicine, etc.Finally, the wavelet analysis virtual instrument library is applied to detect fault called engine knock.Experimental result indicates that the wavelet analysis virtual instrument library can efficiently solve the engineering problem such as detecting engine knock.

  5. Development of intelligent system for a thermal analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key techniques for the intelligent analysis instrument developed are proposed. Based on the technique of virtual instrumentation, the intelligent PID control algorithm to control the temperature of thermal analysis instrument is described. The dynamic character and the robust performance of traditional PID controls are improved through the dynamic gain factor, temperature rate change factor, the forecast factor, and the temperature correction factor is introduced. Using the graphic development environment of LabVIEW, the design of system modularization and the graphic display are implemented. By means of multiple mathematical modules, intelligent data processing is realized

  6. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  7. Instrument and data analysis challenges for imaging spectropolarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, C

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of solar telescopes will enable us to resolve the fundamental scales of the solar atmosphere, i.e., the pressure scale height and the photon mean free path. High-resolution observations of small-scale structures with sizes down to 50 km require complex post-focus instruments, which employ adaptive optics (AO) and benefit from advanced image restoration techniques. The GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer (GFPI) will serve as an example of such an instrument to illustrate the challenges that are to be expected in instrumentation and data analysis with the next generation of solar telescopes.

  8. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Incorporating Basic Optical Microscopy in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach to incorporating basic optical microscopy in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is described. Attaching a miniature CCD spectrometer to the video port of a standard compound microscope yields a visible microspectrophotometer suitable for student investigations of fundamental spectrometry concepts,…

  10. Malaysian English: An Instrumental Analysis of Vowel Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Stefanie; Don, Zuraidah Mohd.; Knowles, Gerald; Tang, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an instrumental analysis of English vowel monophthongs produced by 47 female Malaysian speakers. The focus is on the distribution of Malaysian English vowels in the vowel space, and the extent to which there is phonetic contrast between traditionally paired vowels. The results indicate that, like neighbouring varieties of English,…

  11. US adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chan Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample. Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO. Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS. Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9. Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point.

  12. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the basic mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems and provides a basic description of the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by signal averaging and linear filtering. The text also demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning systems design, and illustrates their use in isolation and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and numerous biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It examines the properties of the ideal op amp and applies this model to the analysis of various circuits

  13. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  14. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucia de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.

  15. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  16. Combined Raman/Infrared Reflectance Instrument for In Situ Mineral Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary...

  17. Remote Access to Instrumental Analysis for Distance Education in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Kennepohl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote access to experiments offers distance educators another tool to integrate a strong laboratory component within a science course. Since virtually all modern chemical instrumental analysis in industry now use devices operated by a computer interface, remote control of instrumentation is not only relatively facile, it enhances students’ opportunity to learn the subject matter and be exposed to “real world” contents. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT and Athabasca University are developing teaching laboratories based on the control of analytical instruments in real-time via an Internet connection. Students perform real-time analysis using equipment, methods, and skills that are common to modern analytical laboratories (or sophisticated teaching laboratories. Students obtain real results using real substances to arrive at real conclusions, just as they would if they were in a physical laboratory with the equipment; this approach allows students to access to conduct instrumental science experiments, thus providing them with an advantageous route to upgrade their laboratory skills while learning at a distance.

  18. Instrumentation for high-efficiency, high-sensitivity actinide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 3-year project. We have developed a high-efficiency thermal ionization source that provides one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sample utilization efficiency in comparison with the traditional filament-type ion source currently used in thermal ionization mass spectrometry. This improved sample utilization efficiency results in a proportional increase in sample throughput and proportional decrease in analysis time. Coupling this source with a quadrupole mass spectrometer results in an instrument system for high-efficiency actinide analysis and other applications. In addition to its high efficiency, the sample used in this source can be much smaller than that in previous tube-type sources. The compact structure of the cavity makes it more applicable to any type of mass spectrometer and the whole instrument is small and transportable

  19. The proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize Mississippi State University (MSU) to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL). DOE grant funds are available to the University for the limited purpose of performing preliminary studies, including analysis necessary to conduct this environmental assessment. The proposed facility would be located in the Mississippi Research and Technology Park, adjacent to the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station campus in Starkville, Mississippi. Total project cost is estimated at $7,953,600. This proposed laboratory would be designed to conduct research into combustion devices related to waste management and environmental restoration that is of importance to industry and government. The proposed facility`s role would be to develop diagnostic instrumentation capabilities in the area of combustion and related processes.

  20. Multielement determination in soil extracts by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest Swiss soils from 39 locations, each sampled at three depths, were extracted with a buffered solution of pH 4.65 containing EDTA. Nearly 30 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained are discussed in terms of efficiency of the extractant, precision and accuracy. Summarized results are presented for the quantity fractions of the extracted elements. (author) 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. RESEARCH OF WAVELET TRANSFORM INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR SIGNAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After brief describing the principle of wavelet transform (WT) of signals, a new signals analysis system based on wavelet transform is introduced. The design and development of the instrument of wavelet transform are described. A number of practical uses of this system demonstrate that wavelet transform system is specially functional in identifying and processing impulse, singular and nonsmooth signals,so that it should be evaluated the most advanced signal analyzing system.

  2. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...... reference materials as well as fertilizer materials are compared by literature value and spectrophotometric measurements, respectively. In both cases good agreement is obtained....

  3. Sneak circuit analysis of instrumentation and control systems. [technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, J. P.; Williams, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The evolvement and implementation is presented of a systematic means for detecting the sneak prone designs of an electrical system which could result in such unplanned modes so that they can be prevented prior to occurrence. Sneak circuit analysis is shown to be a formalized approach based upon topological techniques. The trees employed are produced from manufacturing detail data processed by a computer to orderly completion. The analysis techniques applied on a variety of NASA programs are shown to be particularly applicable to industrial instrumentation and control systems.

  4. Instrument for Analysis of Organic Compounds on Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, Riley M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Extraterrestrial Bodies using In Situ Resources (ISEE). Specifically, ISEE will extract and characterize organic compounds from regolith which is found on the surface of other planets or asteroids. The techniques this instrument will use are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). ISEE aligns with NASA's goal to expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunities in space in addition to supporting NASA's aim to search for life elsewhere by characterizing organic compounds. The outcome of this project will be conceptual designs of 2 components of the ISEE instrument as well as the completion of proof-of-concept extraction experiments to demonstrate the capabilities of SFE. The first conceptual design is a pressure vessel to be used for the extraction of the organic compounds from the regolith. This includes a comparison of different materials, geometry's, and a proposition of how to insert the regolith into the vessel. The second conceptual design identifies commercially available fluid pumps based on the requirements needed to generate supercritical CO2. The proof-of-concept extraction results show the percent mass lost during standard solvent extractions of regolith with organic compounds. This data will be compared to SFE results to demonstrate the capabilities of ISEE's approach.

  5. Job/task analysis for I ampersand C [Instrumentation and Controls] instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs

  6. Economists opinions on environmental policy instruments: analysis of a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, B.S.; Schneider, F.; Pommerehne, W.W.

    1985-03-01

    Incentive instruments (effluent charges) are theoretically expected to be preferred to direct regulations (individual emission ceilings) by university-employed, theoretically inclined politically right-wing, professional economists living in a market-oriented country, ceteris paribus. Public sector employed, politically left-wing, professional economists living in a country with a long tradition of government involvement prefer the regulatory approach, ceteris paribus. These theoretical hypotheses tend to be supported by a bivariate probit analysis based on a survey of more than 1400 economists in five countries. 22 references, 4 tables.

  7. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  8. Advanced concepts for gamma ray isotopic analysis and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, W. M.; Carlson, J. B.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing actinide isotopic analysis technologies in response to needs that address issues of flexibility of analysis, robustness of analysis, ease-of-use, automation and portability. Recent developments such as the Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS), begin to address these issues. We are continuing to develop enhancements on this and other instruments that improve ease-of-use, automation and portability. Requests to analyze samples with unusual isotopics, contamination, or containers have made us aware of the need for more flexible and robust analysis. We have modified the MGA program to extend its plutonium isotopic analysis capability to samples with greater Am-241 content or U isotopics. We are looking at methods for dealing with tantalum or lead contamination and contamination with high-energy gamma emitters, such as U-233. We are looking at ways to allow the program to use additional information about the sample to further extend the domain of analyzable samples. These unusual analyses will come from the domain of samples that need to be measured because of complex reconfiguration or environmental cleanup.

  9. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris R.; Cabane, M.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, L.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatilesextracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantiallyto the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essentialstep in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite locatedin the interior of MSLs Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole massspectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupledthrough solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on thesame samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyzevolatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In additionto measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conducta sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction fromsieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rovers roboticarm.

  10. Fewer adults add salt at the table after initiation of a national salt campaign in the UK: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Edwards, Phil; Shankar, Bhavani; Dangour, Alan D

    2013-08-28

    In 2003, the UK Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health began attempts to reduce national salt intakes via reformulation of processed foods and a consumer awareness campaign on the negative impacts of salt on health. The present study uses large nationally representative samples of households in England to assess whether discretionary salt use was affected by the national salt reduction campaign. Large cross-sectional datasets from the Health Survey for England were used to analyse trends in adults adding salt at the table between 1997 and 2007. Since 1997, there has been a steady decline in salt use at the table. Ordinal logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, total household income, region, ethnicity and background trends revealed that the reduction in salt use was significantly greater after the campaign (OR 0·58; 95% CI 0·54, 0·63). Women (OR 0·71; 95% CI 0·68, 0·74), non-white ethnic groups (OR 0·69; 95% CI 0·62, 0·77), high-income households (OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·69, 0·82), middle-income households (OR 0·79; 95% CI 0·75, 0·84) and households in central (OR 0·90; 95% CI 0·84, 0·98) or the south of England (OR 0·82; 95% CI 0·77, 0·88) were less likely to add salt at the table. The results extend previous evidence of a beneficial response to the salt campaign by demonstrating the effect on salt use at the table. Future programmatic and research efforts may benefit from targeting specific population groups and improving the evidence base for evaluating the impact of the campaign.

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of fly ash, aerosols and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of coal, slag, emissions retained on the separating devices, fly ash, aerosols and hair taken in the area of coal-fired power plant were analyzed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. 13 to 23 elements were determined in the samples. The data obtained for emissions and aerosols were further evaluated by calculation of enrichment factors, correlation coefficients and by the ratio matching method. The concentrations of elements determined in the hair of the exposed group were compared with data of control and so called ''out control'' groups as well as with recent data found for hair in other countries. It can be seen from the results that arsenic is the most serious pollutant in the area. (author)

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of the hair of metallurgical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair samples were collected from 20 metallurgical workers (10 males and 10 females) and from 59 control subjects (32 males and 27 females), whose jobs do not indicate a specific occupational exposure. The concentrations of ten minor and trace elements (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The statistical data distributions, the sex and age influences in these elemental concentrations and the average values obtained for the control group were compared with published data. The effect of occupational exposure to the metallic elements was reflected in elemental compositon of hair by significant higher concentration levels of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, V and Zn in the hair of the exposed group, when compared with the control group. (author)

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sectioned hair strands for arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, V.P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a valuable and proven method for the quantitative analysis of sectioned human head hair specimens for arsenic - and, if arsenic is found to be present at high concentrations, the approximate times when it was ingested. Reactor-flux thermal-neutron activation of the hair samples produces 26.3-h {sup 76}As, which is then detected by germanium gamma-ray spectrometry, measuring the 559.1-keV gamma-ray peak of {sup 76}As. Even normal levels of arsenic in hair, in the range of <1 ppm up to a few parts per million of arsenic can be measured - and the far higher levels associated with large internal doses of arsenic, levels approaching or exceeding 100 ppm arsenic, are readily and accurately measurable. However, all phases of forensic investigations of possible chronic (or in some cases, acute) arsenic poisoning are important, i.e., not just the analysis phase. All of these phases are discussed in this paper, based on the author`s experience and the experience of others, in criminal cases. Cases of chronic arsenic poisoning often reveal a series of two to four doses, perhaps a few months apart, with increasing doses.

  14. Structural optimization of precision instruments through modal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the dynamic stability of precision instruments during the design process,a compositive design method based on modal analysis of structure is proposed.With uniform boundary conditions and material characters,the results of Finite Element Analysis(FEA)vary with models.It should be checked whether the model is correctly simplified.Modal experiments can be used for such purpose.The method combines the high efficiency and agility of FEA with the reliability and accuracy of experiments,and avoids the drawbacks of FEA or experiments,such as uncertainty of FEA and high cost of experiments.Taking rotor-frame structure as an example,this method is applied as follows: First the modal characters of structure are analyzed with FEA,and then the natural frequencies of the structure are tested by experiments to check the reliability of FEA method,and finally the design scheme is optimized by modifying structure parameters with confirmed FEA.

  15. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  16. Possible Detection of Perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with Previous Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalex, Rafael; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; Ming, Doug; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; McAdam, Amy; Stern, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul; Conrad, Pamela; Martin-Torres, Francisco; Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Grotzinger, John

    2013-01-01

    The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic [1]. Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C [1]. When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane [2]. These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants [3]. Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests <0.1 percent perchlorate and ppm levels of organic carbon at landing site 1 and 2 [2]. The suggestion of perchlorate in the Viking sites [2] has been challenged on the grounds that the detected compounds (CH3Cl and CH2Cl2) were carried from Earth [4]. Recently the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. The samples analyzed were portioned from the fifth scoop at this location. The samples were heated to 835C at 35C/min with a He flow. The SAM QMS detected a major oxygen release (300-500C) [5], coupled with the release of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument [6]. Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of

  17. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G. (National Lab. for Industrial Technology and Engineering, Scavem (Portugal))

    1992-01-01

    The application of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to the on-line characterization of raw materials is progressively gaining general acceptance as a technically and economically adequate method for solving process control-related problems in different industry branches, ranging from the efficient use of energy and materials to the limitation of environmental impacts. The Nuclear Instrumentation Group at Portugal's National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering is engaged in the design optimization of a prototype industrial PGNAA unit for on-line quality control of steam coal. To this end, an experimental setup was put together while a series of computer simulation studies was carried out using the MCNP code. In the simulation, a cube-shaped coal volume 30 cm in side was used as the sample. The neutron source and the gamma-ray detector were located at the center of opposite cube faces. Computer simulation runs were carried out for Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources with coal samples of four different chemical compositions and densities ranging from 0.8 to 1.6.

  18. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to the on-line characterization of raw materials is progressively gaining general acceptance as a technically and economically adequate method for solving process control-related problems in different industry branches, ranging from the efficient use of energy and materials to the limitation of environmental impacts. The Nuclear Instrumentation Group at Portugal's National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering is engaged in the design optimization of a prototype industrial PGNAA unit for on-line quality control of steam coal. To this end, an experimental setup was put together while a series of computer simulation studies was carried out using the MCNP code. In the simulation, a cube-shaped coal volume 30 cm in side was used as the sample. The neutron source and the gamma-ray detector were located at the center of opposite cube faces. Computer simulation runs were carried out for Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources with coal samples of four different chemical compositions and densities ranging from 0.8 to 1.6

  19. Residual Chromium in Leather by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Okoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most tanning processes employ the use of chromium sulphate. For chromium tanned leather, finished products may contain high amount of residual chromium. This may pose some health hazards, since chromium is known to be toxic at elevated concentration. This justifies the need for the study. Approach: Various samples of leather were collected from a tannery, a leather crafts market, a leather dump site and from local tanners all in Kano, Nigeria in 2009. The samples were irradiated for 6 h in the inner site of the Nigerian Research Reactor (NIRR-1 at a flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 sec-1. Results: After evaluating the spectrum, the mean results for chromium in the samples were determined as 2.33±0.3, 2.23±0.3 and 2.93±0.4% for samples from the tannery, leather crafts market and leather dump sites respectively. Chromium concentration in samples collected from local tanners who use tannins from Acacia nilotica as tanning agent was below the detection limit of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique used in the study. Conclusion: Although, the concentrations of chromium in the analysed samples were not much higher than what were obtained in literature, they may be enough to sensitize the population that is allergic to chromium.

  20. PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, J.; Hutchinson, P.; Townsend, T.; Whitaker, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of PV systems at the main test site in Davis, California: new module technologies fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays and more mature technologies fielded as 70- to 500-kW turnkey Utility-Scale (US) systems. PVUSA members have also installed systems in their service areas. Designed appropriately, data acquisition systems (DASs) can be a convenient and reliable means of assessing system performance, value, and health. Improperly designed, they can be complicated, difficult to use and maintain, and provide data of questionable validity. This report documents PVUSA PV system instrumentation and data analysis techniques and lessons learned. The report is intended to assist utility engineers, PV system designers, and project managers in establishing an objective, then, through a logical series of topics, facilitate selection and design of a DAS to meet the objective. Report sections include Performance Reporting Objectives (including operational versus research DAS), Recommended Measurements, Measurement Techniques, Calibration Issues, and Data Processing and Analysis Techniques. Conclusions and recommendations based on the several years of operation and performance monitoring are offered. This report is one in a series of 1994--1995 PVUSA reports documenting PVUSA lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California. Other topical reports address: five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid support PV plant benefits; construction and safety experience in installing and operating PV systems; balance-of-system design and costs; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  1. Optical configuration and analysis of the AMBER/VLTI instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Robbe-Dubois, S; Petrov, R G; Lisi, F; Beckmann, U; Antonelli, P; Bresson, Y; Martinot-Lagarde, G; Roussel, A; Salinari, P; Vannier, M; Chelli, A; Dugué, M; Duvert, G; Gennari, S; Gluck, L; Kern, P; LeCoarer, E; Malbet, F; Millour, F; Perraut, K; Puget, P; Rantakyro, F; Tatulli, E; Weigelt, G; Zins, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design goals and engineering efforts that led to the realization of AMBER (Astronomical Multi BEam combineR) and to the achievement of its present performance. On the basis of the general instrumental concept, AMBER was decomposed into modules whose functions and detailed characteristics are given. Emphasis is put on the spatial filtering system, a key element of the instrument. We established a budget for transmission and contrast degradation through the different modules, and made the detailed optical design. The latter confirmed the overall performance of the instrument and defined the exact implementation of the AMBER optics. The performance was assessed with laboratory measurements and commissionings at the VLTI, in terms of spectral coverage and resolution, instrumental contrast higher than 0.80, minimum magnitude of 11 in K, absolute visibility accuracy of 1%, and differential phase stability of 1E-3 rad over one minute.

  2. Use of a Microsoft Excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance by a two-compartment model analysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Sarah M L; Sturgess, Christopher P; Dunning, Mark D; Neiger, Reto

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of renal function by means of plasma clearance of a suitable marker has become standard procedure for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sinistrin, a polyfructan solely cleared by the kidney, is often used for this purpose. Pharmacokinetic modeling using adequate software is necessary to calculate disappearance rate and half-life of sinistrin. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of a Microsoft excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance, as well as additional pharmacokinetic parameters such as transfer rates (k), half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vss) for sinistrin in dogs with varying degrees of renal function.

  3. Influence of X-ray Powder Diffraction Instrument Error on Crystalline Structure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qing-Ming; YU Jian-Chang; WANG Yun-Min; WU Wan-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Standard mica was used to correct the X-ray powder diffraction instrument error and mathematic methods were employed to find the correction equation. By analyzing mullite sample and comparing the corrected and uncorrected analysis results we found the former is obviously more reasonable. So the conclusion is that the X-ray powder diffraction instrument error greatly affects the crystalline structure analysis, and the above method is convenient and effective for the correction of instrument error.

  4. Analysis of Transients for Brass Instruments Under Playing Conditions Using Multiple Microphones

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Jonathan; LOGIE, Shona; Chick, John; Smith, Richard; Campbell, Murray

    2010-01-01

    National audience This work investigates the development of a novel multiple microphone technique for analysis of the acoustical behaviour of brass instruments under playing conditions. In the current work, multiple microphones are deployed within a cylindrical section of the bore of a brass instrument. The technique allows for measurement of the instrument during playing, or while excited by a loudspeaker signal, and allows for a more robust analysis of the transfer of acoustic energy bet...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Instruments Measuring Time Varying Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Carvalho, Frederico Marques

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of commercial class A and class S power quality (PQ) instruments when measuring time-varying harmonics. By using a high precision programmable voltage and current source, two meters from different manufacturers are analyzed and compared. Three-phase voltage signals are applied to PQ instruments, considering 3 situations of time-varying harmonic distortions, whose harmonic distortion values are in accordance with typical values found in power systems. This work is relevant considering that international standardization documents do not pay much attention to this aspect of harmonic distortion.

  6. The Instrument Synthesis for Analysis Laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the Instrument Synthesis and Analysis laboratory (ISAL) are to: 1) Provide a rapid and sustainable instrument development environment with clear efficient processes and tools, re-usable models and skilled engineers. 2) Provide a capability for quick and efficient trade studies of instrument architectures and concepts. 3) Streamline and optimize instrument systems design for the entire life cycle, including cost and technology assessment. 4) Provide detailed multi-disciplinary modeling and analysis for phase C/D design validation and for operational investigations.

  7. The Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course: A Survey of Available Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a survey in which 110 universities were selected to respond to questions regarding approximate age and cost of the instruments used in three major areas: separations, spectroscopy, and electroanalysis. Respondents (N=41) also indicated which pieces of equipment were used in undergraduate courses or were used for research. (CS)

  8. Abstracts from the conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains abstracts of 19 contributions presented at the conference, all of which fall within the INIS subject scope. The coverage of the conference was very wide, from the determination of vanadium in biological material through instrumental problems of gamma spectrometry through the determination of radioactive impurities to industrial problems such as the evaluation of the effect of surface finishing of internal combustion engines surface-activated by charged particles. (P.A.)

  9. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  10. Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-07-01

    That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy.

  11. A Multi-Instrument Analysis of Sunspot Umbrae

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Fraser T; Livingston, William C

    2015-01-01

    The recent solar minimum and rise phase of solar cycle 24 have been unlike any period since the early 1900s. This article examines some of the properties of sunspot umbrae over the last 17 years with three different instruments on the ground and in space: MDI, HMI and BABO. The distribution of magnetic fields and their evolution over time is shown and reveals that the field distribution in cycle 24 is fundamentally different from that in cycle 23. The annual average umbral magnetic field is then examined for the 17 year observation period and shows a small decrease of 375 Gauss in sunspot magnetic fields over the period 1996 to 2013, but the mean intensity of sunspot umbrae does not vary significantly over this time. A possible issue with sample sizes in a previous study is then explored to explain disagreements in data from two of the source instruments. All three instruments show that the relationship between umbral magnetic fields and umbral intensity agrees with past studies in that the umbral intensity d...

  12. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  13. Mass Spectrometry Theatre: A Model for Big-Screen Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Teaching lecture or lab courses in instrumental analysis can be a source of frustration since one can only crowd a small number of students around a single instrument, typically leading to round-robin approaches. Round-robin labs can spread students into multiple labs and limit instructor-student interactions. We discuss "Mass Spectrometry…

  14. Toenail elemental analysis of Korean young adults by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The element contents in toenail clippings of healthy Korean young adults were measured using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. The average contents of elements such as Na, K, Cl, Ca, Fe, Se, and Zn are 449, 474, 1024, 1677, 66, 0.7 and 94 mg/kg in men, whereas those contents in women respectively 332, 476, 836, 1097, 66, 0.8 and 104 mg/kg. The correlation analysis of toenail elements with chronic disease risks showed positive associations between Na and serum HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and negative associations between Se and Hs-CRP, between Zn and hemoglobin level. (author)

  15. Continued Analysis and Restoration of Apollo DTREM Instrument Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    During the years of 1969 to 1972, NASA sent 12 men to walk on the surface of the Moon. On each mission, on the first lunar extra vehicular activity, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) (Apollo 11) or the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) (Apollo 12 - 17). The EASEP was a short-lived package that operated for a few months while the ALSEP contained scientific instruments to collect data on the lunar environment long after the astronauts had left the lunar surface. Part of the package on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 was the Dust, Radiation, Thermal, Engineering Measurement (DTREM), also known as the Lunar Dust Detector. The DTREM was a small fiberglass box that had 3 thermometers and 3 solar cells. The output from the solar cells was used to determine the degradation of the cells from dust, temperature, and radiation on the lunar surface. Over a period of 5-7 years, the DTREM instruments collected data and returned them to Earth through the ALSEP central station housekeeping (Word 33) telemetry stream. The data were in the form of raw digitized telemetry files. The only translated and calibrated data from the instrument that existed were 38 reels of computer printout images archived at the National Space Science Data Center. As part of the lunar data restoration effort, the raw telemetry files from the communications stream have been translated and recalibrated, using the archived microfilm record to determine the correct values in terms of temperature and voltage output. Once they have been properly archived by the Lunar Data Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) the data sets will be released to the scientific community. The DTREM instrument collected data every 54 seconds for 6 years on the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. The immense size of the data set required that a process be created to convert the raw telemetry fires autonomously. Therefore, we have recreated a digital version of the data from Apollo 14 and 15

  16. Analysis of the instrumentation response of Marviken Test T-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marviken Test T-11 was a simulated top discharge depressurization of a saturated water volume. The test data are uniquely by virtue of the large size (420 m/sup 3/) and because of the extensive use of differential pressure (DP) cells located to follow the internal pool swell during the depressurization. These data are analyzed with a simple yet physically realistic level swell model and excellent agreement is found. With a systematic application of this model to instrumentation response, some of the less obvious responses to pool swell become readily apparent

  17. New approach in add-on multi-channel analyser for gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed add-on card for data acquisition from National Instrument has the possibility of being employed in the field of the gamma ray spectrometry as an industrial and teaching tool. The card's technical capability, the operating program designed for gamma spectrometry and results of the system's reliability, dynamic characteristics, limits in data processing and the quality of the obtainable gamma spectra are given. The advantages and deficiencies as well as important features are emphasised when prompt gamma analysis is of interest in industrial applications and educational issues

  18. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  19. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  20. Intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for special nuclear material assay data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detection, Surveillance, Verification, and Recovery Group of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Energy Division/Nuclear Safeguards Programs is now utilizing intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for assay data analysis of special nuclear material. The data acquisition and analysis are enabled by the incorporation of a number-crunching microprocessor sequenced by a single component microcomputer. Microcomputer firmware establishes the capability for processing the computation of several selected functions and also the ability of instrumentation self-diagnostics

  1. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated infrared filters for use at wavelengths greater than or equal to 15 microns. Unlike conventional dielectric filters used at the short wavelengths, ours are made from stacked metal grids, spaced at a very small fraction of the performance wavelengths. The individual lattice layers are gold, the spacers are polyimide, and they are assembled using integrated circuit processing techniques; they resemble some metallic photonic band-gap structures. We simulate the filter performance accurately, including the coupling of the propagating, near-field electromagnetic modes, using computer aided design codes. We find no anomalous absorption. The geometrical parameters of the grids are easily altered in practice, allowing for the production of tuned filters with predictable useful transmission characteristics. Although developed for astronomical instrumentation, the filters are broadly applicable in systems across infrared and terahertz bands.

  2. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  3. Multielement analysis of Nigerian chewing sticks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nigeria, various parts of various species of native plants have long been used for dental hygiene, with reportedly considerable effectiveness. These materials are known as 'chewing sticks'. This study was an effort to ascertain whether any unusual trace element concentrations might be present in Nigerian chewing sticks. Results are presented for 17 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Cs, La, Sm, Au) detected and measured in 12 species of such plants, via instrumental thermal-neutron activation analysis. (author)

  4. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  5. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  6. Development of a Wide-Spectrum Organic Analysis Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In FY’13 we expanded our analysis of samples to include astromaterials and biological materials relevant to international space station (ISS) and human space...

  7. Instrumented joint mobility analysis in traumatic transtibial amputee patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Ida; Medved, Vladimir; KASOVIĆ, Mario; Heimer, Željko; LUŽAR-STIFFLER, VESNA; Pećina, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The presented study reports a quantitative gait analysis and different adaptive strategies evaluation on 12 male adults, war trauma transtibial (TT) amputees, fitted with prostheses. Methods: Gait analysis included kinematics (joint mobility variables) prosthetic and healthy legs in 12 TT amputees and 12 able-bodied persons/individuals. Results: The results disclose asymmetry in gait parameters between the amputated and sound legs, as well as between transtibial amputees and a...

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ayurvedic medicines: Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Vinchurkar, M.S. (Poona Univ., Pune (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-12-01

    Several medicines have been manufactured and prescribed to overcome mineral deficiencies in the human body. Such medicines are mixtures of several components. The present work is undertaken to analyze various Ayurvedic medicines, mainly of herbal origin and used for different purposes, for their elemental contents, by neutron activation analysis. (author).

  9. [MCU selection analysis in portable electronic medical instrument design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxing; Ye, Shuming; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Hang

    2014-05-01

    Around the features of low power and high integration of portable electronic medical equipment design, the primary low power MCU series from the current semiconductor manufacturers were compared. The analysis results showed that the 32-bit MCUs based on the low cost and high energy efficient ARM Cortex-M architectures, have comprehensive advantages on power level, operational performance and integrated peripherals obviously.

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of roots and juice of carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of the determination of the contents of Na, Br, Ca, Ba, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, Sb and Ni. The results of the analysis are in agreement with the usually given concentrations of the elements determined in identical or similar materials. The amount of monitored elements passing from the raw materials into juices was calculated. (J.B.)

  11. Sagittal Plane Analysis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis after VATS (Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery) Anterior Instrumentations

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Jeon, Byoung-Ho; Park, Jin-Oh

    2007-01-01

    Radiographic sagittal plane analysis of VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery) anterior instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This is retrospective study. To report, in details about effects of VATS anterior instrumentation on the sagittal plane. Evaluations of the surgical outcome of scoliosis have primarily studied in coronal plane correction, functional, and cosmetic aspects. Sagittal balance, as well as coronal balance, is important in functional spine. Recently, scoli...

  12. Time series analysis of the response of measurement instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakaki, Dimitra; Polatoglou, Hariton

    2012-01-01

    In this work the significance of treating a set of measurements as a time series is being explored. Time Series Analysis (TSA) techniques, part of the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) approach, can provide much insight regarding the stochastic correlations that are induced on the outcome of an experiment by the measurement system and can provide criteria for the limited use of the classical variance in metrology. Specifically, techniques such as the Lag Plots, Autocorrelation Function, Power Spectral Density and Allan Variance are used to analyze series of sequential measurements, collected at equal time intervals from an electromechanical transducer. These techniques are used in conjunction with power law models of stochastic noise in order to characterize time or frequency regimes for which the usually assumed white noise model is adequate for the description of the measurement system response. However, through the detection of colored noise, usually referred to as flicker noise, which is expected to appear ...

  13. SITAR—a useful instrument for growth curve analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Tim J; Donaldson, Malcolm D C; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    Background Growth curve analysis is a statistical issue in life course epidemiology. Height in puberty involves a growth spurt, the timing and intensity of which varies between individuals. Such data can be summarized with individual Preece–Baines (PB) curves, and their five parameters then related to earlier exposures or later outcomes. But it involves fitting many curves. Methods We present an alternative SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) model, a shape invariant model wit...

  14. LOFT reactor vessel 290/sup 0/ downcomer stalk instrument penetration flange stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finicle, D.P.

    1978-06-06

    The LOFT Reactor Vessel 290/sup 0/ Downcomer Stalk Instrument Penetration Flange Stress Analysis has been completed using normal operational and blowdown loading. A linear elastic analysis was completed using simplified hand analysis techniques. The analysis was in accordance with the 1977 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, for a Class 1 component. Loading included internal pressure, bolt preload, and thermal gradients due to normal operating and blowdown.

  15. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of carbonatites from Panda Hill and Oldoinyo-Lengai, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty nine (major and trace) elements including nine rare earth elements (REE) in African carbonatite samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The geochemical behavior of trace elements in carbonatites, especially REE pattern (chondrite normalized), and the efficiency of neutron activation analysis compared to other methods are discussed in this study. (author)

  17. Network Analysis as a Communication Audit Instrument: Uncovering Communicative Strengths and Weaknesses Within Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijze-Koning, Karen H.; Jong, de M.D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Network analysis is one of the instruments in the communication audit toolbox to diagnose communication problems within organizations. To explore its contribution to a communication audit, the authors conducted a network analysis within three secondary schools, comparing its results with those of tw

  18. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G. (National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering, Sacavem (Portugal). Physics Dept.)

    1993-06-01

    A simulation study of a PGNAA system for bulk coal analysis has been carried out using the MCNP code to investigate the dependence of the system's performance on design parameters for different coal compositions and bulk densities. Calculations were performed for simulated arrangements using a naked point [sup 252]Cf source and the source surrounded by a sphere of moderating material. Results for different sample sizes and different radii of the moderating sphere are reported. The system's optimization based upon the proper choice of sample size and amount of external thermalization is discussed. 3 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  20. Firefox add-ons for medical reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2010-07-01

    Firefox is a Web browser created by the Mozilla project, an open-source software group. Features of the browser include automated updates, advanced security and standards compliance, and the ability to add functionality through add-ons and extensions. First introduced in 2004, Firefox now accounts for roughly 30% of the browser market. This article will focus primarily on add-ons and extensions available for the browser that are useful to medical researchers. PMID:20677067

  1. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Mao; Vincent C H Chung; Jin-Qiu Yuan; Yuan-Yuan Yu; Zu-Yao Yang; Xin-Yin Wu; Jin-Ling Tang

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.78), myocar...

  2. Diesel engine coolant analysis, new application for established instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.P.; Lukas, M.; Lynch, B.K. [Spectro Incorporated, Littleton, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Rotating disk electrode (RDE) arc emission spectrometers are user` many commercial, industrial and military laboratories throughout the world to analyze millions of oil and fuel samples each year. In fact, RDE spectrometers have been used exclusively for oil and fuel analysis for so long that it has nearly been forgotten by most practitioners that when RDE spectrometers were first introduced more than 40 years ago, they were routinely used for aqueous samples as well. This presentation reviews early methods of aqueous sample analysis using RDE technology. This presentation also describes recent work to calibrate an RDE spectrometer for both water samples and for engine coolant samples which are a mixture of approximately 50 % water and 50 % ethylene or propylene glycol. Limits of detection determined for aqueous standards are comparable to limits of detection for oil standards. Repeatability of aqueous samples is comparable to the repeatability achieved for oil samples. A comparison of results for coolant samples measured by both inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) spectrometers is presented. Not surprisingly, RDE results are significantly higher for samples containing particles larger than a few micrometers. Although limits of detection for aqueous samples are not as low as can be achieved using the more modern ICP spectrometric method or the more cumbersome atomic absorption (AA) method, this presentation suggests that RDE spectrometers may be appropriate for certain types of aqueous samples in situations where the more sensitive ICP or AA spectrometers and the laboratory environment and skilled personnel needed for them to operate are not conveniently available. (orig.) 4 refs.

  3. Recent progress of J-PARC MLF data analysis environment: instrument status data and remote access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the recent progress on two fields of data analysis environment of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) MLF (Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility). One is a utilization of event data of instrument status, another is a development of remote data access. Event data of instrument status TrigNET, which is a universal signal readout module developed in KEK, can acquire various instrument status, such as a tensile load or a goniometer position, as time-tagged event data in the same manner with a neutron detection signal. It allows us to treat both events of neutron detection and instrument status on an identical time-line. In the other words, instrument status can be handled at same time precision as the neutron detection event. In order to implement this function, our data analysis software has been upgraded. For example, this upgrade made flexible to analyze data under cyclic load-unload deformation or continuous sample rotation. Remote data access The remote data access is an key service for a large user facility such as J-PARC MLF. Developments of two components for the remote data access are on-going. The MLF experimental database system will provide users a search and a download for raw data and meta-data of their experiments through a web browser. The remote data analysis service will provide data analysis environment on a web browser utilizing computing resource at MLF.

  4. Multielement analysis of environmental reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements in environmental reference materials prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan (NIES) and by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). NIES CRM No. 5 Human Hair, No. 6 Mussel, No. 7 Tea Leaves, No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates, No. 9 Sargasso and No. 10 Rice Flour-unpolished samples (ca. 150 - 1200 mg) and NIST SRM 1632a Bituminous Coal, SRM 1635 Sub-bituminous Coal and SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash samples (ca. 10 - 150 mg) were irradiated at the Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITRR). Concentrations of 28 - 52 elements in these NIES and NIST environmental reference materials were determined by two irradiation methods and four γ-ray counting methods. The determined values were in good agreement with the NIES and NIST certified values. (author)

  5. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  6. Add-On Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Mortality in Myocardial Infarction: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent C. H. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM is widely used as an adjunct to biomedicine (BM in treating myocardial infarction (MI. This meta-analysis of RCTs evaluated the efficacy of combined CHM-BM in the treatment of MI, compared to BM alone. Sixty-five RCTs (12,022 patients of moderate quality were identified. 6,036 patients were given CHM plus BM, and 5,986 patients used BM only. Combined results showed clear additional effect of CHM-BM treatment in reducing all-cause mortality (relative risk reduction (RRR = 37%, 95% CI = 28%–45%, I2=0.0% and mortality of cardiac origin (RRR = 39%, 95% CI = 22%–52%, I2=22.8. Benefits remained after random-effect trim and fill adjustment for publication bias (adjusted RRR for all-cause mortality = 29%, 95% CI = 16%–40%; adjusted RRR for cardiac death = 32%, 95% CI = 15%–46%. CHM is also found to be efficacious in lowering the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial reinfarction, heart failure, angina, and occurrence of total heart events. In conclusion, addition of CHM is very likely to be able to improve survival of MI patients who are already receiving BM. Further confirmatory evaluation via large blinded randomized trials is warranted.

  7. Evaluation of the add-on effect of chinese patent medicine for patients with stable or unstable angina: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chen; Chung, Vincent C H; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Yu, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zu-Yao; Wu, Xin-Yin; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.78), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.72), heart failure (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.71) than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.66), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.26-0.54), and angina (RR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.26-0.51). Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68) and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.70) in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine. PMID:24416066

  8. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.33–0.78, myocardial infarction (RR=0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, heart failure (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.71 than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.32–0.66, myocardial infarction (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.26–0.54, and angina (RR=0.36, 95%CI 0.26–0.51. Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.17–0.68 and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.70 in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT IN CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF ROTATING MACHINERY BASED ON INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiongming; Qin Shuren; Ji Zhong; Guo Yu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the recently quick-developing time-frequency analysis (TFA) technique and virtual instrument (VI) technique, a virtual instrument in characteristic analysis of rotating machinery is researched and developed successfully. By utilizing instantaneous frequency estimation (IFE) theoretics of TFA technique, and based on IFE of peak searching on the time-frequency spectrum, order analysis (OA) functions is put forward and implemented, such as order spectrum, order spectrum matrix, order tracking, order tracking filtering, and order component extraction, etc. Unlike the home and abroad existing popular characteristic analyzers, which need key phasing devices such as shaft encoder, phase-locked loop (PLL), phase-locked multiple frequency, tachometer, etc, to implement constant angle sampling directly or indirectly, whereas this instrument only uses the vibration signal of rotating machinery to carry out OA. This instrument makes up the shortage of these traditional instruments in analyzing the non-stationary signal of run-up and run-down process of rotating machinery. Therefore, it is a great breakthrough for the existing order analyzers.

  10. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  11. 75 FR 45164 - ``Add Us In'' Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Assistant Secretary for Office of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Program AGENCY... from $500,000 to $625,000. The objectives of this new initiative, Add Us In, are: (1) To increase...

  12. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. A. Esquef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  13. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  14. In vitro analysis of the apical deformation, using a different number of files during the instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas da Fonseca Roberti GARCIA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of the present study was toevaluate in vitro the apical deformation in roots of crooked lowerincisors with mesio-distal flattening, using a different number of files during the instrumentation. Material and methods: Twenty rootswere randomly divided into two groups (n = 10. Group I: roots wereinitially instrumented with a K #15 file until a #35 file, through stepback technique. During instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 1% NaOCl between every instrument change. Obturation wasperformed with Grossman sealer by lateral condensation technique.Group II: procedure was similar to group I, except for the files number, using file #40 as memory instrument. After that, each root was 1mm apical weared in order to reveal the filling. A 3 mm cut from the root apex was performed, resulting in samples with the same length, which were examined with an optical microscope (X40. The images captured by the Image Tool software were analyzed and the area occupied by sealer, gutta-percha and possible empty spaces was quantified. Results: Data was submitted to statistical analysis and showed no statistical significant differences between groups I and II (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The variation in the number of files during instrumentation did not promote apical deformation, but resulted in a similar hermetic sealing between the studied groups.

  15. Analysis of Essential Elements for Plants Growth Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Njinga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of ten essential elements for plants growth in the Guinea savanna region of Niger State in Northern Nigeria have been identified in the soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show good agreement with certified or literature values within the agreed percentage range of ±2.35% to ±8.69%. However, the concentration distributions of the ten identified elements in the soil samples within the studied area for plants growth revealed the following: Fe (123.4 ppm, Mn (2100.7 ppm, K (5544.3 ppm, Al (54752.4 ppm, Ti (3082.9 ppm, Ca (4635 ppm, V (54.3 ppm, Na (857.5 ppm, Mg (13924.1 ppm, and Dy (12.1 ppm. A further analysis of the two fundamental soil physical parameters for healthy growth of some common crops like egusimelon, groundnut, rice, yams, soybeans, cassava, and potato analyzed in this work revealed a pH range of 4.0 pH–8.0 pH and a temperature range of 28.0°C to 29.3°C, which are optimal for plant nutrients availability in the soils within the study area.

  16. Family Background Variables as Instruments for Education in Income Regressions: A Bayesian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, Lennart; Block, Joern H.; Thurik, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct…

  17. Instrument and Survey Analysis Technical Report: Program Implementation Survey. Technical Report #1112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical document provides guidance to educators on the creation and interpretation of survey instruments, particularly as they relate to an analysis of program implementation. Illustrative examples are drawn from a survey of educators related to the use of the easyCBM learning system. This document includes specific sections on…

  18. Psychometric Analysis of a 5E Learning Cycle Lesson Plan Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Day, Jeanelle Bland; Sundberg, Cheryl; Dantzler, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the procedures and the analysis of an instrument designed to measure preservice teachers' ability to develop appropriate 5E learning cycle lesson plans. The 5E "inquiry lesson plan" (ILP) rubric is comprised of 12 items with a scoring range of zero to four points per item. Content validity was determined…

  19. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieftenbeld, Vincent; Natesan, Prathiba; Eddy, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers have been the subject of several studies. A widely used measure in these studies is the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI). The present study provides a detailed analysis of the psychometric properties of the MTEBI using Bayesian item response theory.…

  20. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  1. MULTISENSOR DATA FUSION FOR HIGH QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING IN MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates ...

  2. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  3. RoboSCell: An automated single cell arraying and analysis instrument

    KAUST Repository

    Sakaki, Kelly

    2009-09-09

    Single cell research has the potential to revolutionize experimental methods in biomedical sciences and contribute to clinical practices. Recent studies suggest analysis of single cells reveals novel features of intracellular processes, cell-to-cell interactions and cell structure. The methods of single cell analysis require mechanical resolution and accuracy that is not possible using conventional techniques. Robotic instruments and novel microdevices can achieve higher throughput and repeatability; however, the development of such instrumentation is a formidable task. A void exists in the state-of-the-art for automated analysis of single cells. With the increase in interest in single cell analyses in stem cell and cancer research the ability to facilitate higher throughput and repeatable procedures is necessary. In this paper, a high-throughput, single cell microarray-based robotic instrument, called the RoboSCell, is described. The proposed instrument employs a partially transparent single cell microarray (SCM) integrated with a robotic biomanipulator for in vitro analyses of live single cells trapped at the array sites. Cells, labeled with immunomagnetic particles, are captured at the array sites by channeling magnetic fields through encapsulated permalloy channels in the SCM. The RoboSCell is capable of systematically scanning the captured cells temporarily immobilized at the array sites and using optical methods to repeatedly measure extracellular and intracellular characteristics over time. The instrument\\'s capabilities are demonstrated by arraying human T lymphocytes and measuring the uptake dynamics of calcein acetoxymethylester-all in a fully automated fashion. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes

  5. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  6. Data analysis of the COMPTEL instrument on the NASA gamma ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, R.; Bennett, K.; Collmar, W.; Connors, A.; Denherder, J. W.; Hermsen, W.; Lichti, G. G.; Lockwood, J. A.; Macri, J.; Mcconnell, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Compton imaging telescope (COMPTEL) on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is a wide field of view instrument. The coincidence measurement technique in two scintillation detector layers requires specific analysis methods. Straightforward event projection into the sky is impossible. Therefore, detector events are analyzed in a multi-dimensional dataspace using a gamma ray sky hypothesis convolved with the point spread function of the instrument in this dataspace. Background suppression and analysis techniques have important implications on the gamma ray source results for this background limited telescope. The COMPTEL collaboration applies a software system of analysis utilities, organized around a database management system. The use of this system for the assistance of guest investigators at the various collaboration sites and external sites is foreseen and allows different detail levels of cooperation with the COMPTEL institutes, dependent on the type of data to be studied.

  7. Instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations. Stocktaking, evaluation and deficit analysis; Instrumente zur Foerderung von Umweltinnovationen. Bestandsaufnahme, Bewertung und Defizitanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennings, Klaus; Rammer, Christian; Oberndorfer, Ulrich [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW), GmbH, Mannheim (DE)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    In the ecological report 2006 of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) with the title ''Environment - Innovation - Occupation'', the Federal Ministry outlines the concept of an innovative oriented environmental policy. An innovative environmental policy contributes to the reduction of the environmental pollution and the ecological damages of industrial production. In this background, the question arises, how the environmental policy can support appropriate innovative activities. For this, the research project under consideration presents the following contributions: (a) Overview of the most important instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations in Germany; (b) Estimation of the effectiveness of the instruments including gap analysis and deficit analysis; (c) Presentation of foreign Best Practice Examples (instruments and environmental political beginnings); (d) Proposals for priority environmental political starting points to the advancement of the equipment and pointing out the further research need.

  8. ADD psychosis as a separate entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellak, L

    1985-01-01

    "Attention deficit disorder (ADD) psychosis" merits delineation as a separate entity. It constitutes the end result of the effects of a certain particular neurological deficit (ADD) on personality organization. It is my belief that about 10 percent of psychoses currently diagnosed most often schizophrenic and sometimes affective psychosis must best be considered a separate organic psychosis, i.e., an ADD psychosis. This ADD psychosis, then, is not merely a subgroup of schizophrenia, as I once thought. It merits a separate designation because its etiology, pathogenesis, and life history are different from those of the schizophrenic syndrome. The family histories are also different, as are the psychological findings. The treatment response is so different that it merits urgent consideration. Prognosis, both short range and long range, also seems different from those of the other psychoses. PMID:4081648

  9. Southeast Economic Add-on 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  10. Southeast Economic Add-on 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  11. Southeast Economic Add-on 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  12. Southeast Economic Add-on 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  13. Add Audio and Video to Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Nothing spices up websites like cool sound effects (think ker-thunk as visitors press a button) or embedded videos. Think you need a programmer to add sizzle to your site? Think again. This hands-on guide gives you the techniques you need to add video, music, animated GIFs, and sound effects to your site. This Mini Missing Manual is excerpted from Creating a Web Site: The Missing Manual.

  14. Instrumental laboratories based on the analysis of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiginton, John Franklin

    A semester-long series of instrumental analysis laboratory activities appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students is described. The activities incorporate five analytical instruments commonly found in post-secondary educational, industrial, and governmental laboratories: a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC), a gas chromatograph with a mass specific detector (GC/MS), a high-pressure liquid chromatograph with a UV-Visible detector (HPLC), a high-performance liquid chromatograph with a mass specific detector (LC/MS), and a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR). The series of activities utilizes two analytes, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), which are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, then structurally characterized. The protocol for each laboratory activity directs students to accomplish a specific analysis in the most efficient manner, but leaves the actual procedure vague enough to give the student a chance to experiment with the instrument. Student success is assessed by two means, having the student submit a detailed journal-style lab report and a class-wide discussion regarding the development of experimental protocols and individual instrument capabilities and limitations.

  15. Root canal centering ability of rotary cutting nickel titanium instruments: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Gundappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To systematically review articles on canal centering ability of endodontic rotary cutting Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti instruments and subject results to meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search was initiated on canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti files such as Protaper, Hero Shaper, K3, Mtwo, Race, Wave One by selecting articles published in peer reviewed journals during 1991-2013 using "Pub Med" database. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. A data was created by tabulating: Author name, publication year, sample size, number of experimental groups, methods to evaluate canal centering ability, instrument cross section, taper, tip design, rake angle, mean and standard deviation. The data generated was subjected to meta-analysis. Results: Maximum studies were found to be conducted on mesiobuccal canal of mandibular 1 st molar with curvature ranging from 15-60°. The difference in canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments was not statistically significant. Conclusion: All endodontic rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments are capable of producing centered preparations. Protaper depicted the best centering ability. Computed tomography is an effective method of evaluating canal centering ability.

  16. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-12-01

    Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across

  17. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U.

  18. Thermal and Alignment Analysis of the Instrument-Level ATLAS Thermal Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal analysis and test design performed in preparation for the ATLAS thermal vacuum test. NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be flown as the sole instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). It will be used to take measurements of topography and ice thickness for Arctic and Antarctic regions, providing crucial data used to predict future changes in worldwide sea levels. Due to the precise measurements ATLAS is taking, the laser altimeter has very tight pointing requirements. Therefore, the instrument is very sensitive to temperature-induced thermal distortions. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a Structural, Thermal, Optical Performance (STOP) analysis not only for flight, but also to ensure performance requirements can be operationally met during instrument-level thermal vacuum testing. This paper describes the thermal model created for the chamber setup, which was used to generate inputs for the environmental STOP analysis. This paper also presents the results of the STOP analysis, which indicate that the test predictions adequately replicate the thermal distortions predicted for flight. This is a new application of an existing process, as STOP analyses are generally performed to predict flight behavior only. Another novel aspect of this test is that it presents the opportunity to verify pointing results of a STOP model, which is not generally done. It is possible in this case, however, because the actual pointing will be measured using flight hardware during thermal vacuum testing and can be compared to STOP predictions.

  19. Mars Geochemical Instrument (MarGI): An instrument for the analysis of the Martian surface and the search for evidence of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Martin, Joe; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Geochemical Instrument, MarGI, was developed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the rocks and surface material on Mars. The instrument combines Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) with miniature Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) to identify minerals, the presence and state of water, and organic compounds. Miniature pyrolysis ovens are used to both, conduct DTA analysis of soil or crushed rocks samples, and pyrolyze the samples at temperatures up to 1000 degrees C for GC-IMS analysis of the released gases. This combination of analytical processes and techniques, which can characterize the mineralogy of the rocks and soil, and identify and quantify volatiles released during pyrolysis, has applications across a wide range of target sites including comets, planets, asteroids, and moons such as Titan and Europa. The MarGI analytical approach evolved from the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX) selected to fly on the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF).

  20. Analysis Particulars of Financial Instruments for Companies Not Listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the main features on the trading of financial instruments rated on the Unlisted market. The purpose of this paper is to give a general framework to study modalities of stock analysis of unlisted tools on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. In the introduction of the study elements referring to the objectives, research methodology, innovations of this research are presented, specialized literature being also reviewed. The first paragraph summarizes the main stock markets in Romania pursuing that in the following paragraphs it will focus strictly on the market of the instruments listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, for which a case study in ALBAPAM JS. has been conducted by performing stock analysis and, after the main legislation is presented, which discusses Rasdaq dismantling, finally, after submitting all the information found in the content of the paper, the findings for each paragraph were presented.

  1. Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe,  to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °C temp., and 60 % R.H. before and after cooking. For statistical evaluation of results, paired T test was used, statistically significant differences were taken at pdoi:10.5219/273

  2. Retest of a Principal Components Analysis of Two Household Environmental Risk Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Gail A; Postma, Julie; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Household Risk Perception (HRP) and Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction (SEERR) instruments were developed for a public health nurse-delivered intervention designed to reduce home-based, environmental health risks among rural, low-income families. The purpose of this study was to test both instruments in a second low-income population that differed geographically and economically from the original sample. Participants (N = 199) were recruited from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Paper and pencil surveys were collected at WIC sites by research-trained student nurses. Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted, and comparisons were made to the original PCA for the purpose of data reduction. Instruments showed satisfactory Cronbach alpha values for all components. HRP components were reduced from five to four, which explained 70% of variance. The components were labeled sensed risks, unseen risks, severity of risks, and knowledge. In contrast to the original testing, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) items was not a separate component of the HRP. The SEERR analysis demonstrated four components explaining 71% of variance, with similar patterns of items as in the first study, including a component on ETS, but some differences in item location. Although low-income populations constituted both samples, differences in demographics and risk exposures may have played a role in component and item locations. Findings provided justification for changing or reducing items, and for tailoring the instruments to population-level risks and behaviors. Although analytic refinement will continue, both instruments advance the measurement of environmental health risk perception and self-efficacy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27227487

  3. Analysis Particulars of Financial Instruments for Companies Not Listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor HADA; Teodora Maria AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents the main features on the trading of financial instruments rated on the Unlisted market. The purpose of this paper is to give a general framework to study modalities of stock analysis of unlisted tools on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. In the introduction of the study elements referring to the objectives, research methodology, innovations of this research are presented, specialized literature being also reviewed. The first paragraph summarizes the main stock markets i...

  4. Neutron xyz - polarization analysis at a time-of-flight instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Stewart, John Ross [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Andersen, Ken [ESS

    2015-01-01

    When implementing a dedicated polarization analysis setup at a neutron time-of-flight instrument with a large area detector, one faces enormous challenges. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made towards this goal over the last few years. This paper addresses systematic limitations of the traditional method that is used to make these measurements, and a possible strategy to overcome these limitations. This will be important, for diffraction as well as inelastic experiments, where the scattering occurs mostly out-of-plane.

  5. Improvements of instrumental proximate and ultimate analysis of coals and coal conversion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selucky, M.L.; Iacchelli, A.; Murray, C.; Lieshout, T. van.

    1982-06-01

    Comparison of proximate analyses obtained using ASTM (American Society for Testing of Materials) methods with those from the Fisher coal analyzer shows that the analyzer gives consistently low moisture and ash values, and high volatile matter values. While the accuracy of moisture and ash determinations can be improved by introducing various instrument and crucible modifications, volatile matter values are less accurate, mainly because of differences in heating rates. However, reproducibility of results is very good and, with modifications, the instrument can be used to advantage for internal purposes, chiefly because of its large sample capacity. In ultimate analysis of coals using the Perkin-Elmer element analyzer, the main problem is that the initial purge gas flushing period after sample introduction partially removes water from the sample. Various methods of sample drying have shown that the best approach is to dry the sample directly in the instrument at the temperature used for moisture determination; with this modification of the analystical cycle, excellent reproducibility and correlation with the ASTM method have been achieved. The proximate and ultimate analysis of samples of extracts and extract residue are impaired by the presence of residual solvent. The samples can contain up to 10% residual solvent which appear as moisture in the proximate analysis. The report describes several ways of removing the solvent so that accurate analysis can be obtained. The foregoing modifications to procedures and equipment have considerably improved both accuracy and reliability of results obtained by instrumental methods. In consequence, considerably more samples can be handled than by using ASTM standard procedures. 4 refs., 1 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Elementary composition in sewer silt and vermicomposting by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate elementary composition in sewer silt and vermicomposting method produced by oligoquetas for the application of the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis. As the gotten results, were possible according to inquire that the texts found in the samples are very below of the acceptable maximum values, North American norm 40 CRF Prat 503, elaborated for the Agency of Ambient Protection of the United States and used as reference in Brazil. (author)

  7. Continuous Angular Multiple Energy Analysis Spectrometer Report on Instrument Concept and Scientific Case

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work unit proposes to construct a cold indirect geometry time of flight spectrometer for performing inelastic neutron scattering experiments optimized for optimal efficiency in the horizontal scattering plane at the European Spallation Source. A horizontal geometry is chosen for compatibility with performing neutron scattering experiments under extreme conditions. The instrument concept is called the Continuous Angular Multiple Energy Analysis Spectrometer, CAMEA. In this report...

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  9. The preparation of synthetic standards for use in instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the formulation and preparation of synthetic standards suitable for the routine analysis of minerals, ores, and ore concentrates by instrumental neutron activation. Fifteen standards were prepared, each containing from one to seven elements. The standards contain forty-four elements that produce isotopes with half-lives longer than 12 hours. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of the method of preparation is given

  10. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles i...

  11. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Av...

  12. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myoung; Kim, Young Jin [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Quraishi, Shamshad Begum [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2003-05-01

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  13. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  14. Thermal analysis of on the open basket type instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the open basket type instrumented capsule to be used for the irradiation test of various nuclear fuels, it is necessary to examine the thermal behavior due to a thermal gradient as well as the compatibility of a capsule with HANARO and the structural integrity of a capsule. The thermal analysis of instrumented capsule was performed by using ANSYS, a commercial Finite Element Analysis(FEA) code. To ensure the accuracy of temperature analysis results by ANSYS, the theoretical analysis based on the heat transfer theory was done. From these two methods, the center temperature of pellet was 1227 .deg. C(FEA) and 1234 .deg. C(theoretical analysis) in the case of average linear power=29.677kW/m, and 1433 .deg. C and 1429 .deg. C in the case of maximum linear power=33.557kW/m. The maximum stress intensities in the cladding due to thermal gradient were 38.3MPa and 45.1MPa in each linear power. At the contact part of bottom end cap and cladding, the stress intensity of cladding was 35.0MPa in 29.677kW/m and 38.5MPa in 33.557kW/m respectively. The thermal stresses calculated by ANSYS and the mechanical stress due to the difference of internal and external pressure of fuel rod were satisfied with the strength criterion of ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Through the above thermal analysis, it could be decided whether the irradiation temperature condition of pellet agrees with that requested by users. In addition, it was ensured that the instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation test meets the strength criterion in ASME boiler and pressure vessel code during the irradiation test in HANARO

  15. Uncertainty analysis of signal deconvolution using a measured instrument response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartouni, E. P.; Beeman, B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hatarik, R.; Moore, A. S.; Munro, D. H.; Phillips, T.; Sayre, D. B.

    2016-11-01

    A common analysis procedure minimizes the ln-likelihood that a set of experimental observables matches a parameterized model of the observation. The model includes a description of the underlying physical process as well as the instrument response function (IRF). In the case investigated here, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers, the IRF is constructed from measurements and models. IRF measurements have a finite precision that can make significant contributions to determine the uncertainty estimate of the physical model's parameters. We apply a Bayesian analysis to properly account for IRF uncertainties in calculating the ln-likelihood function used to find the optimum physical parameters.

  16. Methodological aspects of development of new instrumental methods of analysis and improvement of known ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to possibilities of instrumental methods of analysis, such as method of precision registration of natural isotope rates of light elements from gaseous phase; method of piezoquartz microweighting; probe methods of analysis in spark mass-spectroscopy; extraction-atomic-emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Prediction of further development of these methods, improvement of their analytic characteristics is given: increase of sensitivity, accuracy and rapidity. Extension of fields of their application is forecasted as well. 20 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G; Andrews, G;

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context...... an overall estimate of the causal relationship between the phenotype and the outcome, and an assessment of its heterogeneity across studies. As an example, we estimate the causal relationship of blood concentrations of C-reactive protein on fibrinogen levels using data from 11 studies. These methods provide...... a flexible framework for efficient estimation of causal relationships derived from multiple studies. Issues discussed include weak instrument bias, analysis of binary outcome data such as disease risk, missing genetic data, and the use of haplotypes....

  18. A resonance photoionization sputtered neutral mass spectrometry instrument for submicron microarea analysis of ULSI devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichi, H.; Osabe, S.; Sugaya, M.; Ino, T.; Kakibayashi, H.; Kanehori, K.; Mitsui, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The lateral profile of boron in an actual microdevice was obtained by 3D analysis—using the newly developed resonance photoionization sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instrument—with a detection limit of 10 18 atoms/cm 3. The primary ion beam optical system of the instrument uses a Ga liquid metal ion source. The Ga beam diameter was about 30 nm and the ion beam current was about 60 pA. The analysis time to get the profile was about 40 min. Boron was excited by using one ultraviolet photon (249.7 nm) and by one visible photon (563 nm), and then it was ionized by an infrared photon (1064 nm): the so-called three-color resonance ionization. Lateral diffusion profile of boron in the device after chemical vapor deposition (CVD) including heating the wafer was also obtained. These results mean that this SNMS instrument will enable us to easily determine semiconductor processing conditions.

  19. Use of patients’ classification instruments: analysis of the brazilian production of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Portella de Abreu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the production of scientific knowledge about the use of patients’ classification instruments in care and management practice in Brazil. Method Integrative literature review with databases search in: Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-line (MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and SCOPUS, between January 2002 through December 2013. Results 1,194 studies were found, 31 met the inclusion criteria. We observed a higher number of studies in the category care plans and workload (n=15, followed by the category evaluation of psychometric properties (n=14. Conclusion Brazilian knowledge production has not yet investigated some purposes of using instruments for classifying patients in professional nursing practice. The identification of unexplored areas can guide future research on the topic.

  20. Calibration of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Stern, J. C.; Harpold, D.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SAM suite of instruments on the "Curiosity" Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is designed to provide chemical and isotopic analysis of organic and inorganic volatiles for both atmospheric and solid samples. The mission of the MSL investigations is to advance beyond the successful search for aqueous transformation in surface environments at Mars toward a quantitative assessment of habitability and preservation through a series of chemical and geological measurements. The SAM suite was delivered in December 2010 (Figure 1) to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for integration into the Curiosity Rover. We previously outlined the range of SAM solid and gas calibrations implemented or planned and here we discuss a specific set of calibration experiments to establish the response of the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) to the four most abundant gases in the Martian atmosphere CO2, N2, Ar, and O2, A full SAM instrument description and calibration report is presently in preparation.

  1. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. PMID:21992845

  2. Bilateral versus unilateral instrumentation in spinal surgery: Systematic review and trial sequential analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Leung, Vannessa; Scherman, Daniel B; Tan, Andrew R; Rao, Prashanth J; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar fusion surgical intervention is often followed by bilateral pedicle screw fixation. There has been increasing support for unilateral pedicle screw fixation in an attempt to reduce complications and costs. The following study assesses the efficacy and complications of bilateral versus unilateral pedicle screw fixation in open and minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion techniques. A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and recommendations. In comparison with existing meta-analyses, trial sequential analysis was implemented to reduce the potential for type I error. Of the 1310 citations screened, four observational studies and 13 randomised controlled trials were used comprising 574 bilateral cases and 549 unilateral cases. Statistical analysis showed no difference in fusion rates, total complications, dural tear rates, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for back pain, VAS for leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index scores, and length of stay between bilateral and unilateral instrumentation. Unilateral instrumentation was significantly shorter in duration (Plower blood volume loss (P=0.0002). These results were the same for both open and minimally invasive surgical approaches. Unilateral pedicle screw fixation appears to have similar post-operative outcomes as bilateral fixation and improved efficacy in regards to procedure duration and blood volume loss. PMID:27068653

  3. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Register on August 4, 2011 at 76 FR 150. Specifically, we are correcting the Funding Opportunity... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability...

  4. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  5. The Re-Analysis of Ozone Profile Data from a 41-Year Series of SBUV Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarova, Natalya; Frith, Stacey; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard; Labow, Gordon; Taylor, Steven; Fisher, Bradford

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the validation of ozone profiles from a number of Solar Back Scattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) and SBUV/2 instruments that were recently reprocessed using an updated (Version 8.6) algorithm. The SBUV dataset provides the longest available record of global ozone profiles, spanning a 41-year period from 1970 to 2011 (except a 5-year gap in the 1970s) and includes ozone profile records obtained from the Nimbus-4 BUV and Nimbus-7 SBUV instruments, and a series of SBUV(/2) instruments launched on NOAA operational satellites (NOAA 09, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19). Although modifications in instrument design were made in the evolution from the BUV instrument to the modern SBUV(/2) model, the basic principles of the measurement technique and retrieval algorithm remain the same. The long term SBUV data record allows us to create a consistent, calibrated dataset of ozone profiles that can be used for climate studies and trend analyses. In particular, we focus on estimating the various sources of error in the SBUV profile ozone retrievals using independent observations and analysis of the algorithm itself. For the first time we include in the metadata a quantitative estimate of the smoothing error, defined as the error due to profile variability that the SBUV observing system cannot inherently measure. The magnitude of the smoothing error varies with altitude, latitude, season and solar zenith angle. Between 10 and 1 hPa the smoothing errors for the SBUV monthly zonal mean retrievals are of the order of 1 %, but start to increase above and below this layer. The largest smoothing errors, as large as 15-20%, were detected in in the troposphere. The SBUV averaging kernels, provided with the ozone profiles in version 8.6, help to eliminate the smoothing effect when comparing the SBUV profiles with high vertical resolution measurements, and make it convenient to use the SBUV ozone profiles for data assimilation and model validation purposes. The smoothing error can

  6. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046 Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: schweitz@phys.uconn.edu; Trombka, Jacob I. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Selavka, Carl [Massachusetts State Police Crime Laboratory, 59 Horse Pond Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 (United States); Zeosky, Gerald [Forensic Investigation Center, Crime Laboratory Building, 22 State Campus, Albany, NY 12226 (United States); Gahn, Norman [Assistant District Attorney, Milwaukee County, District Attorney' s Office, 821 West State Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233-1427 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burbine, Thomas [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  7. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Pasternak-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. RESULTS: There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. CONCLUSION: The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  8. Determination of trace elements in sugar cane refuse by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of micro, trace and ultratrace amounts of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, F, Fe, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, V and W in sugar cane refuses of various Egyptian factories. The element concentrations are below the safety baseline levels. Variations of results may be related to different botanic structures, different compositions of sugar cane plants of ecological changes in soil. The method is accurate and precise. The relative errors are in the range of 0.3-12.3%. (author)

  9. Determination of aluminium contents in selected food samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food and food products are the main sources of Aluminium entering the human body. In order to know aluminium contents in food and food products, selected 26 samples from local market were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. INAA using 1,779 keV γ-ray of 28Al (2.24 min) was used for aluminium concentrations in the range of 33-529 mg kg-1. Two NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and two IAEA reference materials (RMs) were analyzed by INAA for quantification of aluminium as a part of method validation. (author)

  10. Multi-element determination in medicinal Juniper tree (Juniperus phoenicea by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzid Nedjimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Red Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea, a local medicinal tree was collected and analyzed for 18 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. The GBW 07605 (GSV-4 standard reference material was analyzed simultaneously with the plant samples, the results shown a good recovery and reproducibility of the method. Ca, K and Fe have been detected in good levels in this plant clarifying their possible contribution to curative properties. The data obtained in the present work will be helpful in the synthesis of new synthetic drugs which can be used for medicinal purpose.

  11. Availability of essential trace elements in Ayurvedic Indian medicinal herbs using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N. [Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Specific parts of several plants (fruits, leaves, stem, bark and roots) often used as medicines in the Indian Ayurvedic system have been analysed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Most of the medicinal herbs have been found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. (Author).

  12. Comparison of elemental composition of hair between osteoporotic and normal women by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out on hair samples from a group of 20 patients undergoing a study of osteoporosis. Half of these were judged normal. Forteen elements were measured but only calcium was found to have a correlation with the disease state. Calcium levels in hair were significantly lower (99% level) in patients with osteoporosis. Conversely, calcium levels in the blood of osteoporotic patients were significantly higher (95% level) than those in normals. Though the group studied was small it is felt that levels of calcium in hair may be of value in diagnosing osteoporosis. (author)

  13. Comparison of elemental composition of hair between osteoporotic and normal women by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out on hair samples from a group of twenty patients undergoing a study of osteoporosis. Half of these were judged normal. Fourteen elements were measured but only calcium was found to have a correlation with the disease state. Calcium levels in hair were significantly lower (99% confidence level) in patients with osteoporosis. Conversely, calcium levels in the blood of osteoporotic patients were significantly higher (95% confidence level) than those in normals. Though the group studied was small it is felt that the levels of calcium in hair may be of value in diagnosing osteoporosis. (author) 14 refs

  14. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  15. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  16. Determination of selenium and zinc in rat plasma by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects on the thyroid function when simple or multiple zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency are induced, research was carried out in laboratory animals. For simultaneously determining the Zn and Se concentration in rat plasma, an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was applied. A clean laboratory, was used for the preparation of samples. High purity materials were used for sample collection and storage. Irradiation, decay and counting parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity, accuracy and precision analysis. The Zn and Se concentrations were determined from the peak area of gamma-rays of 1115 and 265 KeV respectively. The analytical methodology used was validated with standard reference materials. The procedure used for the analysis, including the phases of collection, treatment of the samples and analytical determination was considered suitable for the study of trace elements in biological samples, especially plasma. (author)

  17. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  18. Passive Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: Analysis Framework and Instrument Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Timothy A.; Svard, Staffan J.; Smith, Leon E.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Jansson, Peter; Davour, Anna; Grape, Sophie; Trellue, H.; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Wittman, Richard S.; Honkamaa, Tapani; Vaccaro, Stefano; Ely, James

    2015-05-18

    The potential for gamma emission tomography (GET) to detect partial defects within a spent nuclear fuel assembly is being assessed through a collaboration of Support Programs to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the first phase of this study, two safeguards verification objectives have been identified. The first is the independent determination of the number of active pins that are present in the assembly, in the absence of a priori information. The second objective is to provide quantitative measures of pin-by-pin properties, e.g. activity of key isotopes or pin attributes such as cooling time and relative burnup, for the detection of anomalies and/or verification of operator-declared data. The efficacy of GET to meet these two verification objectives will be evaluated across a range of fuel types, burnups, and cooling times, and with a target interrogation time of less than 60 minutes. The evaluation of GET viability for safeguards applications is founded on a modelling and analysis framework applied to existing and emerging GET instrument designs. Monte Carlo models of different fuel types are used to produce simulated tomographer responses to large populations of “virtual” fuel assemblies. Instrument response data are processed by a variety of tomographic-reconstruction and image-processing methods, and scoring metrics specific to each of the verification objectives are defined and used to evaluate the performance of the methods. This paper will provide a description of the analysis framework and evaluation metrics, example performance-prediction results, and describe the design of a “universal” GET instrument intended to support the full range of verification scenarios envisioned by the IAEA.

  19. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  20. Geotechnical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. E.; Mikkelsen, P. E.; Mayne, P. W.; Frost, D. D.; Dowding, C. H.

    1988-12-01

    The 11 papers in the report deal with the following areas: deformation measurements with inclinometers; dilatometer experience in Washington, D.C., and vicinity; ground vibration monitoring instrumentation and computerized surveillance; instrumentation for tests of piles subjected to axial loading; use of the wave equation by the North Carolina Department of Transportation; NYSDOT's construction control of pile foundations with dynamic pile testing; discussion of procedures for the determination of pile capacity; modern specification of driven pile work; analysis of laterally loaded piles with nonlinear bending behavior; unified design of piles and pile groups, and LTBASE, a computer program for the analysis of laterally loaded piers including base and slope effects.

  1. Air pollution assessment in two Moroccan cities using instrumental neutron activation analysis on bio-accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for the air pollution assessment studies. In this work, lichens and barks have been used as bio-accumulators in several sites in two Moroccan cities (Rabat and Mohammadia). The specific ability of absorbing and accumulating heavy metals and toxic element from the air, their longevity and resistance to the environmental stresses, make those bioindicators suitable for this kind of studies. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultra-trace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrated by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, a preliminary investigation employing lichens, barks and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements distribution in six different areas of Rabat and Mohammadia cities characterised by the presence of many industries and heavy traffic. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high-resolution Germanium-Lithium detectors. More than 30 elements were determined using two modes : short irradiation (1 minute) and long irradiation (17 hours). Accuracy and quality control were assessed using the reference standard material IAEA-336. This was less than 1% for major and about 5 to 10% for traces.

  2. Multisensor Data Fusion for High Quality Data Analysis and Processing in Measurement and Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bo Huang; Yu-bin Lan; W.C.Hoffmann; R.E.Lacey

    2007-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion(MDF)is an emerging technology to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement and detection.Applications of MDF cross a wide spectrum in military and civilian areas.With the rapid evolution of computers and the proliferation of micro-mechanical/electrical systems sensors,the utilization of MDF is being popularized in research and applications.This paper focuses on application of MDF for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation.A practical,general data fusion scheme was established on the basis of feature extraction and merge of data from multiple sensors.This scheme integrates artificial neural networks for high performance pattern recognition.A number of successful applications in areas of NDI(Non-Destructive Inspection)corrosion detection,food quality and safety characterization,and precision agriculture are described and discussed in order to motivate new applications in these or other areas.This paper gives an overall picture of using the MDF method to increase the accuracy of data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation in different areas of applications.

  3. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    of multiple genetic markers measured in multiple studies, based on the analysis of individual participant data. First, for a single genetic marker in one study, we show that the usual ratio of coefficients approach can be reformulated as a regression with heterogeneous error in the explanatory variable......Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context....... This can be implemented using a Bayesian approach, which is next extended to include multiple genetic markers. We then propose a hierarchical model for undertaking a meta-analysis of multiple studies, in which it is not necessary that the same genetic markers are measured in each study. This provides...

  4. Development index: analysis of the basic instrument of Croatian regional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perišić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development level assessment and categorization of Croatian local and regional units is based on the value of the development index which is the main instrument of Croatian regional policy. The development index is a composite indicator calculated as a weighted average of five socio-economic indicators. The goal of this paper is to analyze the uncertainty and sensitivity of the development index that arise from the procedures and indicators used in its construction. This analysis is then used to propose useful guidelines for future impovements. The methodology of the Croatian regional development index has been critically reviewed, revealing problems of multicollinearity and the existence of outliers. An empirical and relatively more objective multivariate approach for weight selection has been proposed. The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were conducted using Monte Carlo simulations and variance-based techniques. Instead of a unique point estimate for the development level of territorial units an alternative confidence interval approach was considered.

  5. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis to study the elemental distribution in Turangi Swamp, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat and sediment samples were collected in Turangi Swamp, North Island, New Zealand, and analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Variations in elemental distribution are used to distinguish between a short-term anthropogenic influence and a long-term natural impact. Discharge of sewage effluent has resulted in elevated zinc concentrations in the surface sediment near the point of effluent inflow into the wetland. Increased arsenic, bromine and antimony concentrations are attributed to seepage of groundwater originating in the nearby Tokaanu-Waihi geothermal field, and are found in particular on the western side of the wetland. Due to its sensitivity, INAA was useful to determine the subtle changes in Br and Sb concentrations, which could not be detected by XRF. Analysis of the ashed residue by INAA shows that As and Zn are mostly associated with the inorganic fraction, whereas Br has a strong organic affinity. (authors)

  6. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  7. Determination of arsenic and mercury in facial cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of arsenic and mercury in some chilean facial cosmetics was investiged. Since in Chile there is no regulations dealing with the maximum permisible concentration of some chemical elements in cosmetics products, the national industry control neither the presence nor the quantity, if any, of those elements. The study was performed on compact or powder eye shadows by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were analized without any chemical treatment and with minimum manipulation to avoid any possible contamination. A total of 67 samples from 9 different cosmetic industries were analysed. Arsenic was detected and determined quantitatively in 46 samples, ranging from 0.32 to 136 ppm. Mercury was not detected in any sample. The contamination of arsenic is due to the high concentration of this element in some of the raw material used in the manufacturing of the cosmetics, as was demonstrated by the analysis of these materials. (EC)

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of iron and zinc in compact eye shadow, compact face powder and compact rouge make-up cosmetic products. The steps of the procedure are: Irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons, counting of gamma-radioactivity of the radioisotopes of iron and zinc produced by this irradiation and calculation of the concentration of these elements from the gamma-ray spectra of samples and standards. Analysis of the I.A.E.A. standard reference material by this procedure give results in close agreement with certified values. The limit of quantitation is 45 μg for iron and 0.35 μg for zinc. The developed procedure could possibly be established as an official method for the simultaneous determination of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products. (orig.)

  9. Determination of mercury contents in head hair of dentists by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury contents in head hair of 32 dentists and 30 controls were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The precision and accuracy of the analytical results were checked by independent analytical techniques comprising cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis combined with lead diethyldithiocarbamate as a preconcentrating agent. The normal range was from 1.91 to 5.44 ppm with an arithmetic mean of 3.90+-1.01 ppm, and the geometric mean of 3.76x:1.33 ppm. The range, arithmetic and geometric means of the values for dentists were 4.32-24.14 ppm, 11.68+-4.70 ppm, and 10.77x:4.04 ppm, resp. The mercury contents in the hair of the dentists are significantly higher than those of the controls. It indicates that dentists in Taiwan do not practice good mercury hygiene. However, the mercury contents are considerably below the toxicity level. (author)

  10. Multi-element determination of sandstone rock by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of sandstone samples from Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were properly prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 1011 n/cm2.s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. Gamma spectra from hyper pure germanium HPGe detector were analysed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of sandstone rock. The following elements constituents have been determined: Na, K, Fe, Sc, Cr, Co, Zr, Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements which can be detected only by XRF. (author)

  11. Necessary steps in factor analysis : Enhancing validation studies of educational instruments. The PHEEM applied to clerks as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2009-01-01

    Background: The validation of educational instruments, in particular the employment of factor analysis, can be improved in many instances. Aims: To demonstrate the superiority of a sophisticated method of factor analysis, implying an integration of recommendations described in the factor analysis li

  12. Automatic evaluation and data generation for analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, laboratory activities are costly in terms of time, space, and money. As such, the ability to provide realistically simulated laboratory data that enables students to practice data analysis techniques as a complementary activity would be expected to reduce these costs while opening up very interesting possibilities. In the present work, a novel methodology is presented for design of analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises that can be automatically personalized for each student and the results evaluated immediately. The proposed system provides each student with a different set of experimental data generated randomly while satisfying a set of constraints, rather than using data obtained from actual laboratory work. This allows the instructor to provide students with a set of practical problems to complement their regular laboratory work along with the corresponding feedback provided by the system's automatic evaluation process. To this end, the Goodle Grading Management System (GMS, an innovative web-based educational tool for automating the collection and assessment of practical exercises for engineering and scientific courses, was developed. The proposed methodology takes full advantage of the Goodle GMS fusion code architecture. The design of a particular exercise is provided ad hoc by the instructor and requires basic Matlab knowledge. The system has been employed with satisfactory results in several university courses. To demonstrate the automatic evaluation process, three exercises are presented in detail. The first exercise involves a linear regression analysis of data and the calculation of the quality parameters of an instrumental analysis method. The second and third exercises address two different comparison tests, a comparison test of the mean and a t-paired test.

  13. Mexsyco project: representation of power plan control-instrumentation functions. Bibliographical analysis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study covered in this paper is designed to review the current situation in terms of functional analysis, in order to find a functional analysis method for mechanical parts able to serve as a substrate for expressing operating safety constraints, time-related performance or any other tag of function description. This paper comprises three parts: The first is devoted to general notions of the formats used by the various functional analyses. It attempts to explain the three types of format: behavioural, structural and functional. It tackles the notions of trees and bottom-up and top-down approaches. It proposes examining the link between the expected functions of the systems and the hardware supporting these functions. It attempts to make a distinction between ''operators'' and ''operands'' enabling the notion of object to be linked to that of the three types of format seen above. It ends with a reminder of the distinction between semi-formal and formal. The second part analyses the current situation of functional analysis of the mechanical and control-instrumentation parts of power production plants, through a bibliographical search. The results of this second part are however disappointing. The purpose of the third part of the study is a prototype format built up from the considerations of the first two parts. This format meets our requirements better than those of the bibliographical analysis, but it could doubtless be improved: application of this format to RCV highlights its advantages, but also underlines the improvements needed. Given the deadlines of the Mexsyco project, the decision was taken to suspend development of this format for the time being and use a method currently being produced and based on use of the current functional breakdown (basic plant systems) and of a modular tree-structure representation of the control-instrumentation of a basic plant system. (author). 12 refs., 4 annexes

  14. 跟我学“加”法——add…to,add to,add up,add up to辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余阳

    2009-01-01

    add…to,add to,add up和add up to都有"加"的意思,它们有什么区别吗?请看:1.add…to意思是"把……加到……上去"。如:Please add my name to your mailing list.请把我的名字加入你们的邮件名单中。

  15. Intelligent data analysis of instrumented gait data in stroke patients-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Jakob; Georgoulas, George; Moutsopoulos, Thucydides; Seferiadis, Aris

    2014-08-01

    Instrumented gait analysis (GA) may be used to analyze the causes of gait deviation in stroke patients but generates a large amount of complex data. The task of transforming this data into a comprehensible report is cumbersome. Intelligent data analysis (IDA) refers to the use of computational methods in order to analyze quantitative data more effectively. The purpose of this review was to identify and appraise the available IDA methods for handling GA data collected from patients with stroke using the standard equipment of a gait lab (3D/2D motion capture, force plates, EMG). Eleven databases were systematically searched and fifteen studies that employed some type of IDA method for the analysis of kinematic and/or kinetic and/or EMG data in populations involving stroke patients were identified. Four categories of IDA methods were employed for the analysis of sensor-acquired data in these fifteen studies: classification methods, dimensionality reduction methods, clustering methods and expert systems. The methodological quality of these studies was critically appraised by examining sample characteristics, measurements and IDA properties. Three overall methodological shortcomings were identified: (1) small sample sizes and underreported patient characteristics, (2) testing of which method is best suited to the analysis was neglected and (3) lack of stringent validation procedures. No IDA method for GA data from stroke patients was identified that can be directly applied to clinical practice. Our findings suggest that the potential provided by IDA methods is not being fully exploited.

  16. The Development and Implementation of an Instrument to Assess Students’ Data Analysis Skills in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Rybarczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing visual literacy skills is an important component of scientific literacy in undergraduate science education.  Comprehension, analysis, and interpretation are parts of visual literacy that describe related data analysis skills important for learning in the biological sciences. The Molecular Biology Data Analysis Test (MBDAT was developed to measure students’ data analysis skills connected with scientific reasoning when analyzing and interpreting scientific data generated from experimental research.  The skills analyzed included basic skills such as identification of patterns and trends in data and connecting a method that generated the data and advanced skills such as distinguishing positive and negative controls, synthesizing conclusions, determining if data supports a hypothesis, and predicting alternative or next-step experiments.  Construct and content validity were established and calculated statistical parameters demonstrate that the MBDAT is valid and reliable for measuring students’ data analysis skills in molecular and cell biology contexts.  The instrument also measures students’ perceived confidence in their data interpretation abilities.  As scientific research continues to evolve in complexity, interpretation of scientific information in visual formats will continue to be an important component of scientific literacy.  Thus science education will need to support and assess students’ development of these skills as part of students’ scientific training.

  17. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.

  18. Multi-periodic climate dynamics: spectral analysis of long-term instrumental and proxy temperature records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Lüdecke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The longest six instrumental temperature records of monthly means reach back maximally to 1757 AD and were recorded in Europe. All six show a V-shape, with temperature drop in the 19th and rise in the 20th century. Proxy temperature time series of Antarctic ice cores show this same characteristic shape, indicating this pattern as a global phenomenon. We used the mean of the 6 instrumental records for analysis by discrete Fourier transformation (DFT, wavelets, and the detrended fluctuation method (DFA. For comparison, a stalagmite record was also analyzed by DFT. The harmonic decomposition of the mean shows only 6 significant frequencies above periods over 30 yr. The Pearson correlation between the mean, smoothed by a 15 yr running average (boxcar and the reconstruction using the 6 significant frequencies yields r = 0.961. This good agreement has a > 99.9% confidence level confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. Assumption of additional forcing by anthropogenic green house gases would therefore not improve the agreement between measurement and temperature construction from the 6 documented periodicities. We find indications that the observed periodicities result from intrinsic system dynamics.

  19. Enantioselective Analysis in instruments onboard ROSETTA/PHILAE and ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Thiemann, Wolfram; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Goesmann, Fred

    It has been suggested a number of times in the past, to look for chirality as a biomarker. So far, for lack of appropriate instrumentation, space missions have never included enantioselective analysis. The distinction between enantiomers is of crucial importance to the question of the origin of the very first (pre)biotic molecules. If molecules detected in situ on another celestial body were found to exhibit a chiral bias, this would mean that at least partial asymmetric synthesis could take place abiotically. If this chiral bias should be found to be near 100For the currently flying ESA mission ROSETTA an enantioselective instrument was built, to try for the first time to detect and separate chiral molecules in situ. This instrument is COSAC, the Cometary Sampling and Acquisition Experiment, an enantioselective GCMS device[1,2], which is included in the lander PHLIAE that will eventually in 2014 land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A similar but even more powerful type of enantioselective GC-MS is in preparation for ESA's ExoMars mission. This instrument is part of MOMA, the Mars Organic Molecules Analyser. It has the objective of identifying and quantifying chiral organic molecules in surface and subsurface samples of Mars. Currently ExoMars is scheduled for 2018. The newly developed enantioselective technique utilized by both COSAC and MOMA will be described, including sample acquisition, derivatization, and separation in space-resistant chiral stationary capillary columns with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. Results of enantioselective analyses of representative test samples with special emphasis on amino acids[3], the building blocks of protein polymers, will be presented and we will discuss potential results of space missions Rosetta and ExoMars. [1] Thiemann W.H.-P., Meierhenrich U.: ESA Mission ROSETTA Will Probe for Chirality of Cometary Amino Acids. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 31 (2001), 199-210. [2

  20. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles is illustrated on time series of all grain yields in Russia for the last 119 years. Phase portrait of this time series is illustrated in twodimension space. As a result, the phase portrait consists of 22 frequently unstable quasicycles which tottality forms a strange attractor. Quasicycles have quantitative (length and quality (configuration characteristics. Their combination defines very important characteristic called trend-stability. Phase analysis is a powerful form of analysis of time series to assess cyclic recurrence and is a tool for pre-forecasting analysis. Fuzzy sets' mathematical apparatus is also used in this article. An algorithm of formation of fuzzy sets' quasicycles' length is also presented here. Quasicycles' statistics are presented in tables, geometric patterns and in the form of fuzzy sets

  1. Multielement analysis of human hair reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Human Hair (NIES No. 5) as an environmental reference material prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan (NIES) was analyzed by an instrumental neutron activation method. The human hair samples (ca. 200∼500 mg) were irradiated for 2 min or 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor. The activated samples were measured by four gamma-ray spectrometories, namely a spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, anticoincidence and coincidence counting spectrometries using a coaxial Ge detector, and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector, and a low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) using a planer Ge detector, to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. Concentrations of 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined by these measurements. The analyzed values of many elements except Sr were in good agreement with NIES certified values determined by nine different analytical methods. (author)

  2. Evaluation of aziridine bonding agent by means of chemical and instrumental techniques of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Cortes Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using wet chemistry and instrumental analysis has been developed for evaluating the ring-opening of aziridine tris [1-(2 methyl aziridinyl] phosphide oxide (MAPO of the bonding agent used in composite propellant. A reduction was observed in the intensity absorption bands in 1400 and 1040 cm-1, characteristic of aziridinic ring. It was also observed, in some cases, that when the number of open aziridinyl ring increases, the NH band in the range 3400-3300 cm-1, that appears with ring-opening, is located in the region of lower wave numbers. The study of the synthesis of MAPO derivative indicated side reactions such as homopolymerization of rings and also, with secondary hydroxyl of the 12-hydroxy stearic acid and probable humidity existent in the original sample.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  4. The accuracy of instrumental neutron activation analysis of kilogram-size inhomogeneous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, M; Lakmaker, O; van Aller, P

    1997-07-01

    The feasibility of quantitative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of samples in the kilogram range without internal standardization has been demonstrated by Overwater et al. (Anal. Chem. 1996, 68, 341). In their studies, however, they demonstrated only the agreement between the "corrected" γ ray spectrum of homogeneous large samples and that of small samples of the same material. In this paper, the k(0) calibration of the IRI facilities for large samples is described, and, this time in terms of (trace) element concentrations, some of Overwater's results for homogeneous materials are presented again, as well as results obtained from inhomogeneous materials and subsamples thereof. It is concluded that large-sample INAA can be as accurate as ordinary INAA, even when applied to inhomogeneous materials.

  5. A quality assurance programme for the determination of selenium in foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is unevenly distributed through the biosphere. The levels, species and bioavailability of selenium in foods depend greatly on the geochemical environment in which they are grown. Variation in geochemical conditions can not only lead to certain diseases in animals but also influence the selenium body burden in humans. For these reasons, there is an increasing interest in monitoring selenium levels in foods and diets. A quality assurance programme has been developed for the determination of low levels of selenium in foods and diets by cyclic and pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using the short-lived (half-life = 17.4 s) 77Sem nuclide. Both conventional and anti-coincidence gamma ray spectrometry techniques have been employed. Pseudo-cyclic INAA in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been found to provide the most reliable results. Internal and external quality assessments have been done using a number of parameters. (author)

  6. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k0-standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  7. Elementary composition of the siderurgy slag by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slag has been applied to the ground to neutralize its acidity, in similar way to the calcareous rock, contributing in the agriculture as corrective of the acidity alone it and source of nutrients for the plants. However, the alternative for the agricultural slag exploitation is related to metal texts heavy gifts in the slag. The objective of the present work was to survey of the chemical composition of trashes generated in blast high-oven, steel, oven of pan and fertilizers that had used in its manufacture slag of siderurgy for the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results had evidenced the existence of high variations in the elements Ce, Cr, In, K, Sb and Zn in the distinct analyzed samples. (author)

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to the chemical composition of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the technological application of steel, the knowledge of its chemical composition is of fundamental importance as it is directly related to various properties, such as, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, temperability and others. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, is an appropriate technique in the evaluation of the chemical composition of steel and other metallurgical materials due to the possibility of simultaneous determination of a great number of elements without the inconvenience of sample dissolution. Element determination is achieved with good accuracy and precision for major and minor constituents as well as for trace elements. In this paper, INAA was used in the determination of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and W in steel and iron samples and in certified reference materials. The obtained accuracy and precision were less than 10% for most of the elements confirming the possibility of its use in the study of metallic samples and in the certification of new reference materials. (author)

  9. Chemical contents in Lygeum spartum L. using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria)

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation was conducted to determine the chemical contents of Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae). Samples were analyzed in order to determine essential (Ca, K, Na, Fe, Co) and some potentially toxic elements (Eu, Sb, Tb) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general chemical element contents were in substantial amounts to meet adult sheep requirements. Potential intake of Ca, K, Zn, Co and Fe by ruminant weighing 50 kg BW consuming 2.0 kg per day DM was sufficient to satisfy their requirements. However, only Na level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants. Potential toxic elements in this species were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by NRC. Na supplementation would seem to be necessary in this zone, for optimum productivity of grazing animals.

  10. Assessment of some chemical element contents in Traganum nudatum Del shrub using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bouzid Nedjimi; Brahim Beladel

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to determine some chemical element contents (K, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, Sb, and Sc) in Traganum nudatum Del (Chenopodiaceae family) consumed in North African rangelands by sheep livestock. Samples were collected from the area of Djelfa in an arid steppe of Algeria. Results show that pasture halophyte had sufficient levels of K, Ca, Zn, and Co to meet the requirements of ruminants. However, it seems that this halophyte shrub had substantial amounts of Na, higher than the critical level established by the National Research Council (NRC). Eu, Sb, and Sc were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by the NRC. The high Na content (∼10 g/kg) in this halophytic species requires elevated intake of water by livestock.

  11. Study of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol samples were collected to study the characteristics of marine aerosols in the different western Pacific ocean areas. During the first cruise from 15 October to 25 November 1989, aerosol samples were collected with a kA-200 Andersen cascade impactor and a kB-120 sampler. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of the aerosols. The concentrations of crustal and pollution elements in aerosols were higher over the ocean area close to the China coast and decreased very rapidly with increasing distance from land. The morphology and elemental composition of aerosol particles showed that the seasalt particles may conglomerate with small crustal and pollution particles from land to form large particles. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  13. Research Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  14. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  15. Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    2011-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

  16. Dynamics of elements in soil treated with increasing doses sewage sludge for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the dynamics of the elements was analyzed The, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, La, In the, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, U, Yb and Zn in a profile of a red-yellow latossolo, in the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm, and dose of the biosolid of 0, 25, 124 and 375 t ha-1, of the station of treatment of sewer of Barueri, Sao Paulo. The experiment was carried out in areas of 3,05 m2 in the times of 2,2; 4,0; 6,6; 14,3 and 21 months. For analysis of the elementary composition, it was used of the analysis technique by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experiment was submitted under normal tropical conditions in a forest station in Itatinga, Sao Paulo, of the University of Sao Paulo. For better details, the factors depth, doses and times statistical analyses of the results of the elementary composition of the soil samples were made. For all the biossolid doses conditioned with polymeric and applied in the soil, the composition of 17 of the 18 elements in the soil were not altered, with exception for Cr in the studied times. The elements As, Br, Ce, Co, Fe, Hf, La, Sm, Ta, Th, U and Yb presented higher levels in the deepest layers of soil; already the elements Cr, In the, Sb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the superficial layers. (author)

  17. Gas chromatographic instrumentation for the analysis of aerosols and gases in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T. W.; Valentin, J. R.; Ohara, B. J.; Kojiro, D. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumentation presently being developed by NASA for the collection and analysis of organic gases and aerosols in Titan's atmosphere is described together with the results of the preliminary experiments. For the aerosols, stepwise pyrolysis was shown to be a suitable method for preparing complex organic material for gas chromatography (GC), and a pyrolysis-gas chromatograph was developed and successfully used to analyze a simulated Titan aerosol. Atmospheric gases will be collected by a low-pressure gas sampling system using large-volume sample loops and analyzed by GC. The results of preliminary studies using a 20 cu cm sampling system and a very sensitive metastable ionization detector showed that hydrocarbon components at the 10 ppb level can be detected. Studies are in progress on shortening the overall analysis time by improving the pyrolysis system, the gas sampling system, and the associated gas chromatograph. Further development of the gas sampling system is planned to ensure rapid collection of samples adequate for analysis by GC over the entire range of pressures to be encountered during the probe's descent.

  18. Multi-element characterization of silicon nitride powders by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franek, M.; Krivan, V. (Ulm Univ. (Germany). Sektion Analytik und Hoechstreinigung)

    1992-07-15

    An optimized instrumental neutron activation analysis method was applied to the comprehensive trace characterization of good- and high- purity silicon nitride powders of different origins. Experimental modes are given for 55 elements leading to limits of detection below 1 ng g[sup -] [sup 1] for 28 elements, between 1 and 100 ng g[sup -1] for 19 elements and higher than 100 ng g[sup -1] for 8 elements. For the removal of the radionuclides [sup 140]La, [sup 182]Ta and [sup 187]W, which cause the major activity in certain types of materials, radiochemical procedures based in cation exchange from 2 M HCl and anion exchange from 2 M HF were developed. [sup 64]Cu was selectively extracted with dithizone from 10 M HF for counting the 511-keV line. By radiochemical neutron activation analysis, the limits of detection were improved by up to three orders of magnitude. Comparison with results obtained by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry and ICP mass spectrometry shows satisfactory agreement and demonstrates the advantages of neutron activation analysis especially when low elements contents are to be determined. (author). 30 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs.

  19. Determination of nitrogen in boron carbide by instrumental photon activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchel, Silke; Berger, Achim

    2007-05-01

    Boron carbide is widely used as industrial material, because of its extreme hardness, and as a neutron absorber. As part of a round-robin exercise leading to certification of a new reference material (ERM-ED102) which was demanded by the industry we analysed nitrogen in boron carbide by inert gas fusion analysis (GFA) and instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the 14N(gamma,n)13N nuclear reaction. The latter approach is the only non-destructive method among all the methods applied. By using photons with energy below the threshold of the 12C(gamma,n)11C reaction, we hindered activation of matrix and other impurities. A recently installed beam with a very low lateral activating flux gradient enabled us to homogeneously activate sample masses of approximately 1 g. Taking extra precautions, i.e. self-absorption correction and deconvolution of the complex decay curves, we calculated a nitrogen concentration of 2260+/-100 microg g-1, which is in good agreement with our GFA value of 2303+/-64 microg g-1. The values are the second and third highest of a rather atypical (non-S-shape) distribution of data of 14 round-robin participants. It is of utmost importance for the certification process that our IPAA value is the only one not produced by inert gas fusion analysis and, therefore, the only one which is not affected by a possible incomplete release of nitrogen from high-melting boron carbide.

  20. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  1. Rare earth element (REE) in surface mangrove sediment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is carried out on the concentrations of rare earth element (REE) elements present in surface mangrove sediments from 10 locations throughout west coast Malaysia. In carrying out the analysis, the best and most convenient method being the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples were obtained, dried, crushed to powdery form and samples prepared for INAA. All the samples for analysis were weighted approximately 150 mg for short irradiation and 200 mg for long irradiation time. As calibration and quality control procedures, blank samples, standard reference material SL-1 were then irradiated with thermal neutron flux of 4 × 1012 cm-2 s-1 at the MINT TRIGA Mark II research reactor which operated at 750 kW by using a pneumatic transport facility. The REE elements of surface sediment samples in this study are Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, Tb, La and Ce. It was found that the level of concentrations of all the REE elements varies in the range (0.35-117.4 mg/kg). The geochemical behavior of REEs in surface sediments and normalized pattern (chondrite and shale) has been studied. The degree of sediments contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor. The results showed that the enrichment factor varied in the range (0.75-6.75). (author)

  2. Rare Earth Elements In Egyptian Granite By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobilization of rare earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in (REEs) chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of (REEs) and related elements. Therefore, (INAA) was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of rare earth elements to find out what information could be obtained about the (REEs) of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi EI-Allaqi, EI-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pacha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 1011n/cm2.s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence XRF was also used

  3. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  4. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing. The PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Computer and Information Science; Wolf, Felix G. [Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, Julich (Germany). Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-­end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-­performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-­fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to

  5. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing: the PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon; Wolf, Felix G. [Juelich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Juelich

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to accomplish

  6. Analysis of umayyad islamic silver coins (Dirhams) by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Islamic silver coins (Dirhams) running the period between 107 to 126 Hijri (726-743AD), which belong to the Umayyad Empire period, 41-132 hijri (661-750AD), were selected for analysis by using instrumentalneutron activation analysis techniques.During this period (105-126H),(724-743AD), the Caliph Hisham Eben Abdlemalek ruled the Umayyad Empire.Dirhams were irradiated in a reactor neutron activation facility.Levels of various elements viz.Cu, Ag and Au were estimated.It was found that the average silver concentration, the baseconstituent of the Dirham, was about 88wt%.Correlation between thecomposition of Dirhams and the historical implications was discussed.

  7. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  8. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  9. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  10. Shift–share Analysis of manufacturing as a measuring instrument for Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Philippus Kleynhans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Shift-share analysis of employment as a measuring instrument for human resource management is proposed by this study. The results obtained through this technique can assist human resource management on the macro-level in making informed and strategic decisions regarding future employment practices and trends. This technique is often applied to studies of economic geography, and is illustrated in this article through its application to the estimation of future employment potential of manufacturing industries of South Africa’s Southern District Municipality. The economy in this region is mainly dependent on gold mining, which is declining as gold reserves are becoming depleted. As a result, a large section of the area’s population will be unemployed in future, causing adversity and other development needs. Shift-share analysis provides insight into the shifts of employment in the various sectors over time, as well as insight into the national share effect on employment in the region, including the regional-industrial mix and the competitive share effects. It was found that the sectors with the highest employment creation potential are: transport equipment, wood and paper products, metal products, and furniture. Some suggestions are also made regarding the ways that this information can be utilised in human resource management.

  11. [Design and analysis of automatic measurement instrument for diffraction efficiency of plane reflection grating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Qi, Xiang-Dong; Yu, Hong-Zhu; Yu, Hai-Li

    2009-02-01

    A new-style system that automatically measures the diffraction efficiency of plane reflection grating was designed. The continuous illuminant was adopted for illumination, the duplex grating spectrograph structure was applied, and the linear array NMOS was the receiving component. Wielding relevant principle of the grating spectrograph, theoretical analysis principle was carried out for the testing system. Integrating the aberration theory of geometrical optics, the image quality of this optics system was analyzed. Analysis indicated that the systematic device structure is compact, and electronics system is simplified. The system does not have the problem about wavelength sweep synchronization of the two grating spectrographs, and its wavelength repeatability is very good. So the precision is easy to guarantee. Compared with the former automated scheme, the production cost is reduced, moreover it is easy to operate, and the working efficiency is enhanced. The study showed that this automatic measurement instrument system features a spectral range of 190-1 100 nm and resolution is less than 3 nm, which entirely satisfies the design request. It is an economical and feasible plan. PMID:19445251

  12. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  13. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  14. How do Innovation Intermediaries add Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Hsuan, Juliana; Mahnke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Innovation intermediaries are increasingly being used in practice, but there is little concrete theoretical guidance on when and how they add value to client's new product development (NPD) processes. This paper develops propositions on innovation intermediaries value-added based on a detailed case...... study of an innovation intermediary's relations to three major clients in the European apparel fashion industry. We identify key contingencies to an innovation intermediary's value added (e.g. NDP speed and complexity of involvement). We also suggest a framework that specifies when a combination of four...... types of specific intermediary capabilities (best-cost capabilities, timing-capabilities, market-response capabilities, and product solution capabilities) increases value added in clients' NDP processes....

  15. An analysis on the market of instrumentation in nuclear power plant in China and its localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumentation plays a critical role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The instrumentations used in the working nuclear power plants in China, especially the Class 1E ones, are mainly imported products. This has been one of the key elements restricting the localized development of the Chinese nuclear power industry. Based on a fundamental survey of the Chinese nuclear instrumentation market, this paper introduces the definition, classification of nuclear instrumentations, states the market status, analyzes the cause of how this situation was formed, and makes some proposals on how to handle the localization job in the future. (authors)

  16. Trace Element Analysis of Human Lung Tissue by Neutron Activation and Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of trace elements in tissues in the ppm to pp109 range requires very careful and specialized techniques both in the sample acquisition and in subsequent analysis. Many of the trace elements which are present in human tissues are at lower concentrations than those in super-pure chemical reagents; also, an acid rinse of typical laboratory glassware may contain as much of some trace elements as the tissue sample being studied. An analytical technique based on neutron activation for the measurement of trace elements in tissues has been developed which requires a minimum of pre-irradiation handling followed by the direct measurement of the activation products on a multidimensional or a solid-state gammaray spectrometer. This technique has been applied to a study of trace elements in human lung tissue. Lung tissue contains not only the tissue-bound elements but also those which have been deposited in the cells of the pulmonary alveoli through inhalation. The method permits the direct measurement of 15 trace elements. The analysis of lung tissues thus provides information on the integrated trace element deposition resulting during the life of an individual. The concentrations of several of these including Fe, Br, P, Se, Ag, Zn, Cs, Co, Sc, U and Sb have been measured in several autopsy and biopsy samples of both normal and diseased tissues from several subjects with known case histories. The variations in the observed trace element compositions are presented and considered in terms of the occupational and medical history of the subject. (author)

  17. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  18. Design and psychometric analysis of an instrument to detect the presence of cyberbullying in a school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Baquero Correa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design an instrument to detect cyberbullying in a school context and analyze its psychometric properties. Participants were 299 adolescents (54.2% female and 45.8% male with a mean age of 15 years, belonging to the lower stratum (22.1% and middle layer (78%. A quantitative study with a non-experimental design instrumental and the cross section was performed. Under the classical test theory, adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha α = .864 and convergent validity with other measures was obtained. Confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS version 21, which resulted in three factors was performed. From item response theory, INFIT found that the items ranged from 0.73 and 1.23 and between 0.74 and 1.24 OUTFIT. Based on the favorable results of psychometric analysis, we conclude that the instrument can be used for detection of cyberbullying in a school context.

  19. Spectrofluorimetric analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes: Instrumentation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, John-David Ray

    Significant effort has centered on improving methods for producing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in large quantities because of their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics. Most production methods yield many diverse SWCNT structures, which are defined by the imaginary rolling up of a graphene sheet. The discovery of intrinsic band-gap fluorescence from semiconducting SWCNTs suspended in surfactant solutions and the subsequent assignment of the various excitation-emission features for specific SWCNT structures has opened the door to a broad range of experimental endeavors previously unavailable. This thesis describes recent progress in developing fluorimetric analysis methods and applying them to chemical problems. First, a unique turn-key SWCNT fluorescence analyzer was built and novel data analysis method was implemented for the bulk characterization of carbon nanotube samples. The instrument and analysis are illustrated by comparing deduced diameter and chirality distributions for a typical SWCNT suspension against those obtained from a general purpose spectrofluorometer system. Secondly, the use of rationally designed peptide sequences as biocompatible solubilizing agents for SWCNTs is demonstrated. This study illustrates how these peptides can be tailored to either shift the average diameter of bulk suspended SWCNTs or improve sustainable nanotube solubilization through the use of peptide crosslinking. Finally, a project is described in which the addition of diazonium salts to SWCNT suspensions quenches the intrinsic near-infrared fluorescence of the semiconducting SWCNTs through sidewall chemical reactions. Structure dependent reactivities of SWCNT species were observed in bulk measurements and variations of diazonium salt, suspending agent, and/or pH were used to moderate the reactivity trends.

  20. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  1. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Oh, M.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk.

  2. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk

  3. Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

  4. Dimensions of Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction: Development and Factor Analysis of a Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Jeff E.; Howell, Scott L.; Eggett, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument for assessing the satisfaction of part-time faculty teaching in continuing higher education at Brigham Young University (BYU). This article describes the reliability and validity of the instrument that may be used by other administrators and researchers…

  5. A class of physical modeling recurrent networks for analysis/synthesis of plucked string instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, A Y; Liang, Sheng-Fu

    2002-01-01

    A new approach is proposed that closely synthesizes tones of plucked string instruments by using a class of physical modeling recurrent networks. The strategies employed consist of a fast training algorithm and a multistage training procedure that are able to obtain the synthesis parameters for a specific instrument automatically. The training vector can be recorded tones of most target plucked instruments with ordinary microphones. The proposed approach delivers encouraging results when it is applied to different types of plucked string instruments such as steel-string guitar, nylon-string guitar, harp, Chin, Yueh-chin, and Pipa. The synthesized tones sound very close to the originals produced by their acoustic counterparts. In addition, the paper presents an embedded technique that can produce special effects such as vibrato and portamento that are vital to the playing of plucked-string instruments. The computation required in the resynthesis processing is also reasonable. PMID:18244510

  6. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 n.cm-2.s-1. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  7. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  8. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  9. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Kong, Yap Chee; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Elias, Md Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82. PMID:26405840

  10. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  11. Characteristic of elements in coal bottom ash and fly ash by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired power plant and industrial stacks that using coal produce solid waste such as bottom ash and fly ash. Determination of elements in these wastes qualitatively and quantitatively is usually the first step taken for subsequent evaluation of the associated environmental and biological risks. In this study, the determination of trace elements in bottom ash and fly ash by instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out. The samples were irradiated at rabbit facility in G.A. Siwabessy reactor with neutron flux ~ 1013 n.cm-2.s-1, and then counted by HPGe spectrometer gamma detector. The validation of method was performed by characterization of standard reference material (SRM) 1633b coal fly ash from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Some elements such as Al, As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti and V were detected in both samples. The concentration of environmentally toxic elements, As and Cr in bottom ash were 6.24 and 137.4 mg/kg, whereas in fly ash were 6.37 and 39.0 mg/kg respectively. Arsenic concentrations had been over the standard value based on PP no.85/1999. (author)

  12. Trends in instrumentation for activation analysis of short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the last year's two major activities of the authors' nuclear instrumentation group in the field of high rate and high resolution gamma spectrometry mainly devoted to the needs of activation analysis of short-lived nuclides. The first of the projects was the completion of a state-of-the-art spectrometry system for very high counting rates. Based on a laboratory-designed gated integrator pulse processing system and equipped with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 20% relative efficiency it exhibits a basic resolution of 2.3 keV at 1332 keV, which at a counting rate of 1.1 million cps of 60Co degrades to 3.4 keV. The second project included the successful implementation of the novel Preloaded Filter Technique, a new method for high resolution and high throughput processing of nuclear detector signals. An experimental implementation of the Preloaded Filter combined with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 15% relative efficiency resulted in a basic resolution of 1.9 keV at 1332 keV at a counting rate of 5000 cps slowly degrading to 3.2 keV at a counting rate of 650 000 cps of 60Co. (author)

  13. Analysis of apical deviation by type of system used to drive NRT® MANI rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Sasso Faccin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the major challenges encountered in treatment of curved canals is maintaining their original features. This study aimed to examine whether the type of system used with NRT® rotary instruments might in fl uence the occurrence of deviation in the apical region. Methods: Twenty simulated curved canals were divided into two experimental groups. In Group 1, canal preparation was performed with the pneumatic hand piece, using constant speed, but without torque control. In Group 2, an electric motor with constant speed and torque control was used. The simulated blocks were photographed before and after preparation using a platform to maintain the same position in both photographs. Images were manipulated in Adobe Photoshop® to evaluate deviation at 1 mm and 3 mm from the working length (WL. The t test was used for statistical analysis of data. The signi fi cance level was set at 1%. Results and Conclusion: Group 2 (electric motor had lower values for deviation at both locations analyzed (1 mm and 3 mm from the WL. In both groups, sites 3 mm from the WL had lower mean deviation than sites 1 mm from WL.

  14. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA [instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases

  15. Semi-automatic system for UV images analysis of historical musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Piercarlo; Invernizzi, Claudia; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lombardi, Luca; Malagodi, Marco; Rovetta, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The selection of representative areas to be analyzed is a common problem in the study of Cultural Heritage items. UV fluorescence photography is an extensively used technique to highlight specific surface features which cannot be observed in visible light (e.g. restored parts or treated with different materials), and it proves to be very effective in the study of historical musical instruments. In this work we propose a new semi-automatic solution for selecting areas with the same perceived color (a simple clue of similar materials) on UV photos, using a specifically designed interactive tool. The proposed method works in two steps: (i) users select a small rectangular area of the image; (ii) program automatically highlights all the areas that have the same color of the selected input. The identification is made by the analysis of the image in HSV color model, the most similar to the human perception. The achievable result is more accurate than a manual selection, because it can detect also points that users do not recognize as similar due to perception illusion. The application has been developed following the rules of usability, and Human Computer Interface has been improved after a series of tests performed by expert and non-expert users. All the experiments were performed on UV imagery of the Stradivari violins collection stored by "Museo del Violino" in Cremona.

  16. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelica, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania); Carmo Freitas, M. do [Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal); Ene, A. [Dunarea de Jos Univ. of Galati (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry, Physics and Environment; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  17. HELLRIDE: a new interferometric multiline instrument for the analysis of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are developing a new etalon-based spectrometer 'HELLRIDE' for the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife. It will offer improved performance over existing devices in a number of operational aspects. Primary development goal has been increasing the number of spectral lines for the simultaneous recording of solar Doppler shifts. Observations may cover a large field-of-view at high spatial and temporal resolution. New electromagnetic drive technologies are to be implemented. A focus will be set to achieve thermal stability with respect to spectroscopic drifts and pointing precision. All aspects of device operation are to be covered by a numerical model allowing for offline testing and offline observations simulation. Remote operation options will be available for dedicated observational programs. The new instrument is foreseen to be used for the analysis of energy transfers within the solar atmosphere. The helioseismological and kinetic aspects of chromospheric and coronal heating are here of special interest. To allow for synchronized observations of photospheric and coronal phenomena new procedures are under development to improve co-alignment of ground-based and space-based telescopes. HELLRIDE stands for HELioseismological Large Regions Interferometric DEvice.

  18. Determination of elemental concentrations in environmental plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intake of leafy vegetables in daily diet is very important to meet our nutritional needs. Vegetables provide the essential elements which are necessary and recommended for human growth. However, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization our environment becomes polluted and this affects the normal growth of agricultural products and composition of environmental species. The elemental concentrations present in the environmental samples are good indicators to assess the toxicological levels due to pollution affects. In the present work we have analysed several vegetable plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the elemental concentrations at major, minor and trace levels. The leafy vegetables like spinach, red leafy vegetable, pui, gourd leaf, lettuce and katoua were chosen as these are extensively consumed by local people in eastern part of India. We have determined 15 elements in the above mentioned vegetable samples and some of these are essential elements and some are toxic elements. It was found that Na and K were present as major elements, Fe and Zn as minor elements and As, Ce, Cr, Co, La, Mo, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr as trace elements. The concentration level of Cr was found to be higher than that of recommended value certified by WHO and National environment quality control for human consumption. The validation of our analytical results have been performed by the Z-score tests through the determination of concentrations of the elements of interest in certified reference materials. (author)

  19. Determination of arsenic and other trace elements in cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general survey of trace-elements in different types of cosmetics, in particular arsenic, was carried out in order to detect elements that might be detrimental to human health. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detectors. Different amounts of Br and Sb, detected in almost all the samples, produced interferencies in the determination of As when the 559 KeV photopeak was used. Since the triplet formed could not be resolved by the Ge(Li) detector, a mathematical procedure was developed using the 776 KeV gamma-ray emission of 82-Br and various factors found experimentally. This procedure was checked using laboratory-made samples of known concentrations and the results obtained had good precision and accuracy. In addition to arsenic the elements Co, Cr, Br, Sc, Fe and Zn were also quantitatively determined. Those cosmetics made from inorganic raw materials have an As concentration higher than those elaborated from organic materials. (EC)

  20. Innovative instrumentation for microarray scanning and analysis: application for characterization of oligonucleotide duplexes behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, E B; Dreval, E V; Tran-Dang, M; Potier, M C; Soussaline, F P

    2004-05-01

    Accuracy in microarray technology requires new approaches to microarray reader development. A microarray reader system (optical scanning array or OSA reader) based on automated microscopy with large field of view, high speed 3 axis scanning at multiple narrow-band spectra of excitation light has been developed. It allows fast capture of high-resolution, multi-fluorescence images and is characterized by a linear dynamic range and sensitivity comparable to commonly used photo-multiplier tube (PMT)-based laser scanner. Controlled by high performance software, the instrument can be used for scanning and quantitative analysis of any type of dry microarray. Studies implying temperature-controlled hybridization chamber containing a microarray can also be performed. This enables the registration of kinetics and melting curves. This feature is required in a wide range of on-chip chemical and enzymatic reactions including on-chip PCR amplification. We used the OSA reader for the characterization of hybridization and melting behaviour of oligonucleotide:oligonucleotide duplexes on three-dimensional Code Link slides. PMID:15209342

  1. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  2. Determination of trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis in Anatolian bentonitic clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, N.; Tulun, T.; Alemdar, A.

    1998-08-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was carried out for the determination of trace elements in non-swelling type bentonitic clays. Samples were irradiated in Triga Mark II type of reactor at the Nuclear Institute of Technical University of Istanbul. Irradiation was performed in two steps for "short and long lived" isotopes. The γ spectra of short lived isotopes were interpreted with respect to Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ti, Mn, V qualitatively and that of long lived isotopes with respect to Sc, Cr, Br, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Yb, Hf quantitatively. The relative richness of the trace elements (Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, K) observed in the Sampo 90 program was obtained using Atomic Absorption technique by normalizing its value to that of sodium. The silicon content of samples was determined by gravimetry. The results indicated that Sample I contained relatively higher amount of REE, Sb, Ca and Na than Sample II. The amount of Sc, Cr and Br were about similar in both samples. Concentrations of La, Ce, Sm and Yb are higher than REE abundances found in all natural waters. These results suggest that Ca-bentonite samples are representative of primary deposition environment. In addition, the Sc content of both the samples indicates that Ca-bentonite deposits originated from continental crust. The relatively high amount of REE might bring about porosity problems in the use of Ca-bentonite in cement and concrete production.

  3. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577{sup b} Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  4. Determination of some mineral components of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some mineral elements in the leaves, peel (periderm) and the tuber (edible portion) of seven cassava cultivars were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The cassava specimens were made up of three improved cultivars namely, TMS 30572, (Afisiafi), TMS 50395 (Gblomaduade) and TMS 4 (2) 1425 (Abasa fitaa). The others are a locally produced mutant 'Tek bankye' and two landraces 'Ankrah' and 'Akosua tumtum'. A total of 10 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Na, Br, Cl, Zn, and K) were identified in all the cultivars studied. The tuber portion contained 10 elements while the leaves and the peel contained 8 and 9 elements, respectively. Five of the elements identified (Ca, Na, K, Mg, and Cl) are classified as major elements in human nutrition while three (Mn, V, and Zn) are trace elements. The major elements were detected in high concentration in the peel of most of the cultivars than the edible tuber or leaves. Al was found in very high concentrations ranging from 643.6 to 12610.0 mg/kg in the peel except in 'Akosua tumtum' where its concentration was below 100 mg/kg. The concentration of Ca and Mg meets the recommendations made by Subcommittee on Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The presence of five major and three trace elements in the tuber indicates that cassava has a rich mineral source which makes it safe for human consumption. (author)

  5. So These Numbers Really Mean Something? A Role Playing Scenario-Based Approach to the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannas, Amanda M.; Lagalante, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    A new curricular approach in our undergraduate second-year instrumental analysis laboratory was implemented. Students work collaboratively on scenarios in diverse fields including pharmaceuticals, forensics, gemology, art conservation, and environmental chemistry. Each laboratory section (approximately 12 students) is divided into three groups…

  6. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  7. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  8. Design and Development of a Miniaturized Double Latching Solenoid Valve for the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the in-house Miniaturized Double Latching Solenoid Valve, or Microvalve, for the Gas Processing System (GPS) of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is described. The Microvalve is a double latching solenoid valve that actuates a pintle shaft axially to hermetically seal an orifice. The key requirements and the design innovations implemented to meet them are described.

  9. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugassa, I; Sarmani, S B; Samat, S B

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for. PMID:10355102

  10. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+α epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the γ-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  11. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  12. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  13. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  14. The development of an automatic sample-changer and control instrumentation for isotope-source neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic sample-changer was developed at the Council for Mineral Technology for use in isotope-source neutron-activation analysis. Tests show that the sample-changer can transfer a sample of up to 3 kg in mass over a distance of 3 m within 5 s. In addition, instrumentation in the form of a three-stage sequential timer was developed to control the sequence of irradiation transfer and analysis

  15. An Instrument to Measure Dental Students' Communication Skills With Patients in Six Specific Circumstances: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalboe, Joanna A; Schumacher, Mitzi M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the internal structure of an instrument assessing dental students' confidence in their ability to communicate with patients in six specific circumstances (anxious, in pain, etc.) using exploratory factor analysis. In a Communication in the Dental Health Care Setting course at a U.S. dental school, second-year dental students in two years (2013 and 2014) responded to the six items on a survey instrument. Of the total 123 students, 122 fully completed the instrument, for a response rate of 99%. Analysis of the results identified a unidimensional scale with regards to patient-specific communication self-efficacy and explained 74% of the total variance. The scale had good internal consistency reflected by high Cronbach's alpha (α=0.929, 95% CI [0.907, 0.947]). These findings suggest the instrument may be a useful tool in assessing the development of patient communication skills in second-year dental students following a course in communication. Further exploration utilizing confirmatory analysis, determining predictive validity, and assessing convergent and discriminant evidence is warranted.

  16. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  17. CoMA, an instrument for the detailed in-situ analysis of collected cometary particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for CoMA, a pulsed time-of-flight SIMS instrument to be flown onboard CRAF to rendezvous with a comet, had been accepted by NASA in October 1986. After several attempts it seems that funding by BMFT for the instrument pre-development phase can be obtained. Apart from that we made first essential progress in producing the primary ion pulses from an indium liquid metal ion source. Those pulses are needed to operate CoMA. (orig.)

  18. Solar rotation measurements at Mount Wilson. I - Analysis and instrumental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.; Boyden, J. E.; Labonte, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    We examine the background velocity fields of the sun as observed at Mount Wilson. The method of velocity reduction of the full-disk Mount Wilson data is outlined. We describe a number of tests that have been carried out in order to find an instrumental origin for short-term rotation variations and a large-scale background line-shift - the ears. No instrumental cause can be found for this ear effect, although such a cause cannot yet be ruled out.

  19. Scenario analysis in business model choosing for instrument-making enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Krykavskyi

    2014-06-01

    modeling of enterprise activity; - making verbal description of the nature of each strategic alternative and their SWOT-analysis; - organization of expectations market research and preferences of target consumers. This is a «field study», which is carried out in order to collect additional primary data, processing of which will provide grounds for a decision making at a later stage; - economic evaluation, drafting of objectives tree and the choice of acceptable business model of the company. The paper tested the technology at a particular investigated enterprise. Domestic instrument-making enterprise Ltd plant «Elektronpobutprylad» was chosen as the object of study. We used the following methods of research in the paper: SWOT-analysis, scenario-analysis, objectives tree, the matrix method. Conclusions and directions of further research. Nowadays, in a dynamic and unpredictable environment, many business models of domestic enterprises have lost their efficiency and competitiveness. Local enterprises, which used traditional business models, suffer losses and drop out of the market. Conversely, a number of business models, not topical in the pre-crisis period, were highly effective during a crisis and provided enterprises, which use them, with new opportunities for growth and development of business. The authors have developed a selection technology of the enterprise business model, which involves the use of the combination of scenarios, strategic alternatives matrix, SWOT-analysis and the method of «decisions tree» in the implementation of five main stages (from generation of scenarios to their economic evaluation. The application of this technology in practice will provide instruments for Ukrainian enterprises, concerning justificated selection of a new business model according to market trends and set goals of development. Testing of this technology at a specific investigated enterprise by the method of situational analysis proves the validity of the proposed

  20. Literature review and analysis of the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Zheng-zheng Zhang; Di Xie; Nelson Xie; Hong Thach Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:A comprehensive literature search for all published articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Chongqing VIP Database and WANFANG Data was conducted.The studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to extract information according to a predesigned assessment instrument.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine were identified.Of these questionnaires,7 were generic,12 were condition-specific and 78 were disease-specific.All instruments were suitable for adults,children,and both men and women.These instruments aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life,signs and symptoms as well as patient satisfaction and doctor-reported outcome.However,the descriptions were poorly constructed for some of the most basic parameters,such as the domains and items,administrative mode,response options,memory recall periods,burden evaluation,format,copyright,content validity,and other properties.CONCLUSION:The instrument development for health outcomes assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,there are many limitations in current methodologies and standards,and further studies are needed.

  1. Cyclic Fatigue Testing of Three Different Rotary Nickel Titanium Endodontic Instruments in Simulated Curved Canals - An in Vitro Sem Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy Y., Pallavi; S., Kavita; Subbarao, C. V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Instrument separation is a serious concern in endodontics. Stainless steel instruments usually deform before they separate whereas Nickel Titanium instruments do not show any sign of deformation.

  2. Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamnev, Alexander A. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: aakamnev@ibppm.sgu.ru; Tugarova, Anna V. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Antonyuk, Lyudmila P. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Tarantilis, Petros A. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Kulikov, Leonid A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perfiliev, Yurii D. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Polissiou, Moschos G. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Gardiner, Philip H.E. [Division of Chemistry, School of Science and Mathematics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-28

    In biosciences and biotechnology, the expanding application of physicochemical approaches using modern instrumental techniques is an efficient strategy to obtain valuable and often unique information at the molecular level. In this work, we applied a combination of vibrational (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques, useful in overall structural and compositional analysis of bacterial cells of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, with {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy (EMS) used for sensitive monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live bacterial cells. The information obtained, together with ICP-MS analyses for metals taken up by the bacteria, is useful in analysing the impact of the environmental conditions (heavy metal stress) on the bacterial metabolism and some differences in the heavy metal stress-induced behaviour of non-endophytic (Sp7) and facultatively endophytic (Sp245) strains. The results show that, while both strains Sp7 and Sp245 take up noticeable and comparable amounts of heavy metals from the medium (0.12 and 0.13 mg Co, 0.48 and 0.44 mg Cu or 4.2 and 2.1 mg Zn per gram of dry biomass, respectively, at a metal concentration of 0.2 mM in the medium), their metabolic responses differ essentially. Whereas for strain Sp7 the FTIR measurements showed significant accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage materials involved in stress endurance, strain Sp245 did not show any major changes in cellular composition. Nevertheless, EMS measurements showed rapid binding of cobalt(II) by live bacterial cells (chemically similar to metal binding by dead bacteria) and its further transformation in the live cells within an hour.

  3. Elemental characterization of Hazm El-Jalamid phosphorite by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) have been used to achieve accurate knowledge about the elemental analysis of phosphate ore deposits collected from Hazm El-Jalamid Northeast of Saudi Arabia. The samples were prepared for irradiation by thermal neutrons using a thermal neutron flux of 7×10(12)ncm(-2)s(-1) at ACT Lab Canada. The concentrations of 19 elements were determined. These included 12 major, minor and trace elements (Au, As, Ba, Br, Cr, Mo, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, U and Zn) and 7 rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu). Major elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cr, Ti, Mn, P, Sr and Ba) were determined using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The comparison of the concentration of U and the REEs in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples with those of the Umm Wu'al phosphate from Saudi Arabia and El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphate from Egypt shows that the contents of U and REEs are clearly higher in the Umm Wu'al, El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphates than in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples. The results of major, trace elements, uranium and rare earth elements (REE) from El Jalamid phosphate have been compared with the global values of these elements. The concentrations for most of the elements studied are lower than the concentrations reported in the literature. The acquired data will serve as a reference for the follow-up studies to assess the agronomic effectiveness of the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate rocks. PMID:27235886

  4. Measurements of 27 elements in garden and lawn fertilizers using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five locally available garden and lawn fertilizers were analyzed for elemental content using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fertilizers were labeled as High Yield; Slow Release, 13-13-13; 16-8-4 and 28-4-4. The concentration ranges of the elements measured, in μg/g, were: Ba < 10-105; Br 0.55-272; Co 0.33-3.74; Cr 10.0-42.5; Cs 0.09-1.02; Eu 0.05-0.42; Fe 1840-9830; Ga < 1-4.6; Ge < 0.1-1.23; Hf 0.07-2.32; La 1.66-10.4; Na 57.6-3990; Nd < 9; Ni < 3-12.3; Rb 2.42-48.5; Sb 0.03-0.24; Sc 0.3-3.11; Se 2.68-10.2; Sm < 0.4-2.13; Sr 21.7-214; Ta < 0.01-0.052; Tb 0.05-0.28; Th 0.52-2.16; U 0.18-0.38; Zn 10.8-233 and Zr < 1-8.95. Some of these elements are recognized as micronutritiens (e.g., Fe and (Zn), and are necessary for plant growth. However, other elements may lead to undesirable environmental effects. The undiscriminating use of fertilizers, especially in home gardening, may result in the increase of toxic elements (Co, Cr, Se, Sb, Tb, U etc.) in the underground water supply. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, J., E-mail: jonathan.hampel@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Boldt, F.M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Gerstenberg, H. [ZWE FRM-II der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Reber, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Wiehl, N. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: > We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. > We make first experiments of

  6. Holographic Spectroscopy for Rapid Electron Bunch Analysis: Development of an Instrument with THZ Resolved Optical Gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Albert

    2011-10-28

    radiation and provided the first step in the development of a self contained THz HFTS for rapid electron bunch shape analysis. Our first experiments confirmed the idea and as a side result made possible a completely new bunch length monitor eliminating any need for an external laser since only radiation produced by the bunch itself is involved. A more advanced instrument was designed to use the incoherent visible radiation pulse from the synchrotron source for sampling the THz interference pattern. It has been built and the first tests are to be conducted in April 2011 at the Jefferson FEL facility.

  7. Determination of Li, B, and F by rapid instrumental neutron activation analysis using beta-particle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the simultaneous determination of Li, B, and F, the application of rapid instrument neutron activation analysis was studied using 1.5s of irradiation and β-particle counting of 8Li, 12B, and 20F. The fast transfer facility, Mach-1, the counting equipment, a 4-channel multiplexer, and a time-base controller are discussed. Further, the technique of simultaneous decay curve analysis of three successive decays is presented and quality control by residual analysis is demonstrated. Finally, analytical results are presented of the NBS-environmental standards Coal-1632a and Coal-1635, and of three BCR-coals intended as references materials

  8. Program instrumentation oriented to program analysis%面向程序分析的插桩技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克朝; 成坚; 王甜甜; 任向民

    2015-01-01

    In order to better meet the needs of program analysis technology such as test coverage analysis,and automatic de-bugging,this paper proposed a program instrumentation model and developed a practical tool.Based on double buffering tech-nique,it constructed lexical analyzer and syntax analyzer.Instrumentation information was collected during syntactic deduc-tion.Thus instrumentation action was performed and instrumented object file was generated according to instrumentation poli-cy.It applied the program spectrum constructed by the instrumentation method to four state-art of coverage based software auto-matic debugging techniques.The defect statement was identified as the most suspicious statement by all the four techniques.It indicates that the program instrumentation method can provide necessary runtime information for accurate and efficient program analysis.%为了满足测试覆盖分析和软件调试等程序分析技术对插桩技术的需求,提出了插桩模型,开发了一款实用的插桩工具。基于双缓冲技术,构建词法分析器和语法分析器。在语法分析归约时同步收集插桩信息,然后根据插桩策略执行插桩,生成目标文件。得到的程序运行时信息被应用于影响广泛的四种软件自动调试分析方法。对于这四种方法。缺陷语句均被准确识别为最可疑语句。应用结果表明,该方法能够为准确高效的程序分析提供必要的运行时信息。

  9. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g-1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  10. Using growth curve analysis to examine challenges in instrumentation in longitudinal measurement in home visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Mena, Kristin Cotter; Swank, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Home visitation programs aim to decrease child maltreatment, yet limited longitudinal data exists concerning their screening and assessment instruments. "At risk" families (N = 2,054) were screened using the Family Stress Checklist and referred to Healthy Families Indiana. The Home Observation Measurement of the Environment Scale (HOME) and Community Life Skills Scale (CLS) were administered at multiple intervals. Growth curve analyses indicate families with lower HOME and CLS scores received more home visits and visits between assessments. However, these instruments may have "ceiling effects" and may be unsuitable for longitudinal assessment and program evaluation. Programmatic changes were made based on evaluation results. PMID:24405137

  11. The Search for Nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer C.; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Chirstopher P.; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Coll, Partice J.; Glavin, Daniel Patrick; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Wong, Mike; Atreya, Sushiil K.; Wray, James J.; Steele, Andrew; Prats, Benito D.; Szopa, Cyril; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Buch, Arnaud; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ming, Douglas W.; Conrad, Pamela Gales; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as N2 but it was lost by sputtering and photochemical loss to space, impact erosion, and chemical oxidation to nitrates. A nitrogen cycle may exist on Mars where nitrates, produced early in Mars' history, may have been later decomposed back into N2 by the current impact flux. Nitrates are a fundamental source of nitrogen for terrestrial microorganisms, and they have evolved metabolic pathways to perform both oxidation and reduction to drive a complete biological nitrogen cycle. Therefore, the characterization of nitrogen in Martian soils is important to assess habitability of the Martian environment, particularly with respect to the presence of nitrates. The only previous mission that was designed to search for soil nitrates was the Phoenix mission but N-containing species were not detected by TEGA or the MECA WCL. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in Nakhla meteorites, and if nitrogen was oxidized on Mars, this has important implications for the habitability potential of Mars. Here we report the results from the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite aboard the Curiosity rover during the first year of surface operations in Gale Crater. Samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit and sedimentary rocks (John Klein) were heated to approx 835degC under helium flow and the evolved gases were analyzed by MS and GC-MS. Two and possibly three peaks may be associated with the release of m/z 30 at temperatures ranging from 180degC to 500degC. M/z 30 has been tentatively identified as NO; other plausible contributions include CH2O and an isotopologue of CO, 12C18O. NO, CH2O, and CO may be reaction products of reagents (MTBSTFA/DMF) carried from Earth for the wet chemical derivatization experiments with SAM and/or derived from indigenous soil nitrogenated organics. Laboratory analyses indicate that it is also possible that <550degC evolved NO is produced via reaction of HCl with

  12. Reliability of instrumented movement analysis as outcome measure in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Results from a multitask locomotor protocol

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ferrarin; Bovi, G.; Rabuffetti, M.; Mazzoleni, P; Montesano, A.; Moroni, I.; Pagliano, E.; A. Marchi; C. Marchesi; E. Beghi; Pareyson, D

    2011-01-01

    Some neurodegenerative diseases at early stage may not drastically affect basic gait ability, whereas more demanding locomotor tasks are more prone to disease-induced abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the interday test–retest reliability, 4–6 weeks apart, of instrumented movement analysis on a group of 20 subjects with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease considering a set of kinematic and kinetic curves and related parameters obtained during natural walking (NW) and faster walking, hee...

  13. X-ray instrumentation for analysis of fluorescent and scattered radiation (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslattes, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Application of high resolution instrumentation to the study of the near-threshold behavior of fluorescent and scattered radiation along with such properties as polarization and angular distribution has proven fertile. This article reviews some alternative strategies for improving the efficiency with which such secondary spectra can be registered.

  14. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges...

  15. Analysis of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brand’s audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Makhnusha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors analyze the content, particularities and the rules of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brands audience. Approaches to estimating the results of brand-coloristics are proposed and attitude of different age consumer groups to its measures is found out.

  16. Systems analysis of instrumentation for in situ examination of rock properties. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If salt beds or shale beds are used for burial of nuclear wastes, then boreholes that penetrate the beds will be sealed to prevent transport of water into the beds via the boreholes. There will be interest in monitoring the environment in local regions of the borehole for years to come. Such monitoring may be aimed at providing assurance that the integrity of the borehole plug and the integrity of borehole wall seals have not degraded. Of course, there will be interest in monitoring the burial vault geology as well, and the results of this study are relevant to this requirement also. A study of buried instrumentation in boreholes without any wires between the buried instruments and the surface of the earth was performed. Consequently, buried power supplies and through-the-earth communications systems are required. Study ground rules included the following: burial depths to range between 150 m and 1500 m; maximum temperature of 1000C at the burial depth; and system target lifetime of 10 to 100 years. The instrumentation system is separable into four functional subsystems: (A) a basic instrument subsystem; (B) a command, control, and data processing (CCD) subsystem; (C) a communication subsystem; and (D) a power supply subsystem. The major findings of the study are listed by subsystem

  17. Human Capital Contracts: "Equity-Like" Instruments for Financing Higher Education. Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Miguel

    Human capital contracts are "equity-like" instruments for financing higher education. Since repayment depends on earning and adjusts to student capital to pay, these contracts should be more attractive to students than traditional loans. By making transparent the relative economic value of certain fields of study or the value of degrees from…

  18. Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME-GC-MS: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Students analyze "trans"-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS with ethyl benzoate as the internal standard. Aside from the instrumentation, the experiment utilizes readily available low hazard materials and can be completed within one four-hour laboratory period. (Contains 2 figures.)

  19. Using Texas Instruments Emulators as Teaching Tools in Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vaneica Y.

    2011-01-01

    This technology report alerts upper-division undergraduate chemistry faculty and lecturers to the use of Texas Instruments emulators as virtual graphing calculators. These may be used in multimedia lectures to instruct students on the use of their graphing calculators to obtain solutions to complex chemical problems. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. The Challenge of Measuring Epistemic Beliefs: An Analysis of Three Self-Report Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael; Beesley, Andrea D.; Thoma, Stephen J.; Hestevold, Nita L.

    2008-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs are notoriously difficult to measure with self-report instruments. In this study, the authors used large samples to assess the factor structure and internal consistency of 3 self-report measures of domain-general epistemic beliefs to draw conclusions about the trustworthiness of findings reported in the literature. College…

  1. Simplifying the Analysis of Data from Multiple Heliophysics Instruments and Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazell, D.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the intertwined plasma, particles and fields connecting the Sun and the Earth requires combining data from many diverse sources, but there are still many technological barriers that complicate the merging of data from different instruments and missions. We present an emerging data serving capability that provides a uniform way to access heterogeneous and distributed data. The goal of our data server is to provide a standardized data access mechanism that is identical for data of any format and layout (CDF, custom binary, FITS, netCDF, CSV and other flavors of ASCII, etc). Data remain in their original format and location (i.e., at instrument team sites or existing data centers), and our data server delivers a dynamically reformatted view of the data. Scientists can then use tools (clients that talk to the server) that offer a single interface for browsing, analyzing or downloading many different contemporary and legacy heliophysics data sets. Our current server accesses many CDF data resources at CDAWeb, as well as multiple other instrument team sites. Our webservice will be deployed on the Amazon Cloud at http://datashop.elasticbeanstalk.com/. Two basic clients will also be demonstrated: one in Java and one in IDL. Python, Perl, and Matlab clients are also planned. Complex missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus will benefit greatly from tools that enable multi-instrument and multi-mission data comparison.

  2. Comprehensive analysis and differentiated assessment of food safety control systems: a diagnostic instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Bango, L.; Kussaga, J.; Rovira, J.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an instrument is presented to diagnose microbial safety control activities in a food safety management system. The need of such a tool is derived from the importance of microbial safety control and the need for improvement of existing control systems. Careful diagnosis of these syst

  3. [Development of chlorophyll concentration nondestructive measurement instrument based on spectral analysis technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Bo; Xu, Yu-Po; Zhang, Chao-Hang; Zhang, Guang-Jun; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2009-10-01

    A portable nondestructive measuring instrument for plant chlorophyll was developed, which can perform real-time, quick and nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll. The instrument is mainly composed of four parts, including leaves clamp, driving circuit of light source, photoelectric detection and signal conditioning circuit and micro-control system. A new scheme of light source driving was proposed, which can not only achieve constant current, but also control the current by digital signal. The driving current can be changed depending on different light source and measurement situation by actual operation, which resolves the matching problem of output intensity of light source and input range of photoelectric detector. In addition, an integrative leaves clamp was designed, which simplified the optical structure, enhanced the stability of apparatus, decreased the loss of incident light and improved the signal-to-noise ratio and precision. The photoelectric detection and signal conditioning circuit achieve the conversion between optical signal and electrical signal, and make the electrical signal meet the requirement of AD conversion, and the photo detector is S1133-14 of Hamamatsu Company, with a high detection precision. The micro-control system mainly achieves control function, dealing with data, data storage and so on. As the most important component, microprocessor MSP430F149 of TI Company has many advantages, such as high processing speed, low power, high stability and so on. And it has an in-built 12 bit AD converter, so the data-acquisition circuit is simpler. MSP430F149 is suitable for portable instrument. In the calibration experiment of the instrument, the standard value was measured by chlorophyll meter SPAD-502, multiple linear calibration models were built, and the instrument performance was evaluated. The correlation coefficient between chlorophyll prediction value and standard value is 0.97, and the root mean square error of prediction is about 1

  4. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  5. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  6. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  7. Neural biomarkers for dyslexia, ADHD and ADD in the auditory cortex of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Serrallach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and attention deficit disorder (ADD show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N=147 using neuroimaging, magnet-encephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only a clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD, a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities.

  8. Analysis on the illegal to add nonfood substances in some foods in Guangzhou in 2006 -2008%2006-2008年广州市部分食品中违法添加物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坤才; 何洁仪; 李迎月; 林晓华; 李意兰; 余超

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州市部分食品违法添加非食用物质现状.方法 2006-2008年对广州市市售水产品、保鲜食品、豆制品、粮食、蜜饯、蛋及蛋制品、乳及乳制品等进行食品污染物监测,同时进行部分非食用物质的监测.结果 水产品、保鲜食品、豆制品中的甲醛检出率分别为21.21%、44.38%、1.14%,其中一份保鲜食品甲醛检出值最高达2 851.00 mg/kg;粮食、蜜饯、豆制品中的甲醛次硫酸氢钠(吊白块)均未检出;蛋及蛋制品中的苏丹红Ⅰ~Ⅳ均未检出;乳及乳制品、含乳饮料中的三聚氰胺检出率分别为17.65%、11.11%,其中乳及乳制品三聚氰胺最高检出值达328.00 mg/kg.结论 目前广州市市售部分食品仍存在违法添加非食用物质现象,应引起相关监管部门重视.%Objective To find out the situation of nonfood substances used illegally in foods in Guangzhou. Methods Contaminants and nonfood substances in some kinds of food samples, such as aquatic products, preserved foods, soybean products and cereals, were monitored from a number of supermarkets, catering industries, wholesale and retail outlets of 12 districts in Guangzhou in 2006 -2008. Results The detection rate of formaldehyde in aquatic products, waterishlogged food products and bean products samples was 21. 21% , 44. 38% , 1. 14% respectively. The content of formaldehyde in one waterishlogged food sample was high up to 2 851. 00 mg/kg. Sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate was not detected in cereals, preserved fruits and bean products samples. Sudan red I-IV was not detected in eggs and egg products. The detection rate of melamine in milk and milk products, milk beverage samples was 17. 65% and 11. 11% respectively. The content of melamine in one milk and milk products sample was 328. 00 mg/kg. Conclusion Close attention should be paid to the problem about illegal to add nonfood substances in some foods in Guangzhou.

  9. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  10. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters. [Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.; Bull, J. S.; Peach, L. L.; Demko, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a sensitivity analysis of the Decelerated Steep Approach and Landing (DSAL) maneuver to on-board and ground-based navigation system parameters. The Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) DSAL maneuver involves decelerating to zero range rate while tracking the localizer and glideslope. The considered study investigated the performance of the navigation systems using Constant Deceleration Profile (CDP) guidance and a six degrees glideslope trajectory. A closed-loop computer simulation of the UH1H helicopter DSAL system was developed for the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions on system performance parameter sensitivity are discussed.

  11. Analysis of the eight-year trend in ozone depletion from empirical models of solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Hudson, R. D.; Serafino, G.

    1990-01-01

    Arguments are presented showing that the basic empirical model of the solar backscatter UV (SBUV) instrument degradation used by Cebula et al. (1988) in their analysis of the SBUV data is likely to lead to an incorrect estimate of the ozone trend. A correction factor is given as a function of time and altitude that brings the SBUV data into approximate agreement with the SAGE, SME, and Dobson network ozone trends. It is suggested that the currently archived SBUV ozone data should be used with caution for periods of analysis exceeding 1 yr, since it is likely that the yearly decreases contained in the archived data are too large.

  12. Applicability of three alternative instruments for food authenticity analysis: GMO identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, A; Foy, C; Burns, M

    2011-03-06

    Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab901 TapeStation, and Shimadzu MCE-202 MultiNA) for the detection of GMOs using PCR based on a previously validated protocol. Whilst minor differences in the performance characteristics of bias and precision were observed, all three instruments demonstrated their applicability in using this protocol for screening of GMO ingredients.

  13. Applicability of Three Alternative Instruments for Food Authenticity Analysis:GMO Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab901 TapeStation, and Shimadzu MCE-202 MultiNA for the detection of GMOs using PCR based on a previously validated protocol. Whilst minor differences in the performance characteristics of bias and precision were observed, all three instruments demonstrated their applicability in using this protocol for screening of GMO ingredients.

  14. Factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument for sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques. PMID:19886470

  15. The design and instrumentation of the Purdue annular cascade facility with initial data acquisition and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three dimensional aerodynamic data, required to validate and/or indicate necessary refinements to inviscid and viscous analyses of the flow through turbomachine blade rows, are discussed. Instrumentation and capabilities for pressure measurement, probe insertion and traversing, and flow visualization are reviewed. Advanced measurement techniques including Laser Doppler Anemometers, are considered. Data processing is reviewed. Predictions were correlated with the experimental data. A flow visualization technique using helium filled soap bubbles was demonstrated.

  16. Exploratory analysis of the effectiveness of guarantee derivative instruments from IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Bravo Herrera; Ariel Márquez Sepúlveda; Cristian Pinto Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an exploration of major traded derivative instruments in Chile, the interest rate swaps, and most commonly used valuation methods, addressing financial risk management in the context of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). We analyze the requirements for adopting hedge accounting, particularly with regard to evidence of effectiveness, and discuss particular aspects of the Chilean case that companies must face the time to prove the validity of contracts a...

  17. Heavy metal pollution determination of Zayandehrood River by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous work, 40 elements in 71 samples from Zayandehrood River sediment analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Method. According to element variation curves along the river, all the river path has divided to four region which in each one, concentration of elements are almost constant. Enrichment factors have calculated for mean of element concentrations in each region and it has showed that Ag, As, Au, Cu, Hg, Sb, Zn have concentrated in Isfahan city region due to domestic wastes

  18. Applicability of Three Alternative Instruments for Food Authenticity Analysis:GMO Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Burrell, A.; Foy, C; Burns, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab9...

  19. Microchip capillary electrophoresis instrumentation for in situ analysis in the search for extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria F; Stockton, Amanda M; Willis, Peter A

    2012-09-01

    The search for signs of life on extraterrestrial planetary bodies is among NASA's top priorities in Solar System exploration. The associated pursuit of organics and biomolecules as evidence of past or present life demands in situ investigations of planetary bodies for which sample return missions are neither practical nor affordable. These in situ studies require instrumentation capable of sensitive chemical analyses of complex mixtures including a broad range of organic molecules. Instrumentation must also be capable of autonomous operation aboard a robotically controlled vehicle that collects data and transmits it back to Earth. Microchip capillary electrophoresis (μCE) coupled to laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection provides this required sensitivity and targets a wide range of relevant organics while offering low mass, volume, and power requirements. Thus, this technology would be ideally suited for in situ studies of astrobiology targets, such as Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and Titan. In this review, we introduce the characteristics of these planetary bodies that make them compelling destinations for extraterrestrial astrobiological studies, and the principal groups of organics of interest associated with each. And although the technology we describe here was first developed specifically for proposed studies of Mars, by summarizing its evolution over the past decade, we demonstrate how μCE-LIF instrumentation has become an ideal candidate for missions of exploration to all of these nearby worlds in our Solar System. PMID:22965706

  20. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  1. Instruments of Measurement Uncertainty Analysis Files%仪器分档不确定度的测算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志清; 张阳春

    2014-01-01

    测量不确定度的应用范围很广,当用同样的方法和仪器测量同一对象,由于测量仪器选择档位的不同,则提供不同的测量误差、分辨率,测算出的不确定度评定结果也就不同,本文以数字万用表为例进行了分档不确定度的测算分析。%Measurement uncertainty wide range of applications, when using the same methods and instruments to measure the same object, because the selected range of different measurement instruments, then provide different measurement error, resolution, a measurement uncertainty of assessment results wil different paper to digital multimeter as an example to measure the uncertainty sub-ifle analysis.

  2. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts.

  3. Introduction of a cryosectioning-ToF-SIMS instrument for analysis of non-dehydrated biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, J.; Beumer, A.; Lipinsky, D.; Arlinghaus, H. F.

    2006-07-01

    Tof-SIMS and laser-SNMS are becoming increasingly important tools for analysing the elemental and molecular distribution in biological samples. We have developed the prototype of an in-vacuum cryosectioning instrument directly attached to a ToF-SIMS/laser-SNMS instrument, which allows preparing and analyzing frozen non-dehydrated biological samples. Due to unavoidable effects during the handling, storing, and preparation of frozen samples, even inside the vacuum, it must be ensured that the analyzed surface is from the sample and not a preparation artefact. To this effect, a model structure, similar to the biological samples and with a defined chemical composition, was analyzed under varying thermal treatment before and during analysis, respectively, in order to identify a balance between evaporating and subliming adsorbed materials and the effect of freeze-drying on the measured signal.

  4. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    accuracy. They expect to measure the probe's position within two-thirds of a mile (1 kilometer) at a distance of nearly 750 million miles. "That's like being able to sit in your back yard and watch the ball in a ping-pong game being played on the Moon," said Leonid Gurvits of JIVE. Both the JPL and JIVE teams will record the data collected by the radio telescopes and process it later. In the case of the Doppler measurements, some real-time information may be available, depending on the strength of the signal, but the scientists on this team also plan to do their detailed analysis on recorded data. The JPL team is utilizing special instrumentation from the Deep Space Network called Radio Science Receivers. One will be loaned to the GBT and another to the Parkes radio observatory. "This is the same instrument that allowed us to support the challenging communications during the landing of the Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers as well as the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion when the received radio signal was very weak," said Sami Asmar, the JPL scientist responsible for the data recording. When the Galileo spacecraft's probe entered Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995, a JPL team used the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico to directly track the probe's signal. Adding the data from the VLA to that experiment dramatically improved the accuracy of the wind-speed measurements. "The Galileo probe gave us a surprise. Contrary to some predictions, we learned that Jupiter's winds got stronger as we went deeper into its atmosphere. That tells us that those deeper winds are not driven entirely by sunlight, but also by heat coming up from the planet's core. If we get lucky at Titan, we'll get surprises there, too," said Robert Preston, another JPL scientist. The Huygens probe is a spacecraft built by the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition to the NRAO telescopes, the JPL Doppler Wind Experiment will use the Australia Telescope National Facility and other radio

  5. The Ma_Miss instrument performance, I: Analysis of rocks powders by Martian VNIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Carli, Cristian; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Altieri, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    The ExoMars/Ma_Miss instrument is a miniaturized spectrometer that will observe the Martian subsoil in the visible and near infrared range (VNIR, 0.4-2.2 μm) with high spatial resolution, 120 μm. It will be integrated in the Drilling system of the Pasteur Rover of the ExoMars 2018 mission, and will acquire reflectance spectra of the borehole wall performed by the Drill, at various depths down to 2 m. The laboratory breadboard instrument consists of the main subsystems: illumination system, optical fibres for illumination and signal collection, and optical elements for light focusing. It has been interfaced with a commercial spectrometer, the FieldSpec Pro©. The primary aim of this work is to compare the VNIR measurements and spectral parameters derived from the spectra acquired with the Ma_Miss breadboard and with a second laboratory setup. Reflectance spectra have been acquired on a set of six rock powder samples representative of Martian soil. Nine different grain size ranges of each sample have been measured with the breadboard and five spectral parameters were used to explore the Ma_Miss spectra. Those data were compared with spectra acquired by the FieldSpec Pro® coupled with a goniometer. The analyses of these spectral parameters evidence the correlation between the VNIR continuum slope and the grain size, and the correlation between the reflectance and the grain size; both the parameters tend to decrease as the grain size increases. The trends observed with Ma_Miss breadboard for NIR and VNIR slopes and for the reflectance are clearly consistent with the trends observed with the spectro-goniometer setup, although small differences are seen that can be explained with the different viewing geometries of the two instruments. Ma_Miss proves to have great capabilities for extracting spectroscopic information to constrain the mineralogy and some physical parameters of the analysed material.

  6. In Situ Analysis of Martian Phyllosilicates Using the Chemin Minerological Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2008-01-01

    The CheMin minerological instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL'09) [1] will return quantitive Xray diffraction data (XRD) and quantative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF;14diffraction of fluorescence standards). Sample cells are 8-mm diamater discs with 7-micrometer thick Mylar or Kapton windows spaced 170 micrometers apart. Within this volume, the sample is shaken by piezoelectric vibration at sonic frequencies, causing the powder to flow past a narrow, collimated -ray beam in random orientation can be obtained even from minnerals exhibiting strong preferred orientation such as phylosilicates.

  7. Exploratory analysis of the effectiveness of guarantee derivative instruments from IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bravo Herrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an exploration of major traded derivative instruments in Chile, the interest rate swaps, and most commonly used valuation methods, addressing financial risk management in the context of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. We analyze the requirements for adopting hedge accounting, particularly with regard to evidence of effectiveness, and discuss particular aspects of the Chilean case that companies must face the time to prove the validity of contracts and contract coverage. The study’s findings suggest that the local market still has problems of efficiency and availability of information to (i properly manage financial risks and (ii demonstrate the effectiveness of hedges under IFRS.

  8. A New Portable XRD/XRF Instrument for Non-destructive Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pifferi, Augusto; Campi, Gaetano; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Gobbi, Ettore

    2009-01-01

    A new integrated portable apparatus capable of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements is presented. The instrument equipment is based on a Theta-Theta horizontal goniometer projected and developed in order to optimize stability and reliability for apparatus of such a reduced size and capable of capturing both XRF and XRD information. The simultaneous XRD/XRF data collection is achieved by using a Si solid state detector counting the X-ray photons scattered f...

  9. Trace element exposure in man by instrumental neutron activation analysis of hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation technique was used to analyze human hair samples collected from people living in metropolitan and rural areas in Korea. Samples were also collected from factory workers and cancer patients. Hair from metropolitan area residents contain higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Br,Mn, I and S than rural area residents. Concentrations of I and S from cancer patients, Mg, Zn, Al, Na, Mn and As from glassware workers were relatively higher. The results show that the trace element concentrations of the hair are possibly related to the trace element concentrations in the body. (author)

  10. Analysis and upgrade of instrumentation and control systems for the modernization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides assistance in the review and planning process for the upgrade of instrumentation and control systems (I and C systems) and related safety features of the reactor protection system for research reactors. In the interest of safety a need was realized to evaluate the performance of outdated I and C systems. An advisory group was assembled to develop guidelines and to provide recommendations for the upgrade of I and C systems. The recommendations on I and C systems upgrade contained in this document were developed by the advisory group using as guidelines the established safety criteria and operating standards for research reactors. 24 refs

  11. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka, E-mail: Agnieszka.Galuszka@ujk.edu.pl [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Migaszewski, Zdzisław M. [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Namieśnik, Jacek [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicz St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  12. Challenging design and development of Ma_Miss, a miniaturised spectrometric instrument for Mars sub-soil analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, E.; Coradini, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Capanni, A.; Paolinetti, R.; Re, E.; Magnani, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies), the miniaturized instrument for spectrometric and stratigraphic analysis of sub-soil developed by SELEX Galileo in the context of ESA ExoMars mission. The Ma_Miss experiment is coordinated by the Principal Investigator Angioletta Coradini (IFSI-INAF, Rome) and is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The exploration of Mars requires a detailed in-situ investigation of the Martian surface and sub-surface. Determining the composition of the Martian subsoil will provide a direct indication of the steps through which the sample material evolved along geological timescales. Ma_Miss is an instrument fully integrated in the Drill system (developed by SELEX Galileo) hosted by a Rover operating on Mars surface; Ma_Miss illuminates the wall of the drill borehole and acquires its reflectance signal in the Visible and Infrared (0.4-2.2 micron) range, analyzes it through a miniaturized spectrometer (20nm spectral resolution), and transmits the digital data to the Rover. The innovative instrument concept was driven by several key needs, related to challenging scientific requirements and extreme environmental constraints. Implementation of the concept has required a deep interdisciplinary concurrent development in order to solve critical aspects of engineering and manufacturing, covering miniaturized monolithic optics and novel concept for fiberoptic connectors capable to automatically mate/de-mate during the robotic assembly of the Drill elements on Mars.

  13. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils.

  14. Limit of detection in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors: study of the possible sources of error and application to the analysis of 41 elements at trace levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Tapparo, Andrea; Pastore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.pastore@unipd.it

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the detection limit was estimated when signals were affected by two error contributions, namely instrumental errors and operational-non-instrumental errors. The detection limit was theoretically obtained following the hypothesis testing schema implemented with the calibration curve methodology. The experimental calibration design was based on J standards measured I times with non-instrumental errors affecting each standard systematically but randomly among the J levels. A two-component variance regression was performed to determine the calibration curve and to define the detection limit in these conditions. The detection limit values obtained from the calibration at trace levels of 41 elements by ICP-MS resulted larger than those obtainable from a one component variance regression. The role of the reagent impurities on the instrumental errors was ascertained and taken into account. Environmental pollution was studied as source of non-instrumental errors. The environmental pollution role was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis technique (PCA) applied to a series of nine calibrations performed in fourteen months. The influence of the seasonality of the environmental pollution on the detection limit was evidenced for many elements usually present in the urban air particulate. The obtained results clearly indicated the need of using the two-component variance regression approach for the calibration of all the elements usually present in the environment at significant concentration levels. - Highlights: • Limit of detection was obtained considering a two variance component regression. • Calibration data may be affected by instrumental and operational conditions errors. • Calibration model was applied to determine 41 elements at trace level by ICP-MS. • Non instrumental errors were evidenced by PCA analysis.

  15. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Sohail; Munshi, Naseem; Abbas, Asad; Shaikh, Rabia Hassan; Hashmi, Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487). It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009) pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001). There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27695235

  16. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Rafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487. It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009 pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001. There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003. Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  17. Efficacy of minimally invasive electrocoagulation and conventional ligation add tripping to treat lower limb varicose veins of Chinese people:A Meta-analysis%微创电凝法与传统剥脱术治疗国人下肢静脉曲张疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 高建国; 张青云; 杨植; 郭风玲; 刘彦春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide reliable evidence to guide clinical practice by evaluating the efficacy of the treatment of minimally invasive electrocoagulation and ligation add tripping which are used to treat lower limb varicose veins of Chinese people comprehensively and objectively. Methods We searched all clinical controlled trials in the Wanfang Database, CNKI and Weipu Database from those database built to 2012 about electrocoagulation and ligation add tripping to treat lower limb varicose veins, and those selected studies are used to make a meta-analysis using Rev.Man5.0. Results Eight studies including a total of 948 cases (electrocoagulation:549;ligation add tripping:435) were included in the study. Operation time[OR -41.95,95%CI (-62.18,-21.72)], hospitalization time[OR -6.87,95%CI (-9.14,-4.16)] and rate of postoperative complications[OR 0.38,95%CI(0.17,0.84)] were significantly reduced in patients with lower limb varicose veins who were underwent electrocoagulation ligation add tripping (P0.05). Conclusion At present, minimally invasive electrocoagulation is an ideal alternative to treat lower limb varicose veins of Chinese people, but there is no available evidence to indicate that minimally invasive electrocoagulation can completely replace ligation add tripping.%目的:全面客观评价微创电凝法(电凝法)与传统剥脱术(剥脱术)治疗国人下肢静脉曲张的疗效,为指导临床实践提供可靠证据。方法计算机检索万方数据库、中国学术期刊网全文数据库(CNKI)和维普数据库从建库至2012年收录的电凝法与剥脱术治疗下肢静脉曲张的临床对照试验,并对纳入文献采用RevMan 5.0进行Meta分析。结果8篇文献共984例患者纳入研究,其中行电凝法549例,剥脱术435例。经电凝法治疗下肢静脉曲张患者的手术时间[OR -41.95,95% CI (-62.18,-21.72)]、住院时间[OR -6.87,95% CI (-9.14,-4.16)]、术后并发症发生率[OR 0.38

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some fossil samples from Romanian palaeolontologic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fossilization process, elemental contents of the buried materials are modified by different physical, chemical and biological factors, such as ground water flow and degree of aeration, chemical composition of the soil, bacterial activity, the process being influenced by the climatical conditions. Bone tissue, by the calcium phosphate mineral (hydroxyapatite) in the external part and organic component (fat and collagen) in the inner part, has proved to be a proper substrate for minor elements accumulation. The uniform increasing of certain elemental concentrations during the fossilization process is generally used in palaeoscience for the age dating. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used by us to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn, and of the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb contents of two different fossil materials discovered in Romania during 1995-1996: Elephas primigenius mammoth mandible bone (1.5-2 million years age) and Pecten solarium shell (20-25 million years age). Mammoth mandible bone samples were taken both from the external and the internal part of the bone. Shell fragments were taken in association with the surrounding rock samples. Irradiations were carried out at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest (neutron fluence rate 2.3 x 1012 cm-2 s-1 and at the TRIGA reactor in Pitesti (neutron fluence rate 5 x 1013 cm-2 s-1. For the mammoth mandible bone (relative high contents of U and P) corrections were done for the uranium fission and (n,γ)β- contribution to Ce, La, Nd and Sm concentrations, and for the phosphorus interference in Al determination. It was taken into account that 141 Ce, 140 La, 147 Nd, 153 Sm isotopes are originated not only by the neutron activation reactions of these elements, but also from the beta- decay chains of the uranium fission products; for 153 Sm, spectral interference with 103.65 keV X-ray of 239 Pu (by

  19. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, G.R.K.; Balaji, T. [Department of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati (India); Denschlag, H.O.; Mauerhofer, E.; Porte, N. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed.

  20. Investigation of Kpong carbonatite as a potential source for rare earth elements (REEs) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayford, M.S.; Akiti, T.T.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S.B. [Ghana Univ., Accra (Ghana). School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences; Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Legon-Accra (Ghana). Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to investigate REEs in carbonatite from Kpong southeastern, Ghana. Total rare earth element (TREEs) obtain were in the range of 540 mg/kg to 705 mg/kg. The total number of rare earth elements (REEs) determined by INAA in the carbonatite rocks from Kpong were 11, namely; La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu. The INAA results from the carbonatite show a high enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) deposits, marking the Kpong carbonatite as a potential REE source. (orig.)

  1. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed

  2. The level of selenium and some other trace elements in different Libyan arable soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghawi, U M; Al-Fakhri, S M; Al-Sadeq, A A; Bejey, M M; Doubali, K K

    2007-10-01

    Elemental analysis of soils from two different arable regions in Libya was carried out to measure the level of many trace elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of 10 elements, viz., (Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn), using their long-lived radionuclides. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing two IAEA soil reference materials: IAEA Soil-7 and IAEA leak sediment SL-1; precision has been estimated by triplicate analysis of the sample and that of the reference material. Irradiations were carried out at the Tajura Research Center reactor, at 5-MW power level. It is clear that in the Libyan soil selenium concentration is somewhat lower than in other countries. The results show that trace metal concentrations in Libyan clay surface soil are higher than the sandy soil.

  3. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  4. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  5. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  6. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  7. An instrument control and data analysis program for NMR imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a software environment created to support real-time instrument control and signal acquisition as well as array-processor based signal and image processing in up to five dimensions. The environment is configured for NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. It is designed to provide flexible tools for implementing novel NMR experiments in the research laboratory. Data acquisition and processing operations are programmed in macros which are loaded in assembled from to minimize instruction overhead. Data arrays are dynamically allocated for efficient use of memory and can be mapped directly into disk files. The command set includes primitives for real-time control of data acquisition, scalar arithmetic, string manipulation, branching, a file system and vector operations carried out by an array processor. 6 figs

  8. Shrouding add-on information: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Tobias; Normann, Hans-Theo

    2015-01-01

    We explore how competition affects firms obfuscation strategies in laboratory experiments. Firms sell a base good and an add-on product. The price of the add-on may be shrouded and, if so, myopic consumers pay too much. Shrouding is an equilibrium but an unshrouding equilibrium coexists. In our experiments, competition matters in that only duopolistic markets are frequently shrouded whereas fourfirm markets are not. With repeated interaction, shrouding rates do not increase. However, the oppo...

  9. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  10. [Spectral analysis of sounds produced by musical instruments and other sounding bodies for hearing screening of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Sesterhenn, G; Ptok, A; Arold, R

    1993-01-01

    Some time ago audiological screening in infants was mostly performed using musical instruments or equivalents. The use of acoustic evoked potentials and oto-acoustic emissions changed the strategies of hearing assessment in newborns and infants, however, musical instruments are still in use. An adequate interpretation of screening results obtained with musical instruments necessitates a profound knowledge of frequencies and intensities derived from these instruments. In this study spectral analyses of sounds from these instruments were performed. The results may be of value for those using musical instruments as a tool for audiological screening. In addition, the results show that with some instruments intensities able to cause inner ear damage can be generated.

  11. Second international tsunami workshop on the technical aspects of tsunami warning systems, tsunami analysis, preparedness, observation and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop on the Technical Aspects of Tsunami Warning Systems, Tsunami Analysis, Preparedness, Observation, and Instrumentation, sponsored and convened by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was held on 1-2 August 1989, in the modern and attractive research town of Academgorodok, which is located 20 km south from downtown Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, USSR. The Program was arranged in eight major areas of interest covering the following: Opening and Introduction; Survey of Existing Tsunami Warning Centers - present status, results of work, plans for future development; Survey of some existing seismic data processing systems and future projects; Methods for fast evaluation of Tsunami potential and perspectives of their implementation; Tsunami data bases; Tsunami instrumentation and observations; Tsunami preparedness; and finally, a general discussion and adoption of recommendations. The Workshop presentations not only addressed the conceptual improvements that have been made, but focused on the inner workings of the Tsunami Warning System, as well, including computer applications, on-line processing and numerical modelling. Furthermore, presentations reported on progress has been made in the last few years on data telemetry, instrumentation and communications. Emphasis was placed on new concepts and their application into operational techniques that can result in improvements in data collection, rapid processing of the data, in analysis and prediction. A Summary Report on the Second International Tsunami Workshop, containing abstracted and annotated proceedings has been published as a separate report. The present Report is a Supplement to the Summary Report and contains the full text of the papers presented at this Workshop. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for bulk alloy analysis on low corroded indoor bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šatović, D., E-mail: dsatovic@alu.hr [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Desnica, V. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, Academy of Fine Arts, Ilica 85, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-11-01

    One of the most often used non-destructive methods for elemental analysis when performing field measurements on bronze sculptures is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis based on portable instrumentation. However, when performing routine in-situ XRF analysis on corroded objects obtained results are sometimes considerably influenced by the corrosion surface products. In this work the suitability of portable XRF for bulk analysis of low corroded bronzes, which were initially precisely characterized using sophisticated and reliable laboratory methods, was investigated and some improvements in measuring technique and data processing were given. Artificially corroded bronze samples were analyzed by a portable XRF instrument using the same methodology and procedures as when performing in-situ analysis on real objects. The samples were first investigated using sophisticated complementary laboratory techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in order to gain precise information on the formation of the corrosion product layers and in-depth elemental profile of corrosion layers for different aging parameters. It has been shown that for corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm a portable XRF can yield very accurate quantification results. - Highlights: • XRF quantification is very accurate for bronze corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm. • Corrosion layer formation on bronze described in two phases. • Corrosion layers precisely characterized using PIXE, RBS and SEM. • Corrosion approximated as CuO for layer thickness calculations via X-ray attenuations • Increasingly lighter corrosion matrix may cause SnLα radiation intensity inversion.

  13. Analysis of the potential of one possible instrumental configuration of the next generation of IASI instruments to monitor lower tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the added value brought by the next generation of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer instruments to monitor lower tropospheric (LT ozone, we developed a pseudo-observation simulator, including a direct simulator of thermal infrared spectra and a full inversion scheme to retrieve ozone concentration profiles. We based our simulations on the instrumental configuration of IASI and of an IASI-like instrument, with a factor 2 improvement in terms of spectral resolution and radiometric noise. This scenario, that will be referred to as IASI/2, is one possible configuration of the IASI-NG (New Generation instrument (the configuration called IASI-NG/IRS2 currently designed by CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales. IASI-NG is expected to be launched in the 2020 timeframe as part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation, formerly post-EPS mission. We produced one month (August 2009 of tropospheric ozone pseudo-observations based on these two instrumental configurations. We compared the pseudo-observations and we found a clear improvement of LT ozone (up to 6 km altitude pseudo-observations quality for IASI/2. The estimated total error is expected to be more than 35% smaller at 5 km, and 20% smaller for the LT ozone column. The total error on the LT ozone column is, on average, lower than 10% for IASI/2. IASI/2 is expected to have a significantly better vertical sensitivity (monthly average degrees of freedom surface–6 km of 0.70 and to be sensitive at lower altitudes (more than 0.5 km lower than IASI, reaching nearly 3 km. Vertical ozone layers of 4 to 5 km thickness are expected to be resolved by IASI/2, while IASI has a vertical resolution of 6–8 km. According to our analyses, IASI/2 is expected to have the possibility of effectively separate lower from upper tropospheric ozone information even for low sensitivity scenarios. In addition, IASI/2 is expected to be able to better monitor LT ozone patterns at

  14. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  15. Analysis of rocks particulates by VNIR spectroscopy with Ma_Miss instrument breadboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Altieri, Francesca; Giardino, Marco; Ammannito, Eleonora; Carli, Cristian; Frigeri, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) miniaturized spectrometer will investigate the Martian subsurface in the Visible and Near Infrared spectral range 0.4-2.2 mum, with 120 mum spatial resolution, and 20 nm of spectral resolution. It will be integrated in the Drill of the Pasteur Rover of the ExoMars 2018 mission, and will acquire spectra of the borehole wall performed by the Drill in the subsoil, at depths down to 2 meters. The main objective of Exomars mission is the search of present or past life and the investigation about the conditions favourable to the development of life. So the characterization of the possible water geochemical environment is the primary goal: thus objectives will be the search for hydrated silicates as well as carbonate or sulphate layers. The goal of Ma_Miss is the study of the Martian subsurface, and its principal scientific objectives are: the determination of the subsurface mineralogy and the reconstraction of a stratigraphic column or sequence, by means of Visible and Near Infrared reflectance spectroscopy; the characterization of physical properties of materials. The instrument breadboard is operative at the IAPS/INAF laboratory; it consists of the main subsystems except the spectrometer, that is a commercial spectrometer (FieldSpec Pro ©): a 5 W lamp supplies the illumination; an optical fibres bundle carries the light from the lamp to the Optical Head, which has the double task of focusing the light on the observed target and of collecting the scattered light from the target. The illumination spot on the target is 1 mm in diameter, while the light is recollected from a 120-mum spot. A single optical fibre carries the collected light from the Optical Head to the spectrometer. The interface between the Optical Head and the external wall is the Sapphire Window, which has high hardness and transparency. The light is focused on the wall at a distance of less than 1 mm outside the Sapphire Window. In this work

  16. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  17. Method for the Analysis of Temporal Change of Physical Structure in the Instrumentation and Control Life-Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of computer-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is determined by the allocation of I and C functions to I and C systems and components. Due to the characteristics of computer-based technology, component failures can negatively affect several I and C functions, so that the reliability proof of the I and C systems requires the accomplishment of I and C system design analyses throughout the I and C life-cycle. On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I and C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a meta model for the modeling of I and C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I and C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I and C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis

  18. The Statistics Concept Inventory: Development and analysis of a cognitive assessment instrument in statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kirk

    The Statistics Concept Inventory (SCI) is a multiple choice test designed to assess students' conceptual understanding of topics typically encountered in an introductory statistics course. This dissertation documents the development of the SCI from Fall 2002 up to Spring 2006. The first phase of the project essentially sought to answer the question: "Can you write a test to assess topics typically encountered in introductory statistics?" Book One presents the results utilized in answering this question in the affirmative. The bulk of the results present the development and evolution of the items, primarily relying on objective metrics to gauge effectiveness but also incorporating student feedback. The second phase boils down to: "Now that you have the test, what else can you do with it?" This includes an exploration of Cronbach's alpha, the most commonly-used measure of test reliability in the literature. An online version of the SCI was designed, and its equivalency to the paper version is assessed. Adding an extra wrinkle to the online SCI, subjects rated their answer confidence. These results show a general positive trend between confidence and correct responses. However, some items buck this trend, revealing potential sources of misunderstandings, with comparisons offered to the extant statistics and probability educational research. The third phase is a re-assessment of the SCI: "Are you sure?" A factor analytic study favored a uni-dimensional structure for the SCI, although maintaining the likelihood of a deeper structure if more items can be written to tap similar topics. A shortened version of the instrument is proposed, demonstrated to be able to maintain a reliability nearly identical to that of the full instrument. Incorporating student feedback and a faculty topics survey, improvements to the items and recommendations for further research are proposed. The state of the concept inventory movement is assessed, to offer a comparison to the work presented

  19. Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay; Nur Esen, Ayse; Erenturk, Sema

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated En numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies.

  20. Understanding Students’ Instrumental Goals, Motivation Deficits and Achievement: Through the Lens of a Latent Profile Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Fryer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on the future oriented and regulated nature of instrumental goals, Lens and colleagues developed a 2 (proximal-distal x 2 (internal-external motivational framework. The current study aimed to test this framework from a person-centred perspective, while equally taking into account students’ lack of motivation as to extend the empirical and theoretical borders of the model. Latent Profile Analyses were used to test the viability of two to five motivational profiles among Japanese second-year students ('N' = 781. A solution with three latent subgroups fitted the sample best, explaining 6% to 62% of the variance in the measured variables. The profiles were labelled “low future oriented motivational profile”, “average motivated profile”, and “highly motivated profile”. The highly motivated subgroup reported the most adaptive pattern of motivation and highest levels of deep level learning, while few differences were found for surface learning and GPA. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. An exchangeable-tip scanning probe instrument for the analysis of combinatorial libraries of electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Eric D.; Wang, Hongsen; Legard, Anna E.; Ritzert, Nicole L.; Bruce Van Dover, Robert; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2013-02-01

    A combined scanning differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (SDEMS)-scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) apparatus is described. The SDEMS is used to detect and spatially resolve volatile electrochemically generated species at the surface of a substrate electrode. The SECM can electrochemically probe the reactivity of the surface and also offers a convenient means of leveling the sample. It is possible to switch between these two different scanning tips and techniques without moving the sample and while maintaining potential control of the substrate electrode. A procedure for calibration of the SDEMS tip-substrate separation, based upon the transit time of electrogenerated species from the substrate to the tip is also described. This instrument can be used in the characterization of combinatorial libraries of direct alcohol fuel cell anode catalysts. The apparatus was used to analyze the products of methanol oxidation at a Pt substrate, with the SDEMS detecting carbon dioxide and methyl formate, and a PtPb-modified Pt SECM tip used for the selective detection of formic acid. As an example system, the electrocatalytic methanol oxidation activity of a sputter-deposited binary PtRu composition spread in acidic media was analyzed using the SDEMS. These results are compared with those obtained from a pH-sensitive fluorescence assay.

  2. Analysis of debris-flow recordings in an instrumented basin: confirmations and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2006, a debris flow took place in the Moscardo Torrent, a basin of the Eastern Italian Alps instrumented for debris-flow monitoring. The debris flow was recorded by two seismic networks located in the lower part of the basin and on the alluvial fan, respectively. The event was also recorded by a pair of ultrasonic sensors installed on the fan, close to the lower seismic network. The comparison between the different recordings outlines particular features of the August 2006 debris flow, different from that of events recorded in previous years. A typical debris-flow wave was observed at the upper seismic network, with a main front abruptly appearing in the torrent, followed by a gradual decrease of flow height. On the contrary, on the alluvial fan the wave displayed an irregular pattern, with low flow depth and the main peak occurring in the central part of the surge both in the seismic recording and in the hydrographs. Recorded data and field evidences indicate that the surge observed on the alluvial fan was not a debris flow, and probably consisted in a water surge laden with fine to medium-sized sediment. The change in shape and characteristics of the wave can be ascribed to the attenuation of the surge caused by the torrent control works implemented in the lower basin during the last years.

  3. Separability Analysis of Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI Data for Burned Area Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a global phenomenon and systematic burned area mapping is of increasing importance for science and applications. With high spatial resolution and novelty in band design, the recently launched Sentinel-2A satellite provides a new opportunity for moderate spatial resolution burned area mapping. This study examines the performance of the Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI bands and derived spectral indices to differentiate between unburned and burned areas. For this purpose, five pairs of pre-fire and post-fire top of atmosphere (TOA reflectance and atmospherically corrected (surface reflectance images were studied. The pixel values of locations that were unburned in the first image and burned in the second image, as well as the values of locations that were unburned in both images which served as a control, were compared and the discrimination of individual bands and spectral indices were evaluated using parametric (transformed divergence and non-parametric (decision tree approaches. Based on the results, the most suitable MSI bands to detect burned areas are the 20 m near-infrared, short wave infrared and red-edge bands, while the performance of the spectral indices varied with location. The atmospheric correction only significantly influenced the separability of the visible wavelength bands. The results provide insights that are useful for developing Sentinel-2 burned area mapping algorithms.

  4. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  5. Análise da versão espanhola do Sport Satisfaction Instrument (SSI adaptado à Educação Física Analysis of the Spanish version of the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (SSI adapted to Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Granero-Gallegos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as propriedades psicométricas do Sport Satisfation Instrument (SSI adaptado para a Educação Física (EF por meio de uma análise fatorial exploratória da estrutura bidimensional do instrumento em uma amostra espanhola. Com isso, buscou-se determinar, de maneira preliminar, se o SSI constitui um instrumento válido e fiável para ser utilizado em futuras pesquisas. O instrumento foi elaborado em um modelo teórico de dois fatores: Satisfação/Diversão e Tédio. A amostra constituiu-se de um total de 224 alunos de secundária entre 12 e 19 anos. A versão [espanhola] do instrumento adaptado para a EF demonstrou níveis aceitáveis de consistência interna.The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of Sport Satisfaction Instrument (SSI adapted physical education (PE using exploratory factor analysis of the dimensional structure of the instrument in a Spanish sample. It was intended to determine, on a preliminary basis, whether it constitutes a valid and reliable for use in future research. Was administered to a total of 224 high school students 12 to 19 years. This analysis supports the hypothesized theoretical model of two factors (satisfaction / fun and boredom. The Spanish version of the instrument for PE showed acceptable levels of internal consistency.

  6. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  7. Microelectronics Instrument Products Shock and Vibration Electro-Optics. Section D; Strength Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The strength analysis report for FRR shall include only revisions to update the strength analysis reports for the flight design configuration. Since there have been no revisions to the design configuration since the PDR and the CDR this report shall consist of re-submitting the analysis previously performed. In addition the motors have been subjected to Sine vibration, Random vibration, and shock per the SXI specification. Both motor/encoders have passed all three tests. There was no evidence of damage to the motor/encoder and the motor/encoder performed as required by the Acceptance test procedure. No degradation was seen between the before and after performance tests. The testing verified the analysis that there were adequate mf@ty margins with regard to structural integrity. Separate reports are available from the test facility and are apart of the FRR submittal.

  8. The rapid determination of manganese, vanadium, and aluminium by instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium, manganese, and vanadium were determined in chromuim, ferrochromium, and slags. Because of the short-lived isotopes produced, the technique is rapid, and the total analysis time per sample is 15 minutes. The reproducibility is 3 to 4 per cent, and this value can be improved by certain modifications, particularly to the irradiation facilities. A similar method could be applied to on-line or in-plant analysis if an isotopic source of neutrons were used

  9. PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS - A BASIC INSTRUMENT IN STRATEGIC PLANNING. CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN INSURANCE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu Marian; Petrescu Eva Cristina; Ioncica Diana,; Bicajanu Vasile

    2011-01-01

    Practice proved that strategic planning is a necessary process for insurance companies. This process can help companies to adapt more easily to environmental changes. The strategic planning of the activity of an insurance company cannot be realized without a careful analysis of the evolution of the market and without studying the company\\'s market position. A classic model used in the portfolio analysis is the Boston Consulting Group model. In this paper we have used the model for studying th...

  10. 'Edomite', 'Negbite' and 'Midianite' pottery from the Negev Desert and Jordan: instrumental neutron activation analysis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edomite, Negbite and Midianite pottery from the Negev desert, Jordan, was subjected to neutron activation analysis to establish the origin of these pottery styles and to shed light on inter-regional contact between different peoples and tribes of the area for the 12th to 6th centuries BC. The pottery is listed with reference to chronological period and style and there are tables giving data on multi-element analysis of the pottery. (UK)

  11. Detecting Organic Compounds Released from Iron Oxidizing Bacteria using Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)-like Instrument Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Popa, R.; Martin, M. G.; Freissinet, C.; Fisk, M. R.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Mars is a planet of great interest for Astrobiology since its past environmental conditions are thought to have been favourable for the emergence life. At present, the Red Planet is extremely cold and dry and the surface is exposed to intense UV and ionizing radiation, conditions generally considered to be incompatible with life as we know it on Earth. It was proposed that the shallow subsurface of Mars, where temperatures can be above freezing and liquid water can exist on rock surfaces, could harbor chemolithoautotrophic bacteria such as the iron oxidizing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. HerB [Popa et al. 2012]. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will provide the next opportunity to carry out in situ measurements for organic compounds of possible biological origin on Mars. One instrument onboard MSL, called the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, will carry out a broad and sensitive search for organic compounds in surface samples using either high temperature pyrolysis or chemical extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry [Mahaffy et al. 2012]. We present gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS) data on crushed olivine rock powders that have been inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. HerB at different concentrations ranging from ~102 to 107 cells per gram. The inoculated olivine samples were heated under helium carrier gas flow at 500°C and the pyrolysis products concentrated using a SAM-like hydrocarbon trap set at -20°C followed by trap heating and analysis by GC/MS. In addition, the samples were also extracted using a low temperature "one-pot" chemical extraction technique using N-methyl, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent prior to GC/MS analysis [Stalport et al. 2012]. We identified several aldehydes, thiols, and alkene nitriles after pyrolysis GC/MS analysis of the bacteria that were not found in the olivine control samples that had not been inoculated with bacteria. The

  12. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  13. A novel assessment of odor sources using instrumental analysis combined with resident monitoring records for an industrial area in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Don; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Choi, Won-Joon; Lee, Sang-Sup; Lee, Min-Ho; Oh, Kwang-Joong

    2013-08-01

    The residents living nearby the Sa-sang industrial area (SSIA) continuously were damaged by odorous pollution since 1990s. We determined the concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) [hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)], nitrogenous compounds (NCs) [ammonia (NH3) and trimethylamine (TMA)], and carbonyl compounds (CCs) [acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde] by instrumental analysis in the SSIA in Busan, Korea from Jun to Nov, 2011. We determined odor intensity (OI) based on the concentrations of the odorants and resident monitoring records (RMR). The mean concentration of H2S was 10-times higher than NCs, CCs and the other RSC. The contribution from RSCs to the OI was over 50% at all sites excluding the A-5 (chemical production) site. In particular, A-4 (food production) site showed more than 8-times higher the sum of odor activity value (SOAV) than the other sites. This suggested that the A-4 site was the most malodorous area in the SSIA. From the RMR analysis, the annoyance degree (OI ≥ 2) was 51.9% in the industrial area. The 'Rotten' smell arising from the RSCs showed the highest frequency (25.3%) while 'Burned' and 'Other' were more frequent than 'Rotten' in the residential area. The correlation between odor index calculated by instrumental analysis and OI from the RMR was analyzed. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of the SOAV was the highest at 0.720 (P < 0.05), and overall results of coefficient showed a moderately high correlation distribution range (from 0.465 to 0.720). Therefore, the overall results of this research confirm that H2S emitted from A-4 site including food production causes significant annoyance in the SSIA. We also confirm RMR data can be used effectively to evaluate the characteristic of odorants emitted from the SSIA.

  14. System on chip (SoC) microcontrollers (μC) as digitisers for ion beam analysis (IBA) instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Harry J.

    2016-09-01

    Data digitisation of the analogue signals from detectors to digital data is an essential process in ion beam analysis (IBA). The low-cost, easy availability and development environments that have a low learning threshold makes system-on-chip (SoC) microcontrollers (μC) attractive for this task. These μC combine, on one die, analogue and digital inputs and outputs with serial USB interfaces, which opens up simple implementation of tailor-made interfaces for specific IBA measurement systems. We have investigated the design and performance limitations based on development of three different digitisation interfaces for IBA. These were a two-channel nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) ADC event mode interface (EMI) for a high-resolution magnetic RBS spectrometer, a simple headless-multi-channel analyser (MCA) and a combined dual channel headless MCA and EMI. It is shown that SoC μC based interfaces for digitisation of analogue spectroscopy pulses in IBA systems can be implemented for material costs less than 100 €. The performance of the SoC devices for many IBA applications is close to what can be achieved with state-of-the-art instruments. The simple pulse spectroscopy interface circuit and software are included in the auxiliary archive.

  15. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Some Analgesic Compounds: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment demonstrating techniques of solvent selection, gradient elution, pH control, and ion-pairing in the analysis of an analgesic mixture using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on an octadecylsilane column. Although developed using sophisticated/expensive equipment, less…

  16. D.P.M. METHOD - A PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT OF A STRATEGIC BUSINESS UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Florin Tudor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertain economic conditions, the market dynamics, the fundamental changes in the attitudes and aspirations of the consumers along with the strong growth of the political role and interventions in the economy, currently characterizing both Romania and other countries of the world, it can be said that the need for strategic planning was never so acute as now. The strategic planning process is an ongoing organizational activity by which managers can make decisions about their present and future position. A number of analytical portfolio tools exist to aid managers in the formulation of the strategy. The use of these tools within the broader context of the overall strategic planning process allows managers to determine the obstacles and opportunities existing in the company’s environment and to define and pursue appropriate strategies for growth and profitability. The present paper aims to highlight from a theoretical standpoint the D.P.M. method, its strategic consequences, advantages and disadvantages. After conducting this analysis I have found that restricting the business portfolio analysis to the D.P.M. matrix is not a very wise decision. The D.P.M. matrix among with other marketing tools of business portfolio analysis have some advantages and disadvantages and is trying to provide, at a time, a specific diagnosis of a company’s business portfolio. Therefore, the recommendation for the Romanian managers consists in a combined use of a wide range of tools and techniques for business portfolio analysis. This leads to a better understanding of the whole mix of product markets, included in portfolio analysis, the strategic position held by each business within a market, the performance potential of business portfolio and the financial aspects related to the resource allocation process for the businesses within the portfolio. It should also be noted that the tools and techniques specific to business portfolio

  17. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    OpenAIRE

    Andressa M. Lamarão; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of trans...

  18. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardina, Gustavo R D; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L; Marins, João C B; Silvatti, Amanda P

    2016-01-01

    Action sport cameras (ASC) are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels) were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720) and 1.5mm (1920×1080). The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems.

  19. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardina, Gustavo R D; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L; Marins, João C B; Silvatti, Amanda P

    2016-01-01

    Action sport cameras (ASC) are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels) were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720) and 1.5mm (1920×1080). The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems. PMID:27513846

  20. Analytical performance of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence instrumentation for multielemental analysis of wine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalipi, Rogerta; Marguí, Eva; Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Depero, Laura E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent technological improvements have led to a widespread adoption of benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence systems (TXRF) for analysis of liquid samples. However, benchtop TXRF systems usually present limited sensitivity compared with high-scale instrumentation which can restrict its application in some fields. The aim of the present work was to evaluate and compare the analytical capabilities of two TXRF systems, equipped with low power Mo and W target X-ray tubes, for multielemental analysis of wine samples. Using the Mo-TXRF system, the detection limits for most elements were one order of magnitude lower than those attained using the W-TXRF system. For the detection of high Z elements like Cd and Ag, however, W-TXRF remains a very good option due to the possibility of K-Lines detection. Accuracy and precision of the obtained results have been evaluated analyzing spiked real wine samples and comparing the TXRF results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). In general, good agreement was obtained between ICP-OES and TXRF results for the analysis of both red and white wine samples except for light elements (i.e., K) which TXRF concentrations were underestimated. However, a further achievement of analytical quality of TXRF results can be achieved if wine analysis is performed after dilution of the sample with de-ionized water.

  1. (30)Si mole fraction of a silicon material highly enriched in (28)Si determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Di Luzio, Marco; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in (28)Si, reached the target 2 × 10(-8) relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the (30)Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of (30)Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV γ-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope (31)Si produced via the neutron capture reaction (30)Si(n,γ)(31)Si. The x((30)Si) = 1.043(19) × 10(-6) mol mol(-1) is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  2. A program for the a priori evaluation of detection limits in instrumental neutron activation analysis using a SLOWPOKE II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program that permits the a priori calculation of detection limits in monoelemental matrices, adapted to instrumental neutron activation analysis using a SLOWPOKE II reactor, is described. A simplified model of the gamma spectra is proposed. Products of (n,p) and (n,α) reactions induced by the fast components of the neutron flux that accompanies the thermal flux at the level of internal irradiation sites in the reactor have been included in the list of interfering radionuclides. The program calculates in a systematic way the detection limits of 66 elements in an equal number of matrices using 153 intermediary radionuclides. Experimental checks carried out with silicon (for short lifetimes) and aluminum and magnesium (for intermediate lifetimes) show satisfactory agreement with the calculations. These results show in particular the importance of the contribution of the (n,p) and (n,α) reactions in the a priori evaluation of detection limits with a SLOWPOKE type reactor

  3. The connection between selective referrals for radical cystectomy and radical prostatectomy and volume-outcome effects: an instrumental variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Ward, Marcia M; Wehby, George L; Konety, Badrinath R

    2012-01-01

    This study delineates the roles of "selective referrals" and "practice makes perfect" in the hospital procedure volume and in-hospital mortality association for radical cystectomy and radical prostatectomy. This is a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (years 2000-2004). All hospitalizations with primary procedure codes for radical cystectomy and radical prostatectomy were selected. The association between hospital procedure volume and in-hospital mortality was examined using generalized estimating equations and by instrumental variables approaches. There was an inverse association between hospital procedure volume and in-hospital mortality for radical cystectomy (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = 0.38-0.87; P practice makes perfect." PMID:22205768

  4. 30Si Mole Fraction of a Silicon Material Highly Enriched in 28Si Determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in 28Si, reached the target 2x10-8 relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the 30Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of 30Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV gamma-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope 31Si produced via the neutron capture reaction 30Si(n,gamma)31Si. The x(30Si) = 1.043(19)x10-6 mol mol-1 is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  5. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  6. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty three frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were collected and pretreated. Selenium (Se) contents in the diet samples were analyzed using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 100 g of beef contains 12.4-50.9 μg of Se; pork, 11.2-22.6 μg; chicken, 10.2-13.7 μg and eggs, 28.6-43.0 μg. Beef innards and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of Se. This study reveals that Se intake of Korean adults are 28.7 μg/day in men and 27.6 μg/day in women from meat and eggs, which are over 1/2 of the Korean recommended Se intake. (author)

  7. Evaluation of trace elements in chewing tobacco and snuff using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, S. [Chemistry Div., Directorate of Science, Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Tech., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Nine samples of chewing tobacco, snuff, tobacco leaf and ash were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff studied in this work contain substantial amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, K. V. Sc, Rb and Fe. Furthermore, varying amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co and Zn were also detected in all tobacco samples. Of the toxic elements which were determined using INAA. As, Sb and Hg were quantified in only few tobacco samples. However, other toxic elements, which were determined using AAS, such as Cu, Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff. The concentration of majority of the detected elements is high in ash samples which imply that most elements in chewing tobacco and snuff may originate from the addition of ash. (orig.)

  8. Design and Analysis of Low Cost Electro-dermal Response System Using Texas Instrument's MSP430 Value Line Launchpad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth Reddy Yeddula

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electro-dermal Response (EDR is one of the important bioelectric signals used in various applications and research studies in the multitude of disciplines, such as Psychophysiology and other areas of Neuroscience. In present paper, a low cost EDR system is designed using Texas Instrument's MSP430 Value Line Launchpad with a general potential divider circuit as the EDR sensor. Throughout this paper, much emphasis is laid out on developing an inexpensive system that shall be easily affordable while offering quality measurements. The system is well incorporated to have a decently accurate and fast data acquisition system, good communication capability with PC for storage and analysis. The developed prototype was used in performing two experiments related to the effects of Deep Breath and Visual Stimulus on EDR data, which gave substantiating results as per the theory.

  9. Quality control of baby food products on the basis of results obtained using the instrumental neutron-activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to use the instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental composition of some kind of imported baby food products (BFP) and to compare the results with the permissible contents. The nuclear reactor WWR-SM of INP has been used to develop INAA to study the mineral composition of some children's food products. The concentration of 26 trace elements, including Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. was found. The comparison of the results with regulation contents and the daily data on food needs have shown that the investigated group of BFP does not meet the requirements for all trace and macro elements composition. (authors)

  10. Instrumental photon activation analysis of coal fly ashes using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielement determinations of coal fly ashes (NIST SRM-1633a and BCR CRM-38) have been carried out by instrumental photon activation analysis using 30 MeV bremsstrahlung and the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of 18 elements were determined accurately and precisely. Furthermore, a similar multielement determination has also been examined using 20 MeV bremsstrahlung. In this case, it was proved that better results can be achieved, because all interfering reactions were eliminated completely. (author) 14 refs.; 5 tabs

  11. Determination of minor and trace elements in sandalwood, mango wood and giloy by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalwood, mango wood and the stems of giloy used as yagya material are also used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. We have determined the elemental composition of these samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentrations of the inorganic elements in the dried powder of these woods were analyzed for 4 minor (K, Ca, Cl and Mg) and 13 trace (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Na, Se, V and Zn) elements. 20/100 mg samples along with reference materials (SRM 1547 and INCT MPH 2) were irradiated for 1 min/6h in Dhruva/CIRUS reactors respectively followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Sandalwood showed higher contents of K, Ca, Zn Se and Cr whereas mango wood was enriched in Na, Ca, Fe and Zn. (author)

  12. Search for Chemical Biomarkers on Mars Using the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Conrad, P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    One key goal for the future exploration of Mars is the search for chemical biomarkers including complex organic compounds important in life on Earth. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide the most sensitive measurements of the organic composition of rocks and regolith samples ever carried out in situ on Mars. SAM consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and tunable laser spectrometer to measure volatiles in the atmosphere and released from rock powders heated up to 1000 C. The measurement of organics in solid samples will be accomplished by three experiments: (1) pyrolysis QMS to identify alkane fragments and simple aromatic compounds; pyrolysis GCMS to separate and identify complex mixtures of larger hydrocarbons; and (3) chemical derivatization and GCMS extract less volatile compounds including amino and carboxylic acids that are not detectable by the other two experiments.

  13. Element Analysis of Instrumented Sharp Indentations into Pressure-sensitive Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minh-Quy LE; Seock-Sam KIM

    2007-01-01

    Finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the conical indentation response of elastic-plastic solids within the framework of the hydrostatic pressure dependence and the power law strain hardening. A large number of 40 difierent combinations of elasto-plastic properties with n ranging from 0 to 0.5 and σy/E ranging from 0.0014 to 0.03 were used in the computations. The loading curvature C and the average contact pressure Pave were considered within the concept of representative strains and the dimensional analysis.Dimensionless functions associated with these two parameters were formulated for each studied value of the pressure sensitivity. The results for pressure sensitive materials lie between those for Von Mises materials and the elastic model.

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of marine sediment in-house reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference materials play an important role in demonstrating the quality and reliability of analytical data. The advantage of using in-house reference materials is that they provide a relatively cheap option as compared to using commercially available certified reference material (CRM) and can closely resemble the laboratory routine test sample. A marine sediment sample was designed as an in-house reference material, in the framework of quality assurance and control (QA/QC) program of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory at Nuclear Malaysia. The NAA technique was solely used for the homogeneity test of the marine sediment sample. The CRM of IAEA- Soil 7 and IAEA- SL1 (Lake Sediment) were applied in the analysis as compatible matrix based reference materials for QA purposes. (Author)

  15. Analysis of time dependent phenomena observed with the LPSP OSO-8 instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibacher, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamics of the solar photosphere and chromosphere are studied. Observations obtained by the Laboratorie de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire's (LPSP) ultraviolet spectrometer onboard the OSO-8 spacecraft are analyzed, and dynamic models of the chromosphere and the emitted resonance line spectrum are calculated. Some of the unpublished data analysis and theoretical modeling which are being prepared for publication are discussed. A discussion of the state of the theory of velocity fields in the solar atmosphere is also presented. An invited review presented at the OSO-8 Workshop on the topic of oscillatory motions in the quiet sun is included. The results of the OSO-8 data analysis prepared in close collaboration with LPSP scientists are presented. Material for two articles is also presented.

  16. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  17. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k0-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  18. Elemental concentration determination in certain medicinal leaves by K0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations of two types of medicinal leaves (neem and eucalyptus) are determined by neutron activation analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA) method. Data obtained on one of the varieties studied (neem), collected from two different places, have also been used to see the effect of soil condition. The method was validated by analysing the SRM-1571 and it was found that the measured elemental concentrations in SRM-1571 are within ±9% of the reported values. (author)

  19. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums....... Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same...

  20. Correlation of Descriptive Analysis and Instrumental Puncture Testing of Watermelon Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, J W; Slaughter, D C; Boyden, L E; Barrett, D M

    2016-06-01

    The textural properties of 5 seedless watermelon cultivars were assessed by descriptive analysis and the standard puncture test using a hollow probe with increased shearing properties. The use of descriptive analysis methodology was an effective means of quantifying watermelon sensory texture profiles for characterizing specific cultivars' characteristics. Of the 10 cultivars screened, 71% of the variation in the sensory attributes was measured using the 1st 2 principal components. Pairwise correlation of the hollow puncture probe and sensory parameters determined that initial slope, maximum force, and work after maximum force measurements all correlated well to the sensory attributes crisp and firm. These findings confirm that maximum force correlates well with not only firmness in watermelon, but crispness as well. The initial slope parameter also captures the sensory crispness of watermelon, but is not as practical to measure in the field as maximum force. The work after maximum force parameter is thought to reflect cellular arrangement and membrane integrity that in turn impact sensory firmness and crispness. Watermelon cultivar types were correctly predicted by puncture test measurements in heart tissue 87% of the time, although descriptive analysis was correct 54% of the time. PMID:27105291

  1. Assessment of Pollution into the Densu Delta Wetland Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzifa Denutsui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to assess the levels of trace elements and the extent of pollution in the surface water and sediments from in the Densu delta wetland using INAA, PLI and the help of statistical tools like PCA and CA establish their common sources. Eight samples of surface water, eight samples of sediments were taken for elemental analysis. The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, as well as trace elements (Al, Cu, V, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr, Fe and As. The results showed that the surface water in the area can be described as slightly alkaline with pH of 7.5 and high conductivities of 150-3412:S/cm with corresponding TDS of 80-1750 mg/L. Statistical analyses such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Cluster Analysis (CA were used to identify trace elements pollution in the wetland area. Results from CA and PCA suggest positive relationships between the two analyses. Trace elements were identified as originating from a common source in all the analyses. The PLI calculated for sediments in the study area were found to be below the index limit of 1. This shows that the surface waters are not yet polluted with respect to trace elements but the originality of the ecosystem is threatened.

  2. Economic analysis of the CLC/FC regime as an oil pollution prevention instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to discuss the effectiveness of CLC/IOPC (Civil Liability Convention) liability regime in the field of oil pollution prevention. This study is mainly carried out from a law and economics perspective, although reference is also made to the economic analysis of international environmental agreements. The first two chapters explore the deterrent potential of the international regime in terms of oil spill prevention, from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The analysis of the effectiveness of the regime as such consists in, on the one hand, considering the ability of the international regime to compensate the entire social costs of oil spills (chapter 3) and, on the other hand, to examine the incentives given to operators in maritime oil transport to prevent accidental pollution (chapters 4 and 5). Sixth chapter considers the impacts of the voluntary nature of the international regime on its deterrent potential. The results obtained from this analysis enable to identify several mechanisms by which the deterrent effect of the existing regime could be increased. However, the overall effectiveness of the international regime appears to be limited by several factors that can not be corrected by means of a modification of the CLC and IOPC conventions. (author)

  3. 一种基于机器人自动化煤质分析系统的煤样微量添加与称量模块的特点与应用%Characteristics and application of trace add coal sample and the weighing module based on the robot automation coal quality analysis system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振中

    2015-01-01

    Articleabstract:This paper mainly introduces characteristics and main function of trace add coal sample and the weighing module based on the robot automation coal quality analysis system, through the elaboration of robotic automation coal quality analysis system development background, and clear the importance of the research and development of the module and its application prospect, and puts forward some technical problems need to be further solved, hope the perfected constantly, serve industry rapid development.%本文主要介绍了一种基于机器人自动化煤质分析系统的煤样微量添加与称量模块的技术特点与主要功能,通过阐述机器人自动化煤质分析系统的研发背景来说明该模块研发的重要性及其应用前景,同时提出了需要进一步解决的一些技术问题,希望其不断得以完善,为工业快速发展服务。

  4. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs.

  5. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. PMID:27346088

  6. Statistical analysis and multi-instrument overview of the quasi-periodic 1-hour pulsations in Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmaerts, B.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Kurth, W. S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Yates, J. N.

    2016-06-01

    The in-situ exploration of the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn has revealed different periodic processes. In particular, in the Saturnian magnetosphere, several studies have reported pulsations in the outer magnetosphere with a periodicity of about 1 h in the measurements of charged particle fluxes, plasma wave, magnetic field strength and auroral emissions brightness. The Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System detector of the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI/LEMMS) on board Cassini regularly detects 1-hour quasi-periodic enhancements in the intensities of electrons with an energy range from a hundred keV to several MeV. We extend an earlier survey of these relativistic electron injections using 10 years of LEMMS observations in addition to context measurements by several other Cassini magnetospheric experiments. The one-year extension of the data and a different method of detection of the injections do not lead to a discrepancy with the results of the previous survey, indicating an absence of a long-term temporal evolution of this phenomenon. We identified 720 pulsed events in the outer magnetosphere over a wide range of latitudes and local times, revealing that this phenomenon is common and frequent in Saturn's magnetosphere. However, the distribution of the injection events presents a strong local time asymmetry with ten times more events in the duskside than in the dawnside. In addition to the study of their topology, we present a first statistical analysis of the pulsed events properties. The morphology of the pulsations shows a weak local time dependence which could imply a high-latitude acceleration source. We provide some clues that the electron population associated with this pulsed phenomenon is distinct from the field-aligned electron beams previously observed in Saturn's magnetosphere, but both populations can be mixed. We have also investigated the signatures of each electron injection event in the observations acquired by the Radio

  7. Guidelines on the defense-in-depth and diversity planning and analysis in digital instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Se Woo; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Ki Young; Kwon, Ki Choon; Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol

    2000-08-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are becoming an ever-increasing part in I and C systems of nuclear power plants due to such features such as versatility, flexibility, and reduced sizes. The digital technology introduces a possibility that common-cause or common-mode failures (CCF or CMF) may cause redundant safety systems to fail in such a way that there is loss of safety function. A special form of CMF analysis called 'defense-in-depth and diversity' (D-in-D and D) analysis has been developed to identify possible common-mode failure vulnerabilities and to support a specific licensing action in digital systems. There are two main stages in D-in-D and D activities: both plan and analysis. The purposes of this technical report are (i) to review background of D-in-D and D and some of important issues in digital D-in-D and D, (ii) to provide guidelines for a vendor to prepare planning and/or analysis documents on D-in-D and D, and (iii) to provide guidelines for an evaluator to review applicant's D-in-D and D planning and/or analysis documents, to ensure that the requirements of the D-in-D and D for digital I and C systems are followed. Most of guidelines suggested in this report were based on NUREG/CR-6303 which was published in 1994. The report will be helpful for a vendor to prepare and for an evaluator to review both D-in-D and D planning or analysis documents for digital I and C systems such as the KNGR project.

  8. Description langugage for the modelling and analysis of temporal change of instrumentation and control system structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, Markus Heinrich

    2013-10-25

    The utilisation of computer-based I and C, as a result of the technological advancements in the computer industry, represents an up-to-date challenge for I and C engineers in nuclear power plants throughout the world. In comparison with the time-proven, hard-wired I and C, the engineering must consider the novel characteristics of computer-based technology during the implementation, these are primarily constituted by higher performance and the utilisation of software. On one hand, this allows for implementing more complex I and C functions and integrating several I and C functions on to single components, although on the other hand, the minimisation of the CCF probability is of high priority to the engineering. Furthermore, the engineering must take the implementation of the deterministic safety concept for the I and C design into consideration. This includes engineering the redundancy, diversity, physical separation, and independence design features, and is complemented by the analysis of the I and C design with respect to the superposition of pre-defined event sequences and postulated failure combinations, so as to secure the safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The focus of this thesis is on the basic principles of engineering, i.e. description languages and methods, which the engineering relies on for a highly qualitative and efficient computer-based I and C implementation. The analysis of the deterministic safety concept and computer-based I and C characteristics yields the relevant technical requirements for the engineering, these are combined with the general structuring principles of standard IEC 81346 and the extended description language evaluation criteria, which are based on the guideline VDI/VDE-3681, resulting in target criteria for evaluating description languages. The analysis and comparison of existing description languages reveals that no description language satisfactorily fulfils all target criteria, which is constituted in the

  9. Description langugage for the modelling and analysis of temporal change of instrumentation and control system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilisation of computer-based I and C, as a result of the technological advancements in the computer industry, represents an up-to-date challenge for I and C engineers in nuclear power plants throughout the world. In comparison with the time-proven, hard-wired I and C, the engineering must consider the novel characteristics of computer-based technology during the implementation, these are primarily constituted by higher performance and the utilisation of software. On one hand, this allows for implementing more complex I and C functions and integrating several I and C functions on to single components, although on the other hand, the minimisation of the CCF probability is of high priority to the engineering. Furthermore, the engineering must take the implementation of the deterministic safety concept for the I and C design into consideration. This includes engineering the redundancy, diversity, physical separation, and independence design features, and is complemented by the analysis of the I and C design with respect to the superposition of pre-defined event sequences and postulated failure combinations, so as to secure the safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The focus of this thesis is on the basic principles of engineering, i.e. description languages and methods, which the engineering relies on for a highly qualitative and efficient computer-based I and C implementation. The analysis of the deterministic safety concept and computer-based I and C characteristics yields the relevant technical requirements for the engineering, these are combined with the general structuring principles of standard IEC 81346 and the extended description language evaluation criteria, which are based on the guideline VDI/VDE-3681, resulting in target criteria for evaluating description languages. The analysis and comparison of existing description languages reveals that no description language satisfactorily fulfils all target criteria, which is constituted in the

  10. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference ...

  11. Determination of trace elements in Egyptian molasses by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielement neutron activation analysis was applied to determine macro, micro and trace amounts of Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc and V in molasses of Egyptian cane sugar factories. The threshold element concentrations are acceptable and below the safety. Differences in element concentrations may be related to different botanic textures and structures, different compositions of sugar cane plants, corrosion of containers or changes in soil as a result of geochemical differentiation. The method is sensitive down to 0.038 ppm of V. The relative errors due to counting statistics are in the range of 0.2-11%. (author) 17 refs

  12. Surface and Thin Film Analysis A Compendium of Principles, Instrumentation, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Friedbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Surveying and comparing all techniques relevant for practical applications in surface and thin film analysis, this second edition of a bestseller is a vital guide to this hot topic in nano- and surface technology. This new book has been revised and updated and is divided into four parts - electron, ion, and photon detection, as well as scanning probe microscopy. New chapters have been added to cover such techniques as SNOM, FIM, atom probe (AP),and sum frequency generation (SFG). Appendices with a summary and comparison of techniques and a list of equipment suppliers make this book a rapid ref

  13. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  14. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE

  15. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA

  16. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part I: Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    Building on the successful application in the laboratory of PLOT-cryoadsorption as a means of collecting vapor (or headspace) samples for chromatographic analysis, in this paper a field portable apparatus is introduced. This device fits inside of a briefcase (aluminum tool carrier), and can be easily transported by vehicle or by air. The portable apparatus functions entirely on compressed air, making it suitable for use in locations lacking electrical power, and for use in flammable and explosive environments. The apparatus consists of four aspects: a field capable PLOT-capillary platform, the supporting equipment platform, the service interface between the PLOT-capillary and the supporting equipment, and the necessary peripherals. Vapor sampling can be done with either a hand piece (containing the PLOT capillary) or with a custom fabricated standoff module. Both the hand piece and the standoff module can be heated and cooled to facilitate vapor collection and subsequent vapor sample removal. The service interface between the support platform and the sampling units makes use of a unique counter current approach that minimizes loss of cooling and heating due to heat transfer with the surroundings (recuperative thermostatting). Several types of PLOT-capillary elements and sampling probes are described in this report. Applications to a variety of samples relevant to forensic and environmental analysis are discussed in a companion paper. PMID:26687166

  17. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  18. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  19. Effects of R-Phase on Mechanical Responses of a Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instrument: Structural Characterization and Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leandro de Arruda; Resende, Pedro Damas; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the presence of the R-phase in a near-equiatomic NiTi alloy on the mechanical responses of an endodontic instrument were studied by using finite element analysis. The input data for the constitutive model in the simulation were obtained by tensile testing of three NiTi wires: superelastic austenite NiTi, austenite + R-phase NiTi, and fully R-phased NiTi. The wires were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A commercially available endodontic instrument was scanned using microcomputed tomography, and the resulting images were used to build the geometrical model. The numerical analyses were performed in ABAQUS using load and boundary conditions based on the ISO 3630-1 specification for the bending and torsion of endodontic instruments. The modeled instrument containing only R-phase demanded the lowest moment to be bent, followed by the one with mixed austenite + R-phase. The superelastic instrument, containing essentially austenite, required the highest bending moment. During bending, the fully R-phased instrument reached the lowest stress values; however, it also experienced the highest angular deflection when subjected to torsion. In summary, this simulation showed that NiTi endodontic instruments containing only R-phase in their microstructure would show higher flexibility without compromising their performance under torsion. PMID:27314059

  20. Effects of R-Phase on Mechanical Responses of a Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instrument: Structural Characterization and Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leandro de Arruda; Resende, Pedro Damas; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the presence of the R-phase in a near-equiatomic NiTi alloy on the mechanical responses of an endodontic instrument were studied by using finite element analysis. The input data for the constitutive model in the simulation were obtained by tensile testing of three NiTi wires: superelastic austenite NiTi, austenite + R-phase NiTi, and fully R-phased NiTi. The wires were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A commercially available endodontic instrument was scanned using microcomputed tomography, and the resulting images were used to build the geometrical model. The numerical analyses were performed in ABAQUS using load and boundary conditions based on the ISO 3630-1 specification for the bending and torsion of endodontic instruments. The modeled instrument containing only R-phase demanded the lowest moment to be bent, followed by the one with mixed austenite + R-phase. The superelastic instrument, containing essentially austenite, required the highest bending moment. During bending, the fully R-phased instrument reached the lowest stress values; however, it also experienced the highest angular deflection when subjected to torsion. In summary, this simulation showed that NiTi endodontic instruments containing only R-phase in their microstructure would show higher flexibility without compromising their performance under torsion. PMID:27314059

  1. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  2. Detecting Organic Compounds Released from Iron Oxidizing Bacteria using Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Like Instrument Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Popa, R.; Martin, M. G.; Freissinet, C.; Fisk, M. R.; Dworkin, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Mars is a planet of great interest for Astrobiology since its past environmental conditions are thought to have been favourable for the emergence life. At present, the Red Planet is extremely cold and dry and the surface is exposed to intense UV and ionizing radiation, conditions generally considered to be incompatible with life as we know it on Earth. It was proposed that the shallow subsurface of Mars, where temperatures can be above freezing and liquid water can exist on rock surfaces, could harbor chemolithoautotrophic bacteria such as the iron oxidizing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. HerB. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will provide the next opportunity to carry out in situ measurements for organic compounds of possible biological origin on Mars. One instrument onboard MSL, called the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, will carry out a broad and sensitive search for organic compounds in surface samples using either high temperature pyrolysis or chemical extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We present gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS) data on crushed olivine rock powders that have been inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. HerB at different concentrations ranging from approx 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 7) cells per gram. The inoculated olivine samples were heated under helium carrier gas flow at 500 C and the pyrolysis products concentrated using a SAM-like hydrocarbon trap set at -20 C followed by trap heating and analysis by GC/Ms. In addition, the samples were also extracted using a low temperature "one-pot" chemical extraction technique using N-methyl, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent prior to GC/MS analysis. We identified several aldehydes, thiols, and alkene nitriles after pyrolysis GC/MS analysis of the bacteria that were not found in the olivine control samples that had not been inoculated with bacteria. The distribution of pyrolysis products extracted from the

  3. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring: biomedical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update is presented to Volume four of the six-volume series devoted to a survey of instruments useful for measurements in biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Methods of detection and analysis of gaseous organic pollutants and metals, including Ni and As are presented. Instrument techniques and notes are included on atomic spectrometry and uv and visible absorption instrumentation

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of an enriched 28Si single-crystal

    CERN Document Server

    DAgostino, G; Giordani, L; Mana, G; Oddone, M

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the Avogadro constant plays a key role in the redefinition of the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant. The present experiment makes use of a silicon single-crystal highly enriched in 28Si that must have a total impurity mass fraction smaller than a few parts in 109. To verify this requirement, we previously developed a relative analytical method based on neutron activation for the elemental characterization of a sample of the precursor natural silicon crystal WASO 04. The method is now extended to fifty-nine elements and applied to a monoisotopic 28Si single-crystal that was grown to test the achievable enrichment. Since this crystal was likely contaminated, this measurement tested also the detection capabilities of the analysis. The results quantified contaminations by Ge, Ga, As, Tm, Lu, Ta, W and Ir and, for a number of the detectable elements, demonstrated that we can already reach the targeted 1 ng/g detection limit.

  5. Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Feldman, S.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mineral identification is a critical component of Mars Astrobiological missions. Chemical or elemental data alone are not definitive because a single elemental or chemical composition or even a single bonding type can represent a range of substances or mineral assemblages. Minerals are defined as unique structural and compositional phases that occur naturally. There are about 15,000 minerals that have been described on Earth, all uniquely identifiable via diffraction methods. There are likely many minerals yet undiscovered on Earth, and likewise on Mars. If an unknown phase is identified on Mars, it can be fully characterized by structural (X-ray Diffraction, XRD) and elemental analysis (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) without recourse to other data because XRD relies on the principles of atomic arrangement for its determinations. XRD is the principal means of identification and characterization of minerals on Earth.

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of hair for mercury determination in case of possible professional contamination. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of neutron-activation determination of Hg in hair of the staff working with laboratory Hg-equipment are presented. The accuracy of the analysis has been tested including the possible Hg losses from phenol-formaldehyde resigns base standards in Al foils and from hair samples in polyethylene ampoules during their irradiation in water-filled nuclear reactor channel. The mean content of Hg in hair has been found to be 1.42+-0.42 (n=22) for the staff, and 1.05+-0.21 (n=10) μg for the controls. A staff group with a higher Hg content in hair (7.3+-3.0, n=10) has been singled out

  7. Multielemental hair composition of Brazilian Indian populational groups by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental composition of hair samples of Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Reservation, in the Brazilian Amazonic region has been determined for the first time, by INAA. Irradiations were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (Delft, The Netherlands) and, using a combination of different irradiation and decay times, about 40 elements could be determined in the hair. Previous analysis made at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) of hair samples of a Brazilian control population allowed the determination of 20 elements, also by INAA. Comparison of the data obtained for the Indian populations and the controls showed very significant differences in elemental compositions for some elements, like Hg, Mn and Al while for others, like Cu and Zn, the concentrations were similar. A discussion of the differences found for other elements also is made. (author)

  8. Volatile flavour of wine: correlation between instrumental analysis and sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, A

    1998-12-01

    The aroma of wine consists of 600 to 800 aroma compounds from which especially those, typical for the variety, are already present in the grapes. There are significant varietal differences between the aromagrams ('fingerprint patterns'). Thus the amount of some flavour compounds ('key substances') shows typical dependence on the variety. Especially monoterpene compounds play an important role in the differentiation of wine varieties. The German white wines can be differentiated into three groups only by quantitative determination of 12 monoterpenes ('terpene profile'). These groups are: 'Riesling type', 'Muscat type' and 'Silvaner-Weissburgunder type'. Such 'terpene profiles' are also useful for the separation of real Riesling wines from others called Riesling (e.g. Welschriesling, Kap Riesling, Emerald Riesling) but not produced from grapes of the variety Riesling. Including further components and by means of statistical methods (discriminant analysis) even the different varieties within the mentioned groups for instance the 'Riesling'-group (e.g. Riesling, Kerner, Ehrenfelser, Bacchus, Müller-Thurgau) can be separated from each other. An analytical characterization of the neutral ('Silvaner-type') grape varieties Silvaner, Ruländer (Pinot gris), Weissburgunder (Pinot blanc) is also possible with about 20 compounds (e.g. monoterpenes, alcohols). Computing at the same time free and glycosidically bound aroma components (monoterpenes, alcohols, norisoprenes) in discriminant analysis the characterization of the neutral grape varieties can be considerably improved. To identify compounds causing 'off-flavours' sniffing technique is the method of choice. The off-flavour is pinpointed during gas chromatographic separation of the complex aroma mixture by effluent sniffing. Once allocated, the chemical nature of the off-flavours is elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Substances contributing to the green pepper taint, the strawberry note, moussiness, corkiness, etc. in

  9. The Combustion Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Malespin, C. A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Graham, H. V.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Brunner, A. E.; Freissinet, C.; Franz, H. B.; Fuentes, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Leshin, L. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navvaro-Gonzales, R.; Niles, P. B.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    The combustion experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on Curiosity will heat a sample of Mars regolith in the presence of oxygen and measure composition of the evolved gases using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and tunable laser spectrometry (TLS). QMS will enable detection of combustion products such as CO, CO2, NO, and other oxidized species, while TLS will enable precise measurements of the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (delta(sup 13)C) of the evolved CO2 and hydrogen isotopic composition (deltaD) of H2O. SAM will perform a two-step combustion to isolate combustible materials below approx.550 C and above approx.550 C. The combustion experiment on SAM, if properly designed and executed, has the potential to answer multiple questions regarding the origins of volatiles seen thus far in SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA) on Mars. Constraints imposed by SAM and MSL time and power resources, as well as SAM consumables (oxygen gas), will limit the number of SAM combustion experiments, so it is imperative to design an experiment targeting the most pressing science questions. Low temperature combustion experiments will primarily target the quantification of carbon (and nitrogen) contributed by SAM wet chemistry reagants MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) and DMF (Dimethylformamide), which have been identified in the background of blank and sample runs and may adsorb to the sample while the cup is in the Sample Manipulation System (SMS). In addition, differences between the sample and "blank" may yield information regarding abundance and delta(sup 13)C of bulk (both organic and inorganic) martian carbon. High temperature combustion experiments primarily aim to detect refractory organic matter, if present in Cumberland fines, as well as address the question of quantification and deltaD value of water evolution associated with hydroxyl hydrogen in clay minerals.

  10. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  11. How HR Leaders Can Add Value to an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Norm; Ulrich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Generally speaking, it is safe to say that human resource leaders whole-heartedly believe that the HR function should add value to an organization. However, many wonder where to start. In this article, the authors outline three ways in which the HR function, and the HR leader, can create sustained value for an organization and its stakeholders.

  12. The Care Tradition: Beyond "Add Women and Stir."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2001-01-01

    Examines problems of curricular inclusion, emphasizing ways of including the interests and contributions of women in social studies curricula. After describing the inadequacy of the "add women and stir" approach to inclusion, the paper discusses the tradition of care long identified with female life, then explores ways to preserve and extend this…

  13. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide 110Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide 199Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide 69mZn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide 66Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used, various geological

  14. Instrumental Analysis Course Teaching Reform and Exploration%仪器分析课程教学改革与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽华

    2014-01-01

    Chemical analysis is a part of the instrument, it is by means of sophisticated analytical instruments, according to the physical or physicochemical properties of the substance to determine the chemical composition analysis of the content and structure. As electronic technology, computer technology, laser technology and other new technologies applied to the in-strument, classical chemical analysis continue to be instrumented. Instrumental analysis applications are increasingly being used, it is not only used in pharmaceutical, chemical, metallurgical also used in food, geology, environmental protection, na-tional defense and other fields.%仪器分析是分析化学的一部分,它是借助于精密的分析仪器,依据物质的物理性质或物理化学性质来确定物质的化学组成、含量及结构的分析方法。随着电子技术、计算机技术、激光技术等新技术应用于仪器中,经典的化学分析不断被仪器化。仪器分析的应用领域也越来越广泛,它不仅应用于医药、化工、冶金还应用于食品、地质、环保、国防等领域。

  15. Med-records: an ADD database of AAEC medical records since 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its inception in 1958 most of the staff of the AAEC Research Establishment at Lucas Heights have had annual medical examinations. Medical information accrued since 1966 has been collected as an ADD database to allow ad hoc enquiries to be made against the data. Details are given of the database schema and numerous support routines ranging from the integrity checking of input data to analysis and plotting of the summary results

  16. PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS - A BASIC INSTRUMENT IN STRATEGIC PLANNING. CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrescu Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Practice proved that strategic planning is a necessary process for insurance companies. This process can help companies to adapt more easily to environmental changes. The strategic planning of the activity of an insurance company cannot be realized without a careful analysis of the evolution of the market and without studying the company's market position. A classic model used in the portfolio analysis is the Boston Consulting Group model. In this paper we have used the model for studying the activity of the leader of the Romanian insurance market. In 2009 Alliantz Tiriac had 17 types of insurance in the portfolio. Each class of insurance was considered a strategic business unit. We have studied the insurance portfolio by using secondary data from specialized publications, such as the Romanian Insurance Supervisory Commission. Using the data, we have calculated for Alliantz Tiriac, for each class of insurance, the relative market share. The company was leader on the market for five classes of insurance. The economic crisis had a severe impact on the evolution of the Romanian insurance market: from the 17 classes of insurance studied: nine had registered a decrease of the market, eight had registered an increase, but only for three of them the growth exceeded 10%. Using the relative market share and the market growth we have identified the “cash cows”: there are five classes of insurance in this category, among which the “Insurance for land vehicles (CASCO” which represented more than half of the sales (55.82%; unfortunately, in the case of this insurance type there was a very significant decrease of the market in 2010 compared to 2009: -25.12%, the “question marks” – there are three classes of insurance in this category, and the “dogs”. Due to the crisis, a large number of the company's products are in this category and there are no “star” products. This work was supported by CNCSIS – UEFISCSU, project number 915 / 2009

  17. X线机专利技术分析%Analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To make the better understanding on the status of patent application to technical staff and enterprises worked on X-ray field,provide reference for technical development and patent application though the analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument.Methods:Combined international patent classification with keywords for searching the patents related X-ray instrument both in domestic and international and analyzed patent application amount,area distribution,principal applicant and important technology for the searched patents.Results:Some information about global amount of patent application over the years,country and area distribution of the patent technology,patent application status of principal applicant is obtained in the X-ray technology field.Conclusion:The amount of patent application in the field of X-ray instrument technology is rising year by year both around the world and in china.There is a big gap between domestic corporations and large foreign companies in the amount of patent application,patent validity and integrity of patent layout.%目的:通过对X线机专利技术进行分析,使X线机技术领域人员以及相关企业了解该领域的专利申请状况,为国内申请人在该领域的技术开发以及进行专利申请提供参考.方法:结合国际专利分类号和关键词检索出国内外涉及X线机的专利,并对所检索的专利申请量、区域分布、主要申请人以及重点技术专利进行分析.结果:获得了全球X线机技术领域的历年专利申请量、专利技术的国家和地区分布、重点申请人的专利申请情况以及在中国申请的X线机技术的专利申请状况信息.结论:X线机技术领域中的专利申请量在全球和中国范围内均呈现逐年上升趋势,我国企业在专利数量、专利的有效性及布局的完整性等方面与国外大公司相比存在较大差距.

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis applications in materials science and in forensic surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was applied to the characterization of lithious ceramic materials to be used as tritiogenic breeders in future fusion reactors. After neutron irradiation, measurements by γ-spectrometry were performed on the activated impurities, particularly on the ones with large neutron cross section. Irradiated samples were then annealed at rising temperatures, to obtain a fractional release of the tritium [formed by (n,α) reaction on lithium] as element (HT/T2) or tritiated water (HTO/T2O). Barium and antimony were determined by NAA, on request of Italian Courts, as evidence of gunshot residues (GSR), on hands and clothes of suspected people. The sample is left unchanged, even if slightly radioactive, allowing further examinations, in case of controversial results. In some actual cases, NAA was performed on samples already examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), allowing the determination of several more elements and a more definite identification of the ammunitions involved in the crime. (author)

  19. Dam methylase accessibility as an instrument for analysis of mammalian chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanenkova, Svetlana S; Kozlova, Alena A; Kotova, Elena S; Snezhkov, Eugene V; Azhikina, Tatyana L; Akopov, Sergey B; Nikolaev, Lev G; Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2011-09-01

    For a 140-kb human genome locus, an analysis of the distribution of Dam methylase accessible sites, DNase I sensitive and resistant regions, unmethylated CpG sites and acetylated histone H3 molecules was performed and compared with transcriptional activity of the genes within the locus. A direct correlation was found between the extent of Dam methylation and C5 cytosine (CpG) methylation. It was also demonstrated that promoter regions of all highly and moderately transcribed genes are highly accessible to methylation by Dam methylase. In contrast, promoters of non-transcribed genes showed a very low extent of Dam methylation. Promoter regions of non-transcribed genes were also highly CpG methylated, and the promoter and more distant 5'-regions of the housekeeping gene COX6B1 were substantially CpG-demethylated. Some highly Dam methylase accessible regions are present in the intergenic regions of the locus suggesting that the latter contain either unidentified non-coding transcripts or extended regulatory elements like locus control regions. PMID:21814036

  20. Trace metallic impurity analysis of Pu bearing nuclear fuels by AES and associated instrumental set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemistry Division, BARC, has been carrying out trace metal assay of Pu bearing nuclear fuels and associated materials such as UO2, PuO2, (U,Pu)O2, (U,Pu)C etc. based on Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES) for more than four decades. AES is used with two different excitation sources, i.e. Direct Current Arc (D.C.Arc) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). In the first case, group of metallics viz. Al, B, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Sn, Ta,V, W and Zn are normally determined by carrier distillation technique, wherein during excitation of the sample in D.C.Arc, the analytes get selectively volatilised leaving behind the matrix in the electrode crater. Thus the sample prior to arcing has to be only directly mixed with the carrier, therefore, resulting in minimum handling of sample, which results in least chance of contamination and greater speed of analysis

  1. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  2. Determination of trace elements in lichen samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of Canoparmelia texana lichen collected in different sites of Sao Paulo and Parana States, Brazil, were analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to obtain preliminary information on the air quality in these regions and also to select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. Also Tadescantia pallida plant has been analysed in order to study the viability of using this specimen in environmental pollution monitoring. Lichens samples were collected from tree barks which were also collected to investigate the contribution of substrate derived elements to elements present in lichens. Young and old leaves of T. pallida were collected separately in order to study the leaf age effects on their elemental levels. The samples were cleaned, washed with distilled water, dried and ground for the analyses. Samples and standards were irradiated at the IEA-Rlm nuclear reactor for short and long periods and concentrations of the elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, D, Th, U, V Zn and lanthanides were determined. Preliminary results obtained for T. texana lichen indicated that three sites (Ibiuna, Botanical Garden and Parque de Vila Velha) present low concentrations of the most elements analysed. Therefore lichens from these regions could be analysed to establish baseline levels of elements for monitoring purposes. Samples collected in open areas presented high concentrations of some elements probably due to the accumulation of elements originating from soil and from heavy vehicular traffic. Elemental concentrations obtained in outer barks were similar or smaller than those results obtained for lichens. Results obtained for T. pallida indicated that concentrations of elements in old leaves of this plant are of the same magnitude or slightly higher than those presented in young ones. (author)

  3. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,γ), product, 26.32 h 76As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via 122Sb and 64Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV 76As/564-keV 122Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics

  4. Development and evaluation of a computerbased instrument supporting event analysis in NPP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information technologies (IT) in safety management are seen as opportunity to control and reduce risks. The processing of safety-critical event information, a central function of safety management, could be more efficient using computers. But organization structures are different, the processes of experience transfer are complex and the opportunities of IT are broad. To implement a support system is to question about design criteria of computer support for an event-based safety management system (eSMS). Two studies were conducted. Study 1 compares the organizational, technical and legal conditions for Safety Management in the German Nuclear Industry and the Norwegian Offshore Industry. It could identify design criteria, which independent from the operator influence the eSMS. Study 2 compares the eSMS of different nuclear power plants analyzing the organization structures and processes. Those internal and external criteria have a significant influence on a efficient design of a system support for eSMS. The third study makes the options and impact of computer support on experience transfer in eSMS as subject of discussion. For this purpose a simulation environment has been created. Groups investigated typical event scenarios from a nuclear power plant for contributing factors. The communication medium has been manipulated (face-to-face versus computer-mediated). Results of 15 groups indicate, that the collection of event information was promoted by computer-mediated communication. This is the foundation of the identification of contributing factors. The depth of analysis has not been influenced. Computer mediation hampers the learning of facts. IT can support safety management effectively. (orig.)

  5. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,..gamma..), product, 26.32 h /sup 76/As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via /sup 122/Sb and /sup 64/Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV /sup 76/As/564-keV /sup 122/Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics.

  6. 42 CFR 83.19 - How can the Secretary cancel or modify a final decision to add a class of employees to the Cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of 42 CFR part 82. (b) Before canceling a final decision to add a class or modifying a final decision... conducting dose reconstructions under 42 CFR part 82; the analysis will be performed consistently with the... decision to add a class of employees to the Cohort? 83.19 Section 83.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  7. Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated En numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies. - Highlights: • Optimization of experimental parameters is important for high sensitivity results by INAA. • Assessment of uncertainty sources is necessary to increase reliability of results. • The aim of this study is to determine a number of elements in industrial soil samples. • The higher concentrations of studied elements are due to rapid industrialization. • This baseline data can be used in future studies for other industrial areas

  8. Iron Quadrangle, Brazil. Elemental concentration determined by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. Part 1. Soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is rich in mineral occurrences and is considered one of the richest mineral-bearing regions in the world. Most investigations in this region have dealt with the determination of arsenic and mercury but so far few studies have been carried out aiming at determining other important elements. Having in mind the potential risk caused by mineral activities, this study was developed in order to assess the potential influence of the soil on foodstuffs. The soil samples were collected from three sites inside and outside the Iron Quadrangle. The samples were analyzed at the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis, CDTN/CNEN by the k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. This paper reports the elemental concentration determined in soil and emphasises the elements cited in the Brazilian environmental legislation for soil. This work also confirms the high elemental concentration of several minerals, however, it is difficult to distinguish the contamination from anthropogenic activities from the natural occurrence. (author)

  9. Compartmentalization of trace elements in guinea pig tissues by INAA [instrumental neutron activation analysis] and AAS [atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human scalp hair analysis has received considerable attention from a variety of disciplines over the last 20 yr or so. Trace element levels of hair have been used in environmental, epidemiological, forensic, nutritional, predictive, and preventive medicine studies. There still exist confusion, skepticism, and controversy, however, among the experts as well as lay persons in the interpretation of hair trace element data. Much of the criticism stems from the lack of quantitative and reliable data on the ability of hair to accurately reflect dose-response relationships. To better define the significance or hair trace element levels (under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency), the authors have undertaken a controlled set of animal experiments in which trace element levels in hair and other tissues have been measured after a mild state of systemic intoxication by chronic, low-does exposure to cadmium and selenium. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods have been developed for the determination of several elements with a high degree of precision and accuracy

  10. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  11. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  12. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  13. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Design: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of a Dutch Version of the Mini PAS-ADD for Assessing Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Different Levels of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, R.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased vulnerability to develop psychiatric problems. Moreover, the early recognition and the accurate diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in the population of persons with ID are challenging. Method: A Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD, which is a screening instrument for…

  15. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For better understanding of the specification for seismic instrumentation of a nuclear power plant, the lecture gives some fundamental remarks to the seismic risk in the Federal Republic of Germany and to the data characterizing an earthquake event. Coming from the geophysical properties of an earthquake, the quantities are explained which are used in the design process of nuclear power plants. This process is shortly described in order to find the requirements for the specification of the seismic instrumentation. In addition the demands of licensing authorities are given. As an example the seismic instrumentation of KKP-1, BWR, is shown. The paper deals with kind and number of instruments, their location in the plant and their sensitivity and calibration. Final considerations deal with the evaluation of measured data and with plant operation after an earthquake. Some experience concerning the earthquake behaviour of equipment not designed to withstand earthquake loads is mentioned. This experience has initiated studies directed to quantification of the degree of conservatism of the assumptions in the seismic design of nuclear power plants. A final garget of these studies are more realistic design rules. (RW)

  16. An Analysis of Various Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Anas, Alex; Govinda R. Timilsina; Zheng, Siqi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nested multinomial logit model of car ownership and personal travel in Beijing circa 2005, this paper compares the effectiveness of different policy instruments to reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. The study shows that a congestion toll is more efficient than a fuel tax in reducing traffic congestion, whereas a fuel tax is more effective as a policy instrument for reduci...

  17. Comparative analysis of the diameter of MTwo® system gutta-percha points in relation to their corresponding instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Pandonor Motcy de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: This study aimed to compare the diameter of sizes 25/.06, 30/.05, 35/.04, 40/.04 and 25/.07 main gutta-percha point of MTwo® system in relation to their corresponding nickel-titanium instruments. Material and methods: For this purpose, the measurements of both the main gutta-percha points and their corresponding instruments were obtained with the aid of a caliper at the positions D1, D3 and D11. Twenty points and six instruments of each size were used. Results: Data were subjected to student t test, with a significance level of 5%. It could be observed that there was a variation in the diameter of the gutta-percha points in relation to the diameter of the instruments. At D1 and D3, size 25/.07 points had diameters significantly higher than their respective instruments. At D11, sizes 25/.06, 25/.07, 30/.05 and 35/.04 points also had significantly higher diameters. For size 40/.04 point, there were no statistically significant differences between the point and instrument diameters. Conclusion: Most of the main gutta-percha points of MTwo® system analyzed in this study showed significantly greater diameters than those of their corresponding instruments. Only the size 40/.04 points did not present significant differences in diameter compared with their corresponding instrument.

  18. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J; Marson, A G; Hutton, J L

    2012-01-01

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001908. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Pereira J, Marson AG, Hutton JL. Servico de Neurologia, Hospital de Santo Antonio, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar, 4099-001 Porto, Portugal. Abstract BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, affecting almost 0.5 to 1 per cent of the population. Nearly 30 per cent of people with epilepsy are resistant to currently available drugs. Tiagabine...

  19. Oil rigging firm to add 50 engineering vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Oilfield Services Ltd., the oil service unit of the State-owned offshore oil and gas producer China NationalOffshore Oil Corporation, plans to add 50 vessels to its ocean engineering fleet, according to Cai Dian, manager of the shipping department at COSL. COSL is China's largest integrated oilfield service provider, operating a fleet of 108 vessels, which accounts for 60 percent of China's total ocean engineering vessel number.

  20. GnRH-Analoga und Add-back-Verfahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinstein J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available GnRH-Analoga haben eine große Bedeutung in der medikamentösen Therapie der Endometriose erlangt. Sie sind in der Lage, Endometrioseassoziierte Schmerzen zu beseitigen und sind Bestandteil der Therapie der endometriosebedingten Infertilität. Aufgrund der Chronizität der Endometriose bedarf es in vielen Fällen der Prolongation der GnRH-A-Therapie über den Zeitraum von 6 Monaten hinaus. Für diese Fälle eignet sich eine Add-back- Therapie nach dem Format von Hormonersatztherapien, um vasomotorischen Nebeneffekten und dem Knochensubstanzverlust entgegenwirken zu können. Dabei wird der Estrogenanteil niedrig dosiert eingesetzt, um innerhalb eines "therapeutischen Fensters" den Hypoestrogenismus auszugleichen, ohne das Endometriosewachstum zu fördern. Prinzipiell kann dazu das Estrogen oral, aber auch transdermal appliziert werden. Die Effektivität der Kombination aus GnRH-A plus Add-back bezüglich der Knochenprotektion konnte bereits für einen Zeitraum von bis zu 10 Jahren bestätigt werden, sodass damit eine Langzeitkonzeption für Frauen mit rezidivierender Endometriose und wiederholten operativen Eingriffen existiert. Alternativen zur klassischen Add-back mit Sexualsteroiden existieren vielfältig, aber ihr Einsatz ist durch Partialwirkungen und eigene Nebenwirkungen limitiert.

  1. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  2. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  3. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(γ, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 μg g-1.

  4. Determination of airborne cadmium in environmental tobacco smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis with a compton suppression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Larson, S; Wu, D

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, a toxic trace element, were measured in the indoor air of several public places where environmental tobacco smoke was present. Particulate-phase cadmium concentrations were determined by analyzing air filter samples using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis in conjunction with a Compton suppression gamma-ray detection system, in which the detection limit for cadmium was reduced to a few nanograms per filter. A cascade impactor and a personal filter sampler were used to collect the indoor suspended particulate matter for size-fractionated mass as well as total mass, respectively. Results show that where environmental tobacco smoke is present, cadmium concentrations are significantly higher than background and that about 80% of the cadmium found in indoor airborne particulate matter is associated with particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 1.8 microns. In one instance, airborne cadmium concentrations in a music club were found to be 38 ng/m, which is at least 30 times higher than background. PMID:8328669

  5. Further Exploration of the Classroom Video Analysis (CVA) Instrument as a Measure of Usable Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics: Taking a Knowledge System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Nicole B.; Sutton, Taliesin; Kalinec-Craig, Crystal; Stoehr, Kathleen Jablon; Heshmati, Saeideh; Lozano, Guadalupe; Stigler, James W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report further explorations of the classroom video analysis instrument (CVA), a measure of usable teacher knowledge based on scoring teachers' written analyses of classroom video clips. Like other researchers, our work thus far has attempted to identify and measure separable components of teacher knowledge. In this study we take…

  6. AMOVA ["Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis"]: An Advanced Statistical Methodology Designed to Measure and Test the Validity, Reliability, and Overall Efficacy of Inquiry-Based Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, James Edward, II

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Children's Toys and Jewelry: A Multi-Instrument, Multitechnique Exercise in Analytical Chemistry and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Lauren E.; Hillyer, Margot M.; Leopold, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    For most chemistry curricula, laboratory-based activities in quantitative and instrumental analysis continue to be an important aspect of student development/training, one that can be more effective if conceptual understanding is delivered through an inquiry-based process relating the material to relevant issues of public interest and student…

  8. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  9. Elemental Analysis and Natural Radioactivity Levels of Clay by Gamma Ray Spectrometer and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    W. R. Alharbi; El-Taher, A.

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased global demand for clay, the present work involves the use of INAA for elemental analysis and pollutants concentration in clay. The samples were collected from Aswan in South Egypt. The samples were irradiated using the thermal neutrons “at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor” and at a neutron flux “of 7 × 10 n/cm s”. Twenty-six elements quantitatively and qualitatively were specified for the first time upon studying the samples. The elements determined are U, Th, Ta, Hf, Lu, Eu,...

  10. Test of multielement analysis of bone samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and anti-Compton spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAA and anti-Compton spectrometry has been employed in the analysis of test bone samples. Validity and accuracy of the method were checked by the use of two biological reference materials procured from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) and the International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria (IAEA). NIST 1486 Bone Meal (ca. 200-800 mg) and A-11 Milk Powder (ca. 200-600 mg) samples were irradiated in the 100 kW TRIGA Mainz reactor. Concentrations of 13 elements in both biological reference materials have been determined and were found in good agreement with the certified and provisional values. (author)

  11. Dam Safety Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Bamane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In most of the cases, the materials are tested in laboratories and designs are based on assumptions that the same results will be met with, during actual construction. As there are always large variations in materials, their properties, construction methods and their control, the actual product defers from the original assumptions. In this paper, instruments required to check the behaviour and stability of dams are discussed with their necessity, use and operation. These instruments prove to be much useful in proper maintenance of dam, and hence they should be installed under the guidance of experts at appropriate places in the dam. A conclusion has been arrived that there should be close co-operation between the designers, instrumentation specialist, expert analysis and site authorities to achieve the goal of instrumentation.

  12. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  13. Note: A portable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for rapid sampling and analysis of silicon-containing aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R. P.; Mason, G. S.; Miller, A. L.; Stipe, C. B.; Kearns, J. D.; Prier, M. W.; Rarick, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    A portable instrument has been developed for measuring silicon-containing aerosols in near real-time using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The instrument uses a vacuum system to collect and deposit airborne particulate matter onto a translatable reel of filter tape. LIBS is used to analyze the deposited material, determining the amount of silicon-containing compounds present. In laboratory testing with pure silica (SiO2), the correlation between LIBS intensity for a characteristic silicon emission and the concentration of silica in a model aerosol was determined for a range of concentrations, demonstrating the instrument's plausibility for identifying hazardous levels of silicon-containing compounds.

  14. The Thirty Gigahertz Instrument Receiver for the QUIJOTE Experiment: Preliminary Polarization Measurements and Systematic-Error Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Francisco J; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo

    2015-08-05

    This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process.

  15. Response in electrostatic analyzers due to backscattered electrons: case study analysis with the Juno Jovian Auroral Distribution Experiment-Electron instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G; Allegrini, F; Randol, B M; McComas, D J; Louarn, P

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we introduce a model to characterize electron scattering in an electrostatic analyzer. We show that electrons between 0.5 and 30 keV scatter from internal surfaces to produce a response up to ~20% of the ideal, unscattered response. We compare our model results to laboratory data from the Jovian Auroral Distribution Experiment-Electron sensor onboard the NASA Juno mission. Our model reproduces the measured energy-angle response of the instrument well. Understanding and quantifying this scattering process is beneficial to the analysis of scientific data as well as future instrument optimization. PMID:24182165

  16. Major and trace elemental analysis in milk powder by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Major and trace element in seven different kinds of milk powder were studied. The concentration of 24 elements were determined byICP-OES method, from these elements 9 elements determined by INAA. The determination of trace element contents of foodstuffs, especiallymilk as daily drink for all peoples age which being a complex food has great importance. The elemental analysis of milk is important both as anindicator of environmental contamination and because milk is a significant pathway for toxic metal intake and a source of essential nutrients forhumans. The major elements are Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S. While trace element are B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se,Sn, Sr, V, W and Zn.ICP-OES technique is shown to be a powerful tool for trace determinations in powder samples. This is shown by its use for analysis of aseries of the milk powders mentioned and comparative results of other direct technique such as instrumental neutron activation analysis.Analysis of both standard reference material A-11 milk powder and NBS Orchard leaves for quality accurance had been completed, andused for a relative method calculate. The importance of the major and trace elements to human health was discussed.

  17. Elemental Analysis and Natural Radioactivity Levels of Clay by Gamma Ray Spectrometer and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Alharbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increased global demand for clay, the present work involves the use of INAA for elemental analysis and pollutants concentration in clay. The samples were collected from Aswan in South Egypt. The samples were irradiated using the thermal neutrons “at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor” and at a neutron flux “of 7 × 10 n/cm s”. Twenty-six elements quantitatively and qualitatively were specified for the first time upon studying the samples. The elements determined are U, Th, Ta, Hf, Lu, Eu, Ce, Ba, Sn, Nb, Rb, Zn, Co, Fe, Cr, Sc, Sm, La, Yb, As, Ga, K, Mn, Na, Ti, and Mg. The concentrations of natural radionuclides 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were also calculated. Based on these concentrations, to estimate the exposure risk for using clay as raw materials in building materials, the radiation hazard indices such as radium equivalent activities, effective doses rate, and the external hazard indices have been computed. The obtained results were compared with analogous studies carried out in other countries and with the UNSCEAR reports.

  18. Validation of the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma instrument among community pharmacists using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waqas; Hussein, Maryam S E; Ahmad, Sohail; Mamat, Mohd N; Ismail, Nahlah E

    2015-10-01

    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60-1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.

  19. Identification of Gas Components in Lighter by Gas Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Which Can Be Used With Distance Learning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci MORGIL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the applications of instrumental analysis lessons, advanced instruments with the needed experiments are needed. During the lessons it is a fact that the more experiments are performed, the more learning will be. For this reason, experiments that do not last long and should be performed with more simple instruments and that increase students’ attention with current events should be developed. It is thought that there is only propane gas in lighters used in daily life. However, in fact, in certain ratios, there are also other gases having similar structure besides propane gas. For these reasons, the identification of gas components in lighter has been thought. To enlighten this situation a simple experiment design has been planned.

  20. Performance-Based Cognitive Screening Instruments: An Extended Analysis of the Time versus Accuracy Trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of dementia is key to appropriate treatment and management. Clinical assessment, including the use of cognitive screening instruments, remains integral to the diagnostic process. Many cognitive screening instruments have been described, varying in length and hence administration time, but it is not known whether longer tests offer greater diagnostic accuracy than shorter tests. Data from several pragmatic diagnostic test accuracy studies examining various cognitiv...