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Sample records for analysis instruments add

  1. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  2. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  3. Program Instrumentation and Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Goldberg, Allen; Filman, Robert; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several attempts have been made recently to apply techniques such as model checking and theorem proving to the analysis of programs. This shall be seen as a current trend to analyze real software systems instead of just their designs. This includes our own effort to develop a model checker for Java, the Java PathFinder 1, one of the very first of its kind in 1998. However, model checking cannot handle very large programs without some kind of abstraction of the program. This paper describes a complementary scalable technique to handle such large programs. Our interest is turned on the observation part of the equation: How much information can be extracted about a program from observing a single execution trace? It is our intention to develop a technology that can be applied automatically and to large full-size applications, with minimal modification to the code. We present a tool, Java PathExplorer (JPaX), for exploring execution traces of Java programs. The tool prioritizes scalability for completeness, and is directed towards detecting errors in programs, not to prove correctness. One core element in JPaX is an instrumentation package that allows to instrument Java byte code files to log various events when executed. The instrumentation is driven by a user provided script that specifies what information to log. Examples of instructions that such a script can contain are: 'report name and arguments of all called methods defined in class C, together with a timestamp'; 'report all updates to all variables'; and 'report all acquisitions and releases of locks'. In more complex instructions one can specify that certain expressions should be evaluated and even that certain code should be executed under various conditions. The instrumentation package can hence be seen as implementing Aspect Oriented Programming for Java in the sense that one can add functionality to a Java program without explicitly changing the code of the original program, but one rather writes an

  4. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  5. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  6. Nuclear instrumentation evaluation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project provides the program for improving instrumentation reliability as well as developing a cost-effective preventive maintenance activity through evaluation and analysis of nuclear instrumentation concerning pilot plants, large-scale test facilities and various laboratories on KAERI site. In addition, it discusses the program for enhancing safe operations and improving facility availability through establishment of maintenance technology. (Author)

  7. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  8. MetaEasy: A Meta-Analysis Add-In for Microsoft Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kontopantelis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines or integrates the results ofseveral independent clinical trials considered by the analyst to be `combinable' (Huque1988. However, completeness and user-friendliness are uncommon both in specialisedmeta-analysis software packages and in mainstream statistical packages that have to relyon user-written commands. We implemented the meta-analysis methodology in an Mi-crosoft Excel add-in which is freely available and incorporates more meta-analysis models(including the iterative maximum likelihood and prole likelihood than are usually avail-able, while paying particular attention to the user-friendliness of the package.

  9. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  10. A Mainstreaming: Analysis of a Policy Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Charlotte; Jacquot, Sophie; Le Galès, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In the world of public policy, waves of innovations and new policy developments are usually followed by movements of rationalisation. Most policy domains, in the EU as elsewhere, progressively become institutionalised, a sedimentation of institutions and policy instruments progressively creating a mille feuilles within which contradictions take place, hence the drive in due course either to add another layer, to change the institution or to create new instruments to rationalise existing on...

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  12. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  13. LOFT downcomer instrumentation assembly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A supplemental stress analysis of the LOFT Downcomer Instrumentation Assembly (DIA) has been completed in accordance with the stress requirements of Section III of the ASME Code. Both thermal loads, due to LOCE and operating conditions, and fluid loads were considered. The following conclusions were made: (1) Inconel 600 is an acceptable material for the pressure tubes. (2) The flowmeter can be attached to the DIA with 1/4-inch diameter, SA-193 type B8M screws. They should be lubricated with two coats of Neolube and torqued to 1.25 ft-lbs. This applies to all of the screws attaching the flowmeter to the DIA. As an alterative, SA-453, grade 600 screws may be used. They should be coated with 2 coats of Neolube and torqued to 4.9 ft-lbs (4.5 ft-lbs is acceptable). (3) The method of mounting the instrument leads and the pressure tubes is adequate

  14. Instrumenting the Intelligence Analysis Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, Ernest; Cowley, Paula J.

    2005-05-02

    The Advanced Research and Development Activity initiated the Novel Intelligence from Massive Data (NIMD) program to develop advanced analytic technologies and methodologies. In order to support this objective, researchers and developers need to understand what analysts do and how they do it. In the past, this knowledge generally was acquired through subjective feedback from analysts. NIMD established the innovative Glass Box Analysis (GBA) Project to instrument a live intelligence mission and unobtrusively capture and objectively study the analysis process. Instrumenting the analysis process requires tailor-made software hooks that grab data from a myriad of disparate application operations and feed into a complex relational database and hierarchical file store to collect, store, retrieve, and distribute analytic data in a manner that maximizes researchers’ understanding. A key to success is determining the correct data to collect and aggregate low-level data into meaningful analytic events. This paper will examine how the GBA team solved some of these challenges, continues to address others, and supports a growing user community in establishing their own GBA environments and/or studying the data generated by GBA analysts working in the Glass Box.

  15. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. PMID:20176408

  16. Analysis of instrumentation technology for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary that development requirements, techniques to be developed, and development tasks and approach are established to develop the SMART instrumentation system. It is important to establish the development strategies for input for developing SMART instrumentation system. To meet above needs, the industry general and nuclear instrumentation techniques were analyzed and reviewed, respectively, based on the classification of instrumentation to analyze the industrial instrumentation techniques, and analysis results which described the inherent merits and demerits of each technique can be used for inputs to select the instruments for SMART. For the instrumentation techniques for nuclear environments, the major instrumentation techniques were reviewed, and the instrumentation system were established. The following development approaches were established based on the development requirements and the analysis results of research and development trends of industrial and nuclear instrumentation techniques. (author). 90 refs., 38 tabs., 33 figs

  17. LISA Pathfinder Instrument Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtraction techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of preflight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  18. MITS instrumentation error analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MITS (Machine Interface Test System) installation consists of three types of process monitoring and control instrumentation: flow, pressure, and temperature. An effort has been made to assess the various instruments used and assign a value to the accuracy that can be expected. Efforts were also made to analyze the calibration and installation procedures to be used and determine how these might effect the system accuracy

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  20. Instrumented DMT: review and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hao; Haegeman, Wim; Peiffer, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of the Marchetti DMT, instrumented DMTs have been fabricated and investigated for different purposes such as automatic data acquisition, better understanding of the standard Marchetti DMT, dealing with difficult soils or achieving soil stiffness at additional strain levels. In this article, the modification to the displacement measurement and pore-pressure system are reviewed, and a quantitative research on pressure-displacement curves and unload-reload modulus is prese...

  1. Analysis of reconfigurable multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer for intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponmalar, S.; Sundaravadivelu, S.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents design of an electro-optically tunable polymer multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer (WADM). The proposed WADM with trapezoidal waveguide geometry and poled electro-optical polymer material in the waveguide cores enables the wavelength tuning speed of WADM as 7.5 ps at the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm and coupling length of 1.5 mm. The device can be electro-optically tuned to add/drop multiple channels. Transmission spectra of the device with varying device parameters are simulated. The proposed WADM with high speed, small size and varying tuning capability makes this device, an important element in faster provisioning and routing of light paths in intelligent optical network.

  2. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  3. Conference on instrumental activation analysis - IAA 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especialy on neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods. (J.P.)

  4. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  5. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  6. Optimization of instrumental activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation analysis is one of the most well-understood methods available to the analyst. It should, therefore, be possible to infer, from prior information about the sample, what procedure should be followed in its analysis. The accuracy of this process is naturally limited by the extent and accuracy of the prior information available. Better results should be obtained in this way, however, than by ignoring prior information. It is the task of optimization to discover the analytical procedure that best suits the sample being analyzed. Optimization can be conveniently conceptualized if each experimental parameter is considered as a dimension of a geometric space. In activation analysis, if only irradiation and decay times are to be adjusted, the parameter space will be two dimensional. Each point in the parameter space corresponds to a possible procedure for carrying out a determination and each such procedure will perform more or less satisfactorily than others. Optimization, then, consists of a search for a point or a region in parameter space where performance meets the analyst's requirements. Practicality is an important consideration in designing a procedure for activation analysis. There are limits to the amount of radioactive material that can be handled safely and to the count rate that be accurately measured. Circumstances often impose further limits. It is, therefore, necessary to constrain the search of parameter space to those regions that correspond to practical procedures. In attempting an optimization, one must consider a number of aspects. A set of experimental parameters must be chosen for adjustment and others set at fixed values, often due to practical constraints. The way in which quality of analytical performance (the response function) is to be evaluated must be decided. A means of locating the optimum must be chosen and, finally, this optimization scheme must be implemented in a practical, convenient manner. These aspects are discussed

  7. Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes

  8. Surveillance of nuclear instruments by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron noise analysis allows the surveillance of nuclear instruments. The method consists in the calculation of an indicator of detector good operating by a signal analysis technique. A change of this indicator shows a degradation of the static and dynamic detector behaviour. Examples of applications in nuclear plants are given

  9. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents. PMID:25992312

  10. Instrumentation of Java Bytecode for Runtime Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Allen; Haveland, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes JSpy, a system for high-level instrumentation of Java bytecode and its use with JPaX, OUT system for runtime analysis of Java programs. JPaX monitors the execution of temporal logic formulas and performs predicative analysis of deadlocks and data races. JSpy s input is an instrumentation specification, which consists of a collection of rules, where a rule is a predicate/action pair The predicate is a conjunction of syntactic constraints on a Java statement, and the action is a description of logging information to be inserted in the bytecode corresponding to the statement. JSpy is built using JTrek an instrumentation package at a lower level of abstraction.

  11. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  12. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  13. Course-Shopping in the Urban Community Colleges: An Analysis of Student Drop and Add Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Maxwell, William B.; Cypers, Scott; Moon, Hye Sun; Lester, Jaime

    This study examines the course shopping behaviors of approximately 5,000 community college students enrolled across the nine campuses of the Los Angeles Community College District in spring 2001. The sample students are representative of the district. For the purpose of this analysis, the authors define course shopping as: (1) cyclic shopping, the…

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  15. Confirmation of Down syndrome critical region by FISH analysis in a patient with add(21)(p11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Naomichi; Niikawa, Norio [Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan); Mikawa, Makoto [Kitami Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-04

    We have studied a patient with clinical Down syndrome (DS) who has a mosaic 46, XX/46, XX, 21p+ karyotype. The patient was born at 39 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 3,025 g to healthy parents. At age 2 months, she was diagnosed clinically to have DS; she had flat facies, upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, telecanthus, flat nasal bridge, abnormal dentition, malformed ears, short neck, short fingers, clinodactyly with single flexion crease of the fifth fingers, hyperextension of joints, pes planus, distal axial triradii, and bilateral tibial arch patterns. Chromosome analysis showed mosaicism consisting of a normal 46,XX cell line and a line with a 21p+ chromosome, the final karyotype being mos46,XX[57]/46,XX,add(21)(p11)[43]. Although the origin of an additional segment on chromosome 21 was not identified with conventional banding analyses, it was suspected to represent partial trisomy 21 on the basis of clinical manifestations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. New Developments at NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John; Herring, Ellen L.; Brown, Tammy L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) has developed new methods to provide an instrument study in one week's engineering time. The final product is recorded in oral presentations, models and the analyses which underlie the models.

  17. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  18. Combining Two Large MRI Data Sets (AddNeuroMed and ADNI) Using Multivariate Data Analysis to Distinguish between Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Muehlboeck, J.-Sebastian;

    study cohorts using an automated image analysis pipeline and multivariate data analysis. Methods: A total of 664 subjects were included in this study (AddNeuroMed: 126 AD, 115 CTL, ADNI: 194 AD, 229 CTL) Data acquisition for the AddNeuroMed project was set up to be compatible with the ADNI study and the...... high resolution sagital 3D T1w MP-RAGE datasets used for image analysis. Regional segmentation of the brain was carried out using the multi-scale ANIMAL image analysis technique (Automated Non-linear Image Matching and Anatomical Labeling). Cortical thickness measurements were performed using CLASP. A...... total of 24 measures were pooled together for multivariate analysis using the OPLS method (orthogonal partial least squares). Models were created for the two cohorts and for the combined cohorts to discriminate between AD patients and controls. Finally the ADNI cohort was used as a replication dataset...

  19. New Developments at NASA's Instrument Synthesis & Analysis Laboratory (ISAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John; Brown, Tammy L.; Herring, Ellen L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the work of NASA's Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL). The work of the ISAL has substantially reduced the time required to develop an instrument concept. The document reviews the design process in detail and planned interaction with the end user of the instrument.

  20. Xiaoqinglong Granules as Add-On Therapy for Asthma: Latent Class Analysis of Symptom Predictors of Response

    OpenAIRE

    Qinglin Zha; Seqi Lin; Chi Zhang; Christopher Chang; Hanrong Xue; Cheng Lu; Miao Jiang; Yan Liu; Zuke Xiao; Weiyou Liu; Yunfei Shang; Jianjian Chen; Minyong Wen; Aiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Xiaoqinglong granules (XQLG) has been shown to be an effective therapy in asthma animal models. We reviewed the literature and conducted this study to assess the impact of XQLG as an add-on therapy to treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol (seretide) in adult patients with mild-to-moderate, persistent asthma. A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to receive XQLG and seretide or seretide plus placebo for 90 days. Asthma control was assessed by asthma control test (ACT), symptoms scores...

  1. Hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument uses a number-oriented microprocessor sequenced by a single component microprocessor. The incorporation of new CMOS integrated circuits makes possible complex analysis in a small, easily operated, battery-powered unit. The instrument solves an immediate problem with threshold setting of plastic scintillators and promises numerous other applications

  2. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  3. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  4. Analysis of cryptocurrencies as standard financial instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes cryptocurrencies as financial instruments. Firstly, we introduced the main features of cryptocurrencies and summarized the brief history. We found out that price of the most famous cryptocurrency Bitcoin follows the hypothesis of efficient markets and it immediately react on publicly announce information. Furthermore, Bitcoin can be seen as standard economic good that is priced by interaction of supply and demand on the market. These factors can be driven by macro financia...

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  6. Qualitative Analysis after Instrumentation Using Manual Stainless Steel and Rotary Nickel Titanium Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key Fabiano Souza PEREIRA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare qualitatively the instrumentation (areastouched by the endodontic instruments with manual stainless steeland rotary nickel titanium files.Method: 32 mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars with a singlecanal and a single apical foramen were examined in vitro. Thecanals were instrumented by the crown-down technique using Ktypefiles and taper .04 Profile files, obtaining a surgical diametercorresponding to a #30 instrument. Next, impression material wasinjected into the root canals. After material setting, the teeth weredecalcified to obtain canal impression. To evaluate the quality ofroot canal instrumentation, the images of the impressions weretransmitted to a 29-inch tv using a video camera coupled to anoperative microscope at ×20 magnification and moderate lightintensity. The examined surfaces were classified as EXCELLENT(smooth surfaces indicating that the walls were touched by theinstrument, GOOD (surfaces with irregularities and REGULAR(surfaces with irregularities, presence of anatomic complexities,like isthmuses, accessory canals, delta, etc.Results: The analysis of the root thirds and surfaces showed apredominance of the REGULAR classification of instrumentationfor both types of instruments. The worst results were found on thepalatal surface and apical third.Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference(p>0.05 between the manual stainless steel and rotary nickeltitanium instrumentation techniques when the impressions of theroot thirds and surfaces were analyzed qualitatively.

  7. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  8. Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    For synthesizing a wide variety of musical sounds, it is important to understand which acoustic properties of musical instrument sounds are related to specific perceptual features. Some properties are obvious: Amplitude and fundamental frequency easily control loudness and pitch. Other perceptual features are related to sound spectra and how they vary with time. For example, tonal "brightness" is strongly connected to the centroid or tilt of a spectrum. "Attack impact" (sometimes called "bite" or "attack sharpness") is strongly connected to spectral features during the first 20-100 ms of sound, as well as the rise time of the sound. Tonal "warmth" is connected to spectral features such as "incoherence" or "inharmonicity."

  9. Elemental analysis of ancient potteries using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provenance studies of archaeological artifacts like potteries, bricks, and coins demands elemental analysis. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used due to its high sensitivity and simultaneous multielement capability. The ancient pottery samples belong to Melchittamur, collected from Department of Ancient History, Tamilnadu, were irradiated in KAMINI reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam and counted using PC based Aptec MCA card. The peak areas were obtained using peak-fit PHAST software. The elemental concentrations were calculated using relative method with IAEA RM SL-1 as comparator. The concentrations of elements K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, In, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Hf and Th were determined. The % uncertainties are within 1-12% except for Cr, In, Cs and Th

  10. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  11. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  12. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; Wang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  13. THEORY AND APPLICATION OF WAVELET ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT LIBRARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Lin; QIN Shuren; LIU Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Some new theory and algorithms on wavelet analysis are proposed, including continuous wavelet transform (CWT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet package transform (WPT),wavelet denosing and mother wavelet selection, etc. Using the component-based hierarchy mode, the platform for virtual instrument (Ⅵ) is constructed, and the functions such as data sampling, data analysis and data present, etc are provided. Subsequently, the wavelet analysis library is designed and developed. The library consists of expert system, experienced database, development platform and abundant wavelet analysis functional module, which together implement general and special wavelet analysis in the field of mechanical engineering, energy source, transportation and biomedicine, etc.Finally, the wavelet analysis virtual instrument library is applied to detect fault called engine knock.Experimental result indicates that the wavelet analysis virtual instrument library can efficiently solve the engineering problem such as detecting engine knock.

  14. Development of intelligent system for a thermal analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key techniques for the intelligent analysis instrument developed are proposed. Based on the technique of virtual instrumentation, the intelligent PID control algorithm to control the temperature of thermal analysis instrument is described. The dynamic character and the robust performance of traditional PID controls are improved through the dynamic gain factor, temperature rate change factor, the forecast factor, and the temperature correction factor is introduced. Using the graphic development environment of LabVIEW, the design of system modularization and the graphic display are implemented. By means of multiple mathematical modules, intelligent data processing is realized

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  16. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty five papers were presented at the conference held in Klucenice, Czechoslovakia from May 4 to 8, 1986. The abstracts of all papers are printed in the proceedings. The conference discussed the following problem areas: the application of activation analysis in determining elements in ores, tectites, fungi, the thyroid, the primary circuit coolant, semiconductor materials; the application of nuclear reaction analysis in determining elements in rubber and coal; the application of tracer techniques in metallurgy; the description of alpha and gamma spectrometric systems and their testing; the use of microcomputers for data processing, and the description of programs. (J.P.)

  17. Troubleshooting 101: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described where students troubleshoot a published procedure for the analysis of ethanol. UV-vis spectroscopy is used to measure the change in absorbance upon reaction of dichromate with ethanol. The experiment requires the students to critically evaluate their experimental results to correct a fundamental flaw in the original…

  18. Analysis of measurements from CAGR on-load instrumented stringers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial fuel loadings of the Hinkley Point B and Hunterston B CAGRs included specially developed stringers containing instrumentation to make channel performance measurements. More recently the emphasis of the instrumented stringer programme has concentrated on developing a means of detecting and quantifying carbonaceous deposit on the fuel pins. An analysis route has been set-up to compare measured and calculated can temperatures and to calculate Stanton Number changes. Present analysis is dedicated towards gaining an increased understanding of the relationship between measurement and prediction in the prevailing non-depositing coolants. A series of experiments has been planned for Hinkley Point B in which several instrumented stringers containing many instrumented pins will be used to quantify deposition in a number of different coolant compositions so that a composition giving the optimum compromise between graphite corrosion and deposition can be identified. (author)

  19. Instrument and data analysis challenges for imaging spectropolarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, C

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of solar telescopes will enable us to resolve the fundamental scales of the solar atmosphere, i.e., the pressure scale height and the photon mean free path. High-resolution observations of small-scale structures with sizes down to 50 km require complex post-focus instruments, which employ adaptive optics (AO) and benefit from advanced image restoration techniques. The GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer (GFPI) will serve as an example of such an instrument to illustrate the challenges that are to be expected in instrumentation and data analysis with the next generation of solar telescopes.

  20. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the edge-defined film-fed growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, A. R.; Kachare, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis is in terms of cost parameters and production parameters. The cost parameters include equipment, space, direct labor, materials, and utilities. The production parameters include growth rate, process yield, and duty cycle. A computer program was developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis.

  2. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidney stone samples of the types calcium oxalate, uric acid, and xanthine were analyzed for their elemental contents by neutron activation analysis to study both the elemental correlation and influence of element on stone precipitation processes. Elements, such as Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe,H, I, K, Mg, Na, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were determined quantitatively. Calcium oxalate stones contained higher concentration of all the elements analyzed compared to uric acid or xanthine stones. The concentrations of Cl, Fe, K, Na, Sr, and Zn were relatively higher than Au, Co, Cr, and Sb. A positive correlation exists between Ca and Zn, whereas a negative correlation exists between Sr and Ca. Zinc may play an important role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone

  4. US adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chan Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample. Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO. Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS. Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9. Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point.

  5. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...

  6. Incorporating Basic Optical Microscopy in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach to incorporating basic optical microscopy in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is described. Attaching a miniature CCD spectrometer to the video port of a standard compound microscope yields a visible microspectrophotometer suitable for student investigations of fundamental spectrometry concepts,…

  7. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  8. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the basic mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems and provides a basic description of the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by signal averaging and linear filtering. The text also demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning systems design, and illustrates their use in isolation and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and numerous biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It examines the properties of the ideal op amp and applies this model to the analysis of various circuits

  9. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucia de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.

  10. Thermal analysis of an instrumented capsule using an ANSYS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumented capsule has been used for an irradiation test of various nuclear materials in the research reactor, HANARO. To obtain the design data of the instrumented capsule, a thermal analysis is performed using a finite element analysis program, ANSYS. The 2-dimensional model for a cross section of the capsule including the specimens is generated, and a gamma-heating rate of the materials for the HANARO power of 24 or 30 MW is considered as an input force. The effect of the gap size and the control rod position on the temperature of the specimens or other components is discussed. From the analysis it is found that the gap between the thermal media and the external tube has a significant effect on the temperature of the specimen. In the case of the material capsule, the maximum temperature for the reactor power of 24 MW is 255degC for an irradiation test and 257degC for a FE analysis at the center stage of the capsule in the axial direction. It is expected that the analysis models using an ANSYS program will be useful in designing the instrumented capsules for an irradiation test and estimating the test results. (author)

  11. Combined Raman/Infrared Reflectance Instrument for In Situ Mineral Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary...

  12. Remote Access to Instrumental Analysis for Distance Education in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Kennepohl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote access to experiments offers distance educators another tool to integrate a strong laboratory component within a science course. Since virtually all modern chemical instrumental analysis in industry now use devices operated by a computer interface, remote control of instrumentation is not only relatively facile, it enhances students’ opportunity to learn the subject matter and be exposed to “real world” contents. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT and Athabasca University are developing teaching laboratories based on the control of analytical instruments in real-time via an Internet connection. Students perform real-time analysis using equipment, methods, and skills that are common to modern analytical laboratories (or sophisticated teaching laboratories. Students obtain real results using real substances to arrive at real conclusions, just as they would if they were in a physical laboratory with the equipment; this approach allows students to access to conduct instrumental science experiments, thus providing them with an advantageous route to upgrade their laboratory skills while learning at a distance.

  13. Instrumentation for high-efficiency, high-sensitivity actinide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 3-year project. We have developed a high-efficiency thermal ionization source that provides one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sample utilization efficiency in comparison with the traditional filament-type ion source currently used in thermal ionization mass spectrometry. This improved sample utilization efficiency results in a proportional increase in sample throughput and proportional decrease in analysis time. Coupling this source with a quadrupole mass spectrometer results in an instrument system for high-efficiency actinide analysis and other applications. In addition to its high efficiency, the sample used in this source can be much smaller than that in previous tube-type sources. The compact structure of the cavity makes it more applicable to any type of mass spectrometer and the whole instrument is small and transportable

  14. RESEARCH OF WAVELET TRANSFORM INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR SIGNAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After brief describing the principle of wavelet transform (WT) of signals, a new signals analysis system based on wavelet transform is introduced. The design and development of the instrument of wavelet transform are described. A number of practical uses of this system demonstrate that wavelet transform system is specially functional in identifying and processing impulse, singular and nonsmooth signals,so that it should be evaluated the most advanced signal analyzing system.

  15. Multielement determination in soil extracts by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest Swiss soils from 39 locations, each sampled at three depths, were extracted with a buffered solution of pH 4.65 containing EDTA. Nearly 30 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained are discussed in terms of efficiency of the extractant, precision and accuracy. Summarized results are presented for the quantity fractions of the extracted elements. (author) 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. OASIS: An automotive analysis and safety engineering instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we describe a novel software tool named OASIS (AutOmotive Analysis and Safety EngIneering InStrument). OASIS supports automotive safety engineering with features allowing the creation of consistent and complete work products and to simplify and automate workflow steps from early analysis through system development to software development. More precisely, it provides support for (a) model creation and reuse, (b) analysis and documentation and (c) configuration and code generation. We present OASIS as a part of a tool chain supporting the application of a safety engineering workflow aligned with the automotive safety standard ISO 26262. In particular, we focus on OASIS' (1) support for property checking and model correction as well as its (2) support for fault tree generation and FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) table generation. Finally, based on the case study of hybrid electric vehicle development, we demonstrate that (1) and (2) are able to strongly support FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) and FMEA

  17. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  18. Integrated intelligent instruments using supercritical fluid technology for soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated soils pose a significant challenge for characterization and remediation programs that require rapid, accurate and comprehensive data in the field or laboratory. Environmental analyzers based on supercritical fluid (SF) technology have been designed and developed for meeting these global needs. The analyzers are designated the CHAMP Systems (Chemical Hazards Automated Multimedia Processors). The prototype instrumentation features SF extraction (SFE) and on-line capillary gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with chromatographic and/or spectral identification detectors, such as ultra-violet, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometers. Illustrations are given for a highly automated SFE-capillary GC/flame ionization (FID) configuration to provide validated screening analysis for total extractable hydrocarbons within ca. 5--10 min, as well as a full qualitative/quantitative analysis in 25--30 min. Data analysis using optional expert system and neural networks software is demonstrated for test gasoline and diesel oil mixtures in this integrated intelligent instrument approach to trace organic analysis of soils and sediments

  19. Instrument for Analysis of Organic Compounds on Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, Riley M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Extraterrestrial Bodies using In Situ Resources (ISEE). Specifically, ISEE will extract and characterize organic compounds from regolith which is found on the surface of other planets or asteroids. The techniques this instrument will use are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). ISEE aligns with NASA's goal to expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunities in space in addition to supporting NASA's aim to search for life elsewhere by characterizing organic compounds. The outcome of this project will be conceptual designs of 2 components of the ISEE instrument as well as the completion of proof-of-concept extraction experiments to demonstrate the capabilities of SFE. The first conceptual design is a pressure vessel to be used for the extraction of the organic compounds from the regolith. This includes a comparison of different materials, geometry's, and a proposition of how to insert the regolith into the vessel. The second conceptual design identifies commercially available fluid pumps based on the requirements needed to generate supercritical CO2. The proof-of-concept extraction results show the percent mass lost during standard solvent extractions of regolith with organic compounds. This data will be compared to SFE results to demonstrate the capabilities of ISEE's approach.

  20. INR Pitesti TRIGA reactor instruments for structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two instruments for structure analysis were developed at INR Pitesti, a crystal neutron powder diffractometer in focusing configuration and a SANS instrument. The principle to obtain focusing for a given experimental configuration is to compensate the scan variable variances by using the cross-correlation between variables. The main characteristics of this instrument are: the monochromatic beam take-off angle of 83 angle, The wave-length of 1.3855 A, silicon perfect crystal monochromator of 200 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness cut upon the (100) plane, the reflection plane (511), 'the cutting angle' χm = -15.8 angle. The distances source-monochromator, monochromator-sample and sample-detector are 5200, 2800 and 1200 mm respectively. The sample-detector distance can be modified in the range 1200-3000 mm and the detector window width can be chosen in the range 0-10 mm. The SANS instrument has the following components: the mechanical monochromator, shielding, the Bi filter, the sample table and holder, the detecting system formed by two rows of 40 3He detectors each, two flux monitors, and the beam stop. Paraffin blocks and recipients with water form the shielding. The flux monitors are positioned one before the sample (in front of the monochromator window) the other in front of the beam stop. The sample can be rotated using a step by step motor. A cadmium slit system driven by a step by step motor allows for the determination of the monochromatic beam center at the beam stop position. (author)

  1. Economists opinions on environmental policy instruments: analysis of a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, B.S.; Schneider, F.; Pommerehne, W.W.

    1985-03-01

    Incentive instruments (effluent charges) are theoretically expected to be preferred to direct regulations (individual emission ceilings) by university-employed, theoretically inclined politically right-wing, professional economists living in a market-oriented country, ceteris paribus. Public sector employed, politically left-wing, professional economists living in a country with a long tradition of government involvement prefer the regulatory approach, ceteris paribus. These theoretical hypotheses tend to be supported by a bivariate probit analysis based on a survey of more than 1400 economists in five countries. 22 references, 4 tables.

  2. Job/task analysis for I ampersand C [Instrumentation and Controls] instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs

  3. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  4. Advanced concepts for gamma-ray isotopic analysis and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing actinide isotopic analysis technologies in response to needs that address issues of flexibility of analysis, robustness of analysis, ease-of-use, automation and portability. Recent developments such as the Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS), begin to address these issues. We are continuing to develop enhancements on this and other instruments that improve ease-of-use, automation and portability. Requests to analyze samples with unusual isotopics, contamination, or containers have made us aware of the need for more flexible and robust analysis. We have modified the MGA program to extend its plutonium isotopic analysis capability to samples with greater 241Am content or U isotopics. We are looking at methods for dealing with tantalum or lead contamination and contamination with high-energy gamma emitters, such as 233U. We are looking at ways to allow the program to use additional information about the sample to further extend the domain of analyzable samples. These unusual analyses will come from the domain of samples that need to be measured because of complex reconfiguration or environmental cleanup

  5. Advanced concepts for gamma ray isotopic analysis and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, W. M.; Carlson, J. B.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing actinide isotopic analysis technologies in response to needs that address issues of flexibility of analysis, robustness of analysis, ease-of-use, automation and portability. Recent developments such as the Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS), begin to address these issues. We are continuing to develop enhancements on this and other instruments that improve ease-of-use, automation and portability. Requests to analyze samples with unusual isotopics, contamination, or containers have made us aware of the need for more flexible and robust analysis. We have modified the MGA program to extend its plutonium isotopic analysis capability to samples with greater Am-241 content or U isotopics. We are looking at methods for dealing with tantalum or lead contamination and contamination with high-energy gamma emitters, such as U-233. We are looking at ways to allow the program to use additional information about the sample to further extend the domain of analyzable samples. These unusual analyses will come from the domain of samples that need to be measured because of complex reconfiguration or environmental cleanup.

  6. Advanced concepts for gamma-ray isotopic analysis and instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing actinide isotopic analysis technologies in response to needs that address issues of flexibility of analysis, robustness of analysis, ease-of-use, automation and portability. Recent developments such as the Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS), begin to address these issues. We are continuing to develop enhancements on this and other instruments that improve ease-of-use, automation and portability. Requests to analyze samples with unusual isotopics, contamination, or containers have made us aware of the need for more flexible and robust analysis. We have modified the MGA program to extend its plutonium isotopic analysis capability to samples with greater {sup 241}Am content or U isotopics. We are looking at methods for dealing with tantalum or lead contamination and contamination with high-energy gamma emitters, such as {sup 233}U. We are looking at ways to allow the program to use additional information about the sample to further extend the domain of analyzable samples. These unusual analyses will come from the domain of samples that need to be measured because of complex reconfiguration or environmental cleanup.

  7. MA-1 unit for instrumental fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the MA-1 facility intended for performing an instrumental multielement activation analysis is giveperation of facility is based on the spectrometry of samples activated with fast neutrons. The facility comprises the M-6000 control computer complex, the 10N fast neutron generator, the ARS-28G pneumatic transporter, spectrometric devices and detection units. The facility can be used to determine the contents of more than 50 elements in different combinations in compact and powdery substances. Maximum sensitivity is achieved when determining Pr, Cu, Br, Ba, Pb, Sb, Si, P, Al, O and F. The measuring equipment of the facility is universal and after proper modification can be used in activation analysis with the use of nuclear reactors, electron accelerators, a cyclotron and neutron sources

  8. Limits of detection in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower limits of detection (LLODs), frequently referred to simply as limits of detection and abbreviated as LODs, often appear in the literature of analytical chemistry - for numerous different methods of elemental and/or molecular analysis. In this chapter, one particular method of quantitative elemental analysis, that of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), is the subject discussed, with reference to LODs. Particularly in the literature of neutron activation analysis (NAA), many tables of 'interference-free' NAA LODs are available. Not all of these are of much use, because (1) for many the definition used for LOD is not clear, or reasonable, (2) for many, the analysis conditions used are not clearly specified, and (3) for many, the analysis conditions used are specified, but not very practicable for most laboratories. For NAA work, such tables of interference-free LODs are, in any case, only applicable to samples in which, at the time of counting, only one radionuclide is present to any significant extent in the activated sample. It is important to note that tables of INAA LODs, per se, do not exist - since the LOD for a given element, under stated analysis conditions, can vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. For any given element, its INAA LOD will always be as large as, and usually much larger than, its tabulated 'interference-free' NAA LOD - how much larger depending upon the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. As discussed in this chapter, however, an INAA computer program exists that can calculate realistic INAA LODs for any elements of interest, in any kind of specified sample matrix, under any given set of analysis conditions

  9. Structure design and error analysis for ICF diagnostic instrument manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is designed for the instruments pointing and positioning in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment. The DIM is a hybrid manipulator and provides precision 2-rotation and 1-translation capability for positioning of diagnostic packages. The inverse kinematics and close-form direct kinematics of the DIM are presented. Moreover, the error mapping function, which represents the end positioning error resulted from limbs length error and joint clearances, is formulated by using matrix method with the differential of kinematics function. Monte-Carlo method is involved in influencing factors analysis on the capability of DIM positioning. The clearances of sphere-pin-joint has a greater negative impact on DIM terminal error than other source errors because of its large absolute errors. Finally, a simulation is performed for observing the varying profile of DIM positioning error with the same source errors at different pitch and yaw. It indicates that the varying of pitch is more effective on DIM terminal error than the varying of yaw. (authors)

  10. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris R.; Cabane, M.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, L.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatilesextracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantiallyto the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essentialstep in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite locatedin the interior of MSLs Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole massspectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupledthrough solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on thesame samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyzevolatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In additionto measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conducta sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction fromsieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rovers roboticarm.

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of archaeological ceramics: Progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has become a widely used technique in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. Early applications, primarily developmental in nature, have been replaced by studies that attempt to place the derived analytical data in a larger archaeological and behavioural context. If archaeology is to increasingly exploit the great potential of INAA to address a broad range of social and cultural issues involving ceramics, greater attention must be paid to the various sources of variation that contribute to the chemical composition of pottery. In addition, as all research takes place within a social context, efforts must be made to increase the communication between archaeologists and other scientists, as this will contribute to the fulfilment of the archaeological research objectives. (author)

  12. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in archaeology interpretation beyond elemental abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to the study of archaeological ceramics involves the determination of the source or sources used to produce pottery. Groups of relatively homogeneous elemental abundances are shown to be statically distinct from one another often leading to the assesment of what was locally produced and what was imported to a site. These assesment, however are among the most preliminary interpretations. Archaeology is concerned with the reasons for artificial distributions and how and why the distribution varied through time 3 reasons that include the social and political basis of ancient economics and how these responded to other factors, such as ideology. These objectives are addressed through the increasing refinement of compositional groups leading toward greater specificity of attribution. In so doing the role of analytical precision among other considerations groves in importance. This paper illustration some of these considerations with examples from the U.S. southwest, the Maya region of southern mexico, and lower central America

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of fly ash, aerosols and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of coal, slag, emissions retained on the separating devices, fly ash, aerosols and hair taken in the area of coal-fired power plant were analyzed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. 13 to 23 elements were determined in the samples. The data obtained for emissions and aerosols were further evaluated by calculation of enrichment factors, correlation coefficients and by the ratio matching method. The concentrations of elements determined in the hair of the exposed group were compared with data of control and so called ''out control'' groups as well as with recent data found for hair in other countries. It can be seen from the results that arsenic is the most serious pollutant in the area. (author)

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of the hair of metallurgical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair samples were collected from 20 metallurgical workers (10 males and 10 females) and from 59 control subjects (32 males and 27 females), whose jobs do not indicate a specific occupational exposure. The concentrations of ten minor and trace elements (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The statistical data distributions, the sex and age influences in these elemental concentrations and the average values obtained for the control group were compared with published data. The effect of occupational exposure to the metallic elements was reflected in elemental compositon of hair by significant higher concentration levels of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, V and Zn in the hair of the exposed group, when compared with the control group. (author)

  15. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  17. Structural optimization of precision instruments through modal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the dynamic stability of precision instruments during the design process,a compositive design method based on modal analysis of structure is proposed.With uniform boundary conditions and material characters,the results of Finite Element Analysis(FEA)vary with models.It should be checked whether the model is correctly simplified.Modal experiments can be used for such purpose.The method combines the high efficiency and agility of FEA with the reliability and accuracy of experiments,and avoids the drawbacks of FEA or experiments,such as uncertainty of FEA and high cost of experiments.Taking rotor-frame structure as an example,this method is applied as follows: First the modal characters of structure are analyzed with FEA,and then the natural frequencies of the structure are tested by experiments to check the reliability of FEA method,and finally the design scheme is optimized by modifying structure parameters with confirmed FEA.

  18. Positron emission tomography: physics, instrumentation, and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porenta, G

    1994-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that permits reconstruction of cross-sectional images of the human body which depict the biodistribution of PET tracer substances. A large variety of physiological PET tracers, mostly based on isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine is available and allows the in vivo investigation of organ perfusion, metabolic pathways and biomolecular processes in normal and diseased states. PET cameras utilize the physical characteristics of positron decay to derive quantitative measurements of tracer concentrations, a capability that has so far been elusive for conventional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging techniques. Due to the short half lives of most PET isotopes, an on-site cyclotron and a radiochemistry unit are necessary to provide an adequate supply of PET tracers. While operating a PET center in the past was a complex procedure restricted to few academic centers with ample resources, PET technology has rapidly advanced in recent years and has entered the commercial nuclear medicine market. To date, the availability of compact cyclotrons with remote computer control, automated synthesis units for PET radiochemistry, high-performance PET cameras, and user-friendly analysis workstations permits installation of a clinical PET center within most nuclear medicine facilities. This review provides simple descriptions of important aspects concerning physics, instrumentation, and image analysis in PET imaging which should be understood by medical personnel involved in the clinical operation of a PET imaging center. PMID:7941595

  19. Positron emission tomography: Physics, instrumentation, and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that permits reconstruction of cross-sectional images of the human body which depict the biodistribution of PET tracer substances. A large variety of physiological PET tracers, mostly based on isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine is available and allows the in vivo investigation of organ perfusion, metabolic pathways and biomolecular processes in normal and diseased states. PET cameras utilize the physical characteristics of positron decay to derive quantitative measurements of tracer concentrations, a capability that has so far been elusive for conventional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging techniques. Due to the short half lives of most PET isotopes, an on-site cyclotron and a radiochemistry unit are necessary to provide an adequate supply of PET tracers. While operating a PET center in the past was a complex procedure restricted to few academic centers with ample resources. PET technology has rapidly advanced in recent years and has entered the commercial nuclear medicine market. To date, the availability of compact cyclotrons with remote computer control, automated synthesis units for PET radiochemistry, high-performance PET cameras, and userfriendly analysis workstations permits installation of a clinical PET center within most nuclear medicine facilities. This review provides simple descriptions of important aspects concerning physics, instrumentation, and image analysis in PET imaging which should be understood by medical personnel involved in the clinical operation of a PET imaging center. (author)

  20. Instrument Systems Analysis and Verification Facility (ISAVF) users guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. F.; Thomason, J. O.; Wolfgang, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The ISAVF facility is primarily an interconnected system of computers, special purpose real time hardware, and associated generalized software systems, which will permit the Instrument System Analysts, Design Engineers and Instrument Scientists, to perform trade off studies, specification development, instrument modeling, and verification of the instrument, hardware performance. It is not the intent of the ISAVF to duplicate or replace existing special purpose facilities such as the Code 710 Optical Laboratories or the Code 750 Test and Evaluation facilities. The ISAVF will provide data acquisition and control services for these facilities, as needed, using remote computer stations attached to the main ISAVF computers via dedicated communication lines.

  1. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G. (National Lab. for Industrial Technology and Engineering, Scavem (Portugal))

    1992-01-01

    The application of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to the on-line characterization of raw materials is progressively gaining general acceptance as a technically and economically adequate method for solving process control-related problems in different industry branches, ranging from the efficient use of energy and materials to the limitation of environmental impacts. The Nuclear Instrumentation Group at Portugal's National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering is engaged in the design optimization of a prototype industrial PGNAA unit for on-line quality control of steam coal. To this end, an experimental setup was put together while a series of computer simulation studies was carried out using the MCNP code. In the simulation, a cube-shaped coal volume 30 cm in side was used as the sample. The neutron source and the gamma-ray detector were located at the center of opposite cube faces. Computer simulation runs were carried out for Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources with coal samples of four different chemical compositions and densities ranging from 0.8 to 1.6.

  2. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to the on-line characterization of raw materials is progressively gaining general acceptance as a technically and economically adequate method for solving process control-related problems in different industry branches, ranging from the efficient use of energy and materials to the limitation of environmental impacts. The Nuclear Instrumentation Group at Portugal's National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering is engaged in the design optimization of a prototype industrial PGNAA unit for on-line quality control of steam coal. To this end, an experimental setup was put together while a series of computer simulation studies was carried out using the MCNP code. In the simulation, a cube-shaped coal volume 30 cm in side was used as the sample. The neutron source and the gamma-ray detector were located at the center of opposite cube faces. Computer simulation runs were carried out for Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources with coal samples of four different chemical compositions and densities ranging from 0.8 to 1.6

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis. A valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic experimental approach to the demonstration of viability of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in chemical metrology is provided. The practical approach was derived from a complete survey of uncertainty components that affect the INAA measurement process. These uncertainty components were classified by their magnitude and origin and subsequently minimized by appropriate steps in the INAA process. The process was tested with the INAA determination of Cr in SRM 1152A stainless steel; the Cr value is certified at 17.76% with an estimated uncertainty of 0.04% (0.23% relative). The INAA results from this procedure are in agreement with these specifications. Similar procedures have been applied to INAA multi-element determinations in a high temperature alloy. Agreement with available consensus values was demonstrated in the alloy. The guidelines on the determination of uncertainty were fully met, providing through INAA a valuable independent non-destructive tool in chemical measurements of metrological value such as required in the CCQM key comparisons. (author)

  4. Residual Chromium in Leather by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Okoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most tanning processes employ the use of chromium sulphate. For chromium tanned leather, finished products may contain high amount of residual chromium. This may pose some health hazards, since chromium is known to be toxic at elevated concentration. This justifies the need for the study. Approach: Various samples of leather were collected from a tannery, a leather crafts market, a leather dump site and from local tanners all in Kano, Nigeria in 2009. The samples were irradiated for 6 h in the inner site of the Nigerian Research Reactor (NIRR-1 at a flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 sec-1. Results: After evaluating the spectrum, the mean results for chromium in the samples were determined as 2.33±0.3, 2.23±0.3 and 2.93±0.4% for samples from the tannery, leather crafts market and leather dump sites respectively. Chromium concentration in samples collected from local tanners who use tannins from Acacia nilotica as tanning agent was below the detection limit of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique used in the study. Conclusion: Although, the concentrations of chromium in the analysed samples were not much higher than what were obtained in literature, they may be enough to sensitize the population that is allergic to chromium.

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to study the element contents in bones of prehistoric dinosaurs and bones of an ancient bear and an archantrop (ancient person), which were found on the territory of Uzbekistan. Concentrations of more than 25 elements were in the range of 0.043-3600 mg/kg. Multielement analyses of bone and soil samples were carried out by INAA using the WWR-SM research nuclear reactor. Results of measurements have shown that in the dinosaurs bones the concentration of the rare earth elements (REEs) were within 280-3200 mg/kg; the uranium content reached a very high value, up to 180 mg/kg, while in soils coating the dinosaurs bones this content was 4.2 mg/kg; in the bones of the archantrop it was 1.53 mg/kg and in the bones of a standard person its amount is less than 0.016 mg/kg. (author)

  6. PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, J.; Hutchinson, P.; Townsend, T.; Whitaker, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of PV systems at the main test site in Davis, California: new module technologies fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays and more mature technologies fielded as 70- to 500-kW turnkey Utility-Scale (US) systems. PVUSA members have also installed systems in their service areas. Designed appropriately, data acquisition systems (DASs) can be a convenient and reliable means of assessing system performance, value, and health. Improperly designed, they can be complicated, difficult to use and maintain, and provide data of questionable validity. This report documents PVUSA PV system instrumentation and data analysis techniques and lessons learned. The report is intended to assist utility engineers, PV system designers, and project managers in establishing an objective, then, through a logical series of topics, facilitate selection and design of a DAS to meet the objective. Report sections include Performance Reporting Objectives (including operational versus research DAS), Recommended Measurements, Measurement Techniques, Calibration Issues, and Data Processing and Analysis Techniques. Conclusions and recommendations based on the several years of operation and performance monitoring are offered. This report is one in a series of 1994--1995 PVUSA reports documenting PVUSA lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California. Other topical reports address: five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid support PV plant benefits; construction and safety experience in installing and operating PV systems; balance-of-system design and costs; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (≤ 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ≤ 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

  8. Comparative behavioral and neurochemical analysis of phenytoin and valproate treatment on epilepsy induced learning and memory deficit: Search for add on therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Our previous work demonstrated, chronic epilepsy affects learning and memory of rodents along with peculiar neurochemical changes in discrete brain parts. Most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin and sodium valproate) also worsen learning and memory in the patients with epilepsy. Therefore this study was designed to carry out comparison of behavioral and neurochemical changes with phenytoin and sodium valproate treatment in pentylenetetrazole-kindling induced learning and memory deficit to devise add on therapy for this menace. For the experimental epilepsy, animals were kindled using PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p., at 48 ± 2 h intervals) and successful kindled animals were involved in the study. These kindled animals were treated with saline, phenytoin (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and sodium valproate (300 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 20 days. These animals were challenged with PTZ challenging dose (35 mg/kg) on day 5, 10, 15 and 20 to evaluate the effect on seizure severity score on different days. Effect on learning and memory was evaluated using elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance paradigm. On day 20, after behavioral evaluations, animals were sacrificed to analyze glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, total nitrite level and acetylcholinesterase level in cortex and hippocampus. Behavioral evaluations suggested that phenytoin and sodium valproate treatment significantly reduced seizure severity in the kindled animals, while sodium valproate treatment controls seizures with least memory deficit in comparison to phenytoin. Neurochemical findings revealed that elevated cortical acetylcholinesterase level could be one of the responsible factors leading to memory deficit in phenytoin treated animals. However sodium valproate treatment reduced cortical acetylcholinesterase level and had least debilitating consequences on memory deficit. Therefore, attenuation of elevated AChE activity can be one of add-on approach for management of memory deficit

  9. Optical configuration and analysis of the AMBER/VLTI instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Robbe-Dubois, S; Petrov, R G; Lisi, F; Beckmann, U; Antonelli, P; Bresson, Y; Martinot-Lagarde, G; Roussel, A; Salinari, P; Vannier, M; Chelli, A; Dugué, M; Duvert, G; Gennari, S; Gluck, L; Kern, P; LeCoarer, E; Malbet, F; Millour, F; Perraut, K; Puget, P; Rantakyro, F; Tatulli, E; Weigelt, G; Zins, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design goals and engineering efforts that led to the realization of AMBER (Astronomical Multi BEam combineR) and to the achievement of its present performance. On the basis of the general instrumental concept, AMBER was decomposed into modules whose functions and detailed characteristics are given. Emphasis is put on the spatial filtering system, a key element of the instrument. We established a budget for transmission and contrast degradation through the different modules, and made the detailed optical design. The latter confirmed the overall performance of the instrument and defined the exact implementation of the AMBER optics. The performance was assessed with laboratory measurements and commissionings at the VLTI, in terms of spectral coverage and resolution, instrumental contrast higher than 0.80, minimum magnitude of 11 in K, absolute visibility accuracy of 1%, and differential phase stability of 1E-3 rad over one minute.

  10. Influence of X-ray Powder Diffraction Instrument Error on Crystalline Structure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qing-Ming; YU Jian-Chang; WANG Yun-Min; WU Wan-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Standard mica was used to correct the X-ray powder diffraction instrument error and mathematic methods were employed to find the correction equation. By analyzing mullite sample and comparing the corrected and uncorrected analysis results we found the former is obviously more reasonable. So the conclusion is that the X-ray powder diffraction instrument error greatly affects the crystalline structure analysis, and the above method is convenient and effective for the correction of instrument error.

  11. Analysis of Transients for Brass Instruments Under Playing Conditions Using Multiple Microphones

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Jonathan; LOGIE, Shona; Chick, John; Smith, Richard; Campbell, Murray

    2010-01-01

    National audience This work investigates the development of a novel multiple microphone technique for analysis of the acoustical behaviour of brass instruments under playing conditions. In the current work, multiple microphones are deployed within a cylindrical section of the bore of a brass instrument. The technique allows for measurement of the instrument during playing, or while excited by a loudspeaker signal, and allows for a more robust analysis of the transfer of acoustic energy bet...

  12. Add-A-Source technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counting neutrons emitted by spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes is a means for determining Plutonium content in samples. Correlations techniques have been developed for separating such neutrons from a background of nonfission neutrons due to (α, n) reactions. Further procedures are then used to correct the effect of neutron-induced fission. In order to perform such a correction the sample's chemical composition (including the presence of moisture) must be a well known parameter. The present paper reports a theoretical formulation of a new approach (add-a-source technique), which could allow to correct the measurement indipendently by the knowledge of the sample's chemical composition

  13. The Instrument Synthesis for Analysis Laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the Instrument Synthesis and Analysis laboratory (ISAL) are to: 1) Provide a rapid and sustainable instrument development environment with clear efficient processes and tools, re-usable models and skilled engineers. 2) Provide a capability for quick and efficient trade studies of instrument architectures and concepts. 3) Streamline and optimize instrument systems design for the entire life cycle, including cost and technology assessment. 4) Provide detailed multi-disciplinary modeling and analysis for phase C/D design validation and for operational investigations.

  14. Facet Analysis of the Client Needs Assessment Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, L. Suzanne; Stanley, Lawrence R.

    The structure of the revised Client Needs Assessment Instrument (CNAI) is examined. In 1978-79, the Texas Department of Human Resources (DHR) developed the CNAI to provide an index of applicants' and clients' capacity for self-care by measuring the respondents' levels of functioning in: (1) physical health; (2) daily living activities; (3) mental…

  15. A Comparison of seismic instrument noise coherence analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Evans, J.R.; Sandoval, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The self-noise of a seismic instrument is a fundamental characteristic used to evaluate the quality of the instrument. It is important to be able to measure this self-noise robustly, to understand how differences among test configurations affect the tests, and to understand how different processing techniques and isolation methods (from nonseismic sources) can contribute to differences in results. We compare two popular coherence methods used for calculating incoherent noise, which is widely used as an estimate of instrument self-noise (incoherent noise and self-noise are not strictly identical but in observatory practice are approximately equivalent; Holcomb, 1989; Sleeman et al., 2006). Beyond directly comparing these two coherence methods on similar models of seismometers, we compare how small changes in test conditions can contribute to incoherent-noise estimates. These conditions include timing errors, signal-to-noise ratio changes (ratios between background noise and instrument incoherent noise), relative sensor locations, misalignment errors, processing techniques, and different configurations of sensor types.

  16. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis of geological samples for rare earths using internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis os one of a few modern analytical techniques, being applied to solve difficult analytical tasks, such as mineral resources analysis for rare earth element content. No other analytical technique can be used with the latter end in view, since Instrumental neutron-activation analysis is possessed of the highest precision among them. In order to check experimentally the stated approach to REE content calculation by the internal standard method, relative bias values of this approach should be estimated. This approach will be verified further with a number of different rock samples simultaneously analyzed by an instrumental neutron-activation analysis certified analytical technique

  17. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  18. Abstracts from the conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains abstracts of 19 contributions presented at the conference, all of which fall within the INIS subject scope. The coverage of the conference was very wide, from the determination of vanadium in biological material through instrumental problems of gamma spectrometry through the determination of radioactive impurities to industrial problems such as the evaluation of the effect of surface finishing of internal combustion engines surface-activated by charged particles. (P.A.)

  19. Perfrewrite -- Program Complexity Analysis via Source Code Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Most program profiling methods output the execution time of one specific program execution, but not its computational complexity class in terms of the big-O notation. Perfrewrite is a tool based on LLVM's Clang compiler to rewrite a program such that it tracks semantic information while the program executes and uses it to guess memory usage, communication and computational complexity. While source code instrumentation is a standard technique for profiling, using it for deriving formulas is an...

  20. A Multi-instrument Analysis of Sunspot Umbrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, F. T.; Penn, M. J.; Livingston, W.

    2014-05-01

    The recent solar minimum and rise phase of solar cycle 24 have been unlike any period since the early 1900s. This article examines some of the properties of sunspot umbrae over the last 17 yr with three different instruments on the ground and in space: MDI, HMI and BABO. The distribution of magnetic fields and their evolution over time is shown and reveals that the field distribution in cycle 24 is fundamentally different from that in cycle 23. The annual average umbral magnetic field is then examined for the 17 yr observation period and shows a small decrease of 375 G in sunspot magnetic fields over the period 1996-2013, but the mean intensity of sunspot umbrae does not vary significantly over this time. A possible issue with sample sizes in a previous study is then explored to explain disagreements in data from two of the source instruments. All three instruments show that the relationship between umbral magnetic fields and umbral intensity agrees with past studies in that the umbral intensity decreases as the field strength increases. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the range of magnetic field values measured for a given umbral intensity being larger than the measured 375 G change in umbral field strength over time.

  1. A multi-instrument analysis of sunspot umbrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent solar minimum and rise phase of solar cycle 24 have been unlike any period since the early 1900s. This article examines some of the properties of sunspot umbrae over the last 17 yr with three different instruments on the ground and in space: MDI, HMI and BABO. The distribution of magnetic fields and their evolution over time is shown and reveals that the field distribution in cycle 24 is fundamentally different from that in cycle 23. The annual average umbral magnetic field is then examined for the 17 yr observation period and shows a small decrease of 375 G in sunspot magnetic fields over the period 1996-2013, but the mean intensity of sunspot umbrae does not vary significantly over this time. A possible issue with sample sizes in a previous study is then explored to explain disagreements in data from two of the source instruments. All three instruments show that the relationship between umbral magnetic fields and umbral intensity agrees with past studies in that the umbral intensity decreases as the field strength increases. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the range of magnetic field values measured for a given umbral intensity being larger than the measured 375 G change in umbral field strength over time.

  2. A multi-instrument analysis of sunspot umbrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, F. T.; Penn, M. J.; Livingston, W., E-mail: fwatson@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    The recent solar minimum and rise phase of solar cycle 24 have been unlike any period since the early 1900s. This article examines some of the properties of sunspot umbrae over the last 17 yr with three different instruments on the ground and in space: MDI, HMI and BABO. The distribution of magnetic fields and their evolution over time is shown and reveals that the field distribution in cycle 24 is fundamentally different from that in cycle 23. The annual average umbral magnetic field is then examined for the 17 yr observation period and shows a small decrease of 375 G in sunspot magnetic fields over the period 1996-2013, but the mean intensity of sunspot umbrae does not vary significantly over this time. A possible issue with sample sizes in a previous study is then explored to explain disagreements in data from two of the source instruments. All three instruments show that the relationship between umbral magnetic fields and umbral intensity agrees with past studies in that the umbral intensity decreases as the field strength increases. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the range of magnetic field values measured for a given umbral intensity being larger than the measured 375 G change in umbral field strength over time.

  3. A Multi-Instrument Analysis of Sunspot Umbrae

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Fraser T; Livingston, William C

    2015-01-01

    The recent solar minimum and rise phase of solar cycle 24 have been unlike any period since the early 1900s. This article examines some of the properties of sunspot umbrae over the last 17 years with three different instruments on the ground and in space: MDI, HMI and BABO. The distribution of magnetic fields and their evolution over time is shown and reveals that the field distribution in cycle 24 is fundamentally different from that in cycle 23. The annual average umbral magnetic field is then examined for the 17 year observation period and shows a small decrease of 375 Gauss in sunspot magnetic fields over the period 1996 to 2013, but the mean intensity of sunspot umbrae does not vary significantly over this time. A possible issue with sample sizes in a previous study is then explored to explain disagreements in data from two of the source instruments. All three instruments show that the relationship between umbral magnetic fields and umbral intensity agrees with past studies in that the umbral intensity d...

  4. New approach in add-on multi-channel analyser for gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed add-on card for data acquisition from National Instrument has the possibility of being employed in the field of the gamma ray spectrometry as an industrial and teaching tool. The card's technical capability, the operating program designed for gamma spectrometry and results of the system's reliability, dynamic characteristics, limits in data processing and the quality of the obtainable gamma spectra are given. The advantages and deficiencies as well as important features are emphasised when prompt gamma analysis is of interest in industrial applications and educational issues

  5. Analysis of organic molecules using the Mars Organic Analyzer, a portable, automated microfabricated capillary electrophoresis instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Stockton, Amanda Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The search for signs of past or present extraterrestrial life requires autonomous instrumentation capable of robust and highly sensitive in situ analysis of a broad range of organic compound classes. The Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) is a portable microchip capillary electrophoresis (&muCE) instrument developed for highly sensitive chemical biomarker analysis. This thesis expands the capabilities of the MOA to highly-sensitive analysis of PAHs, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids in conv...

  6. Toenail elemental analysis of Korean young adults by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The element contents in toenail clippings of healthy Korean young adults were measured using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. The average contents of elements such as Na, K, Cl, Ca, Fe, Se, and Zn are 449, 474, 1024, 1677, 66, 0.7 and 94 mg/kg in men, whereas those contents in women respectively 332, 476, 836, 1097, 66, 0.8 and 104 mg/kg. The correlation analysis of toenail elements with chronic disease risks showed positive associations between Na and serum HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and negative associations between Se and Hs-CRP, between Zn and hemoglobin level. (author)

  7. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  8. Mass Spectrometry Theatre: A Model for Big-Screen Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Teaching lecture or lab courses in instrumental analysis can be a source of frustration since one can only crowd a small number of students around a single instrument, typically leading to round-robin approaches. Round-robin labs can spread students into multiple labs and limit instructor-student interactions. We discuss "Mass Spectrometry…

  9. Analysis of the instrumentation response of Marviken Test T-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marviken Test T-11 was a simulated top discharge depressurization of a saturated water volume. The test data are uniquely by virtue of the large size (420 m/sup 3/) and because of the extensive use of differential pressure (DP) cells located to follow the internal pool swell during the depressurization. These data are analyzed with a simple yet physically realistic level swell model and excellent agreement is found. With a systematic application of this model to instrumentation response, some of the less obvious responses to pool swell become readily apparent

  10. Virtual Instruments for the Circuit Analysis with Interactive Parameter Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Stefan Brenner

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—The contribution presents the possibilities of LabVIEW in the special application as formula interpreter by using of the formula node. The main advantage is the immediate presentation of results in case of a parameter modification. The presentation of the time behaviour, the calculation of characteristic values and curves for typical examples of power electronics and control engineering are shown. Index Terms—Education; Formula Interpretation; LabVIEW; Power Electronics; Virtual Instruments

  11. Reliability analysis of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NUREG-CR/6942 technical report proposed a Markov state transition model for the main feedwater valve (MFV) controller system as part of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Digital Feedwater Control System (DFWCS). The proposed model extends the Markov model to allow the use of non-exponential distribution in the time to next output of the controller system responsible for maintaining the water level. This case study demonstrates the general application of semi-Markov process model for digital instrumentation and control systems. System failure probability and mission reliability measures are determined. (author)

  12. Continued Analysis and Restoration of Apollo DTREM Instrument Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    During the years of 1969 to 1972, NASA sent 12 men to walk on the surface of the Moon. On each mission, on the first lunar extra vehicular activity, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) (Apollo 11) or the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) (Apollo 12 - 17). The EASEP was a short-lived package that operated for a few months while the ALSEP contained scientific instruments to collect data on the lunar environment long after the astronauts had left the lunar surface. Part of the package on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 was the Dust, Radiation, Thermal, Engineering Measurement (DTREM), also known as the Lunar Dust Detector. The DTREM was a small fiberglass box that had 3 thermometers and 3 solar cells. The output from the solar cells was used to determine the degradation of the cells from dust, temperature, and radiation on the lunar surface. Over a period of 5-7 years, the DTREM instruments collected data and returned them to Earth through the ALSEP central station housekeeping (Word 33) telemetry stream. The data were in the form of raw digitized telemetry files. The only translated and calibrated data from the instrument that existed were 38 reels of computer printout images archived at the National Space Science Data Center. As part of the lunar data restoration effort, the raw telemetry files from the communications stream have been translated and recalibrated, using the archived microfilm record to determine the correct values in terms of temperature and voltage output. Once they have been properly archived by the Lunar Data Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) the data sets will be released to the scientific community. The DTREM instrument collected data every 54 seconds for 6 years on the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. The immense size of the data set required that a process be created to convert the raw telemetry fires autonomously. Therefore, we have recreated a digital version of the data from Apollo 14 and 15

  13. Multielement Analysis of Libyan Soils by ko Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concentrates on the assessment of theko-method of instrumental neutron activation in soil analysis without relying on the standard reference materials. This method has been applied in multielement analysis of soil samples. Using reactor neutron activation analysis based on ko method, numerous elements were determined in the samples in single irradiation. The samples were irradiated for 8 hours under thermal neutron flux ∼ 8.9x1012 n cm-2 s-1 in channel VCR11 of Tajura Research reactor. The accuracy of the method was ascertained by the analysis of the reference materials SL-1 and SoilL-7. The results are weighted mean with the expected/observed uncertainties (%) based on the standard deviation in the peak area. (Authors)

  14. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zonca, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics commu...

  15. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  16. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  17. A Versatile Field Instrument for X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable X-ray fluorescence analyser has been developed consisting essentially of an Xe/CH4 proportional counter probe and an electronic unit with single-channel analyser, binary scaler, digital-to-analogue converter with meter- readout and an automatic gain control circuitry. The instrument utilizes the high energy resolution of proportional counters combined with the excellent long-term stability provided by automatic gain control (AGC). The radioactive source, 241Am, is suitable for the excitation of fluorescence X-rays in a wide range of elements, i.e. from Cr-K (Z = 24) to Tm-K (Z = 69) and from Ba-L (Z = 56) to U-L (Z = 92). The same source is simultaneously used for the AGC operation by measuring a small fraction of the 241Am gamma- radiation(59.6 keV) directly incident through a small collimator hole into the detector. The count-rate measured above a threshold at 57 keV, which is not affected by any other fluorescent or scattered radiation, is used to control the detector high voltage in order to obtain a constant energy calibration and to eliminate any drift of the detector and the electronics. Thus several fixed single-channel windows selected by a rotary switch can be set for various elements of interest. Once having been set in the laboratory no further calibration is necessary for field operation. The prototype of the instrument was originally developed and used to determine nickel coatings on steel, which necessitates a very high energy resolution of the detector. Without using filters a sufficient sensitivity could be obtained. The same probe can also be equipped with balanced filters and the electronic unit with a reversible scaler providing direct indication of the difference counting rate of the meter, without fluctuations. However, in many cases filters can be saved because of the high energy resolution of the detector. The design features of the instrument make it extremely suitable for a wide range of prospecting and mining applications

  18. Intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for special nuclear material assay data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detection, Surveillance, Verification, and Recovery Group of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Energy Division/Nuclear Safeguards Programs is now utilizing intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for assay data analysis of special nuclear material. The data acquisition and analysis are enabled by the incorporation of a number-crunching microprocessor sequenced by a single component microcomputer. Microcomputer firmware establishes the capability for processing the computation of several selected functions and also the ability of instrumentation self-diagnostics

  19. Digital Instrumentation Analysis and Navigation System (DIANS) for system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, R. K.; Smyth, D. E.; Taylor, L. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware, software, and performance features of the Digital Instrumentation and Navigation System (DIANS) designed for NASA research to collect flight data as a strap-down system are detailed. The support software for the system has a cross compiler, a linkage editor, and cross assembler, extended communication capabilities, postflight processing applications, and compilers for PASCAL, FORTRAN, CBASIC and MT. The DIANS microcomputer has a 1 Mbyte RAM module, a fast floating point processor board, a 68000 monoboard computer with 64 RAM, a 128 Kbyte bubble memory card, and a navigation radio. The system also carries a battery for full system operation for over an hour. The support software is also stored on a host mainframe computer, which has a CP/M operating system. Pitch, roll, and heading data are gathered from the on-board system, and communication is possible between the airborne and ground-based computer.

  20. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated infrared filters for use at wavelengths greater than or equal to 15 microns. Unlike conventional dielectric filters used at the short wavelengths, ours are made from stacked metal grids, spaced at a very small fraction of the performance wavelengths. The individual lattice layers are gold, the spacers are polyimide, and they are assembled using integrated circuit processing techniques; they resemble some metallic photonic band-gap structures. We simulate the filter performance accurately, including the coupling of the propagating, near-field electromagnetic modes, using computer aided design codes. We find no anomalous absorption. The geometrical parameters of the grids are easily altered in practice, allowing for the production of tuned filters with predictable useful transmission characteristics. Although developed for astronomical instrumentation, the filters are broadly applicable in systems across infrared and terahertz bands.

  1. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  2. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  3. Multielement analysis of Nigerian chewing sticks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nigeria, various parts of various species of native plants have long been used for dental hygiene, with reportedly considerable effectiveness. These materials are known as 'chewing sticks'. This study was an effort to ascertain whether any unusual trace element concentrations might be present in Nigerian chewing sticks. Results are presented for 17 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Cs, La, Sm, Au) detected and measured in 12 species of such plants, via instrumental thermal-neutron activation analysis. (author)

  4. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  5. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Mao; Vincent C H Chung; Jin-Qiu Yuan; Yuan-Yuan Yu; Zu-Yao Yang; Xin-Yin Wu; Jin-Ling Tang

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.78), myocar...

  6. Development of a Wide-Spectrum Organic Analysis Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In FY’13 we expanded our analysis of samples to include astromaterials and biological materials relevant to international space station (ISS) and human space...

  7. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  8. Instrumented joint mobility analysis in traumatic transtibial amputee patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Ida; Medved, Vladimir; KASOVIĆ, Mario; Heimer, Željko; LUŽAR-STIFFLER, VESNA; Pećina, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The presented study reports a quantitative gait analysis and different adaptive strategies evaluation on 12 male adults, war trauma transtibial (TT) amputees, fitted with prostheses. Methods: Gait analysis included kinematics (joint mobility variables) prosthetic and healthy legs in 12 TT amputees and 12 able-bodied persons/individuals. Results: The results disclose asymmetry in gait parameters between the amputated and sound legs, as well as between transtibial amputees and a...

  9. Firefox add-ons for medical reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2010-07-01

    Firefox is a Web browser created by the Mozilla project, an open-source software group. Features of the browser include automated updates, advanced security and standards compliance, and the ability to add functionality through add-ons and extensions. First introduced in 2004, Firefox now accounts for roughly 30% of the browser market. This article will focus primarily on add-ons and extensions available for the browser that are useful to medical researchers. PMID:20677067

  10. Application of an instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure to analysis of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capabilities of a relatively simple instrumental neutron activation analysis procedure were demonstrated by performing multielement analyses of 240 Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Studies food composites. The analytical results provide a comprehensive database for a wide range of food types. The procedure incorporates only two irradiations and counts, polyethylene packaging and no sample transfer after irradiation. Concentrations were determined for 19 elements, 16 of which were found in most composites. Detection limits were calculated for all food groups and are given for the 22 elements included in the quantitative analysis scheme. In a qualitative search for 18 additional elements for which no standards were run, none were detected in any of the composites. Specific factors such as interferences from the blank are discussed in regard to their effects on the uncertainties associated with the experimental data and the detection limits. Modifications to the procedure are also suggested for lowering the detection limits for specific elements. (Auth.)

  11. Evaluation of the add-on effect of chinese patent medicine for patients with stable or unstable angina: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chen; Chung, Vincent C H; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Yu, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zu-Yao; Wu, Xin-Yin; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.78), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.72), heart failure (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.71) than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.66), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.26-0.54), and angina (RR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.26-0.51). Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68) and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.70) in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine. PMID:24416066

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of major components of milk and the development of analysis instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Ji, Zhongpeng; Tian, Mi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we introduce a new spectroscopy analysis instrument, along with applied research based on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the major components of milk. Firstly, we analyzed and compared the characteristics of existing near-infrared spectrometers. Then, according to the major component spectra of milk, the spectral range, spectral resolution, and other parameters of the analysis instrument were determined, followed by the construction of a spectroscopy-analysis instrument based on acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs). Secondly, on the basis of application requirements, we obtained spectral information from a variety of test samples. Finally, qualitative and quantitative testing of the major components of the milk samples was carried out via typical analysis methods and a mathematical model of NIRS. Thus, this study provides a technical reference for the development of spectroscopy instruments and their applied research.

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of roots and juice of carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of the determination of the contents of Na, Br, Ca, Ba, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, Sb and Ni. The results of the analysis are in agreement with the usually given concentrations of the elements determined in identical or similar materials. The amount of monitored elements passing from the raw materials into juices was calculated. (J.B.)

  14. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.33–0.78, myocardial infarction (RR=0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, heart failure (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.71 than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.32–0.66, myocardial infarction (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.26–0.54, and angina (RR=0.36, 95%CI 0.26–0.51. Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.17–0.68 and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.70 in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine.

  15. Materials degradation analysis of RAF's by instrumented indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFs) have been expected to be a candidate material for blanket of fusion reactor, because of their excellent high-temperature strength. Their outstanding strength performance is attributable to the combined strengthening mechanisms of matrix and various grain boundaries. However, it is by no means easy to separate the contributions of such strengthening factors because of extremely fine and complicated microstructure. In this study, the instrumented indentation test was carried out under a wide variety of maximum indentation loads using the creep ruptured specimens to clarify the contribution of each microstructural factor to their strength and materials degradation. The material used in this study was JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.2V-0.08Ta) and the rotor steel (Fe-10Cr-1Mo-1W-VNbN) was also used as reference steel. The indentation test was applied to the as-tempered steels and the creep ruptured specimens (JLF-1: 873 K/160 MPa, tr =3047 h, the rotor steel: 923 K/98 MPa, tr=4524 h). The test was performed at the maximum loads ranging from 1 to 1000 mN. The hardness of creep ruptured specimen of JLF-1 was lower than that of the as-tempered steel and the difference in hardness showed no significant change, irrespective of the maximum indentation load, i.e., the plastic zone diameter. This reduction in hardness seemed to be caused by the decrease in strength of block interior (matrix), because the block size showed almost no variation. On the other hand, the decrease in hardness of the rotor steel was strongly dependent on the plastic zone diameter. The creep ruptured specimen had 1∼1.5 GPa lower hardness than the as-tempered steel, except for the lowest maximum load of 1 mN where the decrease in hardness was estimated to be 0.4 GPa. At the maximum load of 1 mN, the plastic zone diameter was estimated to be around 1.9 μm and was smaller than the block size (2.2∼3 μm), that is, the effect of

  16. Sagittal Plane Analysis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis after VATS (Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery) Anterior Instrumentations

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Jeon, Byoung-Ho; Park, Jin-Oh

    2007-01-01

    Radiographic sagittal plane analysis of VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery) anterior instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This is retrospective study. To report, in details about effects of VATS anterior instrumentation on the sagittal plane. Evaluations of the surgical outcome of scoliosis have primarily studied in coronal plane correction, functional, and cosmetic aspects. Sagittal balance, as well as coronal balance, is important in functional spine. Recently, scoli...

  17. SITAR—a useful instrument for growth curve analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Tim J; Donaldson, Malcolm D C; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    Background Growth curve analysis is a statistical issue in life course epidemiology. Height in puberty involves a growth spurt, the timing and intensity of which varies between individuals. Such data can be summarized with individual Preece–Baines (PB) curves, and their five parameters then related to earlier exposures or later outcomes. But it involves fitting many curves. Methods We present an alternative SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) model, a shape invariant model wit...

  18. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  19. Optimization of PGNAA instrument design for bulk coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G. (National Laboratory for Industrial Technology and Engineering, Sacavem (Portugal). Physics Dept.)

    1993-06-01

    A simulation study of a PGNAA system for bulk coal analysis has been carried out using the MCNP code to investigate the dependence of the system's performance on design parameters for different coal compositions and bulk densities. Calculations were performed for simulated arrangements using a naked point [sup 252]Cf source and the source surrounded by a sphere of moderating material. Results for different sample sizes and different radii of the moderating sphere are reported. The system's optimization based upon the proper choice of sample size and amount of external thermalization is discussed. 3 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of carbonatites from Panda Hill and Oldoinyo-Lengai, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty nine (major and trace) elements including nine rare earth elements (REE) in African carbonatite samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The geochemical behavior of trace elements in carbonatites, especially REE pattern (chondrite normalized), and the efficiency of neutron activation analysis compared to other methods are discussed in this study. (author)

  1. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  2. Delayed phenomena analysis from French PWR containment instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the large amount of measurements which has been now gathered by EDF on its twenty two PWR 900 MW shows that the behaviour of concrete under creep and shrinkage effects is in good agreement with the values given as correct estimates by french regulations and taken into account for the design of nuclear prestressed structures. None of the containment buildings studied here showed significant differences with the regulations theoretical values and consequently all the measurements remain in the field of the allowable strain variations used for design. On the other hand, if the instant loading elastic modulus is clearly determined for each containment, and its effect on theoretical creep taken into account, it was not possible up till now to extract from measurements some particular effects such as type of concrete and agregates or climatic effects. (orig.)

  3. Diesel engine coolant analysis, new application for established instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.P.; Lukas, M.; Lynch, B.K. [Spectro Incorporated, Littleton, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Rotating disk electrode (RDE) arc emission spectrometers are user` many commercial, industrial and military laboratories throughout the world to analyze millions of oil and fuel samples each year. In fact, RDE spectrometers have been used exclusively for oil and fuel analysis for so long that it has nearly been forgotten by most practitioners that when RDE spectrometers were first introduced more than 40 years ago, they were routinely used for aqueous samples as well. This presentation reviews early methods of aqueous sample analysis using RDE technology. This presentation also describes recent work to calibrate an RDE spectrometer for both water samples and for engine coolant samples which are a mixture of approximately 50 % water and 50 % ethylene or propylene glycol. Limits of detection determined for aqueous standards are comparable to limits of detection for oil standards. Repeatability of aqueous samples is comparable to the repeatability achieved for oil samples. A comparison of results for coolant samples measured by both inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) spectrometers is presented. Not surprisingly, RDE results are significantly higher for samples containing particles larger than a few micrometers. Although limits of detection for aqueous samples are not as low as can be achieved using the more modern ICP spectrometric method or the more cumbersome atomic absorption (AA) method, this presentation suggests that RDE spectrometers may be appropriate for certain types of aqueous samples in situations where the more sensitive ICP or AA spectrometers and the laboratory environment and skilled personnel needed for them to operate are not conveniently available. (orig.) 4 refs.

  4. Parametric Power Spectral Density Analysis of Noise from Instrumentation in MALDI TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Koomen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in mass spectrometry can interfere with identification of the biochemical substances in the sample. For example, the electric motors and circuits inside the mass spectrometer or in nearby equipment generate random noise that may distort the true shape of mass spectra. This paper presents a stochastic signal processing approach to analyzing noise from electrical noise sources (i.e., noise from instrumentation in MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. Noise from instrumentation was hypothesized to be a mixture of thermal noise, 1/f noise, and electric or magnetic interference in the instrument. Parametric power spectral density estimation was conducted to derive the power distribution of noise from instrumentation with respect to frequencies. As expected, the experimental results show that noise from instrumentation contains 1/f noise and prominent periodic components in addition to thermal noise. These periodic components imply that the mass spectrometers used in this study may not be completely shielded from the internal or external electrical noise sources. However, according to a simulation study of human plasma mass spectra, noise from instrumentation does not seem to affect mass spectra significantly. In conclusion, analysis of noise from instrumentation using stochastic signal processing here provides an intuitive perspective on how to quantify noise in mass spectrometry through spectral modeling.

  5. Multielement analysis of environmental reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements in environmental reference materials prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan (NIES) and by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). NIES CRM No. 5 Human Hair, No. 6 Mussel, No. 7 Tea Leaves, No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates, No. 9 Sargasso and No. 10 Rice Flour-unpolished samples (ca. 150 - 1200 mg) and NIST SRM 1632a Bituminous Coal, SRM 1635 Sub-bituminous Coal and SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash samples (ca. 10 - 150 mg) were irradiated at the Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITRR). Concentrations of 28 - 52 elements in these NIES and NIST environmental reference materials were determined by two irradiation methods and four γ-ray counting methods. The determined values were in good agreement with the NIES and NIST certified values. (author)

  6. Recent progress of J-PARC MLF data analysis environment: instrument status data and remote access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the recent progress on two fields of data analysis environment of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) MLF (Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility). One is a utilization of event data of instrument status, another is a development of remote data access. Event data of instrument status TrigNET, which is a universal signal readout module developed in KEK, can acquire various instrument status, such as a tensile load or a goniometer position, as time-tagged event data in the same manner with a neutron detection signal. It allows us to treat both events of neutron detection and instrument status on an identical time-line. In the other words, instrument status can be handled at same time precision as the neutron detection event. In order to implement this function, our data analysis software has been upgraded. For example, this upgrade made flexible to analyze data under cyclic load-unload deformation or continuous sample rotation. Remote data access The remote data access is an key service for a large user facility such as J-PARC MLF. Developments of two components for the remote data access are on-going. The MLF experimental database system will provide users a search and a download for raw data and meta-data of their experiments through a web browser. The remote data analysis service will provide data analysis environment on a web browser utilizing computing resource at MLF.

  7. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  8. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...... generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges......; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...

  9. Computed tomography as a core analysis tool: Applications, instrument evaluation, and image improvement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the use of computerized tomography (CT) to characterize two-phase fluid flow through porous media has become increasingly popular. This paper describes a different application of CT: it use as a core analysis tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the different technological generations of commercial medical CT scanners available as core analysis instruments are also discussed. Additionally, methods are presented for improving images and reducing CT-number errors inherent in the scanning of high-density rock samples on instruments whose software was designed for the scanning of the low-density human patients

  10. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to study ceramic fragments from Damascus Castle site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three archaeological ceramic fragment samples from Damascus Castle archaeological site, Damascus city, Syria, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 36 elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that 84.8% of the ceramics samples classified by cluster analysis are correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results provided persuasive evidence that Castle pottery used at least four different clay sources. Moreover, by means of systematic local analysis it will be clear whether these sources are local or not. (author)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT IN CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF ROTATING MACHINERY BASED ON INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiongming; Qin Shuren; Ji Zhong; Guo Yu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the recently quick-developing time-frequency analysis (TFA) technique and virtual instrument (VI) technique, a virtual instrument in characteristic analysis of rotating machinery is researched and developed successfully. By utilizing instantaneous frequency estimation (IFE) theoretics of TFA technique, and based on IFE of peak searching on the time-frequency spectrum, order analysis (OA) functions is put forward and implemented, such as order spectrum, order spectrum matrix, order tracking, order tracking filtering, and order component extraction, etc. Unlike the home and abroad existing popular characteristic analyzers, which need key phasing devices such as shaft encoder, phase-locked loop (PLL), phase-locked multiple frequency, tachometer, etc, to implement constant angle sampling directly or indirectly, whereas this instrument only uses the vibration signal of rotating machinery to carry out OA. This instrument makes up the shortage of these traditional instruments in analyzing the non-stationary signal of run-up and run-down process of rotating machinery. Therefore, it is a great breakthrough for the existing order analyzers.

  12. An analysis of energy efficiency investments' environment in Greece - The potential role of JESSICA instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important constraint toward the successful implementation of the energy efficiency investments in Greece remains the absence of appropriate and competitive financial schemes. Energy efficiency improvements seems to be one of the areas that JESSICA instrument should focus on in the case of Greece, considering that energy efficiency constitutes a major component of sustainable urban development. The scope of this paper is to present, in an updating way, an analysis of energy efficiency investments' environment in Greece as well as to examine the potential role of the JESSICA instruments, aiming to the supporting of the real implementation of energy efficiency investments in Greece. In addition, a rigid methodological note is presented for the analysis as well as evaluation of the JESSICA instruments for energy efficiency projects in Greece.

  13. Analysis of Essential Elements for Plants Growth Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Njinga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of ten essential elements for plants growth in the Guinea savanna region of Niger State in Northern Nigeria have been identified in the soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show good agreement with certified or literature values within the agreed percentage range of ±2.35% to ±8.69%. However, the concentration distributions of the ten identified elements in the soil samples within the studied area for plants growth revealed the following: Fe (123.4 ppm, Mn (2100.7 ppm, K (5544.3 ppm, Al (54752.4 ppm, Ti (3082.9 ppm, Ca (4635 ppm, V (54.3 ppm, Na (857.5 ppm, Mg (13924.1 ppm, and Dy (12.1 ppm. A further analysis of the two fundamental soil physical parameters for healthy growth of some common crops like egusimelon, groundnut, rice, yams, soybeans, cassava, and potato analyzed in this work revealed a pH range of 4.0 pH–8.0 pH and a temperature range of 28.0°C to 29.3°C, which are optimal for plant nutrients availability in the soils within the study area.

  14. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  15. In vitro analysis of the apical deformation, using a different number of files during the instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas da Fonseca Roberti GARCIA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of the present study was toevaluate in vitro the apical deformation in roots of crooked lowerincisors with mesio-distal flattening, using a different number of files during the instrumentation. Material and methods: Twenty rootswere randomly divided into two groups (n = 10. Group I: roots wereinitially instrumented with a K #15 file until a #35 file, through stepback technique. During instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 1% NaOCl between every instrument change. Obturation wasperformed with Grossman sealer by lateral condensation technique.Group II: procedure was similar to group I, except for the files number, using file #40 as memory instrument. After that, each root was 1mm apical weared in order to reveal the filling. A 3 mm cut from the root apex was performed, resulting in samples with the same length, which were examined with an optical microscope (X40. The images captured by the Image Tool software were analyzed and the area occupied by sealer, gutta-percha and possible empty spaces was quantified. Results: Data was submitted to statistical analysis and showed no statistical significant differences between groups I and II (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The variation in the number of files during instrumentation did not promote apical deformation, but resulted in a similar hermetic sealing between the studied groups.

  16. Southeast Economic Add-on 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  17. Southeast Economic Add-on 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  18. Southeast Economic Add-on 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  19. Southeast Economic Add-on 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey...

  20. ADD psychosis as a separate entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellak, L

    1985-01-01

    "Attention deficit disorder (ADD) psychosis" merits delineation as a separate entity. It constitutes the end result of the effects of a certain particular neurological deficit (ADD) on personality organization. It is my belief that about 10 percent of psychoses currently diagnosed most often schizophrenic and sometimes affective psychosis must best be considered a separate organic psychosis, i.e., an ADD psychosis. This ADD psychosis, then, is not merely a subgroup of schizophrenia, as I once thought. It merits a separate designation because its etiology, pathogenesis, and life history are different from those of the schizophrenic syndrome. The family histories are also different, as are the psychological findings. The treatment response is so different that it merits urgent consideration. Prognosis, both short range and long range, also seems different from those of the other psychoses. PMID:4081648

  1. A Model of Add-on Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Ellison

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a model of competitive price discrimination with horizontal and vertical differentiation. The main application is to add-on pricing – advertising low prices for one good in hopes of selling additional products at high prices. Price discrimination is self-reinforcing: the model sometimes has both equilibria in which all firms practice price discrimination and equilibria in which none do. The paper focuses on the Chicago-school argument that profits earned on add-ons will be...

  2. Instrument and Survey Analysis Technical Report: Program Implementation Survey. Technical Report #1112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical document provides guidance to educators on the creation and interpretation of survey instruments, particularly as they relate to an analysis of program implementation. Illustrative examples are drawn from a survey of educators related to the use of the easyCBM learning system. This document includes specific sections on…

  3. MULTISENSOR DATA FUSION FOR HIGH QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING IN MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates ...

  4. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  5. Family Background Variables as Instruments for Education in Income Regressions: A Bayesian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, Lennart; Block, Joern H.; Thurik, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct…

  6. SeDA: A software package for the statistical analysis of the instrument drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The setpoints for safety-related equipment are affected by many sources of an uncertainty. ANSI/ISA-S67.04.01-2000 [1] and ISA-RP6 7.04.02-2000 [2] suggested the statistical approaches for ensuring that the safety-related instrument setpoints were established and maintained within the technical specification limits [3]. However, Jang et al. [4] indicated that the preceding methodologies for a setpoint drift analysis might be insufficient to manage a setpoint drift on an instrumentation device and proposed new statistical analysis procedures for the management of a setpoint drift, based on the plant specific as-found/as-left data. Although IHPA (Instrument History Performance Analysis) is a widely known commercial software package to analyze an instrument setpoint drift, several steps in the new procedure cannot be performed by using it because it is based on the statistical approaches suggested in the ANSI/ISA-S67.04.01 -2000 [1] and ISA-RP67.04.02-2000 [2], In this paper we present a software package (SeDA: Setpoint Drift Analysis) that implements new methodologies, and which is easy to use, as it is accompanied by powerful graphical tools. (authors)

  7. SeDA: A software package for the statistical analysis of the instrument drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. J.; Jang, S. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 150 Duckjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, T. J. [Soong-Sil Univ., 1-1 Sangdo 5-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 156-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The setpoints for safety-related equipment are affected by many sources of an uncertainty. ANSI/ISA-S67.04.01-2000 [1] and ISA-RP6 7.04.02-2000 [2] suggested the statistical approaches for ensuring that the safety-related instrument setpoints were established and maintained within the technical specification limits [3]. However, Jang et al. [4] indicated that the preceding methodologies for a setpoint drift analysis might be insufficient to manage a setpoint drift on an instrumentation device and proposed new statistical analysis procedures for the management of a setpoint drift, based on the plant specific as-found/as-left data. Although IHPA (Instrument History Performance Analysis) is a widely known commercial software package to analyze an instrument setpoint drift, several steps in the new procedure cannot be performed by using it because it is based on the statistical approaches suggested in the ANSI/ISA-S67.04.01 -2000 [1] and ISA-RP67.04.02-2000 [2], In this paper we present a software package (SeDA: Setpoint Drift Analysis) that implements new methodologies, and which is easy to use, as it is accompanied by powerful graphical tools. (authors)

  8. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  9. Flavour Profiling of 'Marion' and Thornless Blackberries by Instrumental and Sensory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flavour of thornless blackberries grown in Pacific Northwest including 'Thornless Evergreen', 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', 'Nightfall', ORUS 1843-3, 'Waldo', NZ 9351-4, and 'Chester Thornless' as well as 'Marion' was profiled by sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Sensory results sh...

  10. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  11. Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 μg.m-3 to 46.9 μg.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 μg.m-3 to 93.1 μg.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

  12. RoboSCell: An automated single cell arraying and analysis instrument

    KAUST Repository

    Sakaki, Kelly

    2009-09-09

    Single cell research has the potential to revolutionize experimental methods in biomedical sciences and contribute to clinical practices. Recent studies suggest analysis of single cells reveals novel features of intracellular processes, cell-to-cell interactions and cell structure. The methods of single cell analysis require mechanical resolution and accuracy that is not possible using conventional techniques. Robotic instruments and novel microdevices can achieve higher throughput and repeatability; however, the development of such instrumentation is a formidable task. A void exists in the state-of-the-art for automated analysis of single cells. With the increase in interest in single cell analyses in stem cell and cancer research the ability to facilitate higher throughput and repeatable procedures is necessary. In this paper, a high-throughput, single cell microarray-based robotic instrument, called the RoboSCell, is described. The proposed instrument employs a partially transparent single cell microarray (SCM) integrated with a robotic biomanipulator for in vitro analyses of live single cells trapped at the array sites. Cells, labeled with immunomagnetic particles, are captured at the array sites by channeling magnetic fields through encapsulated permalloy channels in the SCM. The RoboSCell is capable of systematically scanning the captured cells temporarily immobilized at the array sites and using optical methods to repeatedly measure extracellular and intracellular characteristics over time. The instrument\\'s capabilities are demonstrated by arraying human T lymphocytes and measuring the uptake dynamics of calcein acetoxymethylester-all in a fully automated fashion. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Taeho; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure student readiness in online learning with reliable predictors of online learning success factors such as learning outcomes and learner satisfaction. The validity and reliability of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) instrument were tested using exploratory factor…

  14. Risk assessment of inhalation exposure for airborne toxic metals using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of air pollution, about 1,300 samples of airborne particulate matter (APM) were collected at suburban and industrial sites, in Daejeon, Korea from 1998 to 2006. The concentrations of carcinogenic (As and Cr) and non-carcinogenic metals (Al, Mn, and Zn) were determined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These long-term metal concentration data were applied to a risk assessment of inhalation exposure using Monte Carlo analysis (MCA). (author)

  15. Multielement analysis of rice flour-unpolished reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in NIES certified reference material No. 10-a∼10-c Rice Flour-Unpolished, prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan (NIES), were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A set of three samples with different Cd concentration levels was subjected to analyses. Portions of each sample (ca. 200∼1000 mg) were irradiated, either with thermal neutrons without cadmium filter or with epithermal neutrons with cadmium filter, in the Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITRR). The activated samples were analyzed by the three methods; conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, anticoincidence counting spectrometry, and coincidence counting spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector and a well type NaI(Tl) detector. Concentrations of 26∼28 elements were determined by these methods. The values obtained for many elements, except for Mg and K, were in good agreement with those of the NIES certified and reference. Concentrations of 10 elements (S, Sc, V, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Th), whose certified or reference values are not available from NIES, were also determined in this work. (author)

  16. Analysis of PM10 in Kuala Terengganu by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter (PM10) for air pollution monitoring. For the collection of air samples, the PM10 high volume sampler unit and Whatman 41 cellulose filter papers were employed. Samples were collected at 13 selected sampling sites covering areas in the city center, inner and outer city of Kuala Terengganu during the month of March 2005. The average PM10 was 69.64 μgm-3, 83.58 μgm-3 and 72.22 μgm-3 for sampling stations located in the city center, inner and outer city of Kuala Terengganu, respectively. It was found that the mass of air particles in the study area was higher compared to Bangi and Kuala Lumpur. Chemical analysis of selected elements (Al, Fe, Cu, Pb, V, Mn, Zn, Cr, As Cd), ionic species (Na+, SO42-, Cl-, NH4+,Mg2+, K+ , Ca2+) and some rare earth elements (REE) were included in this study. In general, most of the average concentration of trace elements in the city center sampling stations was generally higher than the inner and outer city sampling stations. The concentrations of trace elements in sampling stations follow the general trend of Al> Fe> Zn> Cu> Mn> Pb> V> Cr> As> Ni> Cd. The elements concentration ranged from 680-2119 ngm-3, 170-1132 ngm-3, 8.13-122.4 ngm-3, 8.48-77.3 ngm-3, 7.68-14.4 ngm-3, 1-90.4 ngm-3, 1.47-3.25 ngm-3, 1.43-5.03 ngm-3, 1.15-4.45 ngm-3, 0.24-3.75 ngm-3 and 0.28-1.36 ngm-3, respectively. (author)

  17. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes

  18. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Av...

  19. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  20. Data analysis of the COMPTEL instrument on the NASA gamma ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, R.; Bennett, K.; Collmar, W.; Connors, A.; Denherder, J. W.; Hermsen, W.; Lichti, G. G.; Lockwood, J. A.; Macri, J.; Mcconnell, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Compton imaging telescope (COMPTEL) on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is a wide field of view instrument. The coincidence measurement technique in two scintillation detector layers requires specific analysis methods. Straightforward event projection into the sky is impossible. Therefore, detector events are analyzed in a multi-dimensional dataspace using a gamma ray sky hypothesis convolved with the point spread function of the instrument in this dataspace. Background suppression and analysis techniques have important implications on the gamma ray source results for this background limited telescope. The COMPTEL collaboration applies a software system of analysis utilities, organized around a database management system. The use of this system for the assistance of guest investigators at the various collaboration sites and external sites is foreseen and allows different detail levels of cooperation with the COMPTEL institutes, dependent on the type of data to be studied.

  1. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U.

  2. Instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations. Stocktaking, evaluation and deficit analysis; Instrumente zur Foerderung von Umweltinnovationen. Bestandsaufnahme, Bewertung und Defizitanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennings, Klaus; Rammer, Christian; Oberndorfer, Ulrich [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW), GmbH, Mannheim (DE)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    In the ecological report 2006 of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) with the title ''Environment - Innovation - Occupation'', the Federal Ministry outlines the concept of an innovative oriented environmental policy. An innovative environmental policy contributes to the reduction of the environmental pollution and the ecological damages of industrial production. In this background, the question arises, how the environmental policy can support appropriate innovative activities. For this, the research project under consideration presents the following contributions: (a) Overview of the most important instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations in Germany; (b) Estimation of the effectiveness of the instruments including gap analysis and deficit analysis; (c) Presentation of foreign Best Practice Examples (instruments and environmental political beginnings); (d) Proposals for priority environmental political starting points to the advancement of the equipment and pointing out the further research need.

  3. Instrumental laboratories based on the analysis of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiginton, John Franklin

    A semester-long series of instrumental analysis laboratory activities appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students is described. The activities incorporate five analytical instruments commonly found in post-secondary educational, industrial, and governmental laboratories: a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC), a gas chromatograph with a mass specific detector (GC/MS), a high-pressure liquid chromatograph with a UV-Visible detector (HPLC), a high-performance liquid chromatograph with a mass specific detector (LC/MS), and a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR). The series of activities utilizes two analytes, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), which are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, then structurally characterized. The protocol for each laboratory activity directs students to accomplish a specific analysis in the most efficient manner, but leaves the actual procedure vague enough to give the student a chance to experiment with the instrument. Student success is assessed by two means, having the student submit a detailed journal-style lab report and a class-wide discussion regarding the development of experimental protocols and individual instrument capabilities and limitations.

  4. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-12-01

    Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across

  5. Serum analysis of coronary heart disease patients by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to changes of the dietary pattern and the life style, cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) has been increased in Korea. In this study, the levels of serum mineral such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se for 75 patients with CHD and 25 normal persons who were older than the age of 40 were investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For an analytical quality control, the reference materials, INSPQ and seronorm, were analyzed, simultaneously. The relative errors of the analytical values for the reference materials are agreed well within 10% of the certified values. The average concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se in the serum of male patients were 2,850±260 mg/L, 3,400±310 mg/L, 160±30 mg/L, 80.9±11.7 mg/L, 1.57±0.73 mg/L, 0.094±0.019 mg/L and 0.795±0.163 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se in the serum of female patients were 2,890±240 mg/L, 3,430±350 mg/L, 169±27 mg/L, 81.8±13.0 mg/L, 1.26±0.44 mg/L, 0.099±0.015 mg/L and 0.769±0.105 mg/L, respectively. In a comparison between the patients and the normal group for both genders, while the levels of elemental concentrations such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Se were similar, the Zn concentration of the CHD patients was significantly lower than that of normal persons.

  6. Serum analysis of coronary heart disease patients by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to changes of the dietary pattern and life style, cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) have been increasing in Korea. In this study, the levels of the serum minerals such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se for 75 patients with CHD and 25 normal persons, who were older than the age of 40, were investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For analytical quality control, the reference materials, INSPQ and Seronorm, were analyzed simultaneously. The relative errors of the analytical values for the reference materials were within 10% of the certified values. The average concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se in the serum of the male patients were 2,850±260 mg/l, 3,400±310 mg/l, 160±30 mg/l, 80.9±11.7 mg/l, 1.57±0.73 mg/l, 0.094±0.019 mg/l and 0.795±0.163 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Se in the serum of the female patients were 2,890±240 mg/l, 3,430±350 mg/l, 169±27 mg/l, 81.8±13.0 mg/l, 1.26±0.44 mg/l, 0.099±0.015 mg/l and 0.769±0.105 mg/l, respectively. In a comparison between the patients and the normal group for both genders, while the levels of the elemental concentrations such as Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Se were similar, the Zn concentration level of the CHD patients was significantly lower than that of the normal ones. The present study showed that the Zn concentration in the serum could be associated with CHD in Korean adults. (author)

  7. Modi: a new mobile instrument for in situ standardless LIBS analysis of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristoforetti, Gabriele; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo; Pardini, Lorenzo; Salvetti, Azenio; Tognoni, Elisabetta

    2005-06-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising technique for in-situ analysis of Cultural Heritage. The potential of this technique for accurate quantitative analysis could be greatly improved using an innovative experimental setup - based on the use of two laser pulses suitably retarded - and analyzing the results with a standard-less procedure which overcomes the problems related to matrix effects. A new mobile instrument for Cultural Heritage analysis, developed at the Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory in Pisa, is presented, and some experimental results are given.

  8. The technical specification for seismic analysis for CNS facilities and the basic design for CNS instrument island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the technical specification on seismic analysis for CNS system facilities and the basic design for CNS instrument island which will be installed in the HANARO reactor building. The technical specification on seismic analysis describes the classification of a seismic category, the procedure of a seismic analysis, and the requirements of a seismic design. The design response spectrum for SSE and OBE are presented for the seismic analysis for seismic category I. The technical specification on the seismic analysis includes the procedure for FEM modelling, modal analysis, time history analysis for generation of floor response spectrum, response spectrum analysis. The CNS instrument islands is classified as the seismic category I. Basic design drawings and requirements for ensuring the location and the conceptual shape of CNS instrument islands were developed considering the design interface of as-built installed structures. Based on the basic design and the results of field measurements the detail design of CNS instrument islands will be carried out

  9. Analysis Particulars of Financial Instruments for Companies Not Listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the main features on the trading of financial instruments rated on the Unlisted market. The purpose of this paper is to give a general framework to study modalities of stock analysis of unlisted tools on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. In the introduction of the study elements referring to the objectives, research methodology, innovations of this research are presented, specialized literature being also reviewed. The first paragraph summarizes the main stock markets in Romania pursuing that in the following paragraphs it will focus strictly on the market of the instruments listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, for which a case study in ALBAPAM JS. has been conducted by performing stock analysis and, after the main legislation is presented, which discusses Rasdaq dismantling, finally, after submitting all the information found in the content of the paper, the findings for each paragraph were presented.

  10. Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe,  to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °C temp., and 60 % R.H. before and after cooking. For statistical evaluation of results, paired T test was used, statistically significant differences were taken at pdoi:10.5219/273

  11. Comparison of Hazard Analysis Requirements for Instrumentation and Control System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jun Beom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    A hazard, in general, is defined as 'potential for harm.' In this paper, the scope of 'harm' is limited to the loss of a safety function in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The Hazard Analysis (HA) of an Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems is to identify the relationship from the logical faults, error, and failure of I and C systems to the physical harm of the nuclear power plant, and also to find the impact of the external hazard, e.g., tsunami, of the nuclear power plant to the I and C systems. This paper includes the survey of the existing hazard analysis requirements in the nuclear industries. The purpose of the paper is to compare the HA requirements in various international standards in unclear domain, specifically the safety requirements and guidance for the instrumentation and control system for the nuclear power plant from IAEA, IEC, IEEE, and NRC.

  12. Comparison of Hazard Analysis Requirements for Instrumentation and Control System of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hazard, in general, is defined as 'potential for harm.' In this paper, the scope of 'harm' is limited to the loss of a safety function in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The Hazard Analysis (HA) of an Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems is to identify the relationship from the logical faults, error, and failure of I and C systems to the physical harm of the nuclear power plant, and also to find the impact of the external hazard, e.g., tsunami, of the nuclear power plant to the I and C systems. This paper includes the survey of the existing hazard analysis requirements in the nuclear industries. The purpose of the paper is to compare the HA requirements in various international standards in unclear domain, specifically the safety requirements and guidance for the instrumentation and control system for the nuclear power plant from IAEA, IEC, IEEE, and NRC

  13. Coherent diffraction microscopy at SPring-8: instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumentation and data analysis review of coherent diffraction microscopy at SPring-8 is given. This work will be of interest to those who want to apply coherent diffraction imaging to studies of materials science and biological samples. Since the first demonstration of coherent diffraction microscopy in 1999, this lensless imaging technique has been experimentally refined by continued developments. Here, instrumentation and experimental procedures for measuring oversampled diffraction patterns from non-crystalline specimens using an undulator beamline (BL29XUL) at SPring-8 are presented. In addition, detailed post-experimental data analysis is provided that yields high-quality image reconstructions. As the acquisition of high-quality diffraction patterns is at least as important as the phase-retrieval procedure to guarantee successful image reconstructions, this work will be of interest for those who want to apply this imaging technique to materials science and biological samples

  14. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myoung; Kim, Young Jin [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Quraishi, Shamshad Begum [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2003-05-01

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  15. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  16. Retest of a Principal Components Analysis of Two Household Environmental Risk Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Gail A; Postma, Julie; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Household Risk Perception (HRP) and Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction (SEERR) instruments were developed for a public health nurse-delivered intervention designed to reduce home-based, environmental health risks among rural, low-income families. The purpose of this study was to test both instruments in a second low-income population that differed geographically and economically from the original sample. Participants (N = 199) were recruited from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Paper and pencil surveys were collected at WIC sites by research-trained student nurses. Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted, and comparisons were made to the original PCA for the purpose of data reduction. Instruments showed satisfactory Cronbach alpha values for all components. HRP components were reduced from five to four, which explained 70% of variance. The components were labeled sensed risks, unseen risks, severity of risks, and knowledge. In contrast to the original testing, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) items was not a separate component of the HRP. The SEERR analysis demonstrated four components explaining 71% of variance, with similar patterns of items as in the first study, including a component on ETS, but some differences in item location. Although low-income populations constituted both samples, differences in demographics and risk exposures may have played a role in component and item locations. Findings provided justification for changing or reducing items, and for tailoring the instruments to population-level risks and behaviors. Although analytic refinement will continue, both instruments advance the measurement of environmental health risk perception and self-efficacy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27227487

  17. New instrumentation for sensitive image analysis of fluorescence in cells and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence methods are increasingly applied in clinical cytometry. New instrumental developments have made this possible. A first example consists of the laser scanning microscope (LSM), which enables digital storage of an image of a scanned area in computer memory. The development of low-magnification superwide field microscopes, especially designed for image analysis, has contributed significantly to the analysis of weakly fluorescent images. These microscopes can combine fluorescence detection with conventional modes of microscopy, such as phase-contrast, absorbance microscopy, and reflectance microscopy. These new instruments make use of immersion objectives with maximal numerical aperture (NA) and superwide fields, and permit a relatively low magnification. This is obtained by direct projection of the image of the objective on a TV tube without using a conventional projective eyepiece. A third instrumental development combines scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with fluorescence light microscopy (LM). This has been achieved by incorporating an epi-fluorescence microscope into the vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope. Fluorescence exciting light can be guided onto the specimen in the vacuum chamber of the SEM and the fluorescence can be observed through the light microscope objective in the vacuum chamber. The image is transferred to the outside by a light pipe connection to an epi-fluorescence microscope. All three instrumental developments of the type described above permit a much wider use of quantitative methods in fluorescence cytochemistry and histochemistry. In contrast to the older microfluorometry equipment, the newer instruments permit an effective pattern recognition. Strongly fluorescent cells or cellular organelles can often be automatically isolated from the background by thresholding of the image

  18. Analysis Particulars of Financial Instruments for Companies Not Listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor HADA; Teodora Maria AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents the main features on the trading of financial instruments rated on the Unlisted market. The purpose of this paper is to give a general framework to study modalities of stock analysis of unlisted tools on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. In the introduction of the study elements referring to the objectives, research methodology, innovations of this research are presented, specialized literature being also reviewed. The first paragraph summarizes the main stock markets i...

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  20. Elementary composition in sewer silt and vermicomposting by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate elementary composition in sewer silt and vermicomposting method produced by oligoquetas for the application of the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis. As the gotten results, were possible according to inquire that the texts found in the samples are very below of the acceptable maximum values, North American norm 40 CRF Prat 503, elaborated for the Agency of Ambient Protection of the United States and used as reference in Brazil. (author)

  1. Characterization of inorganic compounds in nutritional supplements by the instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied in the analyses of samples of nutritional supplements in order to evaluate the composition of their essential inorganic components. Results obtained in these analyses presented, in general, a good agreement with the label values. Precision and accuracy of the results were also evaluated by analyzing NIST 2704 Buffalo River Sediment and NIST 1400 Bone Ash reference materials. (author)

  2. The preparation of synthetic standards for use in instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the formulation and preparation of synthetic standards suitable for the routine analysis of minerals, ores, and ore concentrates by instrumental neutron activation. Fifteen standards were prepared, each containing from one to seven elements. The standards contain forty-four elements that produce isotopes with half-lives longer than 12 hours. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of the method of preparation is given

  3. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles i...

  4. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kim; Baum, Christopher F.; Michael Ganz; Subramanian, S.V.; Ichiro Kawachi

    2011-01-01

    Past observational studies of the associations of area-level/contextual social capital with health have revealed conflicting findings. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applyi...

  5. Continuous Angular Multiple Energy Analysis Spectrometer Report on Instrument Concept and Scientific Case

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work unit proposes to construct a cold indirect geometry time of flight spectrometer for performing inelastic neutron scattering experiments optimized for optimal efficiency in the horizontal scattering plane at the European Spallation Source. A horizontal geometry is chosen for compatibility with performing neutron scattering experiments under extreme conditions. The instrument concept is called the Continuous Angular Multiple Energy Analysis Spectrometer, CAMEA. In this report...

  6. Elemental comparison in sound and carious human teeth by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn in human dentin and enamel tissues from carious and sound teeth. Comparisons were made between the results obtained in carious and sound dental tissues for dentin and enamel. The findings obtained were also compared with the published data. Accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by analyzing certified reference material. (author)

  7. 07341 Abstracts Collection -- Code Instrumentation and Modeling for Parallel Performance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoisie, Adolfy; Miller, Barton P.; Mohr, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    From 20th to 24th August 2007, the Dagstuhl Seminar 07341 ``Code Instrumentation and Modeling for Parallel Performance Analysis'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The ...

  8. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  9. Thermal analysis of on the open basket type instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the open basket type instrumented capsule to be used for the irradiation test of various nuclear fuels, it is necessary to examine the thermal behavior due to a thermal gradient as well as the compatibility of a capsule with HANARO and the structural integrity of a capsule. The thermal analysis of instrumented capsule was performed by using ANSYS, a commercial Finite Element Analysis(FEA) code. To ensure the accuracy of temperature analysis results by ANSYS, the theoretical analysis based on the heat transfer theory was done. From these two methods, the center temperature of pellet was 1227 .deg. C(FEA) and 1234 .deg. C(theoretical analysis) in the case of average linear power=29.677kW/m, and 1433 .deg. C and 1429 .deg. C in the case of maximum linear power=33.557kW/m. The maximum stress intensities in the cladding due to thermal gradient were 38.3MPa and 45.1MPa in each linear power. At the contact part of bottom end cap and cladding, the stress intensity of cladding was 35.0MPa in 29.677kW/m and 38.5MPa in 33.557kW/m respectively. The thermal stresses calculated by ANSYS and the mechanical stress due to the difference of internal and external pressure of fuel rod were satisfied with the strength criterion of ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. Through the above thermal analysis, it could be decided whether the irradiation temperature condition of pellet agrees with that requested by users. In addition, it was ensured that the instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation test meets the strength criterion in ASME boiler and pressure vessel code during the irradiation test in HANARO

  10. Instrumental neutron activation and x-ray analysis of kucukcekmece lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray radiometric techniques for the determination of major and minor elements in environmental samples, for instance in the bottom sediments from Kucukcekmece lake have been developed. Experimental results of determination of 31 elements by INAA in 7 samples of bottom sediments have been obtain. The determination accuracy of such elements as Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr and Zr by X-ray analysis is higher than INAA, so this elements were determined by X-ray method

  11. Methodological aspects of development of new instrumental methods of analysis and improvement of known ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to possibilities of instrumental methods of analysis, such as method of precision registration of natural isotope rates of light elements from gaseous phase; method of piezoquartz microweighting; probe methods of analysis in spark mass-spectroscopy; extraction-atomic-emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Prediction of further development of these methods, improvement of their analytic characteristics is given: increase of sensitivity, accuracy and rapidity. Extension of fields of their application is forecasted as well. 20 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. New methods for the reliability analysis of electronic components and instruments. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the tolerance and drift analysis of electronic components and instruments is stated in a general form and some simple solutions for the assessment of reliability are given. An optimized bivariate distribution model permitting one to express a wide class of bivariate distribution is defined, leading to a general solution for the problem of electronic components with correlated parameters. The corresponding optimization procedure is computer-oriented. Thus a systematic analysis of the measuring results is performed, which leads to more realistic bivariate models, in which the prior known features of the process are inserted as constraints in the optimization problem. (orig.)

  13. Instrumental and methodological developments for isotope dilution analysis of gaseous mercury species

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with instrumental and methodological developments for speciation analysis of gaseous mercury (Hg(g)), based on isotope dilution analysis (IDA). The studied species include Hg0, (CH3)2Hg, CH3HgX and HgX2 (where X symbolises a negatively charged counter ion in the form of a halide or hydroxyl ion). Gas chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) was used for separation and detection of Hg(g) species. Permeation tubes were used for the...

  14. The Development of an Instrument to Measure Stigmatization: factor analysis and origin of stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Haghighat

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of stigmatization and understanding of its roots are gaining more importance as its effect on the prognosis of mental health is recognized. A search with Medline showed that there are instruments assessing stigmatization, most containing misconceptions, and regrettably none with adequate reliability and validity. To develop a reliable and valid instrument for research into stigmatization, and to define the structure of stigmatization by factor analysis of the results, about two thousand items from patients' own explanatory models, user groups' ideas, relatives' and social workers' accounts were scrutinized by the author and an independent observer. The items were simplified and rephrased so that they each contained a single idea expressed in clear language. Items were excluded on the grounds of redundancy, culture-boundness or representing factual knowledge rather than attitude. The draft of the instrument was field-tested, and rigorous assessments proved its reliability and validity. Factor analysis derived three factors indicating social, psychological and evolutionary foundations of stigmatization. The result is the Standardized Stigmatization Questionnaire, version 1 (SSQ1 which is now being used in several research centres in Europe. The Unitary Theory of Stigmatization resulting from this study has contributed to a new understanding of the meaning of stigmatization.

  15. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. PMID:21992845

  16. A resonance photoionization sputtered neutral mass spectrometry instrument for submicron microarea analysis of ULSI devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichi, H.; Osabe, S.; Sugaya, M.; Ino, T.; Kakibayashi, H.; Kanehori, K.; Mitsui, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The lateral profile of boron in an actual microdevice was obtained by 3D analysis—using the newly developed resonance photoionization sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instrument—with a detection limit of 10 18 atoms/cm 3. The primary ion beam optical system of the instrument uses a Ga liquid metal ion source. The Ga beam diameter was about 30 nm and the ion beam current was about 60 pA. The analysis time to get the profile was about 40 min. Boron was excited by using one ultraviolet photon (249.7 nm) and by one visible photon (563 nm), and then it was ionized by an infrared photon (1064 nm): the so-called three-color resonance ionization. Lateral diffusion profile of boron in the device after chemical vapor deposition (CVD) including heating the wafer was also obtained. These results mean that this SNMS instrument will enable us to easily determine semiconductor processing conditions.

  17. Use of patients’ classification instruments: analysis of the brazilian production of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Portella de Abreu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the production of scientific knowledge about the use of patients’ classification instruments in care and management practice in Brazil. Method Integrative literature review with databases search in: Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-line (MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and SCOPUS, between January 2002 through December 2013. Results 1,194 studies were found, 31 met the inclusion criteria. We observed a higher number of studies in the category care plans and workload (n=15, followed by the category evaluation of psychometric properties (n=14. Conclusion Brazilian knowledge production has not yet investigated some purposes of using instruments for classifying patients in professional nursing practice. The identification of unexplored areas can guide future research on the topic.

  18. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context...... an overall estimate of the causal relationship between the phenotype and the outcome, and an assessment of its heterogeneity across studies. As an example, we estimate the causal relationship of blood concentrations of C-reactive protein on fibrinogen levels using data from 11 studies. These methods provide...... a flexible framework for efficient estimation of causal relationships derived from multiple studies. Issues discussed include weak instrument bias, analysis of binary outcome data such as disease risk, missing genetic data, and the use of haplotypes....

  19. Calibration of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Stern, J. C.; Harpold, D.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SAM suite of instruments on the "Curiosity" Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is designed to provide chemical and isotopic analysis of organic and inorganic volatiles for both atmospheric and solid samples. The mission of the MSL investigations is to advance beyond the successful search for aqueous transformation in surface environments at Mars toward a quantitative assessment of habitability and preservation through a series of chemical and geological measurements. The SAM suite was delivered in December 2010 (Figure 1) to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for integration into the Curiosity Rover. We previously outlined the range of SAM solid and gas calibrations implemented or planned and here we discuss a specific set of calibration experiments to establish the response of the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) to the four most abundant gases in the Martian atmosphere CO2, N2, Ar, and O2, A full SAM instrument description and calibration report is presently in preparation.

  20. Andragogy's Transition into the Future: Meta-Analysis of Andragogy and Its Search for a Measurable Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan; Kroth, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article is a meta-analysis of the theory of andragogy and its search for a measurable instrument. The article explores three areas surrounding andragogy: (a) its concept and history, (b) its assumptions, and (c) its primary criticisms. In examining these three areas, a foundation is established for the creation of an instrument to provide…

  1. Bilateral versus unilateral instrumentation in spinal surgery: Systematic review and trial sequential analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Leung, Vannessa; Scherman, Daniel B; Tan, Andrew R; Rao, Prashanth J; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar fusion surgical intervention is often followed by bilateral pedicle screw fixation. There has been increasing support for unilateral pedicle screw fixation in an attempt to reduce complications and costs. The following study assesses the efficacy and complications of bilateral versus unilateral pedicle screw fixation in open and minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion techniques. A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and recommendations. In comparison with existing meta-analyses, trial sequential analysis was implemented to reduce the potential for type I error. Of the 1310 citations screened, four observational studies and 13 randomised controlled trials were used comprising 574 bilateral cases and 549 unilateral cases. Statistical analysis showed no difference in fusion rates, total complications, dural tear rates, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for back pain, VAS for leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index scores, and length of stay between bilateral and unilateral instrumentation. Unilateral instrumentation was significantly shorter in duration (Plower blood volume loss (P=0.0002). These results were the same for both open and minimally invasive surgical approaches. Unilateral pedicle screw fixation appears to have similar post-operative outcomes as bilateral fixation and improved efficacy in regards to procedure duration and blood volume loss. PMID:27068653

  2. Cyclic fatigue analysis of Reciproc R25® instruments with different kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hakan; Alsancak, Meltem; Doğanay, Ezgi; Karataş, Ertuğrul; Davut Çapar, İsmail; Ertas, Huseyin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc® instruments when used with different kinematics (150° counterclockwise (CCW)-30° clockwise (CW), 270° CCW-30° CW, 360° CCW-30° CW and continuous rotation). Various kinematics were tested in steel canals with a 3 mm radius and a 60° angle of curvature as follows (n = 20): 150° CCW-30° CW, 270° CCW-30° CW, 360° CCW-30° CW and 360° CCW (rotary motion). Reciproc R25® instruments were used until fracture occurred. The time to fracture was recorded in seconds. The data were statistically analysed using a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc tests (P = .05). The cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc R25® instruments used with various kinematics in decreasing order was as follows: 150° CCW-30° CW > 270° CCW-30° CW = 360° CCW-30° CW > 360° CCW rotary motion. The 150° CCW-30° CW reciprocating motion had the best performance in time to fracture. All reciprocating motions (150° CCW-30° CW, 270° CCW-30° CW and 360° CCW-30° CW) resulted in a longer mean duration to failure compared with the 360° CCW rotary motion. PMID:26148504

  3. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046 Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: schweitz@phys.uconn.edu; Trombka, Jacob I. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Selavka, Carl [Massachusetts State Police Crime Laboratory, 59 Horse Pond Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 (United States); Zeosky, Gerald [Forensic Investigation Center, Crime Laboratory Building, 22 State Campus, Albany, NY 12226 (United States); Gahn, Norman [Assistant District Attorney, Milwaukee County, District Attorney' s Office, 821 West State Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233-1427 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burbine, Thomas [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  4. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Pasternak-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. RESULTS: There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. CONCLUSION: The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  5. Bioanalytical and instrumental analysis of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in water sources along the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources along the Yangtze River in China were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell-based TH reporter gene assay. Instrumental analysis was conducted to identify the responsible thyroid-active compounds. Instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) equivalents (T3-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to dibutyl phthalate (DBP-EQs) were calculated from the concentrations of individual congeners. The reporter gene assay demonstrated that three out of eleven water sources contained TR agonist activity equivalents (TR-EQs), ranging from 286 to 293 ng T3/L. Anti-thyroid hormone activities were found in all water sources with the TR antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (Ant-TR-EQs), ranging from 51.5 to 555.3 μg/L. Comparisons of the equivalents from instrumental and biological assays suggested that high concentrations of DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations along the Yangtze River. - Research highlights: → First of all, we indicated the instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) equivalents (T3-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (DBP-EQs) for the very first time. → Secondly, high concentrations of DBP and DEHP might be responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations. → Finally, we found that thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activities were very common in Yangtze River. More attentions should be paid to the TR antagonist activities and the responsible compounds. - In vitro bioassay responses observed in Yangtze River source water extracts showed great TR antagonist activities, and DBP and DEHP were responsible.

  6. Determination of selenium and zinc in rat plasma by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects on the thyroid function when simple or multiple zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency are induced, research was carried out in laboratory animals. For simultaneously determining the Zn and Se concentration in rat plasma, an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was applied. A clean laboratory, was used for the preparation of samples. High purity materials were used for sample collection and storage. Irradiation, decay and counting parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity, accuracy and precision analysis. The Zn and Se concentrations were determined from the peak area of gamma-rays of 1115 and 265 KeV respectively. The analytical methodology used was validated with standard reference materials. The procedure used for the analysis, including the phases of collection, treatment of the samples and analytical determination was considered suitable for the study of trace elements in biological samples, especially plasma. (author)

  7. Data intercomparison and determination of toxic and trace elements in algae using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the non-destructive multi-elemental analysis of environmental and biological materials, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of toxic and trace elements in a set of three Algae samples provided by the international Atomic Energy (IAEA). The analytical quality control was evaluated by comparing the analytical results of two standard reference materials of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Oyster Tissue (SRM 1566a) and Citrus Leaves (SRM 1572). According to given analytical procedure, the concentration of 15-25 elements including spiked elements such As, Cd, Cr and Hg in Algae samples were determined. To identify and validate these results, a data intercomparison program using more than 35 analytical methods in 150 laboratories was carried out and the estimated statistical data are summarized. Result of INAA is favorable, therefore, it is illustrated that can be applied for routine analysis of essential and toxic elements in algae samples as well as analytical quality assurance

  8. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials from Northern Palawan and Mariduque Island, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological materials comprising of heavy mineral panned concentrates and surface soil samples taken from northern Palawan and Marinduque Island, Philippines was conducted. This work was carried out primarily to determine the distribution of uranium, thorium, rare earths and other trace elements in the Philippine environment in connection with the nationwide geochemical exploration program and the IAEA technical co-operation project on gamma ray spectrometric survey in the country. Moreover, the geochemical data obtained will form part of the national database for nuclear resource assessment, mineral exploration and environmental studies. The utilization of the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique in the multielemental determination of geological materials has been very useful in mineral exploration, environmental studies and other related researches. The sensitivity of this technique has been very effective not only in the determination of the major elements but for the trace elements as well. In this study, about 96 geological samples wee analyzed for 15 elements after the spectral analysis. In all, 810 elemental determinations were completed. In the northern Palawan district, the areas with high radioactivity were disclosed by the relatively high concentrations of thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium. Moreover, areas with possible potential for gold was delineated as well as for the rare earth metals. In Marinduque Island, the distribution of the elements are generally sporadic which indicate various lithological sources and a diverse geology. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  10. Development of PDA based nuclear instrument for data acquisition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand held devices are becoming commonplace in current society. Advances in hand held computer technology offer the ability to acquire and manage data faster, easier and yet accurate. This paper describes the system design, software and preliminary testing of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) based data acquisition system of nuclear instrument for use in MINT. Methods for integrating this technology into a research study and suggestions for increasing the performance of data acquisition and analysis using PDA are discussed. The authors offer some practical solutions for researchers planning to use PDAs in their research or monitoring of data. (Author)

  11. Determination of aluminium contents in selected food samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food and food products are the main sources of Aluminium entering the human body. In order to know aluminium contents in food and food products, selected 26 samples from local market were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. INAA using 1,779 keV γ-ray of 28Al (2.24 min) was used for aluminium concentrations in the range of 33-529 mg kg-1. Two NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and two IAEA reference materials (RMs) were analyzed by INAA for quantification of aluminium as a part of method validation. (author)

  12. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  13. Comparison of elemental composition of hair between osteoporotic and normal women by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out on hair samples from a group of 20 patients undergoing a study of osteoporosis. Half of these were judged normal. Forteen elements were measured but only calcium was found to have a correlation with the disease state. Calcium levels in hair were significantly lower (99% level) in patients with osteoporosis. Conversely, calcium levels in the blood of osteoporotic patients were significantly higher (95% level) than those in normals. Though the group studied was small it is felt that levels of calcium in hair may be of value in diagnosing osteoporosis. (author)

  14. Comparison of elemental composition of hair between osteoporotic and normal women by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out on hair samples from a group of twenty patients undergoing a study of osteoporosis. Half of these were judged normal. Fourteen elements were measured but only calcium was found to have a correlation with the disease state. Calcium levels in hair were significantly lower (99% confidence level) in patients with osteoporosis. Conversely, calcium levels in the blood of osteoporotic patients were significantly higher (95% confidence level) than those in normals. Though the group studied was small it is felt that the levels of calcium in hair may be of value in diagnosing osteoporosis. (author) 14 refs

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the certification of biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 22 minor and trace constituents in two proposed Standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques, Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's Kale, Cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of reference materials of biological matrices. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  16. Determination of trace elements in sugar cane refuse by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of micro, trace and ultratrace amounts of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, F, Fe, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, V and W in sugar cane refuses of various Egyptian factories. The element concentrations are below the safety baseline levels. Variations of results may be related to different botanic structures, different compositions of sugar cane plants of ecological changes in soil. The method is accurate and precise. The relative errors are in the range of 0.3-12.3%. (author)

  17. Rare-Earth Element determinations in Nigerian rock samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen igneous and six sedimentary rock samples of various geological types from two major locations in Nigeria were analyzed for six Rare-Earth Elements (REE) (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb) by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the different rock types were compared with those of similar samples from other parts of the world. Suggestions are made concerning the probable petrogenesis of some of these rock samples, and the REE patterns of others are rationalized on the basis of the major minerals present in such rocks. 10 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  19. MULTICRITERIA ANALYSISINSTRUMENT FOR AN ACCURATE ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF THE SERVICE SECTOR ON THE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    DANCIU Lucian Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    The current paper represents an attempt to introduce multicriteria analysis as an efficient instrument to prove that the development of services in Romania has a major impact on all aspects of our economy and represents the right path to pursue in terms of economic growth, on a medium and long term basis.The paper presents a general approach to multicriteria analysis as a means to successfully reveal the impact of the service sector on the economy of Romania. Several advantages as well as lim...

  20. Passive Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: Analysis Framework and Instrument Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Timothy A.; Svard, Staffan J.; Smith, Leon E.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Jansson, Peter; Davour, Anna; Grape, Sophie; Trellue, H.; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Wittman, Richard S.; Honkamaa, Tapani; Vaccaro, Stefano; Ely, James

    2015-05-18

    The potential for gamma emission tomography (GET) to detect partial defects within a spent nuclear fuel assembly is being assessed through a collaboration of Support Programs to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the first phase of this study, two safeguards verification objectives have been identified. The first is the independent determination of the number of active pins that are present in the assembly, in the absence of a priori information. The second objective is to provide quantitative measures of pin-by-pin properties, e.g. activity of key isotopes or pin attributes such as cooling time and relative burnup, for the detection of anomalies and/or verification of operator-declared data. The efficacy of GET to meet these two verification objectives will be evaluated across a range of fuel types, burnups, and cooling times, and with a target interrogation time of less than 60 minutes. The evaluation of GET viability for safeguards applications is founded on a modelling and analysis framework applied to existing and emerging GET instrument designs. Monte Carlo models of different fuel types are used to produce simulated tomographer responses to large populations of “virtual” fuel assemblies. Instrument response data are processed by a variety of tomographic-reconstruction and image-processing methods, and scoring metrics specific to each of the verification objectives are defined and used to evaluate the performance of the methods. This paper will provide a description of the analysis framework and evaluation metrics, example performance-prediction results, and describe the design of a “universal” GET instrument intended to support the full range of verification scenarios envisioned by the IAEA.

  1. Air pollution assessment in two Moroccan cities using instrumental neutron activation analysis on bio-accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for the air pollution assessment studies. In this work, lichens and barks have been used as bio-accumulators in several sites in two Moroccan cities (Rabat and Mohammadia). The specific ability of absorbing and accumulating heavy metals and toxic element from the air, their longevity and resistance to the environmental stresses, make those bioindicators suitable for this kind of studies. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultra-trace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrated by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, a preliminary investigation employing lichens, barks and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements distribution in six different areas of Rabat and Mohammadia cities characterised by the presence of many industries and heavy traffic. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high-resolution Germanium-Lithium detectors. More than 30 elements were determined using two modes : short irradiation (1 minute) and long irradiation (17 hours). Accuracy and quality control were assessed using the reference standard material IAEA-336. This was less than 1% for major and about 5 to 10% for traces.

  2. Multisensor Data Fusion for High Quality Data Analysis and Processing in Measurement and Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bo Huang; Yu-bin Lan; W.C.Hoffmann; R.E.Lacey

    2007-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion(MDF)is an emerging technology to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement and detection.Applications of MDF cross a wide spectrum in military and civilian areas.With the rapid evolution of computers and the proliferation of micro-mechanical/electrical systems sensors,the utilization of MDF is being popularized in research and applications.This paper focuses on application of MDF for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation.A practical,general data fusion scheme was established on the basis of feature extraction and merge of data from multiple sensors.This scheme integrates artificial neural networks for high performance pattern recognition.A number of successful applications in areas of NDI(Non-Destructive Inspection)corrosion detection,food quality and safety characterization,and precision agriculture are described and discussed in order to motivate new applications in these or other areas.This paper gives an overall picture of using the MDF method to increase the accuracy of data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation in different areas of applications.

  3. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G; Andrews, G;

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context of...... multiple genetic markers measured in multiple studies, based on the analysis of individual participant data. First, for a single genetic marker in one study, we show that the usual ratio of coefficients approach can be reformulated as a regression with heterogeneous error in the explanatory variable. This...... can be implemented using a Bayesian approach, which is next extended to include multiple genetic markers. We then propose a hierarchical model for undertaking a meta-analysis of multiple studies, in which it is not necessary that the same genetic markers are measured in each study. This provides an...

  4. Determination of arsenic and mercury in facial cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of arsenic and mercury in some chilean facial cosmetics was investiged. Since in Chile there is no regulations dealing with the maximum permisible concentration of some chemical elements in cosmetics products, the national industry control neither the presence nor the quantity, if any, of those elements. The study was performed on compact or powder eye shadows by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were analized without any chemical treatment and with minimum manipulation to avoid any possible contamination. A total of 67 samples from 9 different cosmetic industries were analysed. Arsenic was detected and determined quantitatively in 46 samples, ranging from 0.32 to 136 ppm. Mercury was not detected in any sample. The contamination of arsenic is due to the high concentration of this element in some of the raw material used in the manufacturing of the cosmetics, as was demonstrated by the analysis of these materials. (EC)

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of iron and zinc in compact eye shadow, compact face powder and compact rouge make-up cosmetic products. The steps of the procedure are: Irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons, counting of gamma-radioactivity of the radioisotopes of iron and zinc produced by this irradiation and calculation of the concentration of these elements from the gamma-ray spectra of samples and standards. Analysis of the I.A.E.A. standard reference material by this procedure give results in close agreement with certified values. The limit of quantitation is 45 μg for iron and 0.35 μg for zinc. The developed procedure could possibly be established as an official method for the simultaneous determination of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products. (orig.)

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for essential and toxic elements in Kenitra city (Morocco) foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Ko-method of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for minor, trace and toxic elements in the most consumed foodstuff purchased from large commercial markets in Kenitra's city (Morocco) which has been chosen for a pilot project on food monitoring in the west of Morocco. Samples have been analyzed by Ko-INAA method using TRIGA Mark II reactor at Josef Stefan Institute in Slovenia. The quality control of results was assessed using the Standard Reference Material SRM 1547 (Peach leaves). Results show an adequate sensitivity for the most studied elements in foodstuffs except for beef, onion and whole wheat which show a high sensitivity factor for Cd and As. INAA seems to be an adequate choice for element analysis in foodstuffs. (author)

  7. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  8. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis to study the elemental distribution in Turangi Swamp, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat and sediment samples were collected in Turangi Swamp, North Island, New Zealand, and analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Variations in elemental distribution are used to distinguish between a short-term anthropogenic influence and a long-term natural impact. Discharge of sewage effluent has resulted in elevated zinc concentrations in the surface sediment near the point of effluent inflow into the wetland. Increased arsenic, bromine and antimony concentrations are attributed to seepage of groundwater originating in the nearby Tokaanu-Waihi geothermal field, and are found in particular on the western side of the wetland. Due to its sensitivity, INAA was useful to determine the subtle changes in Br and Sb concentrations, which could not be detected by XRF. Analysis of the ashed residue by INAA shows that As and Zn are mostly associated with the inorganic fraction, whereas Br has a strong organic affinity. (authors)

  9. Multi-element determination of sandstone rock by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of sandstone samples from Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were properly prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 1011 n/cm2.s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. Gamma spectra from hyper pure germanium HPGe detector were analysed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of sandstone rock. The following elements constituents have been determined: Na, K, Fe, Sc, Cr, Co, Zr, Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements which can be detected only by XRF. (author)

  10. Applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for geological samples in AMD for uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Non-destructive Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used over last three decades in AMD for analysis of geological samples for estimation of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Zr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Au, Th and U. The estimation has been done using various international standards. The irradiation of samples has been done in Cirus/Apsara Reactor in BARC, Mumbai. The measurement of desired gamma emission are carried out by Huge detector. The various geological samples from different parts of India are: 1. granites 2. charnokites 3. Basalts 4. Carbonatites 5. Xenotime 6. Monazite 7. Core samples 8. Black slabs. The efficiency modelling of HPGe detector was done using different sources and mathematical and statistical techniques. (author)

  11. Determination of mercury contents in head hair of dentists by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury contents in head hair of 32 dentists and 30 controls were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The precision and accuracy of the analytical results were checked by independent analytical techniques comprising cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis combined with lead diethyldithiocarbamate as a preconcentrating agent. The normal range was from 1.91 to 5.44 ppm with an arithmetic mean of 3.90+-1.01 ppm, and the geometric mean of 3.76x:1.33 ppm. The range, arithmetic and geometric means of the values for dentists were 4.32-24.14 ppm, 11.68+-4.70 ppm, and 10.77x:4.04 ppm, resp. The mercury contents in the hair of the dentists are significantly higher than those of the controls. It indicates that dentists in Taiwan do not practice good mercury hygiene. However, the mercury contents are considerably below the toxicity level. (author)

  12. Automatic evaluation and data generation for analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, laboratory activities are costly in terms of time, space, and money. As such, the ability to provide realistically simulated laboratory data that enables students to practice data analysis techniques as a complementary activity would be expected to reduce these costs while opening up very interesting possibilities. In the present work, a novel methodology is presented for design of analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises that can be automatically personalized for each student and the results evaluated immediately. The proposed system provides each student with a different set of experimental data generated randomly while satisfying a set of constraints, rather than using data obtained from actual laboratory work. This allows the instructor to provide students with a set of practical problems to complement their regular laboratory work along with the corresponding feedback provided by the system's automatic evaluation process. To this end, the Goodle Grading Management System (GMS, an innovative web-based educational tool for automating the collection and assessment of practical exercises for engineering and scientific courses, was developed. The proposed methodology takes full advantage of the Goodle GMS fusion code architecture. The design of a particular exercise is provided ad hoc by the instructor and requires basic Matlab knowledge. The system has been employed with satisfactory results in several university courses. To demonstrate the automatic evaluation process, three exercises are presented in detail. The first exercise involves a linear regression analysis of data and the calculation of the quality parameters of an instrumental analysis method. The second and third exercises address two different comparison tests, a comparison test of the mean and a t-paired test.

  13. Mexsyco project: representation of power plan control-instrumentation functions. Bibliographical analysis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study covered in this paper is designed to review the current situation in terms of functional analysis, in order to find a functional analysis method for mechanical parts able to serve as a substrate for expressing operating safety constraints, time-related performance or any other tag of function description. This paper comprises three parts: The first is devoted to general notions of the formats used by the various functional analyses. It attempts to explain the three types of format: behavioural, structural and functional. It tackles the notions of trees and bottom-up and top-down approaches. It proposes examining the link between the expected functions of the systems and the hardware supporting these functions. It attempts to make a distinction between ''operators'' and ''operands'' enabling the notion of object to be linked to that of the three types of format seen above. It ends with a reminder of the distinction between semi-formal and formal. The second part analyses the current situation of functional analysis of the mechanical and control-instrumentation parts of power production plants, through a bibliographical search. The results of this second part are however disappointing. The purpose of the third part of the study is a prototype format built up from the considerations of the first two parts. This format meets our requirements better than those of the bibliographical analysis, but it could doubtless be improved: application of this format to RCV highlights its advantages, but also underlines the improvements needed. Given the deadlines of the Mexsyco project, the decision was taken to suspend development of this format for the time being and use a method currently being produced and based on use of the current functional breakdown (basic plant systems) and of a modular tree-structure representation of the control-instrumentation of a basic plant system. (author). 12 refs., 4 annexes

  14. Increasing withdrawal rates add oil reserves in Java Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an offshore Southeast Sumatra contract area, resizing downhole pumps which increased withdrawal rates from 36 to 37 worked-over wells. These greater fluid producing rates, according to decline curve analysis, will substantially add to the recoverable oil reserves. The work increased an average well's oil production rate by 183 bo/d and added 183,000 bbl/well to recoverable oil reserves without materially affecting water cut. The cost of the reserve additions was $0.37/bbl. No loss in ultimate recovery was indicated for any of the wells

  15. Increasing withdrawal rates add oil reserves in Java Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, J. (Maxis Energy Corp., Dallas, TX (US)); Temansja, A.D. (Maxus Southeast, Sumatra Inc., Jakarta (ID))

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on an offshore Southeast Sumatra contract area, resizing downhole pumps which increased withdrawal rates from 36 to 37 worked-over wells. These greater fluid producing rates, according to decline curve analysis, will substantially add to the recoverable oil reserves. The work increased an average well's oil production rate by 183 bo/d and added 183,000 bbl/well to recoverable oil reserves without materially affecting water cut. The cost of the reserve additions was $0.37/bbl. No loss in ultimate recovery was indicated for any of the wells.

  16. Advances in neutron polarisation analysis capability for material sciences research on OPAL instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are opening to the user community a new material sciences research capability of using neutron polarization analysis on the instruments in the OPAL reactor at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology (ANSTO). Polarised neutron scattering is a powerful technique that can cleanly separates the magnetic scattering of magnetic moments and magnetic excitations from the nuclear scattering of the chemical structure and structural dynamics. We can identify the location, strength, and direction of the magnetic moments to atomic resolution and the strength and polarization of magnetic excitations with this technique. In addition, it allows us to separate the structural signal and the hydrogen background signal in hydrogen-rich materials which has long been a challenge in studying organic materials with neutrons. At ANSTO, polarisation analysis has previously been available on the reflectometer PLATYPUS for thin film and multilayer studies. The operation of a 3He polarising station has now provided this capability for more instruments. We have now measured the magnetic structure of multiferroic single-crystals and giant-magnetocaloric powder samples on the WOMBAT diffractometer and the TAIPAN triple-axis spectrometer. We have also measured the polarization and location of magnon excitation in a multiferroic single-crystal on the TAIPAN triple-axis spectrometer. These capabilities are now opened to users in the research community. Commissioning tests have been done for polarised off-specular scattering capability on PLATYPUS to study lateral magnetic surface structure. It will soon be followed by polarization analysis on the cold neutron chopper spectrometer PELICAN for magnetic excitation measurements and polarised SANS on QUOKKA for magnetic nanostructured material and hydrogen-rich material studies. This presentation will highlight the material sciences measurements done using this new capability and present the main characteristics of this technique.

  17. Plasmonic-based instrument response function for time-resolved fluorescence: toward proper lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we investigated the so-called plasmonic platforms prepared to target ultra-short fluorescence and accurate instrumental response function in a time-domain spectroscopy and microscopy. The interaction of metallic nanoparticles with nearby fluorophores results in the increase of the dye fluorescence quantum yield, photostability and decrease of the lifetime parameter. The mentioned properties of platforms were applied to achieve a picosecond fluorescence lifetime (21 ps) of erythrosin B, used later as a better choice for deconvolution of fluorescence decays measured with “color” sensitive photo-detectors. The ultra-short fluorescence standard based on combination of thin layers of silver film, silver colloidal nanoparticles (about 60 nm in diameter), and top layer of erythrosin B embedded in 0.2 % poly(vinyl) alcohol. The response functions were monitored on two photo-detectors; microchannel plate photomultiplier and single photon avalanche photodiode as a Rayleigh scattering and ultra-short fluorescence. We demonstrated that use of the plasmonic base fluorescence standard as an instrumental response function results in the absence of systematic error in lifetime measurements and analysis.

  18. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.

  19. Preliminary safety analysis report for project 89-GEB-610 Plutonium Finishing Plant instrumentation upgrade. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of an analysis of the MICON system upgrade. This project shall install a Micon Co. distributed process monitor and control system with Sparc Sun workstation operator interfaces. The Sparc workstations are housed in consoles custom designed to human factors specifications. The distributed control system (DCS) shall have the installed capacity to monitor and control all related instruments and equipment presently connected to the panels in the PFP Power Control Room 321A as listed in the input/output list. This also includes all devices monitored and controlled by the 2736-ZB Allen Bradley programmable logic controller. The system has since assumed the control and monitoring responsibilities for Projects B- 680H ''Low Level Waste Treatment Facility'' and C-031H ''PFP Liquid Effluent Facilities''. Part of the new en's change area in Building 234-5ZA, Room 712, has been remodeled to house two consoles and one supervisor console. Local control units containing the microprocontrollers and the input/output interface circuit boards shall be wired to the instrumentation and controlled equipment. These units communicate with the Sparc workstations via a redundant data communications highway and shall be strategic, throughout the PFP facility. The DCS has already been purchased from Micon Co., located in Houston Texas, presently on site

  20. Multi-periodic climate dynamics: spectral analysis of long-term instrumental and proxy temperature records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Lüdecke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The longest six instrumental temperature records of monthly means reach back maximally to 1757 AD and were recorded in Europe. All six show a V-shape, with temperature drop in the 19th and rise in the 20th century. Proxy temperature time series of Antarctic ice cores show this same characteristic shape, indicating this pattern as a global phenomenon. We used the mean of the 6 instrumental records for analysis by discrete Fourier transformation (DFT, wavelets, and the detrended fluctuation method (DFA. For comparison, a stalagmite record was also analyzed by DFT. The harmonic decomposition of the mean shows only 6 significant frequencies above periods over 30 yr. The Pearson correlation between the mean, smoothed by a 15 yr running average (boxcar and the reconstruction using the 6 significant frequencies yields r = 0.961. This good agreement has a > 99.9% confidence level confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. Assumption of additional forcing by anthropogenic green house gases would therefore not improve the agreement between measurement and temperature construction from the 6 documented periodicities. We find indications that the observed periodicities result from intrinsic system dynamics.

  1. Trace characterization of high-purity nickel by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high activity of the radionuclides 65Ni (t1/2=2.52 h) and 58Co (t1/2=70.8 d) imposes severe limitations on the performance of direct instrumental neutron activation analysis of nickel. The extent of the interference of the 58Co depends on the ratio of the fluxes of the fast and thermal neutrons. A method of selective removal of cobalt, based on extraction with β-nitroso-α-naphthol has been developed for the purpose of radiochemical NAA. Separation yields have been determined for 36 elements. The detection limits obtainable with both the instrumental and the radiochemical method are -4 μg/g for the elements Au, Eu, Ir, La, Sc and Sm, between 10-4 and 10-3 μg/g for Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Lu, Re, Sb, Ta, Th, Tm and Yb, between 10-3 and 10-2 μg/g for As, Ag, Br, Ce, Ga, Na, Ru, Se, W and Zn, and in the range 0.01-1 μg/g for Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, In, K, Mo, Nd, Pd, Rb, Sn, U and Zr. (orig.)

  2. Multielement analysis of human hair reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Human Hair (NIES No. 5) as an environmental reference material prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan (NIES) was analyzed by an instrumental neutron activation method. The human hair samples (ca. 200∼500 mg) were irradiated for 2 min or 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor. The activated samples were measured by four gamma-ray spectrometories, namely a spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, anticoincidence and coincidence counting spectrometries using a coaxial Ge detector, and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector, and a low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) using a planer Ge detector, to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. Concentrations of 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined by these measurements. The analyzed values of many elements except Sr were in good agreement with NIES certified values determined by nine different analytical methods. (author)

  3. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles is illustrated on time series of all grain yields in Russia for the last 119 years. Phase portrait of this time series is illustrated in twodimension space. As a result, the phase portrait consists of 22 frequently unstable quasicycles which tottality forms a strange attractor. Quasicycles have quantitative (length and quality (configuration characteristics. Their combination defines very important characteristic called trend-stability. Phase analysis is a powerful form of analysis of time series to assess cyclic recurrence and is a tool for pre-forecasting analysis. Fuzzy sets' mathematical apparatus is also used in this article. An algorithm of formation of fuzzy sets' quasicycles' length is also presented here. Quasicycles' statistics are presented in tables, geometric patterns and in the form of fuzzy sets

  4. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO3)2, PbSO4, PbO, Pb(OH)2, ZnO, ZnS, TiO2, BaSO4, CaCO3, Al2O3, As2S3, etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn2O3, etc.; red pigments were Fe2O3, Pb3O4, HgS, PbMo4, CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO4, ZnCrO4, CdS-ZnS, K3[Co(NO2)6], Pb(SbO3)2, C19H16O11Mg, SrCrO4, etc.; green pigments were Cr2O3, Cr2O(OH)4, Cu(C2H3O2)-2Cu(OH)2), Cr2O3-Al2O3-CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, CoO-Al2O3, Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4, etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a non-destructive, simultaneously multi-elemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity. In order to characterize the elemental contents of art objects, the quantitative analysis of oil pigment series was carried out using NAA facilities of the HANARO research reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Research

  5. Gravitational scattering in the ADD model revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the assumption that the standard model particles live on a finite brane in the ADD model does in itself imply a finite propagator for virtual Kaluza-Klein mode exchange. The part of the propagator relevant for large distance scattering is cut-off-independent for scattering at distances large compared to the brane width. The matrix element corresponding to this part can also, at least for an odd number of extra dimensions, be Fourier transformed to position space, giving back the extra-dimensional version of Newton's law. For an even number of extra dimensions a corresponding result is found by requiring that Newton's law should be recovered. (orig.)

  6. Quiescent plasma experiments: an add-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the classical literature of plasma physics, one cannot miss the references of Q-machines. It was such a powerful experimental device in which the very early basic plasma experiments were conducted and the results from those went into all plasma physics text-books. In those experiments, a highly ionized plasma produced by contact or resonance ionization of alkali atoms (mostly cesium) on hot tungsten surfaces was confined in an axial magnetic field. This collision-less plasma was expected to be quiescent, because the temperature of both the species (ions and electrons) would be same as the temperature of the plate (∼ 0.2 eV). But due to the inherent experimental set ups, many fluctuations were present, which were detected and were satisfactorily explained too. In this talk, the highlights of these Q-machine experiments conducted worldwide will be revisited and a possible add-on would be discussed. (author)

  7. How do Innovation Intermediaries add Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Hsuan, Juliana; Mahnke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Innovation intermediaries are increasingly being used in practice, but there is little concrete theoretical guidance on when and how they add value to client's new product development (NPD) processes. This paper develops propositions on innovation intermediaries value-added based on a detailed case...... study of an innovation intermediary's relations to three major clients in the European apparel fashion industry. We identify key contingencies to an innovation intermediary's value added (e.g. NDP speed and complexity of involvement). We also suggest a framework that specifies when a combination of four...... types of specific intermediary capabilities (best-cost capabilities, timing-capabilities, market-response capabilities, and product solution capabilities) increases value added in clients' NDP processes....

  8. Interfacing LabVIEW With Instrumentation for Electronic Failure Analysis and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K.; Bryan, Coleman; Ludwig, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workstation (LabVIEW) software is designed such that equipment and processes related to control systems can be operationally lined and controlled by the use of a computer. Various processes within the failure analysis laboratories of NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) demonstrate the need for modernization and, in some cases, automation, using LabVIEW. An examination of procedures and practices with the Failure Analaysis Laboratory resulted in the conclusion that some device was necessary to elevate the potential users of LabVIEW to an operational level in minimum time. This paper outlines the process involved in creating a tutorial application to enable personnel to apply LabVIEW to their specific projects. Suggestions for furthering the extent to which LabVIEW is used are provided in the areas of data acquisition and process control.

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  10. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k0-standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  11. Determination of trace elements in NIES environmental reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements in environmental reference materials prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan (NIES) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mussel, Human Hair, Tea Leaves and Sargasso reference material samples (ca. 150∼1200 mg) were irradiated by thermal neutron without cadmium filter and epithermal neutron with cadmium filter at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITRR). The activated samples were measured by three methods; conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, anticoincidence counting spectrometry and coincidence counting spectrometry. The γ-ray spectrometric system (GAMA system) was developed by the authors. As a result, they could determined about 30 - 50 elements by the combination of these irradiation and counting methods. The analyzed values were in good agreement with NIES certified values

  12. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of trace elements in nine different brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco, pipe tobacco and tobacco ash. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed, and a gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 1024 and 4096-channel analyzers were used. Samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of about 1013 cm-2 sec-1. Concentrations of Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Hf, Hg and Th were determined in tobacco and ash; percent transference of these elements into ash were calculated. It was found out that trace elements in cigarette tobacco are left in the ash but only a small percentage is transferred into the smoke

  13. A quality assurance programme for the determination of selenium in foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is unevenly distributed through the biosphere. The levels, species and bioavailability of selenium in foods depend greatly on the geochemical environment in which they are grown. Variation in geochemical conditions can not only lead to certain diseases in animals but also influence the selenium body burden in humans. For these reasons, there is an increasing interest in monitoring selenium levels in foods and diets. A quality assurance programme has been developed for the determination of low levels of selenium in foods and diets by cyclic and pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using the short-lived (half-life = 17.4 s) 77Sem nuclide. Both conventional and anti-coincidence gamma ray spectrometry techniques have been employed. Pseudo-cyclic INAA in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been found to provide the most reliable results. Internal and external quality assessments have been done using a number of parameters. (author)

  14. Heavy metals and rare earth elements in phosphate fertilizer components using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of heavy metals and rare earth elements in phosphate fertilizer ingredients. The contents of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Co, Cr and Sc as well as rare earth elements La, Ce, Hf, Eu, Yb and Sm were determined in four samples representing the phosphate fertilizer components (e.g. rock phosphate, limestone and sulfur). These samples were collected from the Abu-Zabal phosphate factory in El-Qalubia governarate, Egypt. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental pattern in phosphate ingredients as well as in the produced phosphate fertilizer. Fair agreement was found between the results obtained for the standard reference material Soil-7 and the certified values reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The results for the input raw materials (rock phosphate, limestone and sulfur) and the output product as final fertilizer are presented and discussed

  15. Study of trace metals in phosphorite by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to determine U, Th and other constituent elements in mineral matrices by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been widely developed. The precise knowledge of these constituent elements is very important for the nuclear technology development. This justifies the use of a technique capable to extract information from small samples. The present work aimed the study of the phosphorites deriving from the State of Pernambuco (PE, Brazil). Its uranium concentration corresponds to one of the highest values found in industrial exploration of phosphate rocks. An experimental methodology based on the INAA associated to the cluster technique was developed. Concentrations of 22 different elements present in the ore were determined with less than 10% uncertainty. The results have shown high correlations in behavior between uranium and rare earth metals. However, the inverse was noted in relation to transition metals. These results indicate the applicability of this method to determine concentrations as well as to classify correlated element groups in mineral matrices. (Author)

  16. Elementary composition of the siderurgy slag by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slag has been applied to the ground to neutralize its acidity, in similar way to the calcareous rock, contributing in the agriculture as corrective of the acidity alone it and source of nutrients for the plants. However, the alternative for the agricultural slag exploitation is related to metal texts heavy gifts in the slag. The objective of the present work was to survey of the chemical composition of trashes generated in blast high-oven, steel, oven of pan and fertilizers that had used in its manufacture slag of siderurgy for the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results had evidenced the existence of high variations in the elements Ce, Cr, In, K, Sb and Zn in the distinct analyzed samples. (author)

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to the chemical composition of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the technological application of steel, the knowledge of its chemical composition is of fundamental importance as it is directly related to various properties, such as, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, temperability and others. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, is an appropriate technique in the evaluation of the chemical composition of steel and other metallurgical materials due to the possibility of simultaneous determination of a great number of elements without the inconvenience of sample dissolution. Element determination is achieved with good accuracy and precision for major and minor constituents as well as for trace elements. In this paper, INAA was used in the determination of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and W in steel and iron samples and in certified reference materials. The obtained accuracy and precision were less than 10% for most of the elements confirming the possibility of its use in the study of metallic samples and in the certification of new reference materials. (author)

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 23 individual food articles from a high altitude region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to evaluate potentially toxic trace element concentrations in twenty-three individual food items commonly consumed in a high altitude region (Kashmir) as a continuation of our previous study. Elemental intake levels of As, Br, Hg, Sb, and Se per person per day in meat, poultry, food grains, vegetables, fruits and milk have been calculated to assess the safety of dietary intake of these items. The dietary intake values have also been compared to the RDA levels. The data will provide the base-line levels of toxic elements in food items of this region. It will also help the dieticians to formulate safe and adequate diets for the residents of this region. (author)

  19. Chemical contents in Lygeum spartum L. using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria)

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation was conducted to determine the chemical contents of Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae). Samples were analyzed in order to determine essential (Ca, K, Na, Fe, Co) and some potentially toxic elements (Eu, Sb, Tb) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general chemical element contents were in substantial amounts to meet adult sheep requirements. Potential intake of Ca, K, Zn, Co and Fe by ruminant weighing 50 kg BW consuming 2.0 kg per day DM was sufficient to satisfy their requirements. However, only Na level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants. Potential toxic elements in this species were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by NRC. Na supplementation would seem to be necessary in this zone, for optimum productivity of grazing animals.

  20. Determination of nickel in finished product alloys by instrumental neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel contents in different finished product alloys were determined using a k0-based internal monostandard instrumental neutron activation analysis (IM-INAA) method. Five stainless steels (SS) and three high nickel alloys were analyzed by IM-INAA. BCS CRMs 225/1 (low alloy steel) and 466 (austenitic SS) and NIST SRM 247 (high Ni alloy) were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The results of CRMs and SS were found to be in good agreement with certified or specified values. The Ni contents in the high nickel alloys were also determined by relative method of NAA for verification. Nickel contents in BCS CRM 466 and SS 316M were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometry and the values were found to be in good agreement with IM-INAA results. (author)

  1. Assessment of some chemical element contents in Traganum nudatum Del shrub using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bouzid Nedjimi; Brahim Beladel

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to determine some chemical element contents (K, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, Sb, and Sc) in Traganum nudatum Del (Chenopodiaceae family) consumed in North African rangelands by sheep livestock. Samples were collected from the area of Djelfa in an arid steppe of Algeria. Results show that pasture halophyte had sufficient levels of K, Ca, Zn, and Co to meet the requirements of ruminants. However, it seems that this halophyte shrub had substantial amounts of Na, higher than the critical level established by the National Research Council (NRC). Eu, Sb, and Sc were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by the NRC. The high Na content (∼10 g/kg) in this halophytic species requires elevated intake of water by livestock.

  2. Evaluation of aziridine bonding agent by means of chemical and instrumental techniques of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Cortes Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using wet chemistry and instrumental analysis has been developed for evaluating the ring-opening of aziridine tris [1-(2 methyl aziridinyl] phosphide oxide (MAPO of the bonding agent used in composite propellant. A reduction was observed in the intensity absorption bands in 1400 and 1040 cm-1, characteristic of aziridinic ring. It was also observed, in some cases, that when the number of open aziridinyl ring increases, the NH band in the range 3400-3300 cm-1, that appears with ring-opening, is located in the region of lower wave numbers. The study of the synthesis of MAPO derivative indicated side reactions such as homopolymerization of rings and also, with secondary hydroxyl of the 12-hydroxy stearic acid and probable humidity existent in the original sample.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of rib bone samples and of bone reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis method was used for the determination of trace elements in rib bone samples taken from autopsies of accident victims. The elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr, Rb and Zn were determined in cortical tissues by using short and long irradiations with thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. The reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were also analyzed in order to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of the results. It was verified that lyophilization is the most convenient process for drying bone samples since it does not cause any element losses. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for rib samples and the literature values as well as between the results obtained for different ribs from a single individual and for bones from different individuals. (author)

  4. Nuclear data and the effects of its inconsistency on instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we examine the role of nuclear data in Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) particularly as it affects determination of reactor flux parameters and application of comparator methods. The work reviewed the available sources of nuclear data, the variations that exist from one source to the other and the effects of such variations on INAA. Measurement of Neutron flux parameters in inner and outer irradiation channel of a miniature neutron source reactor was carried out using two independent nuclear data sources to investigate the effects of inconsistency of nuclear data on the precision of analytical result. The result obtained shows a slight variation of flux parameters with nuclear data source. It was also observed that modification of the earlier compiled basic nuclear data lead to inconsistencies in the secondary data that applies it. (author)

  5. Determination of trace element pathways in a petroleum distillation unit by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 11 trace and minor elements (Na, Al, S, Cl, Ca, V, Mn, Ni, As, Br, I) have been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis in a sample of crude oil from Venezuela, and in 7 of its distillates and in the final residue produced in a primary distillation unit. Concentrations range from 0.5 ppb to 2.0%. The elements have been classified in 4 categories on the basis of their distributions among the fractions analyzed. The results on concentrations have also been used to establish elemental balances in the distillation unit studied operating under steady-state conditions. Only S and V have been found to give rise to losses by emission. (author)

  6. Chemical contents in Lygeum spartum L. using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was conducted to determine the chemical contents of Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae). Samples were analyzed in order to determine essential (Ca, K, Na, Fe, Co) and some potentially toxic elements (Eu, Sb, Tb) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general chemical element contents were in substantial amounts to meet adult sheep requirements. Potential intake of Ca, K, Zn, Co and Fe by ruminant weighing 50 kg BW consuming 2.0 kg per day DM was sufficient to satisfy their requirements. However, only Na level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants. Potential toxic elements in this species were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by NRC. Na supplementation would seem to be necessary in this zone, for optimum productivity of grazing animals.

  7. Multielement determination in some egyptian vegetables by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique, with thermal neutrons, has been applied for multielement determination of major, trace and ultra trace elements in eleven types of the public public egyptian, edible vegetables, namely dill, moulokhyia, okra negro bean, parsley, green pea, grape leaves, spinach, mint, celery and salad chervil, cultivated and collected from El-Maadi, Cairo, E G. Concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Rb, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th and U were determined. The standard reference materials (SRM's) G-2, J G-1 and MAG-1, provided from IAEA, were used, and high accuracy of the work was assured. The results were discussed

  8. Study of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol samples were collected to study the characteristics of marine aerosols in the different western Pacific ocean areas. During the first cruise from 15 October to 25 November 1989, aerosol samples were collected with a kA-200 Andersen cascade impactor and a kB-120 sampler. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of the aerosols. The concentrations of crustal and pollution elements in aerosols were higher over the ocean area close to the China coast and decreased very rapidly with increasing distance from land. The morphology and elemental composition of aerosol particles showed that the seasalt particles may conglomerate with small crustal and pollution particles from land to form large particles. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. A brief analysis on management and maintenance of portable radiation instrument of NPQJVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief instruction on the types of portable radiation instrument equipped in NPQJVC, and illustrations on the management of registration operation, borrowing, calibration, spare parts, component parts, regular maintenance, rectificative examination and repair, regular test of portable radiation instrument, the experience of examination and repair of portable radiation instrument during 101/102 outage is summarized. (author)

  10. Multi-instrumental Analysis of the Ionospheric Density Response to Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Astafyeva, E.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements provided by Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite missions have already proved to be very efficient in investigations of global redistribution of ionospheric plasma and thermosphere mass density during such phenomena as geomagnetic storms. LEO satellites have various instruments for research of the ionosphere response to the space weather events like GPS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD), total electron content estimation and radio occultation, altimeter, planar Langmuir probe, topside sounder, special detectors for particle fluxes, magnetometer etc. In this paper, we present results of joint analysis of LEO satellite data, in particular CHAMP, DMSP, JASON, as well as data provided by ground-based networks of GPS receivers and ionosonde stations for global ionospheric response to the geomagnetic disturbances. We use in-situ plasma density data from CHAMP and DMSP satellites, along with data of GPS receiver onboard CHAMP-satellite and ground-based GPS-receivers to study occurrence and global distribution of ionospheric irregularities during the main phase of the storm. Using CHAMP GPS measurements, we created maps of GPS phase fluctuation activity and found two specific zones of the most intense irregularities - first is the region of the auroral oval at high latitudes of both hemispheres, the second one is the low-latitudes/equatorial region between Africa and South America. The interhemispheric asymmetry of the ionospheric irregularities intensity and occurrence in polar region is discussed. Analysis of the topside TEC, derived from CHAMP onboard GPS POD antenna, indicate the significant redistribution of the topside ionospheric plasma density in the equatorial, middle and high-latitude ionosphere during main and recovery phases of geomagnetic storm. Multi-instrumental data allow to analyze in detail the complex modification and dynamics of the upper atmosphere in different altitudinal, spatial and temporal scales.

  11. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  12. Necessary steps in factor analysis: Enhancing validation studies of educational instruments. The PHEEM applied to clerks as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2009-01-01

    Background: The validation of educational instruments, in particular the employment of factor analysis, can be improved in many instances. Aims: To demonstrate the superiority of a sophisticated method of factor analysis, implying an integration of recommendations described in the factor analysis literature, over often employed limited applications of factor analysis. We demonstrate the essential steps, focusing on the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM). Method: The...

  13. Factor Analysis Methods and Validity Evidence: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development across the Continuum of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    2011-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across…

  14. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  15. Dynamics of elements in soil treated with increasing doses sewage sludge for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the dynamics of the elements was analyzed The, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, La, In the, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, U, Yb and Zn in a profile of a red-yellow latossolo, in the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm, and dose of the biosolid of 0, 25, 124 and 375 t ha-1, of the station of treatment of sewer of Barueri, Sao Paulo. The experiment was carried out in areas of 3,05 m2 in the times of 2,2; 4,0; 6,6; 14,3 and 21 months. For analysis of the elementary composition, it was used of the analysis technique by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experiment was submitted under normal tropical conditions in a forest station in Itatinga, Sao Paulo, of the University of Sao Paulo. For better details, the factors depth, doses and times statistical analyses of the results of the elementary composition of the soil samples were made. For all the biossolid doses conditioned with polymeric and applied in the soil, the composition of 17 of the 18 elements in the soil were not altered, with exception for Cr in the studied times. The elements As, Br, Ce, Co, Fe, Hf, La, Sm, Ta, Th, U and Yb presented higher levels in the deepest layers of soil; already the elements Cr, In the, Sb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the superficial layers. (author)

  16. Multi-element characterization of silicon nitride powders by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franek, M.; Krivan, V. (Ulm Univ. (Germany). Sektion Analytik und Hoechstreinigung)

    1992-07-15

    An optimized instrumental neutron activation analysis method was applied to the comprehensive trace characterization of good- and high- purity silicon nitride powders of different origins. Experimental modes are given for 55 elements leading to limits of detection below 1 ng g[sup -] [sup 1] for 28 elements, between 1 and 100 ng g[sup -1] for 19 elements and higher than 100 ng g[sup -1] for 8 elements. For the removal of the radionuclides [sup 140]La, [sup 182]Ta and [sup 187]W, which cause the major activity in certain types of materials, radiochemical procedures based in cation exchange from 2 M HCl and anion exchange from 2 M HF were developed. [sup 64]Cu was selectively extracted with dithizone from 10 M HF for counting the 511-keV line. By radiochemical neutron activation analysis, the limits of detection were improved by up to three orders of magnitude. Comparison with results obtained by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry and ICP mass spectrometry shows satisfactory agreement and demonstrates the advantages of neutron activation analysis especially when low elements contents are to be determined. (author). 30 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs.

  17. Determination of trace elements in Turkish tea leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human body continuously assimilates a variety of inorganic elements from food and the environment. Some of these elements are closely related to human health and disorder. Tea is one of the most popular stimulating beverages which is consumed by low and high income family groups in many countries. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is one of the preferred methods because information on a large number of elements can be obtained simultaneously. Five packets each of the seven commonly used brands of tea were obtained from the market. In order to determine the transfer of trace elements into the drinkable portion about 2-3g. of the tea leaves were boiled in hot water for 2 min. After filtration the used tea leaves were dried at 65 deg. C in an oven and a portion, about 200mg was used for analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min. and 2 hrs. at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor. After irradiation, the activities of samples and standards were measured with a aoaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Canbera 90 model multi- channel analyzer with an 8K memory was used for pulse height analysis. The system has a resolution of 2.0 KeV. for the 1332.5 KeV gamma ray of 60Co. The activity of the sample and standard was compared and the element contst of the sample was calculated. (author)

  18. Rare earth element (REE) in surface mangrove sediment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is carried out on the concentrations of rare earth element (REE) elements present in surface mangrove sediments from 10 locations throughout west coast Malaysia. In carrying out the analysis, the best and most convenient method being the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples were obtained, dried, crushed to powdery form and samples prepared for INAA. All the samples for analysis were weighted approximately 150 mg for short irradiation and 200 mg for long irradiation time. As calibration and quality control procedures, blank samples, standard reference material SL-1 were then irradiated with thermal neutron flux of 4 × 1012 cm-2 s-1 at the MINT TRIGA Mark II research reactor which operated at 750 kW by using a pneumatic transport facility. The REE elements of surface sediment samples in this study are Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, Tb, La and Ce. It was found that the level of concentrations of all the REE elements varies in the range (0.35-117.4 mg/kg). The geochemical behavior of REEs in surface sediments and normalized pattern (chondrite and shale) has been studied. The degree of sediments contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor. The results showed that the enrichment factor varied in the range (0.75-6.75). (author)

  19. Simple peak shift analysis of time-of-flight data with a slow instrumental response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Goro; Tamura, Mamoru

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of time-of-flight (TOF) data is sometimes limited by the instrumental response function, and optical parameters are extracted from the observed response curve by several mathematical methods, such as deconvolution. In contrast to this, we demonstrate that a method using shifts of the peak time of the response curve with different source-detector separations can yield the average path length of the light traveling in a tissue-like sample without deconvolution. In addition, combining the intensity information allows us to separate the scattering and absorption coefficients. This simple method is more robust in signal-to-noise ratio than the moment analysis, which also does not require the deconvolution procedure, because the peak position is not significantly dependent on the baseline fluctuation and the contamination of the scattering. The analysis is demonstrated by TOF measurements of an Intralipid solution at 800 nm, and is applied to the measurements at 1.29 microm, where the temporal response of photomultiplier tubes is not sufficiently good. PMID:15847597

  20. Determination of elements in different parts of goat brain using k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researcher's interest is increasing worldwide to study the role of trace elements in brain tissues. This paper discusses the application of k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis to study the distribution of trace elements in seven different anatomical regions of goat brain. These regions include cerebellum, cerebrum, medulla oblongata, meninges, midbrain, pons and thalamus. The analysis protocol followed 1 h irradiation at 10 MW material testing type nuclear research reactor with nominal thermal neutron flux of 2 × 1013 cm-2 s-1. A total of 14 elements, namely Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Tb and Zn were determined in all parts. Reliability of the method was assessed by analyzing biological reference material IAEA-336 (lichen). On comparing the analytical results with the healthy human brain data, it showed that eight elements (Eu, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Tb) were found with relatively higher elemental concentrations in human brain. Principal component analysis revealed distribution of seven parts in different three groups having similar elemental concentrations of elements. (author)

  1. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  2. Rare Earth Elements In Egyptian Granite By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobilization of rare earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in (REEs) chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of (REEs) and related elements. Therefore, (INAA) was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of rare earth elements to find out what information could be obtained about the (REEs) of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi EI-Allaqi, EI-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pacha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 1011n/cm2.s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence XRF was also used

  3. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  4. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing: the PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon; Wolf, Felix G. [Juelich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Juelich

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to accomplish

  5. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing. The PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Computer and Information Science; Wolf, Felix G. [Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, Julich (Germany). Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-­end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-­performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-­fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to

  6. Non-invasive metabolomic analysis using a commercial NIR instrument for embryo selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A Sfontouris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Metabolomics was introduced in human in vitro fertilization (IVF for noninvasive identification of viable embryos with the highest developmental competence. Aims: To determine whether embryo selection using a commercial version of metabolomic analysis leads to increased implantation rates (IRs with fetal cardiac activity (FCA compared with morphology evaluation alone. Setting and Design: Randomized controlled trial from April to December 2010 at a private IVF unit. The study was terminated prematurely due to the market withdrawal of the instrument. Materials and Methods: IVF patients ≥18 and ≤43 years with ≥4 × 2PN were randomly allocated to metabolomic analysis combined with embryo morphology (ViaMetrics-E; metabolomics + morphology group or embryo morphology alone (morphology group. Cycles with frozen embryos, oocyte donations, or testicular biopsy were excluded. Statistical Analysis: Categorical and continuous data were analyzed for statistical significance using 2-tailed Fisher′s exact test and t-test, respectively. Statistical significance was accepted when P < 0.05. Results: A total of 125 patients were included in the study; 39 patients were allocated to metabolomics + morphology group and 86 patients to morphology group. Patients were stratified according to the day of embryo transfer (Days 2, 3, or 5. IRs with FCA were similar for Days 2 and 3 transfers in both groups. For Day 5 transfers, IRs with FCA were significantly higher in the metabolomics + morphology group (46.8% vs. 28.9%; P = 0.041; 95% confidence intervalp [CI]: 1.09-34.18. Pregnancy and live births rates were similar for Days 2, 3, and 5 in both groups. The study was terminated early following the voluntary market withdrawal of ViaMetrics-E in December 2010. Conclusions: Metabolomic analysis using the commercial near-infrared (NIR instrument does not appear to have a beneficial effect on pregnancy and live births, with improvement in IR with FCA for Day 5

  7. Analysis of umayyad islamic silver coins (Dirhams) by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Islamic silver coins (Dirhams) running the period between 107 to 126 Hijri (726-743AD), which belong to the Umayyad Empire period, 41-132 hijri (661-750AD), were selected for analysis by using instrumentalneutron activation analysis techniques.During this period (105-126H),(724-743AD), the Caliph Hisham Eben Abdlemalek ruled the Umayyad Empire.Dirhams were irradiated in a reactor neutron activation facility.Levels of various elements viz.Cu, Ag and Au were estimated.It was found that the average silver concentration, the baseconstituent of the Dirham, was about 88wt%.Correlation between thecomposition of Dirhams and the historical implications was discussed.

  8. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on γ-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a γ-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the γ-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A γ-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the γ-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a γ-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all γ-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this 'holistic' approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of γ-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP)

  9. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauw, M.

    1993-11-15

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on {gamma}-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a {gamma}-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the {gamma}-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A {gamma}-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the {gamma}-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a {gamma}-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all {gamma}-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this `holistic` approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of {gamma}-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP).

  10. Specialized database for instrumental neutron activation analysis-ND INAA 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to conduct nuclear and physical elemental analysis of materials content, in particular, activation analysis it is necessary to attract a large number of various nuclear data. The network of nuclear data centers (NNDC) under supervision of IAEA is dealing with accumulation, evaluation and systematization of nuclear data. The authors of the work have developed a software and information medium consisting specialized database, a package of calculation as well as requests and results visualization software. Based on evaluated nuclear data and original works a specialized database for need of neutron-activation analysis - ND INAA 1.0 was developed. The database presents a relatively frequently encountered isotopes of elements, thermal and resonance neutrons rapping cross-sections, decay types, radionuclides half-life, gamma- and alpha-radiation energies and intensities, maximal energies and intensities of beta-radiation, gamma-constants, and absolute yields of KX-radiation of radioactive nuclides, radioactive chains. The report contains examples of use of ND INAA 1.0 database along with the database on elemental content of natural objects - ELEMENT [1]: calculation of macro-cross-sections of elemental activation and calculation of activity of produced isotope on thermal and resonance neutrons in investigated objects, with taking into account of saturation and decay factors, geochemical spectra and others. Necessary calculations are conducted both for single radionuclide and for natural object as a whole. Separate part is dedicated to automation of K-Ar geological objects dating method. The give database is a part of developed by authors the system of automatization of instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA. The developed apparatus allows one to use the given software production for another modifications of activation analysis. This work is performed on the project P-20-48 CST RUz

  11. Research Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  12. Chemical imaging and spectroscopy using tunable filters: Instrumentation, methodology, and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John Frederick, II

    based assays. The instrument has been incorporated into a commercial microtiter plate reagent dispenser and can image the fluorescence emission from microtiter plates at rates up to 10 frames/second. The instrument design and its evaluation using model fluorophores is described in detail. The final emphasis of my research has been to explore and develop rapid multivariate analyses that complement the high throughput acquisition methods employed in our laboratory. A new technique called cosine correlation analysis (CCA) is introduced which rapidly generates image contrast based on spectral shape. The theory and implementation of CCA are described using model data and Raman image data from thermoplastic olefin and silicon semiconductor materials.

  13. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  14. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 1011 n.cm-2.s-1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 1012 n.cm-2.s-1. (autor)

  15. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  16. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos [Coordenacao de Cursos Tecnicos e Superiores. Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easores@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Geociencias. Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  17. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  18. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  19. Shift–share Analysis of manufacturing as a measuring instrument for Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Philippus Kleynhans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Shift-share analysis of employment as a measuring instrument for human resource management is proposed by this study. The results obtained through this technique can assist human resource management on the macro-level in making informed and strategic decisions regarding future employment practices and trends. This technique is often applied to studies of economic geography, and is illustrated in this article through its application to the estimation of future employment potential of manufacturing industries of South Africa’s Southern District Municipality. The economy in this region is mainly dependent on gold mining, which is declining as gold reserves are becoming depleted. As a result, a large section of the area’s population will be unemployed in future, causing adversity and other development needs. Shift-share analysis provides insight into the shifts of employment in the various sectors over time, as well as insight into the national share effect on employment in the region, including the regional-industrial mix and the competitive share effects. It was found that the sectors with the highest employment creation potential are: transport equipment, wood and paper products, metal products, and furniture. Some suggestions are also made regarding the ways that this information can be utilised in human resource management.

  20. Utilisation of a low power reactor for instrumental neutron activation analysis of 40 elements in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is mostly used as an energy source for power generation and in local brick kilns in Pakistan, which causes environmental pollution problems due to the release of toxic constituents. Elemental characterisation provides useful information regarding the nature of environmental pollutants to which coal workers and adjacent terrain are exposed and circumscribes different elements as they exist in the coal. Instrumental neutron activation analysis employing a low power miniature neutron source reactor has been used for the determination of 40 major, minor, and trace elements in coal. Bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coal varieties of Pakistan were analysed which show that bituminous coal from Salt Range contains lower amount of toxic elements. The quality of the analysed data has been assured by a simultaneous analysis of the IAEA and NBS/NIST certified reference materials. The data will be useful for extrapolating the extent of elemental emission through the combustion of these coals. Enrichment factors calculated for these elements in coal show high values for As, Br, Cl, Dy, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se, indicating difference in geochemistry and growth environment of the coal deposits. Elemental concentrations of our coal varieties have been compared with those of other countries. (orig.)

  1. Statistical analysis of the calibration procedure for personnel radiation measurement instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent analyzer (TLA) calibration procedures were used to estimate personnel radiation exposure levels at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A statistical analysis is presented herein based on data collected over a six month period in 1979 on four TLA's located in the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory at the INEL. The data were collected according to the day-to-day procedure in effect at that time. Both gamma and beta radiation models are developed. Observed TLA readings of thermoluminescent dosimeters are correlated with known radiation levels. This correlation is then used to predict unknown radiation doses from future analyzer readings of personnel thermoluminescent dosimeters. The statistical techniques applied in this analysis include weighted linear regression, estimation of systematic and random error variances, prediction interval estimation using Scheffe's theory of calibration, the estimation of the ratio of the means of two normal bivariate distributed random variables and their corresponding confidence limits according to Kendall and Stuart, tests of normality, experimental design, a comparison between instruments, and quality control

  2. Applied research on air pollution in Korea using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to support the use of nuclear analytical technique for applied research and monitoring studies on air pollution and to make an interpretation of the data obtained. Trace and toxic elements in airborne particulate matter collected at suburban and rural areas seasonally were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA). Neutron irradiation for the samples was done at the irradiation hole (thermal neutron flux, 1 X 1013n/cm2·s) of TRIGA MARK-III research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. For the verification of the analytical method, a standard reference material, NIST SRM-1648 was chosen and analyzed. The accuracy and precision for the analysis of trace elements in the standard samples were inter compared with the certified and reported values. The analytical error was agree within the 10% except few elements. Practically, we used this method to analyze trace and toxic elements in airborne particulate matter collected with the high volume air sampler(PM-10) at two different locations and also confirmed the possibility to use this method as a routine monitoring tool to find out environmental pollution sources

  3. [Design and analysis of automatic measurement instrument for diffraction efficiency of plane reflection grating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Qi, Xiang-Dong; Yu, Hong-Zhu; Yu, Hai-Li

    2009-02-01

    A new-style system that automatically measures the diffraction efficiency of plane reflection grating was designed. The continuous illuminant was adopted for illumination, the duplex grating spectrograph structure was applied, and the linear array NMOS was the receiving component. Wielding relevant principle of the grating spectrograph, theoretical analysis principle was carried out for the testing system. Integrating the aberration theory of geometrical optics, the image quality of this optics system was analyzed. Analysis indicated that the systematic device structure is compact, and electronics system is simplified. The system does not have the problem about wavelength sweep synchronization of the two grating spectrographs, and its wavelength repeatability is very good. So the precision is easy to guarantee. Compared with the former automated scheme, the production cost is reduced, moreover it is easy to operate, and the working efficiency is enhanced. The study showed that this automatic measurement instrument system features a spectral range of 190-1 100 nm and resolution is less than 3 nm, which entirely satisfies the design request. It is an economical and feasible plan. PMID:19445251

  4. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  5. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  6. Developing a PC-based expert system for fault analysis of reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of an expert system for fault analysis of electronic instruments in the CIRUS nuclear reactor. The system was developed in Prolog on an IBM PC-XT compatible computer. A 'model-based' approach (Button et al, 1986) was adopted combining 'frames' and 'rules' to provide flexible control over the inferencing mechanisms. Frames represent the domain-objects as well as the inter-object relationships. They include 'demons' or 'active values' for triggering actions. Rules, along with frames, are used for fault analysis. The rules can be activated either in a data-driven or a goal-driven manner. The use of frames makes rule management easier. It is felt that developing in-house shell proved advantageous, compared to using commercially available shells. Choosing the model-based approach was efficient compared to a production system architecture. Therefore, the use of hybrid representations for diagnostic applications is advocated. Based on the experience, some general recommendations for developing such systems are presented. The expert system helps novice operators to understand the process of diagnosis and achieve a significant required level of competence. The system may not achieve the required level of proficiency by itself, but it can be used to train operators to become experts. (author). 12 refs

  7. Elemental characterization of some Nigerian gemstones. Tourmaline, fluorite and topaz by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was employed in the determination of the major and trace element constituents in tourmaline, fluorite and topaz collected from the gemstone mineralization within a SW-NE trending pegmatite zone, central Nigeria. Cost, turnaround time, high sensitivity for certain elements, the non-destructive nature of analysis and its precision and accuracy have combined to make INAA an indispensable method for multi-element determination in virtually all geological matrices. The major element constituents in tourmaline were Al (119,800 ppm), Mn (4,348 ppm), Na (15,540 ppm) and Fe (34,290 ppm). For fluorite, Ca was the major element with a concentration of 552,000 ppm. In topaz, Al was the major constituent with a concentration of 322,800 ppm. The data suites reveal the presence of As, Br, La, Sc, Co, Hf, Ta and Sb in tourmaline, Na, As, Br, La, Yb, Co, Zn, Eu, Hf, Th in fluorite and Mg, Mn, Na, Br, La, Sc, Co and Ta as trace contaminants. No attempt was made to identify the molecular structure of the gemstones as oxygen, fluorine and silicon contents in any of them were not determined. (author)

  8. Investigation of trace elements in Elbe water by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of trace elements in Elbe water were carried out as a contribution to environmental research, hydrology, and geochemistry. The method applied - instrumental neutron activation analysis - is described, and problems connected with the course of analysis - sample taking, handling and preparation as well as optimization of in-pile irradiation and measurement by means of γ spectrometry - are discussed and presented one by one. The computer programme set up for automatic evaluation is described in more detail. This programme AKAN has a very general concept which makes it applicable for general use. The reliability of the evaluation procedure - monostandard method - and the reproducibility of the results are discussed. For the studies, samples were taken at different times, every time from 8 positions along a long section of the Elbe. The content of solids was analyzed; in a number of samples, this was done by separating suspended and dissolved materials. Up to 38 elements were analyzed, whose local and time-dependent concentration curves are given. The contents of some elements are compared with the few available data from literature. Correlation calculations indicate a similar behaviour of single element groups and yield information on the natural origin of the trace elements and on anthropogenic influence to be noticed in the trace element contents. (orig.)

  9. Instrument-independent analysis of music by means of the continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Gabriella; Dovis, Fabio; Benotto, Paolo; Calosso, Claudio; Passaro, Pierluigi

    1999-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of automatic recognition of music. Segments of digitized music are processed by means of a Continuous Wavelet Transform, properly chosen so as to match the spectral characteristics of the signal. In order to achieve a good time-scale representation of the signal components a novel wavelet has been designed suited to the musical signal features. particular care has been devoted towards an efficient implementation, which operates in the frequency domain, and includes proper segmentation and aliasing reduction techniques to make the analysis of long signals feasible. The method achieves very good performance in terms of both time and frequency selectivity, and can yield the estimate and the localization in time of both the fundamental frequency and the main harmonics of each tone. The analysis is used as a preprocessing step for a recognition algorithm, which we show to be almost independent on the instrument reproducing the sounds. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Trace Element Analysis of Human Lung Tissue by Neutron Activation and Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of trace elements in tissues in the ppm to pp109 range requires very careful and specialized techniques both in the sample acquisition and in subsequent analysis. Many of the trace elements which are present in human tissues are at lower concentrations than those in super-pure chemical reagents; also, an acid rinse of typical laboratory glassware may contain as much of some trace elements as the tissue sample being studied. An analytical technique based on neutron activation for the measurement of trace elements in tissues has been developed which requires a minimum of pre-irradiation handling followed by the direct measurement of the activation products on a multidimensional or a solid-state gammaray spectrometer. This technique has been applied to a study of trace elements in human lung tissue. Lung tissue contains not only the tissue-bound elements but also those which have been deposited in the cells of the pulmonary alveoli through inhalation. The method permits the direct measurement of 15 trace elements. The analysis of lung tissues thus provides information on the integrated trace element deposition resulting during the life of an individual. The concentrations of several of these including Fe, Br, P, Se, Ag, Zn, Cs, Co, Sc, U and Sb have been measured in several autopsy and biopsy samples of both normal and diseased tissues from several subjects with known case histories. The variations in the observed trace element compositions are presented and considered in terms of the occupational and medical history of the subject. (author)

  11. Instrumental dead-time and its relationship with matrix corrections in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between instrumental dead-time and the self-absorption coefficients, αsub(ii) in x.r.f. matrix correction by means of influence coefficients, is not generally recognized but has important analytical consequences. Systematic errors of the order of 1% (relative) for any analyte result from experimental uncertainties in instrumental dead-time. Such errors are applied unevenly across a given range of concentration because the error depends on the calibration standards and on the instrumental conditions used. Refinement of the instrumental dead-time value and other calibration parameters to conform with influence coefficients determined elsewhere assumes exact knowledge of dead-time of the instrument used originally, and quite similar excitation conditions and spectrometer geometry for the two instruments. Though these qualifications may not be met, adjustment of any of the parameters (dead-time, reference concentration, background concentration, self-absorption and other influence coefficients) can be easily achieved. (Auth.)

  12. Lurking in the Lab: Analysis of Data from Molecular Biology Laboratory Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Jen Ferguson

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This project examined primary research data files found on instruments in a molecular biology teaching laboratory. Experimental data files were analyzed in order to learn more about the types of data generated by these instruments (e.g. file formats), and to evaluate current laboratory data management practices.SETTING: This project examined experimental data files from instruments in a teaching laboratory at Brandeis University.METHODOLOGY: Experimental data files and associated m...

  13. An analysis on the market of instrumentation in nuclear power plant in China and its localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumentation plays a critical role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The instrumentations used in the working nuclear power plants in China, especially the Class 1E ones, are mainly imported products. This has been one of the key elements restricting the localized development of the Chinese nuclear power industry. Based on a fundamental survey of the Chinese nuclear instrumentation market, this paper introduces the definition, classification of nuclear instrumentations, states the market status, analyzes the cause of how this situation was formed, and makes some proposals on how to handle the localization job in the future. (authors)

  14. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk

  15. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Oh, M.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk.

  16. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  17. Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

  18. Four-laboratory comparative instrumental nuclear analysis of the NBS coal and fly ash standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NBS coal and fly ash Standard Reference Materials (SRM 1632 and 1633) were analyzed for 37 elements in coal and 41 elements in fly ash mainly by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), augmented by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) and direct counting of natural γ-ray activity. For most elements measured, there was excellent interlaboratory agreement between the four participating laboratories and with the National Bureau of Standards values for elements measured by them and in this work. In cases of most elements for which comparisons can be made, instrumental nuclear methods used in a round-robin study of the standards provided more accurate average concentrations and smaller interlaboratory dispersions of values than the other major techniques used, atomic absorption spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy

  19. Design and psychometric analysis of an instrument to detect the presence of cyberbullying in a school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Baquero Correa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design an instrument to detect cyberbullying in a school context and analyze its psychometric properties. Participants were 299 adolescents (54.2% female and 45.8% male with a mean age of 15 years, belonging to the lower stratum (22.1% and middle layer (78%. A quantitative study with a non-experimental design instrumental and the cross section was performed. Under the classical test theory, adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha α = .864 and convergent validity with other measures was obtained. Confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS version 21, which resulted in three factors was performed. From item response theory, INFIT found that the items ranged from 0.73 and 1.23 and between 0.74 and 1.24 OUTFIT. Based on the favorable results of psychometric analysis, we conclude that the instrument can be used for detection of cyberbullying in a school context.

  20. Analysis and simulation of a small-angle neutron scattering instrument on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the design and performance of a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument for a proposed 1 MW, 60 Hz long pulsed spallation source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). An analysis of the effects of source characteristics and chopper performance combined with instrument simulations using the LANSCE Monte Carlo instrument simulations package shows that the T0 chopper should be no more than 5 m from the source with the frame overlap and frame definition choppers at 5.6 and greater than 7 m, respectively. The study showed that an optimal pulse structure has an exponential decaying tail with τ ∼ 750 μs. The Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the LPSS SANS, showing that an optimal length is 18 m. The simulations show that an instrument with variable length is best to match the needs of a given measurement. The performance of the optimized LPSS instrument was found to be comparable with present world standard instruments

  1. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugassa, I; Sarmani, S B; Samat, S B

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for. PMID:10355102

  2. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+α epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the γ-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  3. Assessment of Arsenic Level in Boreholes from the Wassa West District using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Asane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of drinking water is a necessary action intended to prevent the general public from contaminating water borne diseases. In this study, arsenic concentrations in 22 borehole water samples from various locations in the Wassa West district have been studied using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The samples were irradiated using a 30 kW tank-in-pool Ghana Research Reactor-1 operating at a thermal neutron flux of 5×10 n/s.cm2. Elevated levels of arsenic were found in virtually all the 22 samples. Arsenic concentration in the samples ranged from 0.06 ppm to 9.43 ppm. (Mean-2.23,Standard Error of Mean-0.57 with minimum concentration of 0.06 ppm occurring at Ayensukrom No.1 and the maximum occurring at Tamsu-9.43 ppm. These values far exceed the World Health Organization’s recommended value of 0.01 ppm for arsenic in drinking water. The occurrence of arsenic in the area is traced to the existence of sulphide minerals such as arsenopyrites (FeAsS2 present in the underlying Birimian Basement rocks in the area.

  4. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 n.cm-2.s-1. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  5. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510 - 1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence γ-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. (author)

  6. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  7. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  8. Vapour phase mercury in the atmosphere. Methodology for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric gas phase mercury was collected on commercial charcoal by a mercury collection apparatus in Antalya, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Because of the high collection efficiency due to its high surface area and low blank concentration for mercury and other metals, activated coconut charcoal was used as a sorbent material. Ozone was also monitored automatically during the collection period. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used as the analytical technique. The collected charcoal samples were irradiated with neutrons at the CNAEM reactor with a flux of 1.1013 n·cm-2·s-1. The 77 keV gamma ray energy of 197Hg (T1/2 = 2.672 d) and 279 keV gamma ray energy of 203Hg (T1/2 = 46.61 d) isotopes were analysed separately. The 75Se correction for 203Hg was made because of interfering gamma ray energy. The average concentration of gas phase mercury was found to be 3.7 ± 1.5 ng·m-3. The correlation with other gas phase pollutants was also investigated. (author)

  9. Determination of arsenic and other trace elements in cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general survey of trace-elements in different types of cosmetics, in particular arsenic, was carried out in order to detect elements that might be detrimental to human health. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detectors. Different amounts of Br and Sb, detected in almost all the samples, produced interferencies in the determination of As when the 559 KeV photopeak was used. Since the triplet formed could not be resolved by the Ge(Li) detector, a mathematical procedure was developed using the 776 KeV gamma-ray emission of 82-Br and various factors found experimentally. This procedure was checked using laboratory-made samples of known concentrations and the results obtained had good precision and accuracy. In addition to arsenic the elements Co, Cr, Br, Sc, Fe and Zn were also quantitatively determined. Those cosmetics made from inorganic raw materials have an As concentration higher than those elaborated from organic materials. (EC)

  10. Determination of elemental concentrations in environmental plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intake of leafy vegetables in daily diet is very important to meet our nutritional needs. Vegetables provide the essential elements which are necessary and recommended for human growth. However, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization our environment becomes polluted and this affects the normal growth of agricultural products and composition of environmental species. The elemental concentrations present in the environmental samples are good indicators to assess the toxicological levels due to pollution affects. In the present work we have analysed several vegetable plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the elemental concentrations at major, minor and trace levels. The leafy vegetables like spinach, red leafy vegetable, pui, gourd leaf, lettuce and katoua were chosen as these are extensively consumed by local people in eastern part of India. We have determined 15 elements in the above mentioned vegetable samples and some of these are essential elements and some are toxic elements. It was found that Na and K were present as major elements, Fe and Zn as minor elements and As, Ce, Cr, Co, La, Mo, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr as trace elements. The concentration level of Cr was found to be higher than that of recommended value certified by WHO and National environment quality control for human consumption. The validation of our analytical results have been performed by the Z-score tests through the determination of concentrations of the elements of interest in certified reference materials. (author)

  11. HELLRIDE: a new interferometric multiline instrument for the analysis of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are developing a new etalon-based spectrometer 'HELLRIDE' for the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife. It will offer improved performance over existing devices in a number of operational aspects. Primary development goal has been increasing the number of spectral lines for the simultaneous recording of solar Doppler shifts. Observations may cover a large field-of-view at high spatial and temporal resolution. New electromagnetic drive technologies are to be implemented. A focus will be set to achieve thermal stability with respect to spectroscopic drifts and pointing precision. All aspects of device operation are to be covered by a numerical model allowing for offline testing and offline observations simulation. Remote operation options will be available for dedicated observational programs. The new instrument is foreseen to be used for the analysis of energy transfers within the solar atmosphere. The helioseismological and kinetic aspects of chromospheric and coronal heating are here of special interest. To allow for synchronized observations of photospheric and coronal phenomena new procedures are under development to improve co-alignment of ground-based and space-based telescopes. HELLRIDE stands for HELioseismological Large Regions Interferometric DEvice.

  12. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA [instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases

  13. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  14. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelica, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania); Carmo Freitas, M. do [Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal); Ene, A. [Dunarea de Jos Univ. of Galati (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry, Physics and Environment; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of water hyacinth as a bioindicator along the Nile river, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is known to accumulate elements from rivers and a good tool for water monitoring. To test the usefulness of such an aquatic plant as a bioindicator, we have determined the levels of Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U in water hyacinth around industrial facilities and along the studied area by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb were determined in upstream river water and effluent factories. Contamination factor, and pollution load index was calculated. The results show that higher concentrations as well as bioaccumulation factors of these elements were observed in water hyacinth samples around the industrial facilities. On the other hand a decrease in calcium concentration was observed as a result of the thermal pollution of Nile river water. The pollution load index for the studied area was estimated to be 4.2. (author)

  16. Trace element determination in a mussel reference material using short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The production of certified reference materials in Brazil, and the consequent availability to national end users, is an important task for the enhancement of Metrology in Chemistry status in the country, as these materials are used for method validation, equipment calibration and for establishing metrological traceability links. In this study, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of magnesium, manganese and vanadium in a mussel reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. For the determination of these elements via the comparative INAA method, the respective analytical radionuclides, {sup 27}Mg, {sup 56}Mn, and {sup 52}V, are short lived and then, short irradiations are used. The main advantage over longer irradiation methods is the faster output of analytical results. Six subsamples from two bottles of the Perna perna mussel reference material were analyzed. Each subsample was simultaneously irradiated with elemental standards for 10 s at the IEA - R1 research nuclear reactor through a pneumatic transfer system. After suitable decay periods, gamma radioactivity measurements were carried out, using a hyperpure germanium detector. The accuracy of the method was checked by using the NIST SRM 1566b - 'Oyster Tissue' certified reference material. The comparison of the obtained results to the robust mean of the interlaboratorial collaborative trial used for the characterization of the mussel reference material showed that the short irradiation INAA method is suitable for the characterization of new reference materials. (author)

  17. Characteristic of elements in coal bottom ash and fly ash by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired power plant and industrial stacks that using coal produce solid waste such as bottom ash and fly ash. Determination of elements in these wastes qualitatively and quantitatively is usually the first step taken for subsequent evaluation of the associated environmental and biological risks. In this study, the determination of trace elements in bottom ash and fly ash by instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out. The samples were irradiated at rabbit facility in G.A. Siwabessy reactor with neutron flux ~ 1013 n.cm-2.s-1, and then counted by HPGe spectrometer gamma detector. The validation of method was performed by characterization of standard reference material (SRM) 1633b coal fly ash from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Some elements such as Al, As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti and V were detected in both samples. The concentration of environmentally toxic elements, As and Cr in bottom ash were 6.24 and 137.4 mg/kg, whereas in fly ash were 6.37 and 39.0 mg/kg respectively. Arsenic concentrations had been over the standard value based on PP no.85/1999. (author)

  18. Trends in instrumentation for activation analysis of short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the last year's two major activities of the authors' nuclear instrumentation group in the field of high rate and high resolution gamma spectrometry mainly devoted to the needs of activation analysis of short-lived nuclides. The first of the projects was the completion of a state-of-the-art spectrometry system for very high counting rates. Based on a laboratory-designed gated integrator pulse processing system and equipped with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 20% relative efficiency it exhibits a basic resolution of 2.3 keV at 1332 keV, which at a counting rate of 1.1 million cps of 60Co degrades to 3.4 keV. The second project included the successful implementation of the novel Preloaded Filter Technique, a new method for high resolution and high throughput processing of nuclear detector signals. An experimental implementation of the Preloaded Filter combined with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 15% relative efficiency resulted in a basic resolution of 1.9 keV at 1332 keV at a counting rate of 5000 cps slowly degrading to 3.2 keV at a counting rate of 650 000 cps of 60Co. (author)

  19. Attack tree based cyber security analysis of nuclear digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To maintain the cyber security, nuclear digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems must be analyzed for security risks because a single security breach due to a cyber attack can cause system failure, which can have catastrophic consequences on the environment and staff of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Attack trees have been widely used to analyze the cyber security of digital systems due to their ability to capture system specific as well as attacker specific details. Therefore, a methodology based on attack trees has been proposed to analyze the cyber security of the systems. The methodology has been applied for the Cyber Security Analysis (CSA) of a Bistable Processor (BP) of a Reactor Protection System (RPS). Threats have been described according to their source. Attack scenarios have been generated using the attack tree and possible counter measures according to the Security Risk Level (SRL) of each scenario have been suggested. Moreover, cyber Security Requirements (SRs) have been elicited, and suitability of the requirements has been checked. (author)

  20. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  1. Determination of trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis in Anatolian bentonitic clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, N.; Tulun, T.; Alemdar, A.

    1998-08-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was carried out for the determination of trace elements in non-swelling type bentonitic clays. Samples were irradiated in Triga Mark II type of reactor at the Nuclear Institute of Technical University of Istanbul. Irradiation was performed in two steps for "short and long lived" isotopes. The γ spectra of short lived isotopes were interpreted with respect to Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ti, Mn, V qualitatively and that of long lived isotopes with respect to Sc, Cr, Br, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Yb, Hf quantitatively. The relative richness of the trace elements (Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, K) observed in the Sampo 90 program was obtained using Atomic Absorption technique by normalizing its value to that of sodium. The silicon content of samples was determined by gravimetry. The results indicated that Sample I contained relatively higher amount of REE, Sb, Ca and Na than Sample II. The amount of Sc, Cr and Br were about similar in both samples. Concentrations of La, Ce, Sm and Yb are higher than REE abundances found in all natural waters. These results suggest that Ca-bentonite samples are representative of primary deposition environment. In addition, the Sc content of both the samples indicates that Ca-bentonite deposits originated from continental crust. The relatively high amount of REE might bring about porosity problems in the use of Ca-bentonite in cement and concrete production.

  2. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  3. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Kong, Yap Chee; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Elias, Md Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82. PMID:26405840

  4. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to plant medicines in Ghana. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some essential elements in eleven plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 x 1011 n x s-1 x cm-2. The plant medicines were: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Blighia powder, Aphrodisiac powder, Ninga powder and Lippia tea. The others are Olax powder, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken and Fefe powder. Concentrations of seventeen elements namely Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, K, Mn, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, V, and Zn have been determined by short, medium and long irradiation times. Of these elements Co, Sb, and Sc are found to be present at the trace level, Br, Cu, Cr, Mn, Rb, Ta, V and Zn at the minor level, while Al, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na were generally at major level. The differences in the concentration of the elements are attributed mainly to soil composition and climate in which the plants grow. Standard reference material NIST SRM-1571 (Orchard Leaf) was analyzed simultaneously with the samples. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated using real samples and the standard reference material. It was found that the elemental concentrations measured in the NIST SRM-1571 were within ±10% of the reported values. The importance of these elements as related to human health and nutrition has been discussed. (author)

  5. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577{sup b} Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  6. Determination of some mineral components of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some mineral elements in the leaves, peel (periderm) and the tuber (edible portion) of seven cassava cultivars were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The cassava specimens were made up of three improved cultivars namely, TMS 30572, (Afisiafi), TMS 50395 (Gblomaduade) and TMS 4 (2) 1425 (Abasa fitaa). The others are a locally produced mutant 'Tek bankye' and two landraces 'Ankrah' and 'Akosua tumtum'. A total of 10 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Na, Br, Cl, Zn, and K) were identified in all the cultivars studied. The tuber portion contained 10 elements while the leaves and the peel contained 8 and 9 elements, respectively. Five of the elements identified (Ca, Na, K, Mg, and Cl) are classified as major elements in human nutrition while three (Mn, V, and Zn) are trace elements. The major elements were detected in high concentration in the peel of most of the cultivars than the edible tuber or leaves. Al was found in very high concentrations ranging from 643.6 to 12610.0 mg/kg in the peel except in 'Akosua tumtum' where its concentration was below 100 mg/kg. The concentration of Ca and Mg meets the recommendations made by Subcommittee on Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The presence of five major and three trace elements in the tuber indicates that cassava has a rich mineral source which makes it safe for human consumption. (author)

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on atmospheric biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a biomonitoring study aiming to find alternatives to lower epiphytes as air-quality monitors, lichens and tree bark were exposed at different sites for discontinuous periods of 2 months and continuously. Native lichens were collected as well. The contents for 22 elements were obtained by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Quality control as asserted by analyzing ISE-921, NIST-1547 and TL-1 was good. Losses of As and Se by volatilization during sample digestion and neutron irradiation were evident; Ca contents by ICP-MS appeared underestimated probably due to the formation of the insoluble fluoride. ICP-MS featured a better precision than INAA. Nonparametric statistics were applied to the ICP-MS replicates, to those determined by INAA, and to compare the results of both techniques. High or even excellent correlations were found between replicates in INAA, whereas, in ICP-MS, Cr and Ta were just fairly or not correlated. As an overall comparison of the techniques, biased results were found for As, Ba, Ce, Cr, Cs, Hf, La, Sc, Se, Ta, and Zn; unbiased results could be found for Ca, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sm, Tb, Th, and U. (author)

  8. Quantitative analysis of silicates by instrumental epithermal neutron activation using (n,p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental epithermal neutron activation (IENA) involves the use of a neutron filter to screen out the thermal portion of the reactor neutron energy spectrum. Both Cd and B are efficient neutron filters. The principal advantage of epithermal over conventional thermal neutron activation for elemental analysis of geological materials is that the most common rock forming elements, which activate strongly with thermal neutrons (Na, Al, P, K, Fe, and Sc), have their activities suppressed, relative to elements which have cross-sectional resonances in the epithermal energy region. One-gram samples of various silicate standard reference materials were encapsulated in polyethylene vials and irradiated in the Los Alamos Omega West Reactor epithermal facility. Only six elements (F, Si, Na, Fe, Ni, and Ti) were successfully determined in geological matrices via (n,p) reactions. The single standard deviations among the measurements were less than 10% in all cases. The production ratio of (n,p) to (n,γ) and (n,p) to (n,α) interfering reactions are included for silicate materials having Mason's average crustal abundance of elements. Epithermal activation via (n,p) reactions provides an alternative method for the determination of Fe, Al, Na, Ni, and F. The preferred techniques are probably thermal neutron activation for the first three elements, atomic absorption for Ni, and ion selective electrode for F.Titanium and Si can be measured much more sensitively using the (n,p) reaction than by thermal neutron activation. 4 tables

  9. Innovative instrumentation for microarray scanning and analysis: application for characterization of oligonucleotide duplexes behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, E B; Dreval, E V; Tran-Dang, M; Potier, M C; Soussaline, F P

    2004-05-01

    Accuracy in microarray technology requires new approaches to microarray reader development. A microarray reader system (optical scanning array or OSA reader) based on automated microscopy with large field of view, high speed 3 axis scanning at multiple narrow-band spectra of excitation light has been developed. It allows fast capture of high-resolution, multi-fluorescence images and is characterized by a linear dynamic range and sensitivity comparable to commonly used photo-multiplier tube (PMT)-based laser scanner. Controlled by high performance software, the instrument can be used for scanning and quantitative analysis of any type of dry microarray. Studies implying temperature-controlled hybridization chamber containing a microarray can also be performed. This enables the registration of kinetics and melting curves. This feature is required in a wide range of on-chip chemical and enzymatic reactions including on-chip PCR amplification. We used the OSA reader for the characterization of hybridization and melting behaviour of oligonucleotide:oligonucleotide duplexes on three-dimensional Code Link slides. PMID:15209342

  10. Semi-automatic system for UV images analysis of historical musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Piercarlo; Invernizzi, Claudia; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lombardi, Luca; Malagodi, Marco; Rovetta, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The selection of representative areas to be analyzed is a common problem in the study of Cultural Heritage items. UV fluorescence photography is an extensively used technique to highlight specific surface features which cannot be observed in visible light (e.g. restored parts or treated with different materials), and it proves to be very effective in the study of historical musical instruments. In this work we propose a new semi-automatic solution for selecting areas with the same perceived color (a simple clue of similar materials) on UV photos, using a specifically designed interactive tool. The proposed method works in two steps: (i) users select a small rectangular area of the image; (ii) program automatically highlights all the areas that have the same color of the selected input. The identification is made by the analysis of the image in HSV color model, the most similar to the human perception. The achievable result is more accurate than a manual selection, because it can detect also points that users do not recognize as similar due to perception illusion. The application has been developed following the rules of usability, and Human Computer Interface has been improved after a series of tests performed by expert and non-expert users. All the experiments were performed on UV imagery of the Stradivari violins collection stored by "Museo del Violino" in Cremona.

  11. Trace element determination in a mussel reference material using short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of certified reference materials in Brazil, and the consequent availability to national end users, is an important task for the enhancement of Metrology in Chemistry status in the country, as these materials are used for method validation, equipment calibration and for establishing metrological traceability links. In this study, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium and vanadium in a mussel reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. For the determination of these elements via the comparative INAA method, the respective analytical radionuclides, 80Br, 38Cl, 27Mg, 56Mn, 42K and 52V, are short lived and then, short irradiations are used. Six subsamples from two bottles of the Perna perna mussel reference material were analyzed. Each subsample was simultaneously irradiated with elemental standards for 10 s at the IEA-R1 research nuclear reactor through a pneumatic transfer system. After suitable decay periods, gamma radioactivity measurements were carried out, using a hyperpure germanium detector. The accuracy of the method was checked by using the NIST SRM 1566b-'Oyster Tissue' certified reference material. The comparison of the results obtained in this study to the robust mean of the interlaboratorial collaborative trial used for the characterization of the mussel reference material was performed via z-score tests. The comparison showed that the short irradiation INAA method is suitable for the characterization of new reference materials. (author)

  12. Elemental characterization of Nigerian Tourmaline, Fluorite and Topaz by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was employed in determination of the major and trace element constituent in tourmaline, fluorite and topaz collected from the gemstone mineralization within the SW-NE trending pegmatite zone, central Nigeria. Also, the trace contaminants in these gemstones were determined. The major elements constituent in tourmaline were Al (119,800 ppm), Mn (4,348 ppm), Na (15,540 ppm) and Fe (34,290 ppm); fluorite Ca (552,000 ppm) and topaz Al (322,800 ppm) while the trace contaminants were in the range of Sc (6.6 ppm) to La (68 ppm; Hf(1.00 ppm) to Zn (112 ppm) and Ta (0.9 ppm) to La (95 ppm) respectively in these gemstones. No attempt was made to identify the molecular structure of the gemstones as oxygen, fluorine and silicon contents in any of them were not determined. The health implications of the trace contaminants in the gemstones are highlighted.

  13. Trace elements determination in silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of certified reference materials, CRM, is of uppermost importance in the rastreability realization of the measurement process. At times, CRM use is restricted by the non existence of a suitable CRM with similarity to the sample in respect to matrix composition or with element levels in different orders of magnitude. IPT Chemical Division launched a project to prepare a metallic silicon CRM, due to the requirements of the industries in this field. To characterize this new CRM, IPEN Nuclear Reactor Center is able to perform instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, a very suitable method for silicon matrix samples because they produce basically the short lived radionuclide 31 Si under thermal neutrons flux, which after radioactive decay, does not interfere in the determination of other elements. In this paper, it is presented the determination of As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Na Nb, Sb, Sm, Sc, Th, Tb, U, V, W and Yb in silicon CRM NBS SRM 57; ferrosilicon CRM IPT 56; IPT 70; NBS SRM 58a; NBS SRM 59a and silicon RM under preparation IPT 132. From the results, the accuracy and the precision of the process were assessed. (author)

  14. Epiboron instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of iodine in various salt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiboron instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) using flexible boron as thermal neutron filter, has been used to analyze several salt samples obtained from various markets in Ghana for iodine. The method involves the irradiation of samples in boron carbide-lined polyethylene vials at the outer irradiation site of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1). The samples were then counted directly without any pre-treatment on a Canberra N-type HPGe detector. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were done using the 443 keV photopeak of 128I. The precision and accuracy of the method have been evaluated and the detection limits of the various samples were calculated. The values of iodine determined in the iodized salt range between 10.0 and 210 ppm. For non-iodinated salts, iodine levels were below 500 ppb. The values obtained show great variations among the salt samples, sample collection time and from market to market. This results show that the method can be successfully applied in the determination of trace amount of iodine in salt samples without any chemical separation. (author)

  15. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  16. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  17. So These Numbers Really Mean Something? A Role Playing Scenario-Based Approach to the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannas, Amanda M.; Lagalante, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    A new curricular approach in our undergraduate second-year instrumental analysis laboratory was implemented. Students work collaboratively on scenarios in diverse fields including pharmaceuticals, forensics, gemology, art conservation, and environmental chemistry. Each laboratory section (approximately 12 students) is divided into three groups…

  18. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, I.; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Z.; Chvátil, D.; Krist, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 342, JAN (2015), s. 82-86. ISSN 0168-583X Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : fluorine * instrumental photon activation analysis * IPAA * coal Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  19. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kofronova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 3 (2011), s. 769-772. ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Instrumental neutron activation analysis * Hair * Arsenic poisoning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  20. Design and Development of a Miniaturized Double Latching Solenoid Valve for the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the in-house Miniaturized Double Latching Solenoid Valve, or Microvalve, for the Gas Processing System (GPS) of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is described. The Microvalve is a double latching solenoid valve that actuates a pintle shaft axially to hermetically seal an orifice. The key requirements and the design innovations implemented to meet them are described.

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in geochemistry. Emphasis on spectral and uranium fission product interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since the advent of semiconductor detectors, several contributions to the INAA methodology allowed to resolve and analyse complex gamma ray spectra enhancing thus, the reliability of this analytical technique. Despite attainable performances, some difficulties due to spectral and fission product interferences remain affecting thus the reliability of analytical results. A typical case is that discussed by Landsberger et al. on the determination of Sm in the presence Gd, U and Th. In practice spectral interferences in INAA are resolved by allowing shorter-lived radionuclides to decay and counting the remaining long-lived radionuclides. It is also proceeded to the subtraction of contributions of interfering radionuclides using their interference free analytical photopeaks. Both of them are tedious and time consuming, particularly if radionuclides of interest have similar γray spectra, as is the case for 153Sm and 153Gd to which further interferences come from 239Np and 233Pa. On the other hand, the presence of fissionable products such as U and Th in geological samples, and particularly in high grade U and Th samples, enhances difficulties in the accuracy attainable by instrumental neutron activation analysis. They give rise, during irradiation, to identical (n,γ) products from isotopes of natural elements. The present contribution deals with 2 aspects of resolution of interferences in instrumental neutron activation analysis: 1. The application of a multicomponent method for the resolution of spectral interferences in gamma spectrometry using simultaneous equations method. Assume m elements are to be determined by INAA whose (n,γ) products interfere at their n analytical γ-rays. An overall analytical response can be assumed to consist of several additive individual responses from m interfering radionuclides. The mathematical terms can be expressed by means of the following equation: Pn=k+Σain Aiεi Pn = Photopeak area at the specific interfering n

  2. Elemental characterization of bread and durum wheat by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only due to the sheer amount of their gross-tonnage production and prevalence in human diets worldwide, but also as food vehicles of important items for human nutrition and wellness at large-proteins, dietary fibers and oligoelements, such as selenium, calcium, zinc and iron, to name just a few. Still, some micronutrients feature an uneven distribution in the upper continental crust, and thus in cultivation soils deriving therefrom. Whether soils have always been poor in an essential element, or have just become deprived of it by intensive farming, the result is the same: insufficient soil-plant transfer, feeble-to-nonexistent plant uptake, and, therefore, unsatisfactory dietary distribution of that element through the food chain. Countries that implemented corrective measures or programs of crop biofortification and consumer education have been successful in dealing with some micronutrients' deficiencies. Given their relative weight in Portuguese diets, cereals are obvious candidates for crop-supplementation strategies that may contribute to an upgrade in the health status of the whole population. A good knowledge of element-baseline data for major cereal varieties (plants) and main production areas (soils) is a pre-requisite though. The present work was aimed at an elemental characterization of cereals and soils from relevant wheat-producing areas of mainland Portugal. This paper is focused on wheat samples-bread and durum wheats; Triticum aestivum L. (Farak and Jordao cultivars) and Triticum durum Desf. (Don Duro and Simeto cultivars), respectively-from the 2009 campaign, collected at Tras-os-Montes, Alto Alentejo and Baixo Alentejo (inland regions). Elemental concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k0-variant), and assessed with the k0-IAEA software. Quality control was asserted through the analysis of NIST-SRMR 1567a (Wheat Flour), NIST-SRMR 1568a (Rice

  3. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  4. The development of an automatic sample-changer and control instrumentation for isotope-source neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic sample-changer was developed at the Council for Mineral Technology for use in isotope-source neutron-activation analysis. Tests show that the sample-changer can transfer a sample of up to 3 kg in mass over a distance of 3 m within 5 s. In addition, instrumentation in the form of a three-stage sequential timer was developed to control the sequence of irradiation transfer and analysis

  5. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  6. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  7. Scenario analysis in business model choosing for instrument-making enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Krykavskyi

    2014-06-01

    modeling of enterprise activity; - making verbal description of the nature of each strategic alternative and their SWOT-analysis; - organization of expectations market research and preferences of target consumers. This is a «field study», which is carried out in order to collect additional primary data, processing of which will provide grounds for a decision making at a later stage; - economic evaluation, drafting of objectives tree and the choice of acceptable business model of the company. The paper tested the technology at a particular investigated enterprise. Domestic instrument-making enterprise Ltd plant «Elektronpobutprylad» was chosen as the object of study. We used the following methods of research in the paper: SWOT-analysis, scenario-analysis, objectives tree, the matrix method. Conclusions and directions of further research. Nowadays, in a dynamic and unpredictable environment, many business models of domestic enterprises have lost their efficiency and competitiveness. Local enterprises, which used traditional business models, suffer losses and drop out of the market. Conversely, a number of business models, not topical in the pre-crisis period, were highly effective during a crisis and provided enterprises, which use them, with new opportunities for growth and development of business. The authors have developed a selection technology of the enterprise business model, which involves the use of the combination of scenarios, strategic alternatives matrix, SWOT-analysis and the method of «decisions tree» in the implementation of five main stages (from generation of scenarios to their economic evaluation. The application of this technology in practice will provide instruments for Ukrainian enterprises, concerning justificated selection of a new business model according to market trends and set goals of development. Testing of this technology at a specific investigated enterprise by the method of situational analysis proves the validity of the proposed

  8. Polarimetric analysis of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) for modeling instrumental polarization characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jenny; Skidmore, Warren; Anupama, G. C.; Anche, Ramya M.; Reddy, Krishna; Sen, Asoke

    2014-08-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be called upon to support a polarimetric observing capability. Many different observing programs covering a range of different science areas are being considered for the TMT and a model of the overall polarization characteristics is being developed. The instrument development program will provide a means for polarimetric instruments to be developed, however the telescope itself and the AO system must be able to support polarimetric instruments. As a first step to defining the necessary polarimetric technical requirements we have created an international working group to carry out a study in which technical and cost implications will be balanced with scientific impact; new requirements will be generated with supporting science cases. We present here initial results of the instrumental polarization sensitivity of TMT with NFIRAOS, the first-light adaptive optics system.

  9. CoMA, an instrument for the detailed in-situ analysis of collected cometary particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for CoMA, a pulsed time-of-flight SIMS instrument to be flown onboard CRAF to rendezvous with a comet, had been accepted by NASA in October 1986. After several attempts it seems that funding by BMFT for the instrument pre-development phase can be obtained. Apart from that we made first essential progress in producing the primary ion pulses from an indium liquid metal ion source. Those pulses are needed to operate CoMA. (orig.)

  10. Literature review and analysis of the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Zheng-zheng Zhang; Di Xie; Nelson Xie; Hong Thach Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:A comprehensive literature search for all published articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Chongqing VIP Database and WANFANG Data was conducted.The studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to extract information according to a predesigned assessment instrument.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine were identified.Of these questionnaires,7 were generic,12 were condition-specific and 78 were disease-specific.All instruments were suitable for adults,children,and both men and women.These instruments aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life,signs and symptoms as well as patient satisfaction and doctor-reported outcome.However,the descriptions were poorly constructed for some of the most basic parameters,such as the domains and items,administrative mode,response options,memory recall periods,burden evaluation,format,copyright,content validity,and other properties.CONCLUSION:The instrument development for health outcomes assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,there are many limitations in current methodologies and standards,and further studies are needed.

  11. Measurements of 27 elements in garden and lawn fertilizers using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five locally available garden and lawn fertilizers were analyzed for elemental content using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fertilizers were labeled as High Yield; Slow Release, 13-13-13; 16-8-4 and 28-4-4. The concentration ranges of the elements measured, in μg/g, were: Ba < 10-105; Br 0.55-272; Co 0.33-3.74; Cr 10.0-42.5; Cs 0.09-1.02; Eu 0.05-0.42; Fe 1840-9830; Ga < 1-4.6; Ge < 0.1-1.23; Hf 0.07-2.32; La 1.66-10.4; Na 57.6-3990; Nd < 9; Ni < 3-12.3; Rb 2.42-48.5; Sb 0.03-0.24; Sc 0.3-3.11; Se 2.68-10.2; Sm < 0.4-2.13; Sr 21.7-214; Ta < 0.01-0.052; Tb 0.05-0.28; Th 0.52-2.16; U 0.18-0.38; Zn 10.8-233 and Zr < 1-8.95. Some of these elements are recognized as micronutritiens (e.g., Fe and (Zn), and are necessary for plant growth. However, other elements may lead to undesirable environmental effects. The undiscriminating use of fertilizers, especially in home gardening, may result in the increase of toxic elements (Co, Cr, Se, Sb, Tb, U etc.) in the underground water supply. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  12. Elemental characterization of Hazm El-Jalamid phosphorite by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) have been used to achieve accurate knowledge about the elemental analysis of phosphate ore deposits collected from Hazm El-Jalamid Northeast of Saudi Arabia. The samples were prepared for irradiation by thermal neutrons using a thermal neutron flux of 7×10(12)ncm(-2)s(-1) at ACT Lab Canada. The concentrations of 19 elements were determined. These included 12 major, minor and trace elements (Au, As, Ba, Br, Cr, Mo, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, U and Zn) and 7 rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu). Major elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cr, Ti, Mn, P, Sr and Ba) were determined using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The comparison of the concentration of U and the REEs in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples with those of the Umm Wu'al phosphate from Saudi Arabia and El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphate from Egypt shows that the contents of U and REEs are clearly higher in the Umm Wu'al, El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphates than in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples. The results of major, trace elements, uranium and rare earth elements (REE) from El Jalamid phosphate have been compared with the global values of these elements. The concentrations for most of the elements studied are lower than the concentrations reported in the literature. The acquired data will serve as a reference for the follow-up studies to assess the agronomic effectiveness of the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate rocks. PMID:27235886

  13. Determination of trace elements in reference material Mussel by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of trace elements in an environmental reference material Mussel prepared by National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The Mussel samples (ca. 50--250 mg) were irradiated for 2 min (pneumatic transfer) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 1012 n cm-2s-1 and then for 5h(central thimble) at thermal neutron flux of 3.2 x 1012 n cm-2s-1 in Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITRR). The gamma-ray measurements of 2 min irradiation samples were performed for 5 min intervals after 1 min cooling and for 4--27 min after 12--80 min cooling using a Ge (Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel multichannel analyzer. The gamma-ray spectra from 5h irradiation samples were obtained by measuring samples for 3--14h after 4--8d cooling period and for 14--45h after 15--50d cooling. Peak-fitting procedure by a minicomputer system (GAMA system) was applied to analyze gamma-ray spectra. In this work 38 elements (Na,Mg,Al,S,Cl,K,Ca,Sc,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Zn,As,Se,Br,Rb,Sr,Mo,Ag,Cd,Sn,Sb,I,Cs,Ba,La,Ce,Sm,Eu,Tb,Hf,Ta,Au,Th,U) were quantitatively determined. Special cares were taken for obtaining accurate concentrations of aluminum and magnesium by correcting contributions by interefering nuclear reactions such as 31P(n,α)28Al and 27Al(n,p)27Mg. Duplicate analyses showed a reasonable reproduciblity for the analytical data of major and trace elements, suggesting that the Mussel is homogeneous enough to be used as a certified reference material. (author)

  14. Trace element characteristics of indian cigarette tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine hazardous effects of smoking five different brands of Indian cigarette tobacco including its ash and smoke, three brands of bi di (a typical of Indian subcontinent) and two of chewing tobacco have been analysed for 24 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Hf, La, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A simple and indigenous smoking device has been developed. A mean ash content of 16.5 ± 1.1% was obtained for different brands of cigarettes whereas smoke content was found to be 4.8±0.8%. It is observed that most elements are retained in ash and a few are transferred to smoke. Percent amount of elements retained in ash and transferred to smoke condensate have been calculated. Significant amounts of Sb, Hg, Co, Se and Zn are transferred to smoke but >90% of Ca, Fe, Sr and Cr are retained in ash. a comparison of elemental contents with the cigarette tobacco from other countries shows comparable amounts for most elements except few minor variations attributable to local soil characteristics. Most elemental contents in bi di and chewing tobacco are comparable except Br, Cr, Na, Se and Sr which are higher in chewing tobacco but its Ca content is lower. Standard Reference Materials Bowen's Kale, Kentucky Reference Cigarette and Citrus Leaves (SRM 1572) along with a newly developed tobacco CRM OTL-1 from Poland were also analysed. (author). 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Analysis of ER string test thermally instrumented interconnect 80-K MLI blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 80-K Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket in the interconnect region between magnets DD0019 and DD0027 in the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) ER string was instrumented with temperature sensors to obtain the steady-state temperature gradient through the blanket after string cooldown. A thermal model of the 80-K blanket assembly was constructed to analyze the steady-state temperature gradient data. Estimates of the heat flux through the 80-K MLI blanket assembly and predicted temperature gradients were calculated. The thermal behavior of the heavy polyethylene terapthalate (PET) cover layers separating the shield and inner blanket and inner and outer blankets was derived empirically from the data. The results of the analysis predict a heat flux of 0.363--0.453 W/m2 based on the 11 sets of data. These flux values are 33--46% below the 80-K MLI blanket heat leak budget of 0.676 W/m2. The effective thermal resistance of the two heavy PET cover layers between the shield and inner blanket was found to be 2.1 times that of a single PET spacer layer, and the effective resistance of the two heavy PET cover layers between the inner blanket and outer blanket was found to be 7 times that of a single PET spacer layer. Based on these results, the 80-K MLI blanket assembly appears to be performing more than adequately to meet the 80-K static IR heat leak budget. However, these results should not be construed as a verification of the 80-K static IR heat leak, since no actual heat leak was measured. The results have been used to improve the empirically based model data in the 80-K MLI blanket thermal model, which has previously not included the effects of heavy PET cover layers on 80-K MLI blanket thermal performance

  16. Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In biosciences and biotechnology, the expanding application of physicochemical approaches using modern instrumental techniques is an efficient strategy to obtain valuable and often unique information at the molecular level. In this work, we applied a combination of vibrational (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques, useful in overall structural and compositional analysis of bacterial cells of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, with 57Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy (EMS) used for sensitive monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live bacterial cells. The information obtained, together with ICP-MS analyses for metals taken up by the bacteria, is useful in analysing the impact of the environmental conditions (heavy metal stress) on the bacterial metabolism and some differences in the heavy metal stress-induced behaviour of non-endophytic (Sp7) and facultatively endophytic (Sp245) strains. The results show that, while both strains Sp7 and Sp245 take up noticeable and comparable amounts of heavy metals from the medium (0.12 and 0.13 mg Co, 0.48 and 0.44 mg Cu or 4.2 and 2.1 mg Zn per gram of dry biomass, respectively, at a metal concentration of 0.2 mM in the medium), their metabolic responses differ essentially. Whereas for strain Sp7 the FTIR measurements showed significant accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage materials involved in stress endurance, strain Sp245 did not show any major changes in cellular composition. Nevertheless, EMS measurements showed rapid binding of cobalt(II) by live bacterial cells (chemically similar to metal binding by dead bacteria) and its further transformation in the live cells within an hour

  17. Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamnev, Alexander A. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: aakamnev@ibppm.sgu.ru; Tugarova, Anna V. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Antonyuk, Lyudmila P. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Tarantilis, Petros A. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Kulikov, Leonid A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perfiliev, Yurii D. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Polissiou, Moschos G. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Gardiner, Philip H.E. [Division of Chemistry, School of Science and Mathematics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-28

    In biosciences and biotechnology, the expanding application of physicochemical approaches using modern instrumental techniques is an efficient strategy to obtain valuable and often unique information at the molecular level. In this work, we applied a combination of vibrational (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques, useful in overall structural and compositional analysis of bacterial cells of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, with {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy (EMS) used for sensitive monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live bacterial cells. The information obtained, together with ICP-MS analyses for metals taken up by the bacteria, is useful in analysing the impact of the environmental conditions (heavy metal stress) on the bacterial metabolism and some differences in the heavy metal stress-induced behaviour of non-endophytic (Sp7) and facultatively endophytic (Sp245) strains. The results show that, while both strains Sp7 and Sp245 take up noticeable and comparable amounts of heavy metals from the medium (0.12 and 0.13 mg Co, 0.48 and 0.44 mg Cu or 4.2 and 2.1 mg Zn per gram of dry biomass, respectively, at a metal concentration of 0.2 mM in the medium), their metabolic responses differ essentially. Whereas for strain Sp7 the FTIR measurements showed significant accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage materials involved in stress endurance, strain Sp245 did not show any major changes in cellular composition. Nevertheless, EMS measurements showed rapid binding of cobalt(II) by live bacterial cells (chemically similar to metal binding by dead bacteria) and its further transformation in the live cells within an hour.

  18. Cyclic Fatigue Testing of Three Different Rotary Nickel Titanium Endodontic Instruments in Simulated Curved Canals - An in Vitro Sem Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy Y., Pallavi; S., Kavita; Subbarao, C. V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Instrument separation is a serious concern in endodontics. Stainless steel instruments usually deform before they separate whereas Nickel Titanium instruments do not show any sign of deformation.

  19. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  20. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  1. Analysis of municipal waste dump soil using a low power reactor. A study by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.; Hamid, Q. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-07-01

    Soil samples from an open waste dump site and a background sample from a site located beside Kashmir Highway near sector H-11, Islamabad, were analyzed for 36 major, minor and trace elements. Suitable instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology was developed through optimization of irradiation, cooling and counting protocols using a 27 kW low power miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). Large variations in the composition of soil samples taken from the dump site were observed and it was found that most of the elements including Al, Ca, Ti, As, Br, Ce, Co, Cs, Ga, Hf, Mn, Nd, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sn, Ta, Tb Th, V, Yb, Zn, Eu, Se, and Zr, in the background soil lie in the concentration range of the dump soil sample. However, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ba, Rb, Sr, U, Zn, Hg and Sb were found to be in higher amounts in the dump site samples. To validate the developed INAA methodology and to ensure the accuracy and precision of the results, IAEA Lake Sediment (SL-1) and IAEA Soil-7 (S-7) were analyzed as control materials. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g-1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  3. The study of the trace element in organisms by neutron analysis. I. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis of cannabis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examinations were made on optimal experimental conditions for instrumental determination of various elements in cannabis by neutron activation analysis, without any radiochemical separation, and the following conditions were found to be useful. Irradiation samples to be used are about 300 mg of the leaves or stem bark, and about 100 mg of the root. For soil sample, about 50 mg is used for the determination of short half-life nuclides and about 300 mg for long half-life nuclides. For short half-life nuclides, the samples are irradiated for 1 min, activity is measured for 200 sec after a decay of 3 min, and for 400 sec after a decay of 10 min. For long half-life nuclides, the samples are irradiated for 60 min and the activities are measured for 4 K sec after 1 week and for 10 K sec after 1 month. Use of supersonic waves is also convenient for cleansing of the samples. Thirty-five kinds of interesting elements were determined by this method from cannabis cultivated in Maizuru area. (Author)

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis with Compton suppression for the evaluation of foodstuff composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a good option for studying chemical composition of food, allowing the simultaneous determination of several elements. However, the incomplete deposition of gamma-ray energies in the detector crystal due to Compton scatter can elevate the spectrum baseline making difficult the determination of some elements. The problem is particularly important for samples having high activities of radionuclides emitting gamma-rays with energies higher than those to be measured. For such cases, the use of a Compton suppression system can improve the detection limits. Here, the application of a suppression system for the analysis of foodstuff is evaluated. Measurements were carried out with a hyper pure germanium detector with 55 % relative efficiency for the photopeak 1332 keV of 60Co, working in anti-coincidence with two sodium iodine guard detectors (annulus and plug). Suppressed and unsuppressed spectra were simultaneously acquired. Initially, the overall system performance on the reduction of the Compton region was tested using 137Cs. Measuring between 358 and 382 keV, the higher suppression factor was 5.97, being observed a large variation according to the energy region selected for the determination. Reductions were noticed for the suppression factor resulting from increases on counting rate and source-detector distance. The suppression system showed to be stable during twenty weeks of periodic verifications. To evaluate the system performance on real sample analysis, several types and commercial brands of rice, potatoes, beans, peas, chickpeas and lentil were taken. After drying and grinding, samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 1x1013 cm-2 s-1 for 8 hours, in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN/CNEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). Each sample was measured after decay periods of about 3, 7, 15 and 40 days. Analysis was conducted by the k0 method using the software package Quantu

  5. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  6. Determination of Li, B, and F by rapid instrumental neutron activation analysis using beta-particle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the simultaneous determination of Li, B, and F, the application of rapid instrument neutron activation analysis was studied using 1.5s of irradiation and β-particle counting of 8Li, 12B, and 20F. The fast transfer facility, Mach-1, the counting equipment, a 4-channel multiplexer, and a time-base controller are discussed. Further, the technique of simultaneous decay curve analysis of three successive decays is presented and quality control by residual analysis is demonstrated. Finally, analytical results are presented of the NBS-environmental standards Coal-1632a and Coal-1635, and of three BCR-coals intended as references materials

  7. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis of twenty-six rice samples analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the ongoing work on the safety and security of foods grown locally and imported into Jamaica, twenty five rice brands available on the Jamaican market and one sample of locally grown brown rice were collected and analysed for 36 elements using a combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis, total reflection X-ray fluorescence, flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Quality control for each of the techniques was provided by analysis of reference materials and inter-comparisons of common elements. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis performed on the raw data set identified white, parboiled and brown rice as the major clusters. The element and cluster median concentration in μg/g (for polished, parboiled and brown respectively) for each of the three clusters were Al (8.7, 11.3, 14.9), As (0.20, 0.21, 0.15), Br (12.1, 0.9, 3.4), Ca (60.4, 409.1, 112.5), Co (0.1, 0.09, 0.11), Cr (0.11, 0.10, 0.11), Cs (0.012, 0.004, 0.018), Eu (0.004, 0.004, 0.003), Cu (2.2,2.7, 3.6), Fe (13, 17, 20), K (894,1,815,2,538), La (0.009, 0.014, 0.015), Mg (340, 504, 1,303), Mn (9.7, 14.9, 28.5), Mo (0.7, 1.1, 0.8), Na (5.1, 9.9, 16.9), P (936, 2,328, 3,670), Rb (4.5, 6.1, 7.3), S (1,088,1,308, 1,321), Sb (0.004, 0.006, 0.005), Sc (0.001, 0.002, 0.002), Se (0.09, 0.17, 0.16), Sm (0.001, 0.003, 0.001), Sr (2.0, 1.9, 2.9), V (0.036, 0.041, 0.058), Zn (17.9, 15.3, 22.8). The use of agglomerative hierarchical clustering has proven to be a rapid method for the analysis of the dataset, correctly clustering rice by process that is, polished, parboiled and brown, with sub-clusters that further identified location, cultivars and an adulterated sample. The data validated here has been used to estimate the elemental contribution of rice to the Jamaican diet. (author)

  8. The collection and analysis of transient test data using the mobile instrumentation data acquisition system (MIDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.

    1995-12-31

    Packages designed to transport radioactive materials are required to survive exposure to environments defined in Code of Federal Regulations. Cask designers can investigate package designs through structural and thermal testing of full-scale packages, components, or representative models. The acquisition of reliable response data from instrumentation measurement devices is an essential part of this testing activity. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed the Mobile Instrumentation Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) dedicated to the collection and processing of structural and thermal data from regulatory tests.

  9. Using growth curve analysis to examine challenges in instrumentation in longitudinal measurement in home visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Mena, Kristin Cotter; Swank, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Home visitation programs aim to decrease child maltreatment, yet limited longitudinal data exists concerning their screening and assessment instruments. "At risk" families (N = 2,054) were screened using the Family Stress Checklist and referred to Healthy Families Indiana. The Home Observation Measurement of the Environment Scale (HOME) and Community Life Skills Scale (CLS) were administered at multiple intervals. Growth curve analyses indicate families with lower HOME and CLS scores received more home visits and visits between assessments. However, these instruments may have "ceiling effects" and may be unsuitable for longitudinal assessment and program evaluation. Programmatic changes were made based on evaluation results. PMID:24405137

  10. Determination of vanadium by instrumental neutron activation analysis using a high counting-rate γ-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), high performance gamma ray spectrometry is indispensable for calculating the analysis values of good accuracy. In this research, as the measuring method at high rate of count, the gamma ray spectrometry by using the pulse pile-up rejector (PUR) which can remove pulse pile-up with the instrument was investigated. Moreover, in order to compensate the radioactivity attenuation at the time of the measurement at high rate of count, the function that the rate of dead time every 1 s in the measurement can be recorded was added to a gamma ray spectrometer. The performance of this spectrometer and the quantification of V in living body samples, that are mussels and tea leaves are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of well sediments from the costal zone of Kurzeme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The coastal zone of Kurzeme 2-4 km wide is located in different economical regions. Geologically this zone is under the influence of the sea. Through the sandy soil the chemical compounds infiltrate very well in the underground waters and so it is possible from the condition of underground waters to judge about the state of the zone. The purpose of this work is to get the information about the influence of the human activities on the coastal zone and also to estimate the influence of the penetration of seawater on the chemical composition of underground waters in wells. As the sediments integrate the chemical composition of water over a longer period of time, then in the first stage for the characterisation of water the sediments were chosen. To solve the mentioned problems it is necessary to obtain information about large amounts of chemical elements (V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sb, Th, U, lanthanide, a.o., about 30-40 at all) in macro, micro and trace concentrations. It is possible only by use one of the methods of multielement analysis. We chose the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), because it is one of the most sensitive allows to determine elements in wide range of concentrations (from % to ppb) and do not need complicated sample preparation. The INAA was carried out in the Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis in the Nuclear Research Center of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, by the use of nuclear reactor as neutron source. For the determination of elements two modes of irradiation and three of measurements were used. 1. The irradiation of samples in reactors horizontal experimental channel neutron flux 1.6 · 1013 n/cm2 s by use of pneumotransporter. The irradiation time was 30 s, cooling time 8 min, measuring time of the gamma-spectrums - 200/s. Under such conditions radionuclides with half periods less than 30 n were determined: Mg, Cl, V, Mn, a.o. 2. The irradiation of samples in reactors vertical experimental channel (neutron

  12. Reliability of instrumented movement analysis as outcome measure in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Results from a multitask locomotor protocol

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ferrarin; Bovi, G.; Rabuffetti, M.; Mazzoleni, P; Montesano, A.; Moroni, I.; Pagliano, E.; A. Marchi; C. Marchesi; E. Beghi; Pareyson, D

    2011-01-01

    Some neurodegenerative diseases at early stage may not drastically affect basic gait ability, whereas more demanding locomotor tasks are more prone to disease-induced abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the interday test–retest reliability, 4–6 weeks apart, of instrumented movement analysis on a group of 20 subjects with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease considering a set of kinematic and kinetic curves and related parameters obtained during natural walking (NW) and faster walking, hee...

  13. Automatic Lameness Detection in a Milking Robot : Instrumentation, measurement software, algorithms for data analysis and a neural network model

    OpenAIRE

    Pastell, Matti

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a fully automatic lameness detection system that operates in a milking robot. The instrumentation, measurement software, algorithms for data analysis and a neural network model for lameness detection were developed. Automatic milking has become a common practice in dairy husbandry, and in the year 2006 about 4000 farms worldwide used over 6000 milking robots. There is a worldwide movement with the objective of fully automating every process from feedi...

  14. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 342, JAN (2015), s. 82-86. ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GA13-27885S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Fluorine * instrumental photon activation analysis * IPAA * coal Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  15. Incorporation of personal computers in a research reactor instrumentation system for data monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research contract was implemented by obtaining off-the shelf personal computer hardware and data acquisition cards, designing the interconnection with the instrumentation system, writing and debugging the software, and the assembling and testing the set-up. The hardware was designed to allow all variables monitored by the instrumentation system to be accessible to the computers, without requiring any major modification of the instrumentation system and without compromising reactor safety in any way. The computer hardware addition was also designed to have no effect on any existing function of the instrumentation system. The software was designed to implement only graphical display and automated logging of reactor variables. Additional functionality could be easily added in the future with software revision because all the reactor variables are already available in the computer. It would even be possible to ''close the loop'' and control the reactor through software. It was found that most of the effort in an undertaking of this sort will be in software development, but the job can be done even by non-computer specialized reactor people working with programming languages they are already familiar with. It was also found that the continuing rapid advance of personal computer technology makes it essential that such a project be undertaken with inevitability of future hardware upgrading in mind. The hardware techniques and the software developed may find applicability in other research reactors, especially those with a generic analog research reactor TRIGA console. (author)

  16. The Challenge of Measuring Epistemic Beliefs: An Analysis of Three Self-Report Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael; Beesley, Andrea D.; Thoma, Stephen J.; Hestevold, Nita L.

    2008-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs are notoriously difficult to measure with self-report instruments. In this study, the authors used large samples to assess the factor structure and internal consistency of 3 self-report measures of domain-general epistemic beliefs to draw conclusions about the trustworthiness of findings reported in the literature. College…

  17. Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME-GC-MS: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Students analyze "trans"-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS with ethyl benzoate as the internal standard. Aside from the instrumentation, the experiment utilizes readily available low hazard materials and can be completed within one four-hour laboratory period. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Using Texas Instruments Emulators as Teaching Tools in Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vaneica Y.

    2011-01-01

    This technology report alerts upper-division undergraduate chemistry faculty and lecturers to the use of Texas Instruments emulators as virtual graphing calculators. These may be used in multimedia lectures to instruct students on the use of their graphing calculators to obtain solutions to complex chemical problems. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Systems analysis of instrumentation for in situ examination of rock properties. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If salt beds or shale beds are used for burial of nuclear wastes, then boreholes that penetrate the beds will be sealed to prevent transport of water into the beds via the boreholes. There will be interest in monitoring the environment in local regions of the borehole for years to come. Such monitoring may be aimed at providing assurance that the integrity of the borehole plug and the integrity of borehole wall seals have not degraded. Of course, there will be interest in monitoring the burial vault geology as well, and the results of this study are relevant to this requirement also. A study of buried instrumentation in boreholes without any wires between the buried instruments and the surface of the earth was performed. Consequently, buried power supplies and through-the-earth communications systems are required. Study ground rules included the following: burial depths to range between 150 m and 1500 m; maximum temperature of 1000C at the burial depth; and system target lifetime of 10 to 100 years. The instrumentation system is separable into four functional subsystems: (A) a basic instrument subsystem; (B) a command, control, and data processing (CCD) subsystem; (C) a communication subsystem; and (D) a power supply subsystem. The major findings of the study are listed by subsystem

  20. Simplifying the Analysis of Data from Multiple Heliophysics Instruments and Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazell, D.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the intertwined plasma, particles and fields connecting the Sun and the Earth requires combining data from many diverse sources, but there are still many technological barriers that complicate the merging of data from different instruments and missions. We present an emerging data serving capability that provides a uniform way to access heterogeneous and distributed data. The goal of our data server is to provide a standardized data access mechanism that is identical for data of any format and layout (CDF, custom binary, FITS, netCDF, CSV and other flavors of ASCII, etc). Data remain in their original format and location (i.e., at instrument team sites or existing data centers), and our data server delivers a dynamically reformatted view of the data. Scientists can then use tools (clients that talk to the server) that offer a single interface for browsing, analyzing or downloading many different contemporary and legacy heliophysics data sets. Our current server accesses many CDF data resources at CDAWeb, as well as multiple other instrument team sites. Our webservice will be deployed on the Amazon Cloud at http://datashop.elasticbeanstalk.com/. Two basic clients will also be demonstrated: one in Java and one in IDL. Python, Perl, and Matlab clients are also planned. Complex missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus will benefit greatly from tools that enable multi-instrument and multi-mission data comparison.

  1. Uses and Limits of Conventional Corporate Governance Instruments : Analysis and Guidance for Reform - Part Two

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This private sector opinion is organized in two parts. Part one, published in June 2009, examined the uses and limits of five conventional corporate governance instruments: transparency, independent monitoring, economic alignment, shareholder rights, and financial liability and suggested ways to improve their application. Part two, the essay that follows, recommends how policymakers should ...

  2. Analysis of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brand’s audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Makhnusha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors analyze the content, particularities and the rules of brand-coloristics as an instrument to influence a target brands audience. Approaches to estimating the results of brand-coloristics are proposed and attitude of different age consumer groups to its measures is found out.

  3. A field method for assessing body composition by portable XRF bromine analysis: Validation against instrumental neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Extracellular water space (ECW) is expanded in acute illness or in catabolic states. The assessment of change in ECW provides a simple method for monitoring nutritional status. ECW can be measured by Br dilution. A small amount of natural Br (10-17mg per Kg of body weight) is given orally. The concentration of Br in plasma is measured prior and 3 hours following the administration. Plasma is analysed for Br either by ion-exchange chromatography, or by non-destructive methods, such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF). We developed a method for the rapid analysis of Br in plasma with a small hand-held, XRF instrument consisting of a 30mCi Cd-109 source and an electronically-cooled solid-state Xray detector. 128 plasma samples were analysed from 64 volunteers aged 19 to 84y. The samples were measured first with the XRF instrument and then by INAA using the nuclear reactor of the research center 'Democritos' by the 79Br(n,γ)80Br neutron capture reaction. The samples were exposed to 2x1013n/cm2/s for 3 min. Detection of the 80Br (t1/2= 17.8 min) gamma-ray (616.2 KeV) followed 3 min after the irradiation using a liquid nitrogen-cooled purified Ge photon detector. We found the XRF instrument to be highly correlated with the neutron activation measurements (R= 1.000 for 7 standards, R = 0.997 for human plasma samples). We also observed that, in our group of volunteers, ECW was able to assess nutritional status as determined by in vivo neutron activation analysis. This simple method makes body composition measurements widely available as the main outcome of nutritional and pharmaceutical anabolic interventions. (author)

  4. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters. [Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.; Bull, J. S.; Peach, L. L.; Demko, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a sensitivity analysis of the Decelerated Steep Approach and Landing (DSAL) maneuver to on-board and ground-based navigation system parameters. The Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) DSAL maneuver involves decelerating to zero range rate while tracking the localizer and glideslope. The considered study investigated the performance of the navigation systems using Constant Deceleration Profile (CDP) guidance and a six degrees glideslope trajectory. A closed-loop computer simulation of the UH1H helicopter DSAL system was developed for the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions on system performance parameter sensitivity are discussed.

  5. Analysis of the eight-year trend in ozone depletion from empirical models of solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Hudson, R. D.; Serafino, G.

    1990-01-01

    Arguments are presented showing that the basic empirical model of the solar backscatter UV (SBUV) instrument degradation used by Cebula et al. (1988) in their analysis of the SBUV data is likely to lead to an incorrect estimate of the ozone trend. A correction factor is given as a function of time and altitude that brings the SBUV data into approximate agreement with the SAGE, SME, and Dobson network ozone trends. It is suggested that the currently archived SBUV ozone data should be used with caution for periods of analysis exceeding 1 yr, since it is likely that the yearly decreases contained in the archived data are too large.

  6. Applicability of Three Alternative Instruments for Food Authenticity Analysis:GMO Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab901 TapeStation, and Shimadzu MCE-202 MultiNA for the detection of GMOs using PCR based on a previously validated protocol. Whilst minor differences in the performance characteristics of bias and precision were observed, all three instruments demonstrated their applicability in using this protocol for screening of GMO ingredients.

  7. Heavy metal pollution determination of Zayandehrood River by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous work, 40 elements in 71 samples from Zayandehrood River sediment analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Method. According to element variation curves along the river, all the river path has divided to four region which in each one, concentration of elements are almost constant. Enrichment factors have calculated for mean of element concentrations in each region and it has showed that Ag, As, Au, Cu, Hg, Sb, Zn have concentrated in Isfahan city region due to domestic wastes

  8. Rasch Analysis of the Profiles of Occupational Engagement in people with Severe mental illness (POES) instrument.

    OpenAIRE

    Bejerholm, Ulrika; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Profiles of Occupational Engagement in people with Severe mental illness (POES) instrument was developed to study time use profiles of occupations and measure the extent they are characterized by engagement. However, the dimensional factors are not known. The aim of the present study was to establish the internal construct validity of the POES using the Rasch measurement model. Methods A sample of 192 outpatients in Sweden was administered the POES and data were subjected to Rasch...

  9. Applicability of Three Alternative Instruments for Food Authenticity Analysis:GMO Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Burrell, A.; Foy, C; Burns, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab9...

  10. A comparative analysis of malodor samples between direct (olfactometry) and indirect (instrumental) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Park, Shin-Young

    The relationship between direct (olfactometry) and indirect (instrumental) methods for odor detection was assessed using a total of 70 odor samples collected from several industrial sectors. To this end, a number of instrumental techniques have been employed to measure the concentrations of major odorant groups, including reduced sulfur compounds (RSC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, and nitrogenous compounds. The odorant data obtained by the indirect methods were then converted into the following three modified odor indices: (1) the (algebraic) sum of odor concentration (SOC), (2) the sum of odor quotient (SOQ) by considering the relation between odorant concentration and threshold value, and (3) the sum of odor intensity (SOI) based on suprathreshold olfactometry. These derivatized indices were then compared against the results of the direct method, i.e., dilution to the threshold ( D/T) ratio via olfactometry such as air dilution sensory (ADS) test. When the relationship was investigated between D/T ratios and those three derivatized indices, the results of 70 samples were strongly correlated with the Pearson coefficients ( r) of 0.671 for SOC ( P=1.92E-10), 0.866 for SOQ ( P=2.74E-22), and 0.852 for SOI ( P=6.53E-21). It thus confirms that the odorant concentration data measured by instrumental method can be used effectively to account for the odor intensity estimated by the sensory method for samples collected under strong source activities.

  11. Operational Support for Instrument Stability through ODI-PPA Metadata Visualization and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. D.; Hayashi, S.; Gopu, A.; Kotulla, R.; Harbeck, D.; Liu, W.

    2015-09-01

    Over long time scales, quality assurance metrics taken from calibration and calibrated data products can aid observatory operations in quantifying the performance and stability of the instrument, and identify potential areas of concern or guide troubleshooting and engineering efforts. Such methods traditionally require manual SQL entries, assuming the requisite metadata has even been ingested into a database. With the ODI-PPA system, QA metadata has been harvested and indexed for all data products produced over the life of the instrument. In this paper we will describe how, utilizing the industry standard Highcharts Javascript charting package with a customized AngularJS-driven user interface, we have made the process of visualizing the long-term behavior of these QA metadata simple and easily replicated. Operators can easily craft a custom query using the powerful and flexible ODI-PPA search interface and visualize the associated metadata in a variety of ways. These customized visualizations can be bookmarked, shared, or embedded externally, and will be dynamically updated as new data products enter the system, enabling operators to monitor the long-term health of their instrument with ease.

  12. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  13. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  14. Instruments of Measurement Uncertainty Analysis Files%仪器分档不确定度的测算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志清; 张阳春

    2014-01-01

    测量不确定度的应用范围很广,当用同样的方法和仪器测量同一对象,由于测量仪器选择档位的不同,则提供不同的测量误差、分辨率,测算出的不确定度评定结果也就不同,本文以数字万用表为例进行了分档不确定度的测算分析。%Measurement uncertainty wide range of applications, when using the same methods and instruments to measure the same object, because the selected range of different measurement instruments, then provide different measurement error, resolution, a measurement uncertainty of assessment results wil different paper to digital multimeter as an example to measure the uncertainty sub-ifle analysis.

  15. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts.

  16. Introduction of a cryosectioning-ToF-SIMS instrument for analysis of non-dehydrated biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, J.; Beumer, A.; Lipinsky, D.; Arlinghaus, H. F.

    2006-07-01

    Tof-SIMS and laser-SNMS are becoming increasingly important tools for analysing the elemental and molecular distribution in biological samples. We have developed the prototype of an in-vacuum cryosectioning instrument directly attached to a ToF-SIMS/laser-SNMS instrument, which allows preparing and analyzing frozen non-dehydrated biological samples. Due to unavoidable effects during the handling, storing, and preparation of frozen samples, even inside the vacuum, it must be ensured that the analyzed surface is from the sample and not a preparation artefact. To this effect, a model structure, similar to the biological samples and with a defined chemical composition, was analyzed under varying thermal treatment before and during analysis, respectively, in order to identify a balance between evaporating and subliming adsorbed materials and the effect of freeze-drying on the measured signal.

  17. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  18. Characterization of airborne particulate matter at urban and rural area in Bandung and Lembang Indonesia using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as one of nuclear techniques utilizing research reactor provides a very good, simultaneous, multi-elemental analysis methods for airborne particulate studies. In particular, INAA is known to be a reliable analysis technique with low detection limits and effective for a large number of samples. The ability to provide elemental concentration information on all of the most significant elements enables statistical techniques to be applied in the data and determine the source contribution of the pollutant. Analysis the airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung and Lembang were reported to demonstrate the advantage of INAA method, especially to get a better understanding about the condition of atmosphere in Indonesia due to air pollution

  19. The Ma_Miss instrument performance, I: Analysis of rocks powders by Martian VNIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Carli, Cristian; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Altieri, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    The ExoMars/Ma_Miss instrument is a miniaturized spectrometer that will observe the Martian subsoil in the visible and near infrared range (VNIR, 0.4-2.2 μm) with high spatial resolution, 120 μm. It will be integrated in the Drilling system of the Pasteur Rover of the ExoMars 2018 mission, and will acquire reflectance spectra of the borehole wall performed by the Drill, at various depths down to 2 m. The laboratory breadboard instrument consists of the main subsystems: illumination system, optical fibres for illumination and signal collection, and optical elements for light focusing. It has been interfaced with a commercial spectrometer, the FieldSpec Pro©. The primary aim of this work is to compare the VNIR measurements and spectral parameters derived from the spectra acquired with the Ma_Miss breadboard and with a second laboratory setup. Reflectance spectra have been acquired on a set of six rock powder samples representative of Martian soil. Nine different grain size ranges of each sample have been measured with the breadboard and five spectral parameters were used to explore the Ma_Miss spectra. Those data were compared with spectra acquired by the FieldSpec Pro® coupled with a goniometer. The analyses of these spectral parameters evidence the correlation between the VNIR continuum slope and the grain size, and the correlation between the reflectance and the grain size; both the parameters tend to decrease as the grain size increases. The trends observed with Ma_Miss breadboard for NIR and VNIR slopes and for the reflectance are clearly consistent with the trends observed with the spectro-goniometer setup, although small differences are seen that can be explained with the different viewing geometries of the two instruments. Ma_Miss proves to have great capabilities for extracting spectroscopic information to constrain the mineralogy and some physical parameters of the analysed material.

  20. A New Portable XRD/XRF Instrument for Non-destructive Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pifferi, Augusto; Campi, Gaetano; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Gobbi, Ettore

    2009-01-01

    A new integrated portable apparatus capable of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements is presented. The instrument equipment is based on a Theta-Theta horizontal goniometer projected and developed in order to optimize stability and reliability for apparatus of such a reduced size and capable of capturing both XRF and XRD information. The simultaneous XRD/XRF data collection is achieved by using a Si solid state detector counting the X-ray photons scattered f...

  1. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  2. Analysis and upgrade of instrumentation and control systems for the modernization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides assistance in the review and planning process for the upgrade of instrumentation and control systems (I and C systems) and related safety features of the reactor protection system for research reactors. In the interest of safety a need was realized to evaluate the performance of outdated I and C systems. An advisory group was assembled to develop guidelines and to provide recommendations for the upgrade of I and C systems. The recommendations on I and C systems upgrade contained in this document were developed by the advisory group using as guidelines the established safety criteria and operating standards for research reactors. 24 refs

  3. Trace element exposure in man by instrumental neutron activation analysis of hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation technique was used to analyze human hair samples collected from people living in metropolitan and rural areas in Korea. Samples were also collected from factory workers and cancer patients. Hair from metropolitan area residents contain higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Br,Mn, I and S than rural area residents. Concentrations of I and S from cancer patients, Mg, Zn, Al, Na, Mn and As from glassware workers were relatively higher. The results show that the trace element concentrations of the hair are possibly related to the trace element concentrations in the body. (author)

  4. Challenging design and development of Ma_Miss, a miniaturised spectrometric instrument for Mars sub-soil analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, E.; Coradini, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Capanni, A.; Paolinetti, R.; Re, E.; Magnani, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies), the miniaturized instrument for spectrometric and stratigraphic analysis of sub-soil developed by SELEX Galileo in the context of ESA ExoMars mission. The Ma_Miss experiment is coordinated by the Principal Investigator Angioletta Coradini (IFSI-INAF, Rome) and is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The exploration of Mars requires a detailed in-situ investigation of the Martian surface and sub-surface. Determining the composition of the Martian subsoil will provide a direct indication of the steps through which the sample material evolved along geological timescales. Ma_Miss is an instrument fully integrated in the Drill system (developed by SELEX Galileo) hosted by a Rover operating on Mars surface; Ma_Miss illuminates the wall of the drill borehole and acquires its reflectance signal in the Visible and Infrared (0.4-2.2 micron) range, analyzes it through a miniaturized spectrometer (20nm spectral resolution), and transmits the digital data to the Rover. The innovative instrument concept was driven by several key needs, related to challenging scientific requirements and extreme environmental constraints. Implementation of the concept has required a deep interdisciplinary concurrent development in order to solve critical aspects of engineering and manufacturing, covering miniaturized monolithic optics and novel concept for fiberoptic connectors capable to automatically mate/de-mate during the robotic assembly of the Drill elements on Mars.

  5. Portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with contactless conductivity detection for on-site analysis of small volumes of biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2016-01-01

    A novel, easy to use and portable capillary electrophoretic instrument for injection of small volumes of biological fluids equipped with contactless conductivity detection was constructed. The instrument is lightweight (parts including a tablet computer are accommodated in a plastic briefcase with dimensions 20 cm × 33 cm × 17 cm (w × l × h), allows hydrodynamic injection of small sample volumes and can continuously operate for at least 10 hours. The semi-automated hydrodynamic sample injection is accomplished via a specially designed PMMA interface that is able to repeatedly inject sample aliquots from a sample volume as low as 10 μL, with repeatability of peak areas below 5%. The developed interface and the instrument were optimized for the injection of biological fluids. Practical utility was demonstrated on the determination of formate in blood serum samples from acute methanol intoxication patients and on the analysis of ionic profile (nitrosative stress markers, including nitrite and nitrate) in the exhaled breath condensate from one single exhalation. PMID:26709071

  6. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils. PMID:26948620

  7. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka, E-mail: Agnieszka.Galuszka@ujk.edu.pl [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Migaszewski, Zdzisław M. [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Namieśnik, Jacek [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicz St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  8. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  9. Instruments for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions: an empirical analysis for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas and contributes about 50 per cent to the additional greenhouse effect. To avoid significant consequences, appropriate measures have to be set within a short period of time. Austria tries to reach a reduction of 20 per cent. The most important technologies are: efficient use of energy, substitution within fossil energy carries and use of renewable energy carries. In the present work, positive energy political instruments (i.e. subsidies, information, motivation and energy consulting) are discussed in detail. There is a restriction to the sectors industry and trade. Firstly, the Austrian CO2 balance is set up the CO2 total emission factors are calculated. Then, the reduction of CO2 emissions is considered from the point of economy. Secondly, an empirical inquiry is carried out. This shows that the above mentioned energy political instruments have a significant influence on energy conserving measures. Later on, the obstacles are grouped into four categories: lack of information, organizational, technical and economical obstacles. Subsequently, there are generated measured to overcome these obstacles. At least, there are presented two companies, which have already made innovative energy conserving projects. Altogether, there could be shown that the aimed reduction of CO2 emissions is technologically and economically possible

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some fossil samples from Romanian palaeolontologic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fossilization process, elemental contents of the buried materials are modified by different physical, chemical and biological factors, such as ground water flow and degree of aeration, chemical composition of the soil, bacterial activity, the process being influenced by the climatical conditions. Bone tissue, by the calcium phosphate mineral (hydroxyapatite) in the external part and organic component (fat and collagen) in the inner part, has proved to be a proper substrate for minor elements accumulation. The uniform increasing of certain elemental concentrations during the fossilization process is generally used in palaeoscience for the age dating. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used by us to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn, and of the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb contents of two different fossil materials discovered in Romania during 1995-1996: Elephas primigenius mammoth mandible bone (1.5-2 million years age) and Pecten solarium shell (20-25 million years age). Mammoth mandible bone samples were taken both from the external and the internal part of the bone. Shell fragments were taken in association with the surrounding rock samples. Irradiations were carried out at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest (neutron fluence rate 2.3 x 1012 cm-2 s-1 and at the TRIGA reactor in Pitesti (neutron fluence rate 5 x 1013 cm-2 s-1. For the mammoth mandible bone (relative high contents of U and P) corrections were done for the uranium fission and (n,γ)β- contribution to Ce, La, Nd and Sm concentrations, and for the phosphorus interference in Al determination. It was taken into account that 141 Ce, 140 La, 147 Nd, 153 Sm isotopes are originated not only by the neutron activation reactions of these elements, but also from the beta- decay chains of the uranium fission products; for 153 Sm, spectral interference with 103.65 keV X-ray of 239 Pu (by

  11. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  12. The level of selenium and some other trace elements in different Libyan arable soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghawi, U M; Al-Fakhri, S M; Al-Sadeq, A A; Bejey, M M; Doubali, K K

    2007-10-01

    Elemental analysis of soils from two different arable regions in Libya was carried out to measure the level of many trace elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of 10 elements, viz., (Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn), using their long-lived radionuclides. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing two IAEA soil reference materials: IAEA Soil-7 and IAEA leak sediment SL-1; precision has been estimated by triplicate analysis of the sample and that of the reference material. Irradiations were carried out at the Tajura Research Center reactor, at 5-MW power level. It is clear that in the Libyan soil selenium concentration is somewhat lower than in other countries. The results show that trace metal concentrations in Libyan clay surface soil are higher than the sandy soil. PMID:17914223

  13. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Islamabad city using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Wasim, M.; Khalid, N.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.; Iqbal, J. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The soil samples of nine different sites in Islamabad were studied for their elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry were employed and 33 elements were determined. The acquired data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, pollution level index and enrichment factor. A perusal of results shows a distribution of elemental concentration in two major groups, one along the highway and the other in industrial area of Islamabad. The soil along the highway sites was found to be relatively less polluted than at the sites in the industrial area. The enrichment factor indicates the presence of As, Pb, Sb, Se and Sn at higher levels. The method validation was done by analyzing IAEA reference materials SL-1 (lake sediment) and S7 (soil). (orig.)

  14. Job analysis of the instrument and control technician position for the nuclear power plant maintenance personnel reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series that is planned to describe the results of a program undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, to define, develop, validate, and disseminate a methodology for the quantitative prediction of human reliability in the conduct of maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants (NPPs). ORNL has subcontracted portions of this effort to Applied Psychological Services, Inc. This report on the job analysis of the Instrument and Control technician (NUREG/CR-3274) and a report on the job analysis of the electrician position (NUREG/CR-3275) comprise a part of the initial efforts of the development phase of this program. With the publication of the job analysis of the electrician position, the series of job analyses reports addressing nuclear power plant maintenance personnel will be complete. Subsequent reports addressing model development and validation are planned

  15. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  16. Process monitoring and control with CHEMIN, a miniaturized CCD-based instrument for simultaneous XRD/XRF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David T.; Bish, D.; Guthrie, G.; Chipera, S.; Blake, David E.; Collins, S. Andy; Elliott, S. T.; Sarrazin, P.

    1999-10-01

    There is a large variety of mining and manufacturing operations where process monitoring and control can benefit from on-site analysis of both chemical and mineralogic constituents. CHEMIN is a CCD-based instrument capable of both X-ray fluorescence (XRF; chemical) and X-ray diffraction (XRD; mineralogic) analysis. Monitoring and control with an instrument like CHEMIN can be applied to feedstocks, intermediate materials, and final products to optimize production. Examples include control of cement feedstock, of ore for smelting, and of minerals that pose inhalation hazards in the workplace. The combined XRD/XRF capability of CHEMIN can be used wherever a desired commodity is associated with unwanted constituents that may be similar in chemistry or structure but not both (e.g., Ca in both gypsum and feldspar, where only the gypsum is desired to make wallboard). In the mining industry, CHEMIN can determine mineral abundances on the spot and enable more economical mining by providing the means to assay when is being mined, quickly and frequently, at minimal cost. In manufacturing, CHEMIN could be used to spot-check the chemical composition and crystalline makeup of a product at any stage of production. Analysis by CHEMIN can be used as feedback in manufacturing processes where rates of heating, process temperature, mixture of feedstocks, and other variables must be adjusted in real time to correct structure and/or chemistry of the product (e.g., prevention of periclase and alkali sulfate coproduction in cement manufacture).

  17. Limit of detection in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors: study of the possible sources of error and application to the analysis of 41 elements at trace levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the detection limit was estimated when signals were affected by two error contributions, namely instrumental errors and operational-non-instrumental errors. The detection limit was theoretically obtained following the hypothesis testing schema implemented with the calibration curve methodology. The experimental calibration design was based on J standards measured I times with non-instrumental errors affecting each standard systematically but randomly among the J levels. A two-component variance regression was performed to determine the calibration curve and to define the detection limit in these conditions. The detection limit values obtained from the calibration at trace levels of 41 elements by ICP-MS resulted larger than those obtainable from a one component variance regression. The role of the reagent impurities on the instrumental errors was ascertained and taken into account. Environmental pollution was studied as source of non-instrumental errors. The environmental pollution role was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis technique (PCA) applied to a series of nine calibrations performed in fourteen months. The influence of the seasonality of the environmental pollution on the detection limit was evidenced for many elements usually present in the urban air particulate. The obtained results clearly indicated the need of using the two-component variance regression approach for the calibration of all the elements usually present in the environment at significant concentration levels. - Highlights: • Limit of detection was obtained considering a two variance component regression. • Calibration data may be affected by instrumental and operational conditions errors. • Calibration model was applied to determine 41 elements at trace level by ICP-MS. • Non instrumental errors were evidenced by PCA analysis

  18. Limit of detection in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors: study of the possible sources of error and application to the analysis of 41 elements at trace levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Tapparo, Andrea; Pastore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.pastore@unipd.it

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the detection limit was estimated when signals were affected by two error contributions, namely instrumental errors and operational-non-instrumental errors. The detection limit was theoretically obtained following the hypothesis testing schema implemented with the calibration curve methodology. The experimental calibration design was based on J standards measured I times with non-instrumental errors affecting each standard systematically but randomly among the J levels. A two-component variance regression was performed to determine the calibration curve and to define the detection limit in these conditions. The detection limit values obtained from the calibration at trace levels of 41 elements by ICP-MS resulted larger than those obtainable from a one component variance regression. The role of the reagent impurities on the instrumental errors was ascertained and taken into account. Environmental pollution was studied as source of non-instrumental errors. The environmental pollution role was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis technique (PCA) applied to a series of nine calibrations performed in fourteen months. The influence of the seasonality of the environmental pollution on the detection limit was evidenced for many elements usually present in the urban air particulate. The obtained results clearly indicated the need of using the two-component variance regression approach for the calibration of all the elements usually present in the environment at significant concentration levels. - Highlights: • Limit of detection was obtained considering a two variance component regression. • Calibration data may be affected by instrumental and operational conditions errors. • Calibration model was applied to determine 41 elements at trace level by ICP-MS. • Non instrumental errors were evidenced by PCA analysis.

  19. Air quality status in Kinshasa as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three independent analytical techniques - instrumental neutron activation analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometry and ion-exchange chromatography - were applied to airborne particulate collected on filters and to atmospheric acid gases collected in carbonate buffer solutions. 20 trace elements and 7 acid gases and acid aerosols were determined. Results were compared with those observed elsewhere and showed that air pollution is low in Kinshasa and does not give rise to anxieties. The main known sources of pollutants are: vehicle exhaust and aeolian process on stripped soils. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Investigation of Kpong carbonatite as a potential source for rare earth elements (REEs) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayford, M.S.; Akiti, T.T.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S.B. [Ghana Univ., Accra (Ghana). School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences; Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Legon-Accra (Ghana). Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to investigate REEs in carbonatite from Kpong southeastern, Ghana. Total rare earth element (TREEs) obtain were in the range of 540 mg/kg to 705 mg/kg. The total number of rare earth elements (REEs) determined by INAA in the carbonatite rocks from Kpong were 11, namely; La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu. The INAA results from the carbonatite show a high enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) deposits, marking the Kpong carbonatite as a potential REE source. (orig.)

  1. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed

  2. Determination of Trace Elements In Soil and Plants In Coastal Basin of Syria By Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods have been used for the determination of some major, minor and trace elements (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Sb, Sc Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn and V) in some kinds of plant leaves with their soil. Accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of plant and soil reference materials, precision have been estimated by triplicate the sample as well as the reference. The obtained accurate and reliable data in microgram quantities of some trace elements in plants and soil will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace elements content of soil and plant leaves. (Author)

  3. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  4. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  5. An instrument control and data analysis program for NMR imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a software environment created to support real-time instrument control and signal acquisition as well as array-processor based signal and image processing in up to five dimensions. The environment is configured for NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. It is designed to provide flexible tools for implementing novel NMR experiments in the research laboratory. Data acquisition and processing operations are programmed in macros which are loaded in assembled from to minimize instruction overhead. Data arrays are dynamically allocated for efficient use of memory and can be mapped directly into disk files. The command set includes primitives for real-time control of data acquisition, scalar arithmetic, string manipulation, branching, a file system and vector operations carried out by an array processor. 6 figs

  6. An analysis of the functional health of obese children and adolescents utilizing the PODC instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeszwa, David A; Stanko, Karen J; Mooney, James F; Cramer, Kathryn E; Mendelow, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is increasing in prevalence and is known to have long-term medical and musculoskeletal consequences. The baseline Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) was administered to 50 obese patients (>95th percentile BMI for age) or their parent (for those 11 years, n = 36; <11 years, n = 14) in any demographic or PODCI category. Compared with normative data, there was significant impairment in sports and pain identified in both genders, African-Americans, and those older than 11 years. These findings were consistent when comparing genders, ethnicities, and ages. There was no difference in happiness between any gender, age, or ethnic group. All groups reported essentially neutral satisfaction. There appears to be a lack of self-recognition of or reluctance to admit functional impairment secondary to obesity. Being obese, African-American ethnicity, and age older than 11 years appear to be risk factors for limited, yet significant, functional impairment. PMID:16439920

  7. Determination of iodine in foodstuffs consumed in Libya using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine was determined in foodstuffs consumed in Libya employing two modes of NAA. The first mode was instrumental using short-time irradiation with epithermal neutrons behind a Cd shield (EINAA). The other mode utilized short-time irradiation with the reactor-pile neutrons followed by radiochemical separation (RNAA). The radiochemical separation procedure was based on the alkaline-oxidative fusion of samples and extraction of elemental iodine into chloroform. Separation yield determined using the radiotracer 131I was within the range of 90 to 95 %. For quality control purposes, standard reference materials were analyzed in both modes employed. Using RNAA, a detection limit of about 1 ng g-1 could be obtained indicating superiority of the method in measuring ultra-trace levels of iodine. On the other hand, more than one order of magnitude higher detection limit did not allow sufficiently accurate determination of iodine in Libyan foodstuffs using EINAA. (author)

  8. Gold Investment Application Through Mudarabah Instruments in Malaysia: Analysis of Gold Dinar as Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Noor Mat Zain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two common ways to invest gold in Malaysia, either physical gold investment or by way of opening gold saving account. Investing in physical gold can be done by means of buying and selling instrument. Meanwhile gold investment account can be done by means of buying and selling as well as mudarabah. Due to gold which is capital in mudarabah in E Qirad is in the form of dinar, while dinar is no longer considered as a currency, but dinar is a commodity. Therefore, the question arises whether dinar is valid either based on currency or commodity (carud. This study aims to determine the above mentioned position, and to study the profit of investing in E Qirad gold.

  9. Woodfuel in Rwanda: Impact on Energy, Poverty, Environment and Policy Instruments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Mazimpaka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rwanda’s geographical and socio-economic situations have shaped the energy situation and limited access to modern fuels. Woodfuel is the main source of energy for households and its trade a source of income and jobs in rural areas. Currently 85.2% of households’ land holding is less than 1 ha, insufficient to grow food and fuelwood for a household of the average size of 5.5 persons. Without well documented reports of the individual impact of each deforestation factor, woodfuels have been most blamed. This paper investigates how the current woodfuel industry impacts on energy, poverty and forests and analyses the woodfuel policy instruments. Considering woodfuel consumption under an only environmental or energy perspective has resulted in a search for a narrowly environmental or energy solution. Both failed to solve the problem of forest depletion. Current regulations limit the benefits traditionally derived from woodfuel commoditisation leading to a negative attitude towards policy instruments. The processes involved in producing charcoal and using it as a cooking fuel is inefficient and resource intensive. The barriers to large dissemination of improved cooking stoves include availability, relatively low cost of woodfuels, lack of improved stove diversity on the local market and weak government policy in regard to the woodfuel industry. Policies aiming to substitute or reduce woodfuel consumption, have not achieved the desired results and their implementations have not unarguably reduced deforestation. The paper recommends the community-based woodfuel production as sustainable management approaches to mobilise community support for sustainable forestry management and woodfuel production.

  10. Second international tsunami workshop on the technical aspects of tsunami warning systems, tsunami analysis, preparedness, observation and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop on the Technical Aspects of Tsunami Warning Systems, Tsunami Analysis, Preparedness, Observation, and Instrumentation, sponsored and convened by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), was held on 1-2 August 1989, in the modern and attractive research town of Academgorodok, which is located 20 km south from downtown Novosibirsk, the capital of Siberia, USSR. The Program was arranged in eight major areas of interest covering the following: Opening and Introduction; Survey of Existing Tsunami Warning Centers - present status, results of work, plans for future development; Survey of some existing seismic data processing systems and future projects; Methods for fast evaluation of Tsunami potential and perspectives of their implementation; Tsunami data bases; Tsunami instrumentation and observations; Tsunami preparedness; and finally, a general discussion and adoption of recommendations. The Workshop presentations not only addressed the conceptual improvements that have been made, but focused on the inner workings of the Tsunami Warning System, as well, including computer applications, on-line processing and numerical modelling. Furthermore, presentations reported on progress has been made in the last few years on data telemetry, instrumentation and communications. Emphasis was placed on new concepts and their application into operational techniques that can result in improvements in data collection, rapid processing of the data, in analysis and prediction. A Summary Report on the Second International Tsunami Workshop, containing abstracted and annotated proceedings has been published as a separate report. The present Report is a Supplement to the Summary Report and contains the full text of the papers presented at this Workshop. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  12. Method for the Analysis of Temporal Change of Physical Structure in the Instrumentation and Control Life-Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of computer-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is determined by the allocation of I and C functions to I and C systems and components. Due to the characteristics of computer-based technology, component failures can negatively affect several I and C functions, so that the reliability proof of the I and C systems requires the accomplishment of I and C system design analyses throughout the I and C life-cycle. On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I and C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a meta model for the modeling of I and C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I and C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I and C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis

  13. Analysis of rocks particulates by VNIR spectroscopy with Ma_Miss instrument breadboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Altieri, Francesca; Giardino, Marco; Ammannito, Eleonora; Carli, Cristian; Frigeri, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) miniaturized spectrometer will investigate the Martian subsurface in the Visible and Near Infrared spectral range 0.4-2.2 mum, with 120 mum spatial resolution, and 20 nm of spectral resolution. It will be integrated in the Drill of the Pasteur Rover of the ExoMars 2018 mission, and will acquire spectra of the borehole wall performed by the Drill in the subsoil, at depths down to 2 meters. The main objective of Exomars mission is the search of present or past life and the investigation about the conditions favourable to the development of life. So the characterization of the possible water geochemical environment is the primary goal: thus objectives will be the search for hydrated silicates as well as carbonate or sulphate layers. The goal of Ma_Miss is the study of the Martian subsurface, and its principal scientific objectives are: the determination of the subsurface mineralogy and the reconstraction of a stratigraphic column or sequence, by means of Visible and Near Infrared reflectance spectroscopy; the characterization of physical properties of materials. The instrument breadboard is operative at the IAPS/INAF laboratory; it consists of the main subsystems except the spectrometer, that is a commercial spectrometer (FieldSpec Pro ©): a 5 W lamp supplies the illumination; an optical fibres bundle carries the light from the lamp to the Optical Head, which has the double task of focusing the light on the observed target and of collecting the scattered light from the target. The illumination spot on the target is 1 mm in diameter, while the light is recollected from a 120-mum spot. A single optical fibre carries the collected light from the Optical Head to the spectrometer. The interface between the Optical Head and the external wall is the Sapphire Window, which has high hardness and transparency. The light is focused on the wall at a distance of less than 1 mm outside the Sapphire Window. In this work

  14. The Statistics Concept Inventory: Development and analysis of a cognitive assessment instrument in statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kirk

    The Statistics Concept Inventory (SCI) is a multiple choice test designed to assess students' conceptual understanding of topics typically encountered in an introductory statistics course. This dissertation documents the development of the SCI from Fall 2002 up to Spring 2006. The first phase of the project essentially sought to answer the question: "Can you write a test to assess topics typically encountered in introductory statistics?" Book One presents the results utilized in answering this question in the affirmative. The bulk of the results present the development and evolution of the items, primarily relying on objective metrics to gauge effectiveness but also incorporating student feedback. The second phase boils down to: "Now that you have the test, what else can you do with it?" This includes an exploration of Cronbach's alpha, the most commonly-used measure of test reliability in the literature. An online version of the SCI was designed, and its equivalency to the paper version is assessed. Adding an extra wrinkle to the online SCI, subjects rated their answer confidence. These results show a general positive trend between confidence and correct responses. However, some items buck this trend, revealing potential sources of misunderstandings, with comparisons offered to the extant statistics and probability educational research. The third phase is a re-assessment of the SCI: "Are you sure?" A factor analytic study favored a uni-dimensional structure for the SCI, although maintaining the likelihood of a deeper structure if more items can be written to tap similar topics. A shortened version of the instrument is proposed, demonstrated to be able to maintain a reliability nearly identical to that of the full instrument. Incorporating student feedback and a faculty topics survey, improvements to the items and recommendations for further research are proposed. The state of the concept inventory movement is assessed, to offer a comparison to the work presented

  15. Determination of traces of uranium and thorium concentration in some egyptian environmental matrices by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and thorium isotopes found in soil, rock, water, plant, air, etc., contribute to the natural radiation exposure of the population. U and Th concentrations in some Egyptian environmental samples like Toshki soil, Aswan iron-ore, El-Sukari and Atud gold vein deposits in Eastern desert and phosphate samples from El-Sibayla in the Nile Valley and EI-Quseir in the Red Sea coast were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons flux of 7x1011 n/cm2.s in Mainz TRIGA research reactor. The results showed that the phosphate rocks are rich natural sources of uranium and thorium among the other minerals forming the earth crust. For comparison we used also the delayed neutron activation analysis to determine the uranium content in the same samples

  16. Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay; Nur Esen, Ayse; Erenturk, Sema

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated En numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies.

  17. Rare earth elements determination and distribution patterns in sediments of polluted marine environment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained from the analysis of sediment core samples taken from a fairly polluted marine environment were analyzed for the REE contents to determine the concentrations of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Core samples were divided into strata of between 2 to 3 cm intervals and prepared in the powdered form before irradiating them in a TRIGA Mk.II reactor. Down-core concentration profiles of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb in 3 core sediments from three sites are obtained. The shale-normalized REE pattern from each site was examined and later used to explain the history of sedimentation by natural processes such as shoreline erosion and weathering products deposited on the seabed and furnishing some baseline data and/or pollution trend occurring within the study area

  18. Enriched concentrations of bromine, chlorine, and iodine in urban rainfall as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of bromine, chlorine and iodine were determined in bulk rain as part of a detailed urban monitoring program. Instrumental neutron activation gives simultaneous non-destructive analysis of these halogens with detection limits of 2, 30 and 1 ng/g for bromine, chlorine, and iodine, respectively. Results for enrichment factor calculations based on crustal, seawater and lake water reference elements were somewhat contradictory. Elemental ratios of Br/Cl, I/Cl, Br/Pb, and Cl/Pb, together with an analysis of chlorine in urban surface materials, support the suggestions that local anthropogenic sources may cause the high bromine and chlorine concentrations observed in urban precipitation while fractionation from an oceanic source is likely responsible for high iodine concentrations. (author)

  19. Analysis of debris-flow recordings in an instrumented basin: confirmations and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2006, a debris flow took place in the Moscardo Torrent, a basin of the Eastern Italian Alps instrumented for debris-flow monitoring. The debris flow was recorded by two seismic networks located in the lower part of the basin and on the alluvial fan, respectively. The event was also recorded by a pair of ultrasonic sensors installed on the fan, close to the lower seismic network. The comparison between the different recordings outlines particular features of the August 2006 debris flow, different from that of events recorded in previous years. A typical debris-flow wave was observed at the upper seismic network, with a main front abruptly appearing in the torrent, followed by a gradual decrease of flow height. On the contrary, on the alluvial fan the wave displayed an irregular pattern, with low flow depth and the main peak occurring in the central part of the surge both in the seismic recording and in the hydrographs. Recorded data and field evidences indicate that the surge observed on the alluvial fan was not a debris flow, and probably consisted in a water surge laden with fine to medium-sized sediment. The change in shape and characteristics of the wave can be ascribed to the attenuation of the surge caused by the torrent control works implemented in the lower basin during the last years.

  20. Quantifying Benefit of Autologous Transplantation for Relapsed Follicular Lymphoma Patients via Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Danielle H; Li, Haocheng; Duan, Qiuli; Villa, Diego; Peters, Anthea; Chua, Neil; Owen, Carolyn J; Connors, Joseph M; Stewart, Douglas A

    2016-05-01

    The role of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) remains controversial because of a lack of proven overall survival (OS) benefit versus nontransplant strategies. We conducted a comparative effectiveness research study involving 3 tertiary Canadian cancer centers to determine whether the ASCT-based approach used at 1 center improved OS relative to non-ASCT approaches used at the other centers. Of 1082 consecutive patients aged 18 to 60 years and diagnosed with FL from 2001 to 2010, the study population included 355 patients who experienced relapse from chemotherapy (center A = 96, center B = 84, center C = 175). Data were analyzed according to the instrumental variable of treatment center to control for confounding factors. The frequency of using ASCT at first or second relapse was significantly different between the centers (A = 58%, B = 7%, C = 5%, P HR .127, P = .004) and from initial diagnosis (HR .116, P = .004). In conclusion, for FL patients who relapse after chemotherapy, these results strongly support more frequent use of ASCT at first or second relapse. PMID:26785331