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Sample records for analysis instruments add

  1. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  2. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  3. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  4. Infrared speckle observations of the binary Ross 614 AB - combined shift-and-add and zero-and-add analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, B.L.K.; Bates, R.H.T.; Cocke, W.J.; Mccarthy, D.W. Jr.; Christou, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    One-dimensional infrared speckle scans of Ross 614 AB were recorded at a wavelength of 2.2 microns, and the three bins corresponding to the three best seeing conditions were further processed by applying a shift-and-add algorithm to the set of images contained within each bin, generating three shift-and-add images with differing shift-and-add point-spread functions. A zero-and-add technique was used to deconvolve the three shift-and-add images in order to obtain parameters corresponding to the separation and the brightness ratio of a two-component model of Ross 614 Ab. Least-squares analysis results reveal a separation of 1.04 arcsec and a brightness ratio of 4.3 for the binary system at this wavelength. 31 refs

  5. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  6. Three-question set from Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument adds independent prognostic information on cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seferovic, Jelena P; Pfeffer, Marc A; Claggett, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE) trial, we divided 8463 participants with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) into independent training (n = 3252) and validation (n = 5211) sets. In the training set, we identified specific......: In the training set, three questions ('Are your legs numb?', 'Have you ever had an open sore on your foot?' and 'Do your legs hurt when you walk?') were significantly associated with the cardiovascular composite outcome. In the validation set, after multivariable adjustment for key covariates, one or more......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The self-administered Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) is used to diagnose diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We examined whether the MNSI might also provide information on risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of the Aliskiren...

  7. MetaEasy: A Meta-Analysis Add-In for Microsoft Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kontopantelis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines or integrates the results ofseveral independent clinical trials considered by the analyst to be `combinable' (Huque1988. However, completeness and user-friendliness are uncommon both in specialisedmeta-analysis software packages and in mainstream statistical packages that have to relyon user-written commands. We implemented the meta-analysis methodology in an Mi-crosoft Excel add-in which is freely available and incorporates more meta-analysis models(including the iterative maximum likelihood and prole likelihood than are usually avail-able, while paying particular attention to the user-friendliness of the package.

  8. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in assessing psychopathology in individuals with mental retardation : between and within instrument associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDaniel, WF; Passmore, CE; Sewell, HM

    2003-01-01

    An abbreviated version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the MMPI-168(L), modified for use with clients who have moderate or mild mental retardation, was administered to 58 clients, most of whom had co-existing dual psychiatric diagnoses. Another recently developed instrument, the

  9. [Zonisamide as add-on treatment for focal epilepsies. An outcome analysis of 74 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, S; Wellmer, J; Bauer, J

    2008-12-01

    Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of zonisamide (ZNS) used as an add-on treatment in patients with chronic focal epilepsies. Retrospective data analysis in 74 patients (38 men, 36 women), age 17-61 years (mean 35 years). Duration of epilepsy was 2-50 years (mean 23.3 years). Additional antiepileptic drugs 2-5 (mean 2.7). The ZNS daily dosage varied between 100 mg and 500 mg (mean 368 mg). Seizure frequency could be estimated in 50 patients; it decreased by at least 50% in 11 patients (22%), remained unchanged in 28 patients (56%), and increased by at least 50% in 11 patients (22%). None of the patients achieved complete seizure control. Side effects were seen in 45/74 patients (60.8%). Adverse events resulting in discontinuation of treatment with ZNS were documented in 24 patients (32.4%). Out of 70 patients, 34 (48.5%) remained on ZNS 12 months after the onset of therapy. In this study, ZNS proved to be an antiepileptic drug with a comparatively low anticonvulsant efficacy as an add-on treatment in patients with chronic focal epilepsies.

  10. LISA Pathfinder instrument data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Felipe

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtrac-tion techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology Subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of pre-flight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  11. Add Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    "Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  13. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.H.; Merritt, L.L. Jr.; Dean, J.A.; Settle, F.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  14. Memantine add-on to antipsychotic treatment for residual negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Iwata, Nakao

    2017-07-01

    We examined whether memantine add-on to antipsychotic treatment is beneficial in schizophrenia treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to achieve stronger evidence on the efficacy and safety of memantine add-on for treating schizophrenia. We analyzed double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of memantine add-on treatment in schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotics. The primary outcomes were amelioration of negative symptoms and all-cause discontinuation. Dichotomous outcomes are presented as risk ratios (RRs), and continuous outcomes are presented as mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs). Eight studies (n = 448) were included. Although memantine add-on treatment was superior to placebo for ameliorating negative symptoms (SMD = -0.96, p = 0.006, I 2  = 88%; N = 7, n = 367) in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale general subscale (MD = -1.62, p = 0.002, I 2  = 0%; N = 4, n = 151) and Mini-Mental Status Examination score (MD = -3.07, p add-on treatment remained superior to placebo (SMD = -1.29, p = 0.00001). Meta-regression analysis showed that patient age was associated with memantine-associated amelioration of negative symptoms (slope = 0.171, p = 0.0206). Memantine add-on treatment may be beneficial for treating psychopathological symptoms (especially negative symptoms) in schizophrenia patients. The negative-symptom effect size may be associated with younger adult schizophrenia patients.

  15. Analysis and design of instrumented subsurface mooring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Sakhardande, R.N.; Nayak, B.U.; Somanatha, G.S.

    The analysis and design of instrumented mooring is complex, since the environmental loading on the system may be static or dynamic and random. By using certain assumptions, an equivalent static loading system can be adopted and the problem can...

  16. Conference on instrumental activation analysis - IAA 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especialy on neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods. (J.P.)

  17. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frana, J.; Obrusnik, I.

    1992-05-01

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  18. Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes

  19. Instrumentation of Java Bytecode for Runtime Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Allen; Haveland, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes JSpy, a system for high-level instrumentation of Java bytecode and its use with JPaX, OUT system for runtime analysis of Java programs. JPaX monitors the execution of temporal logic formulas and performs predicative analysis of deadlocks and data races. JSpy s input is an instrumentation specification, which consists of a collection of rules, where a rule is a predicate/action pair The predicate is a conjunction of syntactic constraints on a Java statement, and the action is a description of logging information to be inserted in the bytecode corresponding to the statement. JSpy is built using JTrek an instrumentation package at a lower level of abstraction.

  20. Malware Instrumentation Application to Regin Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Kaczmarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the Regin malware underlines the importance of reverse engineering in modern incident response. The present study shows that such complexity can be overcome: substantial information about adversary tactics, techniques and procedures is obtained from reverse engineering. An introduction to the Regin development framework is provided along with instrumentation guidelines. Such instrumentation enables experimentation with malware modules. So analysis can derectly leverage malware’s own code without the need to program an analysis toolkit. As an application of the presented instrumentation, the underlying botnet architecture is analysed. Finally conclusions from different perspectives are provided: defense, attack and counter intelligence.

  1. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  2. Analysis of Adherence, Persistence, and Surgery Among Endometriosis Patients Treated with Leuprolide Acetate Plus Norethindrone Acetate Add-Back Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Bonafede, Machaon; Farr, Amanda M; Castelli-Haley, Jane; Winkel, Craig

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis affects over 10 million women in the United States. Depot leuprolide acetate (LA), a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, has been used extensively for the treatment of women with endometriosis but is associated with hypoestrogenic symptoms and bone mineral density loss. The concomitant use of add-back therapies, specifically norethindrone acetate (NETA), can alleviate these adverse effects. To compare adherence to and persistence with LA treatment and time to endometriosis-related surgery among women treated with NETA and women treated with LA plus other add-back therapies or LA only. This retrospective analysis was conducted using Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database. Women with a diagnosis of endometriosis (ICD-9-CM code 617.xx) who initiated LA (index date) in 2005-2011 were selected for inclusion. Additional requirements were 12 months of continuous enrollment pre- and post-index and no evidence of endometriosis-related surgeries pre-index or up to 30 days post-index; no pre-index use of estrogen or noncontraceptive hormones; and no diagnoses of uterine fibroids, malignant neoplasms, infertility, or pregnancy. Patients were characterized as using NETA; other add-back therapies (estrogens, progestins, or estrogen-progestin combinations); or no add-back therapy. Adherence to and persistence with LA were measured over the 6 months following the index date using outpatient medical and pharmacy claims. Patients were considered adherent if their proportion of days covered was greater than or equal to 0.80. Persistence was operationalized as time to discontinuation, defined as a continuous gap of > 60 days without LA on hand. Time to endometriosis-related surgery (laparotomy, laparoscopy, excision/ablation/fulguration, oophorectomy, and hysterectomy) was measured over the 12 months following the index date. Surgeries were identified from inpatient and outpatient medical claims using procedure codes. Outcomes were

  3. What Can Policy Analysis Add to Evaluation Research?: Predictive Modeling and Policy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Policy analysis, or policy study, is defined as the study of the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies; sometimes policy analysis refers to specific methods used. Two new developments associated with policy analysis are discussed. One is the concern for deducing the effects of alternative policies before they are adopted, as…

  4. Digital tomosynthesis parallel imaging computational analysis with shift and add and back projection reconstruction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Balla, Apuroop; Rayford II, Cleveland E; Zhou, Weihua; Fang, Jian; Cong, Linlin

    2010-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a novel technology that has been developed for various clinical applications. Parallel imaging configuration is utilised in a few tomosynthesis imaging areas such as digital chest tomosynthesis. Recently, parallel imaging configuration for breast tomosynthesis began to appear too. In this paper, we present the investigation on computational analysis of impulse response characterisation as the start point of our important research efforts to optimise the parallel imaging configurations. Results suggest that impulse response computational analysis is an effective method to compare and optimise imaging configurations.

  5. Neutron activation analysis at Texas Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, J.; Hossain, T.; Gnade, B.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis provides the high sensitivity required for detection of dopants and adventitious impurities in polycrystalline silicon, pulled crystals, and processed wafers. Reactor produced isotopes such as 199 Au provide sufficient sensitivity to study gettering mechanisms at levels equivalent to those of adventitious impurities in processed silicon. Detection of neutron-induced alpha particle radiation provides a quantitative basis for determining the depth distribution of B in Si. Each method plays a synergistic role in the chemical, physical, and electrical characterization of semiconductor silicon. (author)

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  7. Assessing the teaching of procedural skills: can cognitive task analysis add to our traditional teaching methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maura E; Ortega, Adrian; Wasserberg, Nir; Kaufman, Howard; Nyquist, Julie; Clark, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a cognitive task analysis (CTA) could capture steps and decision points that were not articulated during traditional teaching of a colonoscopy. Three expert colorectal surgeons were videotaped performing a colonoscopy. After the videotapes were transcribed, the experts participated in a CTA. A 26-step procedural checklist and a 16-step cognitive demands table was created by using information obtained in the CTA. The videotape transcriptions were transposed onto the procedural checklist and cognitive demands table to identify steps and decision points that were omitted during traditional teaching. Surgeon A described 50% of "how-to" steps and 43% of decision points. Surgeon B described 30% of steps and 25% of decisions. Surgeon C described 26% of steps and 38% of cognitive decisions. By using CTA, we were able to identify relevant steps and decision points that were omitted during traditional teaching by all 3 experts.

  8. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  9. Just add water: Accuracy of analysis of diluted human milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R W; Adamkin, D H; Farris, A; Radmacher, P G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the maximum dilution of human milk (HM) that yields reliable results for protein, fat and lactose when analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy. De-identified samples of frozen HM were obtained. Milk was thawed and warmed (40°C) prior to analysis. Undiluted (native) HM was analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient composition: total protein (P), fat (F), carbohydrate (C); Energy (E) was calculated from the macronutrient results. Subsequent analyses were done with 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions of each sample with distilled water. Additional samples were sent to a certified lab for external validation. Quantitatively, F and P showed statistically significant but clinically non-critical differences in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. Differences at higher dilutions were statistically significant and deviated from native values enough to render those dilutions unreliable. External validation studies also showed statistically significant but clinically unimportant differences at 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. The Calais Human Milk Analyzer can be used with HM samples diluted 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 and return results within 5% of values from undiluted HM. At a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution, however, results vary as much as 10%, especially with P and F. At the 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions these differences appear to be insignificant in the context of nutritional management. However, the accuracy and reliability of the 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions are questionable.

  10. Efficient polarization analysis for focusing neutron instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, Jochen; Glavic, Artur

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutrons are a powerful probe to investigate magnetism in condensed matter on length scales from single atomic distances to micrometers. With the ongoing advancement of neutron optics, that allow to transport beams with increased divergence, the demands on neutron polarizes and analyzers have grown as well. The situation becomes especially challenging for new instruments at pulsed sources, where a large wavelength band needs to be polarized to make efficient use of the time structure of the beam. Here we present a polarization analysis concept for highly focused neutron beams that is based on transmission supermirrors that are bend in the shape of equiangular spirals. The method allows polarizations above 95% and good transmission, without negative impact on other beam characteristics. An example of a compact polarizing device already tested on the AMOR reflectometer is presented as well as the concept for the next generation implementation of the technique that will be installed on the Estia instrument being build for the European Spallation Source.

  11. Optimization of instrumental activation analysis conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.; Gavrilas-Guinn, M.

    1993-01-01

    In instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work, a good commonsense rule of thumb is that the opium conditions for the measurement of any induced activity, in a multi-element sample matrix, are an irradiation time, a decay time, and a counting time each approximately equal to the half-life of the radionuclide (if feasible). The INAA Advance Computer Program (APCP) was used to test this rule on ten reference materials. For the 280 radionuclide/material combinations traced through all 14 APCP condition sets, the rule predicted the best set for 67% of them, was off by one set for 31% of them, and was only off by two sets of 2% of them. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  12. Time-action analysis of instrument positioners in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, K. T.; Bruijn, M.; Jaspers, J. E.; Stassen, L. P. S.; Erp, W. F. M.; Jansen, A.; Go, P. M. N. Y. H.; Dankelman, J.; Gouma, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Instrument positioners can position and lock a laparoscopic instrument. This study uses time-action analysis to evaluate objectively whether IPs can substitute for a surgical assistant efficiently and safely. METHODS: In four hospitals, 78 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were randomly

  13. Instrumental Analysis in Environmental Chemistry - Gas Phase Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Donald H.; Meyers, Philip A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses advances made in chemical analysis instrumentation used in environmental monitoring. This first of two articles is concerned with analytical instrumentation in which detection and dispersion depend ultimately on the properties of gaseous molecules. (JR)

  14. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1985-01-01

    The main characteristics of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA),relevant for environmental research and monitoring, was reviewed and discussed-sensitivity, suitable for detection of many toxic elements, the low risks of contamination of element loss, lack of matrix effects, lack of light element interference except for 24 Na, capability for multi-element determination, comparatively low costs. A detailed description of the IRI analysis system for routine INAA is given. The system is based on the single comparator method of standartization to take full advantage of multi-element without preparation and use the trace element standards. Zinc was used as mono element standard, the element concentrations are calculated on the basis of 65 Zn and 69m Zn-activities. The irradiations were carried out in a thermal neutron flux of 1.10 13 n/cm 2 .s. The gamma spectra is converted into element concentrations using a set of dedicated software, performing the following functions: spectrum analysis and interpretation, comparison and combination of the intermediate results from different decay times, generation of the final report, bookkeeping of the results obtained. The main applications of the INAA system mentioned are: identification of sources of heavy metal air pollution using air filters or biological indicators such as mosses, lichens, toe-nails, bird feathers, molusks and waterplants; and study of the uptake and translocation of heavy element in plants. Special attention was paid to mathematical techniques for a reliable interpretation of the element concentration patterns observed in sets of lichen samples. Future developments in INAA in environmental science are briefly mentioned

  16. Spectroscopy: Developments in instrumentation and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardenne, Pierre

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the characteristics, advantages, limits and potential of three spectroscopic techniques: near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR, mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR and Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical aspects related with these techniques, the information that can supplied and the main features of the instrumentation are presented and briefly discussed. The last part of the review concerns the application of the spectroscopy to food analysis, with special emphasis on the lipid analysis. The illustrations and examples have been chosen to demonstrate the importance of spectroscopic techniques both in process (on-line control and in laboratories for the analysis of major or minor compounds.Este artículo de revisión presenta las características, ventajas, límites y potencial de tres técnicas espectroscópicas: las espectroscopias del infrarrojo cercano, del medio infrarrojo y Raman. Se presentan, y discuten brevemente, los aspectos teóricos relacionados con estas técnicas, la información que pueden suministrar, y las principales características de la instrumentación. La última parte de la revisión esta dedicada a las aplicaciones de la espectroscopia en análisis de alimentos, con especial énfasis en análisis de lípidos. La ilustraciones y los ejemplos se han elegido para demostrar la importancia de las técnicas espectroscópicas en los procesos en-línea y en los laboratorios en el análisis de componentes mayoritarios y minoritarios.

  17. CT analysis of bowed stringed instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirr, S A; Waddle, J R

    1997-06-01

    To determine the utility of computed tomography (CT) for the noninvasive evaluation of bowed stringed instruments. Thirty-seven instruments that ranged in quality from student instruments to exquisite Stradivarius violins were analyzed with CT. Accuracy of thickness measurements was determined from 24 measurements of cross-sectional pieces sawed from a student violin. Accuracy of density measurements was determined from 328 CT attenuation measurements of 16 woods used in stringed instruments. Substantial differences of normal structure were noted between the masterpieces crafted in Cremona, Italy, and factory-produced student instruments. Unexpected defects were detected in nine of 14 instruments older than 100 years and ranged from a few wormholes (eight instruments) to many wormholes and extensive repair (one violin). CT thickness and attenuation measurements correlated well to the line of identity with actual measurements (P < .0001). Two cellos and a viola have been constructed from CT-derived information. The viola was awarded a gold medal at a recent international competition. CT provides the modern luthier and acoustic scientist with a unique tool for characterization of normal structure, defects, and repair and for accurate measurements of wood thickness and density. CT-derived information aids in the replication of original masterpieces. CT evaluation may have an important role in the valuation, insurance, and identification of valuable stringed instruments.

  18. External Balance Payments – Macroeconomic Analysis Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Dumbrava

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The foreign trade activity represents, on one side, the participation of one country to the international economic co-operation, on the basis of the labor international division as well as, on the other side, a factor of economic growth. The sold of the payments balance shows to what extent a country depends on external relationship. The foreign payments balance is conceived as an instrument of economic analysis, reflecting the actual financial flows, which are being established. In the paper we are dealing with the forms in which the payments balance is made, as well as the recording principles for its data. By its own structure, the foreign payment balance emphasizes the debts and the commitments undertaken by a country, within a given period of time. Aspects such as: the equilibrium of the payments balance; tehnicques meant to secure the equilibrium of the payments balance and policies meant to secure the equilibrium of the payments balance are also approached as an attempt to clarify the subject.

  19. Instrument to collect fogwater for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Haghi, M.; Hoffmann, M.R.; Flagan, R.C.

    1985-06-01

    An instrument is presented which collects large samples of ambient fogwater by impaction of droplets on a screen. The collection efficiency of the instrument is determined as a function of droplet size, and it is shown that fog droplets in the range 3--100-..mu..m diameter are efficiently collected. No significant evaporation or condensation occurs at any stage of the collection process. Field testing indicates that samples collected are representative of the ambient fogwater. The instrument may easily be automated, and is suitable for use in routine air quality monitoring programs.

  20. Instrument to collect fogwater for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Waldman, Jed M.; Haghi, Mehrdad; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Flagan, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    An instrument is presented which collects large samples of ambient fogwater by impaction of droplets on a screen. The collection efficiency of the instrument is determined as a function of droplet size, and it is shown that fog droplets in the range 3-100-μm diameter are efficiently collected. No significant evaporation or condensation occurs at any stage of the collection process. Field testing indicates that samples collected are representative of the ambient fogwater. The instrument may easily be automated, and is suitable for use in routine air quality monitoring programs.

  1. Teaching Students to Be Instrumental in Analysis: Peer-Led Team Learning in the Instrumental Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Miller, Martin E.; Avitabile, Brianna C.; Burrow, Dillon L.; Schmittou, Allison N.; Mann, Meagan K.; Hiatt, Leslie A.

    2017-01-01

    Many instrumental analysis students develop limited skills as the course rushes through different instruments to ensure familiarity with as many methodologies as possible. This broad coverage comes at the expense of superficiality of learning and a lack of student confidence and engagement. To mitigate these issues, a peer-led team learning model…

  2. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  3. Cross-instrument Analysis Correlation Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-28

    This program has been designed to assist with the tracking of a sample from one analytical instrument to another such as SEM, microscopes, micro x-ray diffraction and other instruments where particular positions/locations on the sample are examined, photographed, etc. The software is designed to easily enter the position of fiducials and locations of interest such that in a future session in the same of different instrument the positions of interest can be re-found through using the known location fiducials in the current and reference session to transform the point into the current sessions coordinate system. The software is dialog box driven guiding the user through the necessary data entry and program choices. Information is stored in a series of text based extensible markup language (XML) files.

  4. Hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Garcia, C.

    1983-01-01

    A portable hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument uses a number-oriented microprocessor sequenced by a single component microprocessor. The incorporation of new CMOS integrated circuits makes possible complex analysis in a small, easily operated, battery-powered unit. The instrument solves an immediate problem with threshold setting of plastic scintillators and promises numerous other applications

  5. Hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Garcia, C.

    1982-01-01

    A portable hand-held pulse-train-analysis instrument uses a number-oriented microprocessor sequenced by a single component microprocessor. The incorporation of new CMOS integrated circuits makes possible complex analysis in a small, easily operated, battery-powered unit. The instrument solves an immediate problem with threshold setting of plastic scintillators and promises numerous other applications

  6. New instrument expanding individual tree stem analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil A. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Forest health, vitality, and productivity are interrelated and are maintained by using sound forest management. There are some standard indicators that are measured to assess the extent and severity of damage inflicted by biotic and abiotic agents. Assessment of these indicators using affordable methods is a subjective process. A video rangefinder instrument is...

  7. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  8. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  9. Power calculator for instrumental variable analysis in pharmacoepidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Venexia M; Davies, Neil M; Windmeijer, Frank; Burgess, Stephen; Martin, Richard M

    2017-10-01

    Instrumental variable analysis, for example with physicians' prescribing preferences as an instrument for medications issued in primary care, is an increasingly popular method in the field of pharmacoepidemiology. Existing power calculators for studies using instrumental variable analysis, such as Mendelian randomization power calculators, do not allow for the structure of research questions in this field. This is because the analysis in pharmacoepidemiology will typically have stronger instruments and detect larger causal effects than in other fields. Consequently, there is a need for dedicated power calculators for pharmacoepidemiological research. The formula for calculating the power of a study using instrumental variable analysis in the context of pharmacoepidemiology is derived before being validated by a simulation study. The formula is applicable for studies using a single binary instrument to analyse the causal effect of a binary exposure on a continuous outcome. An online calculator, as well as packages in both R and Stata, are provided for the implementation of the formula by others. The statistical power of instrumental variable analysis in pharmacoepidemiological studies to detect a clinically meaningful treatment effect is an important consideration. Research questions in this field have distinct structures that must be accounted for when calculating power. The formula presented differs from existing instrumental variable power formulae due to its parametrization, which is designed specifically for ease of use by pharmacoepidemiologists. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  10. Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    For synthesizing a wide variety of musical sounds, it is important to understand which acoustic properties of musical instrument sounds are related to specific perceptual features. Some properties are obvious: Amplitude and fundamental frequency easily control loudness and pitch. Other perceptual features are related to sound spectra and how they vary with time. For example, tonal "brightness" is strongly connected to the centroid or tilt of a spectrum. "Attack impact" (sometimes called "bite" or "attack sharpness") is strongly connected to spectral features during the first 20-100 ms of sound, as well as the rise time of the sound. Tonal "warmth" is connected to spectral features such as "incoherence" or "inharmonicity."

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  12. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  13. Instrumental analysis and characterization of mineral ores from Yale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 30 m beneath surface) of the Yale area (Upper East Region, Ghana) were analysed by instrumental techniques for the mineral contents. The three techniques applied in analysing the ores were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

  14. The role of domain analysis in prediction instrument development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spoel, Sjoerd; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop prediction instruments that have sufficient predictive power, it is essential to understand the specific domain the prediction instrument is developed for. This domain analysis is especially important for domains where human behavior, politics, or other soft factors play a role.

  15. Instrumentation for bedside analysis of swallowing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Catiuscia S S; Nunes, Luiz G Q; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is a common problem seen in patients undergoing treatment for cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses. This disease is associated with aspiration-induced chest infections. The methods currently used for diagnosis, however, are qualitative or based on expensive equipment. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising low-cost, quantitative and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of swallowing. This work describes the design and application of a bedside instrument able to evaluate swallowing mechanisms and to identify patients at risk of aspiration. Three-axis swallowing accelerometry was used to measure the neck vibrations associated with deglutition, providing analog signals to a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW environment. In vivo tests in normal subjects as well as tests with disphagic patients showed that the system was able to easily and non-invasively detect changes in the swallowing acceleration pattern associated with increasing values of water volume (p disphagia. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the objective bedside evaluation of patients at risk of aspiration.

  16. Microfabricated instrument for tissue biopsy and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated biopsy/histology instrument which has several advantages over the conventional procedures, including minimal specimen handling, smooth cutting edges with atomic sharpness capable of slicing very thin specimens (approximately 2 .mu.m or greater), micro-liter volumes of chemicals for treating the specimens, low cost, disposable, fabrication process which renders sterile parts, and ease of use. The cutter is a "cheese-grater" style design comprising a block or substrate of silicon and which uses anisotropic etching of the silicon to form extremely sharp and precise cutting edges. As a specimen is cut, it passes through the silicon cutter and lies flat on a piece of glass which is bonded to the cutter. Microchannels are etched into the glass or silicon substrates for delivering small volumes of chemicals for treating the specimen. After treatment, the specimens can be examined through the glass substrate.

  17. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  18. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  19. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H.; Vaughn, K. J.

    2004-06-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  20. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H.; Vaughn, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  1. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H. [University of Missouri, Research Reactor Center (United States); Vaughn, K. J. [Pacific Lutheran University, Department of Anthropology (United States)

    2004-06-15

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  2. Development of intelligent system for a thermal analysis instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoli; Wu Guoxin; Shi Yongchao

    2005-01-01

    The key techniques for the intelligent analysis instrument developed are proposed. Based on the technique of virtual instrumentation, the intelligent PID control algorithm to control the temperature of thermal analysis instrument is described. The dynamic character and the robust performance of traditional PID controls are improved through the dynamic gain factor, temperature rate change factor, the forecast factor, and the temperature correction factor is introduced. Using the graphic development environment of LabVIEW, the design of system modularization and the graphic display are implemented. By means of multiple mathematical modules, intelligent data processing is realized

  3. Market Investigation for Oil Analysis Instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tunac, Corinna

    1999-01-01

    The Army Oil Analysis Program (AOAP) is part of a Department of Defense effort to detect impending equipment component failures and to determine lubricant condition through periodic analytical evaluation of lubricants...

  4. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The conference heard 23 papers dealing with the application of activation analysis in environmental control, the preparation of calibration standards, gamma spectroscopy, data processing and with the control of the purity of radiopharmaceuticals. (J.P.)

  5. Triangulation of pedicular instrumentation. A biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruland, C M; McAfee, P C; Warden, K E; Cunningham, B W

    1991-06-01

    Tensile load-to-failure pullout tests were performed on 54 cadaveric spinal segments. The vertebrae were grouped by adjacent levels and matched for bone mineral density (g/cm2), which was measured by dual-photon absorptiometry. Triangulation of Steffee screws and CD pedicle screws was accomplished by transverse plates specifically designed to increase fixation within the same vertebra before the longitudinal Steffee plate or CD rod was applied. A transverse plate with adjustable length was also tested to accommodate variable interpedicular distances. Comparative pullout load-to-failures were as follows: laminar hook, 809 SE 99.4 N; single CD pedicular screws, 863 SE 108 N; single Steffee pedicular screw, 1245 SE 75.3 N; adjustable transverse plate, 1341 SE 114; triangulated Steffee pedicle screws with a transverse plate, 1701 SE 151 N; and triangulated CD pedicle screws with a transverse plate, 2096 SE 115 N. Three triangulated constructs with pedicle screws and a transverse plate (CD, Steffee, and Kirschner) provided significantly greater fixation than conventional pedicular or laminar hook based instrumentation systems (P less than 0.05). Improved treatment of spinal deformities in the elderly and osteoporotic population is dependent on improving the fixation at the metal-bone interface of spinal implants Particularly in osteoporotic vertebrae, the strength of fixation of two triangulated pedicle screws is better than either laminar hooks or single pedicle screws. The strength of fixation of triangulated pedicle screws connected by a transverse plate is superior to a single pedicle screw because it is dependent on the mass of bone between the screws rather than simply the amount of bone within the screw thread.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  7. Financial analysis as a financial management instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehlíková Beáta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial market is one of the elements of the market-oriented economy. The financial analysis is a fundamental element of the financial controlling business. The purpose of this article is to inform briefly about horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis as the source of competitive advantage of the firm. The article is divided into two parts. First describes financial analysis and financial statements generally. Second, it presents a practical contribution of the horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis at the controlled businesses as financial management tools, which identify the financial position, market behaviour, correlations between the net profit and the prohibitively cost and operating profit, the financial activities profit, the income tax etc.Business, which the analysed firm operates in asks a provable claim on the high value of fixed assets. The capital composition of the firm is call to typify for the state-owned enterprise that was transformed to private joint-stock companies. Analysis is specially pleading for the needs considering the price of the borrowed capital in the capital structure rating. Fault factor ø value talks about needs for the cost regulation. Stair-step conception used for counting of the net profit in the accountant period indicates the financial profit, alternatively loss, as the distinguished pre-tax profit element. Picture about firm’s financial results can be completed with the information about the income tax value. Form of financial analyses presented in the article entablature the accents on the necessity to compare several accounting period and on the necessity of complex understanding of statements accounting slide “en bloc”.Financial analyse makes the decision makers possible to screen potential partners before the cooperation starts. On the other side, it makes a possibility to influence the production process, sales and financial management during the accounting

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.

    1975-06-01

    The application of a routine instrumental nuclear method is described in relation to environmental surveys and studies. A working rather than formal review is made of the techniques applied with particular reference to the data processing methods involved. The elements measured by instrumental activation analysis were: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, In, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Zn. (author)

  9. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the elemental analysis of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrbish, Y.S.; Abugassa, I.O.; Benfaid, N.; Bashir, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Cement is widely used as a construction material in Libya. Production plants introduce certain contaminants to the environment. The dust from such plants is carried away to neighbouring areas. This dust contains a substantial amount of contaminants depending on the origin of clays used in the production. In this study, a survey of elemental concentration of clay and cement was carried out to assess the environmental impact of such plants, especially those that are situated near residential and agricultural areas. Cement and clay samples, imported and locally produced, were analyzed. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was utilized to determine the elemental concentration of As, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Elevated concentrations of U and Th were found in a number of cement samples. The two nuclides are part of an elaborate decay scheme producing a range of radioactive elements, which emit alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation. With 40 K, they could give elevated levels of background radiation in buildings resulting in higher exposure doses. This could pose a health hazard and a detrimental effect on the well being of residents, especially in poor ventillated buildings. Also, cement is the main component for constructing underground reservoirs for collecting rainwater for drinking in private residences, so some harmful elements could leach into water. This is the first comprehensive survey of commercial cement brands and clays used in Libya. These results are intended to build a database for trace element concentrations using INAA. (author)

  11. A study on feature analysis for musical instrument classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jeremiah D; Simmermacher, Christian; Cranefield, Stephen

    2008-04-01

    In tackling data mining and pattern recognition tasks, finding a compact but effective set of features has often been found to be a crucial step in the overall problem-solving process. In this paper, we present an empirical study on feature analysis for recognition of classical instrument, using machine learning techniques to select and evaluate features extracted from a number of different feature schemes. It is revealed that there is significant redundancy between and within feature schemes commonly used in practice. Our results suggest that further feature analysis research is necessary in order to optimize feature selection and achieve better results for the instrument recognition problem.

  12. Emotional Abuse History and Migraine Among Young Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Add Health Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E; Karmakar, Monita; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr A

    2017-01-01

    To define and examine the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and migraine among young adults. Headache and migraine have been linked to childhood abuse in numerous studies, but there is incomplete characterization of headache types, and limited assessment of abuse types and frequency. Only one population-based study has examined the relationship between emotional abuse and migraine. None have investigated the temporal relationship between onset of abuse and of migraine. We analyzed data from 14,356 adults aged 24-32 years in Wave 4, which is a cross-sectional subset of the longitudinal Add Health study. Participants were queried regarding abuse (emotional, physical and sexual) during childhood, diagnosis of migraine, depression and anxiety by healthcare providers, and symptoms of current depression. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between childhood abuse and migraine, controlling for socio-demographic factors, current depression, and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety and depression. About 14% (n = 2040) of respondents reported migraine. Participants with migraine (vs no migraine) reported significantly higher rates of childhood abuse overall (60.6% vs 48.9%), including emotional (57.8% vs 45.4%), sexual (8.4% vs 4.6%) and physical (22.4% vs 17.9%) abuse. Emotional abuse had a stronger association with migraine (odds ratio [OR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-1.85) when compared with physical (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.89-1.68) and sexual abuse (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.93-1.68), adjusting for socio-demographic factors. The emotional abuse-migraine association remained even when controlling for lifetime diagnosis of depression and anxiety (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.19-1.57) and for current depression (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.30-1.67). The odds of migraine increased with increasing number of abuse types reported. There was a U-shaped distribution of odds of migraine associated with frequency of occurrences of emotional abuse, peaking at one time

  13. Combining two large MRI data sets (AddNeuroMed and ADNI) using multivariate data analysis to distinguish between patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Muehlboeck, J.-Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    and the high resolution sagital 3D T1w MP-RAGE datasets used for image analysis. Regional segmentation of the brain was carried out using the multi-scale ANIMAL image analysis technique (Automated Non-linear Image Matching and Anatomical Labeling). Cortical thickness measurements were performed using CLASP......NeuroMed cohort as a training set and validating the model with the ADNI cohort resulted in a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 87%. All three models created showed very similar results. Examples of important variables for discriminating between AD and CTL included temporal lobe grey matter volume, total CSF...... volume and mean cortical thickness. Conclusions: Multivariate data analysis is a powerful tool for distinguishing between different patient groups. The AddNeuroMed, ADNI and combined cohorts showed similar patterns of atrophy and the predictive power was very similar. This demonstrates that the methods...

  14. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...

  15. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the basic mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems and provides a basic description of the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by signal averaging and linear filtering. The text also demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning systems design, and illustrates their use in isolation and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and numerous biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It examines the properties of the ideal op amp and applies this model to the analysis of various circuits

  16. Applicability of analytical instrument in trace evidence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we explain the importance of the analytical instrument used in the field of forensic science for the analysis of the trace evidences collected from the scene of occurrence. The forensic scientist has to rely upon these instrumental analyses of trace amounts of materials like drugs, toxicological specimens, GSR, fibres, glass, paints, soil etc. Through this paper, reviews on these techniques which are extensively used in forensic sciences are reported. Our report summaries on the basis of analytical problem facing for a forensic expert and techniques employed to tackle them like XRD/XRF, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques, Raman spectroscopy and microscopy (optical, GRIM, electron microscopy, TEM). (author)

  17. US adolescents' friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.

  18. US adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chan Jeon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs.Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample.Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO. Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS.Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9.Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point.

  19. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  20. Availability analysis of the nuclear instrumentation of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of systems and equipment is a central question related to Production Engineering. Although systems are not fully reliable, it is often necessary to minimize the failure occurrence likelihood. The failures occurrences can have disastrous consequences during a plane flight or operation of a nuclear power plant. The elaboration of a maintenance plan has as objective the prevention and recovery from system failures, increasing reliability and reducing the cost of unplanned shutdowns. It is also important to consider the issues related to organizations safety, especially those dealing with dangerous technologies. The objective of this thesis is to propose a method for maintenance analysis of a nuclear research reactor, using a socio-technical approach, and focused on existing conditions in Brazil. The research reactor studied belongs to the federal government and it is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The specific objective of this thesis is to develop the availability analysis of one of the principal systems of the research reactor, the nuclear instrumentation system. In this analysis, were taken into account not only the technical aspects of the modules related to nuclear instrumentation system, but also the human and organizational factors that could affect the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. The results showed the influence of these factors on the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. (author)

  1. Is It Working? Distractor Analysis Results from the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) assessment instrument is a multiple-choice survey tightly aligned to the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. Researchers from the Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team at the University of Wyoming's Science and Math Teaching Center (UWYO SMTC) have been conducting a question-by-question distractor analysis procedure to determine the sensitivity and effectiveness of each item. In brief, the frequency each possible answer choice, known as a foil or distractor on a multiple-choice test, is determined and compared to the existing literature on the teaching and learning of astronomy. In addition to having statistical difficulty and discrimination values, a well functioning assessment item will show students selecting distractors in the relative proportions to how we expect them to respond based on known misconceptions and reasoning difficulties. In all cases, our distractor analysis suggests that all items are functioning as expected. These results add weight to the validity of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) assessment instrument, which is designed to help instructors and researchers measure the impact of course-length duration instructional strategies for undergraduate science survey courses with learning goals tightly aligned to the consensus goals of the astronomy education community.

  2. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  3. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  4. Combined Raman/Infrared Reflectance Instrument for In Situ Mineral Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary...

  5. Instrumental analysis with NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a manual published by Science and Technology Agency, Japan, to use mainly for municipal radiation survey as standard instrumental analysis in which measurement of the kinds and concentrations of radioactive nuclides contained in environment is performed with NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers. In the manual, untreated samples or pretreated samples by drying or incineration are the object. As the method of analyzing the obtained data, method of comparison with the standard sample, continuous distribution subtraction method and simultaneous equation method are employed. The manual aims at the analysis of up to several nuclides in a sample and the detection of radioactivity of tens of pico-curies. It comprises 10 chapters including introduction, definition of terms, selection and installation conditions of the instruments, sample holders and the standard sample, adjustment and use of the instruments, performance and testing methods, counting efficiency and its determination, pulse height distribution curve and quantitative and qualitative analysis of a single nuclide, separation and quantitative analysis of mixed nuclides, recording and reporting. Tables for possible nuclides released into the environment from nuclear power plants, examples of pulse height distribution curves for various nuclides and those of soil and sea bottom sediments are presented. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sewage sludge and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.; Buysse, A.M.; Helsen, M.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the analysis of sewage sludges of four municipal water treatment plants and one industrial water treatment plant. Compost was collected from a municipal compostation plant in Belgium. This pilot study showed that concentrations for 41 elements could be obtained. Tests for homogeneity and accuracy indicated the necessity of a thorough grinding and homogenization of the samples before analysis. The concentrations obtained were compared with the mean soil composition and the possible enrichment of heavy metals in the soil calculated when the materials are used as a manure to agricultural land. The Zn concentration is mostly the limiting factor for the agricultural application. (author)

  7. The proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize Mississippi State University (MSU) to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL). DOE grant funds are available to the University for the limited purpose of performing preliminary studies, including analysis necessary to conduct this environmental assessment. The proposed facility would be located in the Mississippi Research and Technology Park, adjacent to the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station campus in Starkville, Mississippi. Total project cost is estimated at $7,953,600. This proposed laboratory would be designed to conduct research into combustion devices related to waste management and environmental restoration that is of importance to industry and government. The proposed facility`s role would be to develop diagnostic instrumentation capabilities in the area of combustion and related processes.

  8. A study on cigarette tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Soot Haji Ahmad; Tey Nsan Yen

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in cigarette tobacco of popular brands locally marketed were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These elements are: Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, and Zn. Comparison of the element contents to the reported cigarette tobacco of Egypt, Iran and Turkey was also done. (author)

  9. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ancient Indian coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhadane, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration levels of various elements, viz. Cu, Ag, Sn, Sb, Au and As have been estimated in different ancient coins using Cf-252 neutron source by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. It is found that copper forms one of the major components of all the coins studied while arsenic and gold are found to be at tracer level in almost all the coins. The other elements detected are tin, silver and antimony in varying amounts. (Author)

  10. Sensory and instrumental texture analysis of Bulgarian commercial pates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tonchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this study was to characterize the textural differences between Bulgarian commercial pates with different ingredients and to adapt the used methods for later application in texture analysis of sterilized meat products. Texture parameters were studied by sensory and instrumental methods. The sensory panel was stated from students in similar age and was asked to fulfill a questionnaire about their likening the poultry pates bought from the commercial network. Nine points sensory scales were used, about appearance, colour, spreadability by knife to bread, flavor, consistency, taste, aftertaste and overall likening. The panelists were asked to rank the pates based on their colour, spreadability and consistency. Instrumental texture parameters – texture profile and spreadability work, were analyzed by Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer in Texture Profile Analysis (TPA and compression methods. For further analysis of spreadability, the probes were scanned by flatbed scanner before and after compression and their area ratio was measured by image analysis method. The results of sensory analysis show that, the pate with duck meat received the highest liking based on the overall liking, followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the lowest liked was the pate with goose meat. Based on the sensory spreadability and consistency the hardest was the pate with goose meat followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the softest was the pate with duck meat. The results from instrumental spreadability and hardness showed positive correlations with the results of the sensory analysis.

  11. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaks, V L; Domracheva, E G; Sobakinskaya, E A; Chernyaeva, M B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  12. Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, G.I.; Komkov, M.M.; Kuz'michev, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis at the IR-8 reactor is designed, fabricated and taken into operation. The complex is provided with a multichannel system of vacuum pneumatic transport with radiation positions in the reactor horizontal tangential channel for neutron-activation analysis by short-lived isotopes; specialized dry vertical channels in a beryllium reflector of the reactor and remote system of radioactive sample replacement for neutron-activation analysis by long-lived isotopes; a specialized horizontal tangential channel for neutron beam extraction by means of a beryllium converter and remote device for studied sample replacement under radiation and measurement of prompt γ-radiation for neutron-radiation analysis; a measuring center using minicomputers for experimental data accumulation and processing and analysis control

  13. OASIS: An automotive analysis and safety engineering instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, Roland; Armengaud, Eric; Grießnig, Gerhard; Kreiner, Christian; Steger, Christian; Weiß, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel software tool named OASIS (AutOmotive Analysis and Safety EngIneering InStrument). OASIS supports automotive safety engineering with features allowing the creation of consistent and complete work products and to simplify and automate workflow steps from early analysis through system development to software development. More precisely, it provides support for (a) model creation and reuse, (b) analysis and documentation and (c) configuration and code generation. We present OASIS as a part of a tool chain supporting the application of a safety engineering workflow aligned with the automotive safety standard ISO 26262. In particular, we focus on OASIS' (1) support for property checking and model correction as well as its (2) support for fault tree generation and FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) table generation. Finally, based on the case study of hybrid electric vehicle development, we demonstrate that (1) and (2) are able to strongly support FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) and FMEA

  14. Sensitivity analysis and power for instrumental variable studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuran; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Nancy R; Small, Dylan S

    2018-03-31

    In observational studies to estimate treatment effects, unmeasured confounding is often a concern. The instrumental variable (IV) method can control for unmeasured confounding when there is a valid IV. To be a valid IV, a variable needs to be independent of unmeasured confounders and only affect the outcome through affecting the treatment. When applying the IV method, there is often concern that a putative IV is invalid to some degree. We present an approach to sensitivity analysis for the IV method which examines the sensitivity of inferences to violations of IV validity. Specifically, we consider sensitivity when the magnitude of association between the putative IV and the unmeasured confounders and the direct effect of the IV on the outcome are limited in magnitude by a sensitivity parameter. Our approach is based on extending the Anderson-Rubin test and is valid regardless of the strength of the instrument. A power formula for this sensitivity analysis is presented. We illustrate its usage via examples about Mendelian randomization studies and its implications via a comparison of using rare versus common genetic variants as instruments. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  15. Seismic response analysis of an instrumented building structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.-J.; Zhu, S.-Y.; Celebi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Sheraton - Universal hotel, an instrumented building lying in North Hollywood, USA is selected for case study in this paper. The finite element method is used to produce a linear time - invariant structural model, and the SAP2000 program is employed for the time history analysis of the instrumented structure under the base excitation of strong motions recorded in the basement during the Northridge, California earthquake of 17 January 1994. The calculated structural responses are compared with the recorded data in both time domain and frequency domain, and the effects of structural parameters evaluation and indeterminate factors are discussed. Some features of structural response, such as the reason why the peak responses of acceleration in the ninth floor are larger than those in the sixteenth floor, are also explained.

  16. Analysis on detection accuracy of binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jia-ju; Yin, Jian-ling; Wu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yu-dan

    2017-11-01

    Low-light level night vision device and thermal infrared imaging binocular photoelectric instrument are used widely. The maladjustment of binocular instrument ocular axises parallelism will cause the observer the symptom such as dizziness, nausea, when use for a long time. Binocular photoelectric equipment digital calibration instrument is developed for detecting ocular axises parallelism. And the quantitative value of optical axis deviation can be quantitatively measured. As a testing instrument, the precision must be much higher than the standard of test instrument. Analyzes the factors that influence the accuracy of detection. Factors exist in each testing process link which affect the precision of the detecting instrument. They can be divided into two categories, one category is factors which directly affect the position of reticle image, the other category is factors which affect the calculation the center of reticle image. And the Synthesize error is calculated out. And further distribute the errors reasonably to ensure the accuracy of calibration instruments.

  17. Instrument for Analysis of Organic Compounds on Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, Riley M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop the Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Extraterrestrial Bodies using In Situ Resources (ISEE). Specifically, ISEE will extract and characterize organic compounds from regolith which is found on the surface of other planets or asteroids. The techniques this instrument will use are supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). ISEE aligns with NASA's goal to expand the frontiers of knowledge, capability, and opportunities in space in addition to supporting NASA's aim to search for life elsewhere by characterizing organic compounds. The outcome of this project will be conceptual designs of 2 components of the ISEE instrument as well as the completion of proof-of-concept extraction experiments to demonstrate the capabilities of SFE. The first conceptual design is a pressure vessel to be used for the extraction of the organic compounds from the regolith. This includes a comparison of different materials, geometry's, and a proposition of how to insert the regolith into the vessel. The second conceptual design identifies commercially available fluid pumps based on the requirements needed to generate supercritical CO2. The proof-of-concept extraction results show the percent mass lost during standard solvent extractions of regolith with organic compounds. This data will be compared to SFE results to demonstrate the capabilities of ISEE's approach.

  18. INR Pitesti TRIGA reactor instruments for structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, I.

    2008-01-01

    Two instruments for structure analysis were developed at INR Pitesti, a crystal neutron powder diffractometer in focusing configuration and a SANS instrument. The principle to obtain focusing for a given experimental configuration is to compensate the scan variable variances by using the cross-correlation between variables. The main characteristics of this instrument are: the monochromatic beam take-off angle of 83 angle, The wave-length of 1.3855 A, silicon perfect crystal monochromator of 200 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness cut upon the (100) plane, the reflection plane (511), 'the cutting angle' χ m = -15.8 angle. The distances source-monochromator, monochromator-sample and sample-detector are 5200, 2800 and 1200 mm respectively. The sample-detector distance can be modified in the range 1200-3000 mm and the detector window width can be chosen in the range 0-10 mm. The SANS instrument has the following components: the mechanical monochromator, shielding, the Bi filter, the sample table and holder, the detecting system formed by two rows of 40 3 He detectors each, two flux monitors, and the beam stop. Paraffin blocks and recipients with water form the shielding. The flux monitors are positioned one before the sample (in front of the monochromator window) the other in front of the beam stop. The sample can be rotated using a step by step motor. A cadmium slit system driven by a step by step motor allows for the determination of the monochromatic beam center at the beam stop position. (author)

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of air filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuykendall, W.E.; Fite, L.E. Jr.; Wainerdi, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports the capabilities of automated instrumental neutron activation analysis as demonstrated on 40 air filter samples from Cleveland's area. The results indicate the usefulness of the method in the measurement of elemental concentrations in airborne particulates. Through the use of automated gamma-ray spectrometry procedures, magnetic tape recording of spectral data and computerized processing of data, the method becomes very competitive from the standpoint of sensitivity and cost. The capabilities of the technique for air filter analysis may be summarized as follows: a., over 33 elements are measurable in a filter sample; b., the median detection limit for airborne concentration of an element is approximately 4.10 -9 grams.meter -3 ; c., around 26 elements are detectable in a typical cellulose filter sample; d., the method is non-destructive, therefore the sample can be retained for further analysis. (T.G.)

  20. Cost-consequence analysis of sitagliptin versus sulfonylureas as add-on therapy for the treatment of diabetic patients in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzoni V

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Valentina Lorenzoni,1 Fabio Baccetti,2 Stefano Genovese,3 Enrico Torre,4 Giuseppe Turchetti1 1Institute of Management, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy; 2SD Diabetology, ASL Toscana Nordovest, Massa Carrara, Italy; 3Cardiovascular and Metabolic Department, IRCCS Multimedica Sesto San Giovanni, Milan, Italy; 4SSD Endocrinologia, Diabetologia e Malattie metaboliche, ASL 3 Genovese, Genoa, Italy Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease related to a significant impact in both epidemiologic and economic terms. In Italy, around 3.6 million people are affected by diabetes and this number is expected to increase significantly in the next few years. As recommended by current national and international guidelines, metformin (Met is prescribed as first-line pharmacological treatment, and many pharmacological alternatives are available for patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy. Despite the availability of many innovative oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs, such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4-i and its first-in-class sitagliptin (SITA, which entered the Italian market in the last 10 years, their usage is consistently lower than traditional drugs such as sulfonylureas (SUs. In fact, due to higher acquisition costs, the prescription of innovative OADs in Italy is restricted to specialist, resulting in a prominent usage of traditional OAD that can be prescribed also by general practitioners (GPs. A cost consequence analysis (CCA was performed in order to compare SITA with SU, as second-line therapy in add-on to Met, in terms of costs and related clinical events over 36 months.Methods: A CCA was conducted on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy, from both the Italian National Health Service (INHS and societal perspective. Therefore, both direct (drugs, self-monitoring, hypoglycemia, major cardiovascular events [MACEs], and switch to insulin and indirect costs

  1. Global analysis of double-strand break processing reveals in vivo properties of the helicase-nuclease complex AddAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Cisse, Ibrahim I; Laub, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    In bacteria, double-strand break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination is thought to be initiated through the bi-directional degradation and resection of DNA ends by a helicase-nuclease complex such as AddAB. The activity of AddAB has been well-studied in vitro, with translocation speeds between 400-2000 bp/s on linear DNA suggesting that a large section of DNA around a break site is processed for repair. However, the translocation rate and activity of AddAB in vivo is not known, and how AddAB is regulated to prevent excessive DNA degradation around a break site is unclear. To examine the functions and mechanistic regulation of AddAB inside bacterial cells, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based approach to assay DNA processing after a site-specific DSB was introduced on the chromosome of Caulobacter crescentus. Using this assay we determined the in vivo rates of DSB processing by AddAB and found that putative chi sites attenuate processing in a RecA-dependent manner. This RecA-mediated regulation of AddAB prevents the excessive loss of DNA around a break site, limiting the effects of DSB processing on transcription. In sum, our results, taken together with prior studies, support a mechanism for regulating AddAB that couples two key events of DSB repair-the attenuation of DNA-end processing and the initiation of homology search by RecA-thereby helping to ensure that genomic integrity is maintained during DSB repair.

  2. Job/task analysis for I ampersand C [Instrumentation and Controls] instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs

  3. Structural analysis of HyFlex EDM instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, F; Pirani, C; Generali, L; Bolelli, G; Sassatelli, P; Lusvarghi, L; Gandolfi, M G; Giorgini, L; Prati, C

    2017-03-01

    To compare the phase transformation behaviour, the microstructure, the nano-hardness and the surface chemistry of electro-discharge machined HyFlex EDM instruments with conventionally manufactured HyFlex CM. New and laboratory used HyFlex EDM were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nano-hardness and modulus of elasticity were also investigated using a maximum load of 20 mN with a minimum of 40 significant indentations for each sample. Raman spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to assess the surface chemistry of HyFlex EDM. HyFlex CM were subjected to the same investigations and used as a comparison. Nano-indentation data were statistically analysed using the Student's t-test. XRD analysis on HyFlex EDM revealed the presence of martensite and rhombohedral R-phase, while a mixture of martensite and austenite structure was identified in HyFlex CM. DSC analysis also disclosed higher austenite finish (Af) temperatures for electro-discharge machining (EDM) instruments. Significant differences in nano-hardness and modulus of elasticity were found between EDM and CM files (P EDM and CM files were covered by an oxide layer. Micro-Raman spectroscopy assessed the presence of rutile-TiO 2 . HyFlex EDM revealed peculiar structural properties, such as increased phase transformation temperatures and hardness. Present results corroborated previous findings and shed light on the enhanced mechanical behaviour of these instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cost-consequence analysis of sitagliptin versus sulfonylureas as add-on therapy for the treatment of diabetic patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Valentina; Baccetti, Fabio; Genovese, Stefano; Torre, Enrico; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease related to a significant impact in both epidemiologic and economic terms. In Italy, around 3.6 million people are affected by diabetes and this number is expected to increase significantly in the next few years. As recommended by current national and international guidelines, metformin (Met) is prescribed as first-line pharmacological treatment, and many pharmacological alternatives are available for patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy. Despite the availability of many innovative oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4-i) and its first-in-class sitagliptin (SITA), which entered the Italian market in the last 10 years, their usage is consistently lower than traditional drugs such as sulfonylureas (SUs). In fact, due to higher acquisition costs, the prescription of innovative OADs in Italy is restricted to specialist, resulting in a prominent usage of traditional OAD that can be prescribed also by general practitioners (GPs). A cost consequence analysis (CCA) was performed in order to compare SITA with SU, as second-line therapy in add-on to Met, in terms of costs and related clinical events over 36 months. A CCA was conducted on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy, from both the Italian National Health Service (INHS) and societal perspective. Therefore, both direct (drugs, self-monitoring, hypoglycemia, major cardiovascular events [MACEs], and switch to insulin) and indirect costs (expressed in terms of productivity losses) were evaluated. Clinical and economic data were collected through Italian national tariffs, literature, and experts' opinions. Three expert clinicians finally validated data inputs. To assess robustness of base case results, a one-way sensitivity analysis (OWSA) and a conservative scenario analysis - excluding MACEs - were carried out. In the base case analysis, the higher drug costs related

  5. Analysis instruments for the performance of Advanced Practice Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Guerra, Sonia; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2017-11-29

    Advanced Practice Nursing has been a reality in the international context for several decades and recently new nursing profiles have been developed in Spain as well that follow this model. The consolidation of these advanced practice roles has also led to of the creation of tools that attempt to define and evaluate their functions. This study aims to identify and explore the existing instruments that enable the domains of Advanced Practice Nursing to be defined. A review of existing international questionnaires and instruments was undertaken, including an analysis of the design process, the domains/dimensions defined, the main results and an exploration of clinimetric properties. Seven studies were analysed but not all proved to be valid, stable or reliable tools. One included tool was able to differentiate between the functions of the general nurse and the advanced practice nurse by the level of activities undertaken within the five domains described. These tools are necessary to evaluate the scope of advanced practice in new nursing roles that correspond to other international models of competencies and practice domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris R.; Cabane, M.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatilesextracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantiallyto the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essentialstep in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite locatedin the interior of MSLs Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole massspectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupledthrough solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on thesame samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyzevolatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In additionto measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conducta sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction fromsieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rovers roboticarm.

  7. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Cabane, Michel; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.; Hawk, Douglas; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Jones, Andrea; Jordan, Patrick; Kellogg, James; Lewis, Jesse; Lyness, Eric; Malespin, Charles A.; Martin, David K.; Maurer, John; McAdam, Amy C.; McLennan, Douglas; Nolan, Thomas J.; Noriega, Marvin; Pavlov, Alexander A.; Prats, Benito; Raaen, Eric; Sheinman, Oren; Sheppard, David; Smith, James; Stern, Jennifer C.; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Jones, John; Gundersen, Cindy; Steele, Andrew; Wray, James; Botta, Oliver; Leshin, Laurie A.; Owen, Tobias; Battel, Steve; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Manning, Heidi; Squyres, Steven; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.; Raulin, Francois; Sternberg, Robert; Buch, Arnaud; Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Baffes, Curt; Feldman, Jason; Flesch, Greg; Forouhar, Siamak; Garcia, Ray; Keymeulen, Didier; Woodward, Steve; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Edmonson, Charles; Gorevan, Stephen; Mumm, Erik

    2012-09-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm.

  8. Spanish validation of the PAS-ADD Checklist Questionnaire for people with intellectual disabilities for Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; González, M C; Gutiérrez, P; Rincón, F; Núñez-Polo, M H

    2017-10-01

    The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) is an international reference tool for the diagnosis and assessment of mental health problems and behavioural disorders among people with intellectual disabilities. Although the original PAS-ADD instrument has been validated in the Spanish language, the shorter PAS-ADD Checklist has yet not been validated. The aim of this study is to validate the PAS-ADD Checklist for the Spanish population. The PAS-ADD Checklist Questionnaire was administered to 208 adults with intellectual disabilities at a vocational centre in Madrid, Spain. The psychometric analyses included internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability, Varimax rotation factor analysis for construct validity, criterion validity and feasibility. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 for the overall questionnaire and between 0.40 and 0.79 for the subscales. The Kappa coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were between 0.66 and 0.80. Varimax rotation factor analysis showed five well-defined factors. The Kappa coefficients for criterion validity were between 0.30 and 0.70. Feasibility was also good. The PAS-ADD Checklist is a feasible and reliable instrument for carrying out initial assessment of the mental health status of adults with intellectual disabilities, referring cases to more specialised diagnosis and treatment. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development of test methodology for dynamic mechanical analysis instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis instrumentation was used for the development of specific test methodology in the determination of engineering parameters of selected materials, esp. plastics and elastomers, over a broad range of temperature with selected environment. The methodology for routine procedures was established with specific attention given to sample geometry, sample size, and mounting techniques. The basic software of the duPont 1090 thermal analyzer was used for data reduction which simplify the theoretical interpretation. Clamps were developed which allowed 'relative' damping during the cure cycle to be measured for the fiber-glass supported resin. The correlation of fracture energy 'toughness' (or impact strength) with the low temperature (glassy) relaxation responses for a 'rubber-modified' epoxy system was negative in result because the low-temperature dispersion mode (-80 C) of the modifier coincided with that of the epoxy matrix, making quantitative comparison unrealistic.

  10. Fewer adults add salt at the table after initiation of a national salt campaign in the UK: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Edwards, Phil; Shankar, Bhavani; Dangour, Alan D

    2013-08-28

    In 2003, the UK Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health began attempts to reduce national salt intakes via reformulation of processed foods and a consumer awareness campaign on the negative impacts of salt on health. The present study uses large nationally representative samples of households in England to assess whether discretionary salt use was affected by the national salt reduction campaign. Large cross-sectional datasets from the Health Survey for England were used to analyse trends in adults adding salt at the table between 1997 and 2007. Since 1997, there has been a steady decline in salt use at the table. Ordinal logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, total household income, region, ethnicity and background trends revealed that the reduction in salt use was significantly greater after the campaign (OR 0·58; 95% CI 0·54, 0·63). Women (OR 0·71; 95% CI 0·68, 0·74), non-white ethnic groups (OR 0·69; 95% CI 0·62, 0·77), high-income households (OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·69, 0·82), middle-income households (OR 0·79; 95% CI 0·75, 0·84) and households in central (OR 0·90; 95% CI 0·84, 0·98) or the south of England (OR 0·82; 95% CI 0·77, 0·88) were less likely to add salt at the table. The results extend previous evidence of a beneficial response to the salt campaign by demonstrating the effect on salt use at the table. Future programmatic and research efforts may benefit from targeting specific population groups and improving the evidence base for evaluating the impact of the campaign.

  11. Positron emission tomography: Physics, instrumentation, and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porenta, G.

    1994-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that permits reconstruction of cross-sectional images of the human body which depict the biodistribution of PET tracer substances. A large variety of physiological PET tracers, mostly based on isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine is available and allows the in vivo investigation of organ perfusion, metabolic pathways and biomolecular processes in normal and diseased states. PET cameras utilize the physical characteristics of positron decay to derive quantitative measurements of tracer concentrations, a capability that has so far been elusive for conventional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging techniques. Due to the short half lives of most PET isotopes, an on-site cyclotron and a radiochemistry unit are necessary to provide an adequate supply of PET tracers. While operating a PET center in the past was a complex procedure restricted to few academic centers with ample resources. PET technology has rapidly advanced in recent years and has entered the commercial nuclear medicine market. To date, the availability of compact cyclotrons with remote computer control, automated synthesis units for PET radiochemistry, high-performance PET cameras, and userfriendly analysis workstations permits installation of a clinical PET center within most nuclear medicine facilities. This review provides simple descriptions of important aspects concerning physics, instrumentation, and image analysis in PET imaging which should be understood by medical personnel involved in the clinical operation of a PET imaging center. (author)

  12. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  13. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  14. Possible Detection of Perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with Previous Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalex, Rafael; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; Ming, Doug; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; McAdam, Amy; Stern, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; hide

    2013-01-01

    The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic [1]. Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C [1]. When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane [2]. These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants [3]. Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests detected compounds (CH3Cl and CH2Cl2) were carried from Earth [4]. Recently the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. The samples analyzed were portioned from the fifth scoop at this location. The samples were heated to 835C at 35C/min with a He flow. The SAM QMS detected a major oxygen release (300-500C) [5], coupled with the release of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument [6]. Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of perchlorates. Even if the source of the organic carbon detected is still unknown, the chlorine source was likely Martian. Two mechanisms have been hypothesized for the formation of soil

  15. Characterization of Brazilian commercial milks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the determination of toxic and essential elements in Brazilian commercial bovine milk, 25 ultra high temperature (UHT) milk samples were acquired in the local market of Piracicaba, SP. The samples were freeze-dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) allowing the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn. When the results were expressed as concentration (mg x l -1 ) no significant differences were found. However, considering the dry matter, results showed a clear difference between the mass fractions (mg x kg -1 d.w.) of skim milk and whole milk for the elements Br, Ca, K, Na, Rb and Zn, indicating that the removal of fat caused a concentration effect in the dry matter of skim milks. Discrepancies were found between the concentrations of Ca and Na measured by INAA and the values informed in the labels. Ca showed variations within 30% for most samples, while concentrations of Na were up to 190% higher than informed values. The sample preparation and the INAA procedure were appropriate for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn in milk samples. (author)

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of carbonatites from Homa Mountain, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohde, S.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty eight (major and trace) elements including eight rare earth elements (REEs) in African carbonatite samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The geochemical behavior of trace elements was studied in relation to the order of carbonatite intrusion from C1 to C4 through C2 and C3 at Homa Mountain, Kenya. The enrichment of Mn, Fe, Sr, Ba, Th, U and REE is found in the sixteen carbonatites examined in this study. The general increase in the concentrations of Na, Sc, Mn, Sb, Ba, Th, U and REE occurs from C1 to C4 through C2 and C2c, but C3 carbonatite shows a different pattern. The C3 carbonatite is extraordinarily enriched in Mn, Fe and Ba and is highly enriched in Cr, As, Sb and Th. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution pattern of the C3 carbonatite is not rich in the light REE. Strong fractionation between light and heavy REEs is found in the carbonatites, and moderate fractionation in the two alkalic igneous rock samples. In order to evaluate partitioning of REEs into carbonate, oxide and other mineral fractions, a selective chemical leaching technique on carbonatites was applied and is discussed. (author)

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to study the element contents in bones of prehistoric dinosaurs and bones of an ancient bear and an archantrop (ancient person), which were found on the territory of Uzbekistan. Concentrations of more than 25 elements were in the range of 0.043-3600 mg/kg. Multielement analyses of bone and soil samples were carried out by INAA using the WWR-SM research nuclear reactor. Results of measurements have shown that in the dinosaurs bones the concentration of the rare earth elements (REEs) were within 280-3200 mg/kg; the uranium content reached a very high value, up to 180 mg/kg, while in soils coating the dinosaurs bones this content was 4.2 mg/kg; in the bones of the archantrop it was 1.53 mg/kg and in the bones of a standard person its amount is less than 0.016 mg/kg. (author)

  18. Clinical scoring and instrumental analysis to evaluate skin types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, D G; Segura, J H; Demets, M B A; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2013-04-01

    The biology of the skin is very complex, and there are a number of methods used to classify the different skin types. It is possible to measure or quantify the characteristics of the specific skin types, using a variety of techniques that can objectively evaluate the properties of the skin in a noninvasive manner. To clinically characterize different skin types by dermatological evaluation and biophysical and skin imaging techniques, and to evaluate the relationship between the different characteristics. The study recruited 26 volunteers. Clinical scoring was performed by a dermatologist who classified the volunteers' skin as normal or dry (group 1) and combination or oily (group 2). Objective measurements included skin microrelief, pH, oiliness, water content of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Positive correlations were found between the level of skin oiliness and skin texture obtained from both instrumental analysis and clinical scoring. The combination and oily skin types had higher clinical scores for shine intensity, oiliness and tendency to pigmentation, and also had higher objective scores for sebum secretion, TEWL and roughness. Biophysical and skin imaging techniques are effective tools to help characterize skin type and assist in clinical dermatology. We found that different skin types had different characteristics related to skin microrelief, oiliness and TEWL, and therefore require specific dermatological treatments. © The Author(s) CED © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Analysis of marketing instruments used by domestic organic food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehapi Semir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview of previous research results points out to the fact that the majority of the sources related to the organic food marketing belong to the literature based on the research of consumers, with the lack of extensive research of organic food producers. Thus, the results obtained by the quantitative research of organic food producers on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, are presented in this paper. The main marketing mix instruments (4P are in the focus of analysis, as the most beneficial way of determining the success of marketing activities of the organic food producers in Serbia. In order to get a comprehensive idea of the success of the market activity of the producers, the obtained results are explained in regard to the theoretical knowledge of consumer behavior, acquired by an extensive overview of the relevant literature. The research results are significant, both for the producers of organic food, as well as for traders, because they indicate the key elements to improve the placement of organic food products originating in Serbia. As an important contribution of the paper to the topic, recommendations for the development of an appropriate marketing strategy are given in the conclusion.

  20. Authentic Performance in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory: Building a Visible Spectrophotometer Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark V.; Wilson, Erin

    2017-01-01

    In this work we describe an authentic performance project for Instrumental Analysis in which students designed, built, and tested spectrophotometers made from simple components. The project addressed basic course content such as instrument design principles, UV-vis spectroscopy, and spectroscopic instrument components as well as skills such as…

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Greenberg, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (≤ 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ≤ 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

  2. Predicative instrumental in the light of collocational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlebec Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primarily on the basis of the material provided in a monograph by Milka Ivić the author has aimed at highlighting the meanings of the so-called predicative instrumental and instrumental of basic characteristics (both used as predicative complements from a new perspective. To this purpose he has applied his developing collocational method, which leads to controlled lexical definitions. The conclusion is that both types of instrumental share the same 'u vidu' ('in manifested form', while the difference lies in the degree of subjectivity expressed by the verb. Namely, the former, being relatively subjective, is mainly in current usage, while the latter is obsolete due to its relative objectivity. Archaic usages of the former are midway between the two poles, i. e. semi-objective. The article reaffirms the results in Milka Ivić's famous study done half a century ago.

  3. Analysis and suggestions on standard system for general nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhenglong

    1999-08-01

    The standard system has been analyzed and researched for the general nuclear instruments and propounded following suggestions against the problems in standard's system: seriously adopting the international standards and recommending Chinese standards toward the world; appropriately regularizing the system's frame and the standard's configurations to make it more scientific, perfect and applicable; enhancing the construction of technical and basic standards, promoting the standardization of entire nuclear instruments; replenishing the standards of the testing methods and straightening out the standard's level, further completing the standard's system. In short, all of them are to enhance quality, readability and maneuverability of standards, to exert sufficiently the effects of standards

  4. Facet Analysis of the Client Needs Assessment Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, L. Suzanne; Stanley, Lawrence R.

    The structure of the revised Client Needs Assessment Instrument (CNAI) is examined. In 1978-79, the Texas Department of Human Resources (DHR) developed the CNAI to provide an index of applicants' and clients' capacity for self-care by measuring the respondents' levels of functioning in: (1) physical health; (2) daily living activities; (3) mental…

  5. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  6. Microcantilever array instrument based on optical fiber and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangping; Wu, Lin; Li, Chao; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2017-07-01

    We developed a microcantilever array biosensor instrument based on optical readout from a microcantilever array in fluid environment. The microcantilever signals were read out sequentially by laser beams emitted from eight optical fibers. The optical fibers were coupled to lasers, while the other ends of the fibers were embedded in eight V-grooves with 250 μm pitch microfabricated from a Si wafer. Aspherical lens was used to keep the distance between lasers. A programmable logic controller was used to make the system work stably. To make sure that the output of lasers was stable, a temperature controller was set up for each laser. When the deflection signal was collected, lasers used here were set to be on for at least 400 ms in each scanning cycle to get high signal-to-noise ratio deflection curves. A test was performed by changing the temperature of the liquid cell holding a microcantilever array to verify the consistent response of the instrument to the cantilever deflections. The stability and conformance of the instrument were demonstrated by quantitative detection of mercury ions in aqueous solution and comparison detection of clenbuterol by setting test and reference cantilevers. This microcantilever array detection instrument can be applied to highly sensitive detection of chemical and biological molecules in fluid environment.

  7. Use of a Microsoft Excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance by a two-compartment model analysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Sarah M L; Sturgess, Christopher P; Dunning, Mark D; Neiger, Reto

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of renal function by means of plasma clearance of a suitable marker has become standard procedure for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sinistrin, a polyfructan solely cleared by the kidney, is often used for this purpose. Pharmacokinetic modeling using adequate software is necessary to calculate disappearance rate and half-life of sinistrin. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of a Microsoft excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance, as well as additional pharmacokinetic parameters such as transfer rates (k), half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vss) for sinistrin in dogs with varying degrees of renal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Routine analysis of mercury species using commercially available instrumentation: chemometric optimisation of the instrumental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J.; Diego, A. de; Raposo, J.C.; Madariaga, J.M

    2003-06-17

    Mercury speciation analysis (inorganic mercury, Hg{sup 2+}, methylmercury, CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} and dimethylmercury, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}Hg) by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to atomic emission spectroscopy with microwave induced plasma as excitation source (MIP-AES), after ethylation of the sample and extraction of the derivatised species into an organic phase, has been optimised using factorial design, analysis of variance and MultiSimplex techniques. Standard conditions were used in the derivatisation step with sodium tetraethylborate (NaB(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}) and in the extraction step into hexane. Good separation of the species investigated and maximum sensitivity was achieved using an OV-1701 capillary column. The sensitivity was found to be maximum with an helium flow rate (make-up flow) of 100 ml min{sup -1}. Procedures for a correct cleaning of glass and plastic ware, as well as for the purification of reagents used throughout the analytical process, are also suggested in order to avoid unacceptably high blank signals. The effect that ageing of stock solutions used in calibrations has on the artefact formation of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} has been also investigated. Using the optimum conditions found, good quality calibration curves (R{sup 2}>0.995) for the three mercury species were obtained. Absolute detection limits of 0.5, 3 and 15 pg of (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}Hg, CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} and Hg{sup 2+}, respectively, were estimated. The repeatability of the analysis was found to be better than 5% (n=5) in relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) units. The optimised procedure for the speciation of mercury in standard samples is the first step in the development of a method for routine analysis of mercury species in aquatic environmental samples.

  9. Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanandita, Wulung; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-07-01

    That poverty and mental health are negatively associated in developing countries is well known among epidemiologists. Whether the relationship is causal or associational, however, remains an open question. This paper aims to estimate the causal effect of poverty on mental health by exploiting a natural experiment induced by weather variability across 440 districts in Indonesia (N = 577,548). Precipitation anomaly in two climatological seasons is used as an instrument for poverty status, which is measured using per capita household consumption expenditure. Results of an instrumental variable estimation suggest that poverty causes poor mental health: halving one's consumption expenditure raises the probability of suffering mental illness by 0.06 point; in terms of elasticity, a 1% decrease in consumption brings about 0.62% more symptoms of common mental disorders. This poverty effect is approximately five times stronger than that obtained prior to instrumenting and is robust to alternative distributional assumption, model specification, sample stratification and estimation technique. An individual's mental health is also negatively correlated with district income inequality, suggesting that income distribution may have a significant influence upon mental health over and above the effect of poverty. The findings imply that mental health can be improved not only by influencing individuals' health knowledge and behaviour but also by implementing a more equitable economic policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  11. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.; Moauro, A.; Madaro, M.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  12. Virtual Instruments for the Circuit Analysis with Interactive Parameter Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Stefan Brenner

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—The contribution presents the possibilities of LabVIEW in the special application as formula interpreter by using of the formula node. The main advantage is the immediate presentation of results in case of a parameter modification. The presentation of the time behaviour, the calculation of characteristic values and curves for typical examples of power electronics and control engineering are shown. Index Terms—Education; Formula Interpretation; LabVIEW; Power Electronics; Virtual Instruments

  13. A virtual instrument for acquisition and analysis of the phonocardiogram and its internet-based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Moulder, C; Zou, Y; Loew, M; Durand, L G

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a phonocardiogram (PCG) acquisition and analysis instrument using virtual instrumentation technology and investigate its Internet-based application. The PCG instrument was developed using a Pentium 200 computer, a data acquisition board, and a two-channel custom designed bio-signal preamplifier. LabVIEW was used to create the instrument's front panels. Spectral and joint time-frequency analyses were implemented into the instrument. This instrument can be used to display the PCG and to analyze the individual heart sound and murmur for the detection of heart valve diseases. Using a test-bed, the PCG data acquisition and analysis were performed remotely over the Internet. Through the main PCG panel, an operator can control the acquisition and analysis of PCG signals. In the remote test, real-time transmission of the PCG signal over the Internet was possible. Remote operators were able to view smoothly scrolling PCG waveforms and could control all the acquisition parameters and perform spectral and time-frequency analyses on the acquired heart sound. This study demonstrated that a LabVIEW-based medical virtual instrument provides a low-cost and flexible solution for data acquisition and analysis of PCG. It also showed that the current Internet supports the transmission of real-time PCG signals. Compared with other telemedicine systems, this application transfers not only the medical data, but also the virtual instrument and its signal processing capability through the Internet.

  14. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  15. Validation of virtual instrument for data analysis in metrology of time and frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordao, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Rocha, Pedro; Carvalho, Ricardo; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Software (CS) for collection, analysis and plot time and frequency data plots are being increasingly used in reference laboratories worldwide. With this, it has greatly improved the results of calculations of uncertainty for these values. We propose the creation of a collection of software and data analysis using Virtual Instruments (VI) developed the Primary Laboratory Time and frequency of the National Observatory - ON and validation of this instrument. To validate the instrument developed, it made a comparative analysis between the results obtained (VI) with the results obtained by (CS) widely used in many metrology laboratories. From these results we can conclude that there was equivalence between the analyzed data. (author)

  16. Does Marijuana Use at Ages 16-18 Predict Initiation of Daily Cigarette Smoking in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood? A Propensity Score Analysis of Add Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Ebnesajjad, Cyrus; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Kennedy, Ryan David; Johnson, Renee M

    2018-02-01

    Given the declining trend in adolescent cigarette smoking and increase in general access to marijuana, it is important to examine whether marijuana use in adolescence is a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking in late adolescence and early adulthood. Preliminary evidence from a very small number of studies suggests that marijuana use during adolescence is associated with later smoking; however, to control confounding, previously published studies used regression adjustment, which is susceptible to extrapolation when the confounder distributions differ between adolescent marijuana users and non-users. The current study uses propensity score weighting, a causal inference method not previously used in this area of research, to weight participants based on their estimated probability of exposure given confounders (the propensity score) to balance observed confounders between marijuana users and non-users. The sample consists of participants of Add Health (a nationally representative dataset of youth followed into adulthood) who were 16-18, with no history of daily cigarette smoking at baseline (n = 2928 for female and 2731 for male sub-samples). We assessed the effect of adolescent marijuana use (exposure, ascertained at wave 1) on any daily cigarette smoking during the subsequent 13 years (outcome, ascertained at wave 4). Analyses suggest that for females (but not males) who used marijuana in adolescence, marijuana use increased the risk for subsequent daily smoking: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = (1.13, 2.59). We recommend that adolescent marijuana use be viewed as a possible risk factor for subsequent initiation of daily cigarette smoking in women.

  17. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM ACCURACY UNDER SIMULATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MERKISZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The instrument landing system (ILS is the most popular landing aid in the world. It is a distance-angled support system for landing in reduced visibility, while its task is the safe conduct of the aircraft from the prescribed course landing on the approach path. The aim of this study is to analyse the correctness of the ILS in simulated conditions. The study was conducted using a CKAS MotionSim5 flight simulator in the Simulation Research Laboratory of the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. With the advancement of technical equipment, it was possible to check the operation of the system in various weather conditions. Studies have shown that the impact of fog, rain and snow on the correct operation of the system is marginal. Significant influence has been observed, however, during landing in strong winds.

  18. Design of Simple Instrumentation System for the Quality Analysis of Milk (Casein Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sangam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a simple instrumentation system for the analysis of casein concentration in the milk. Casein is one of the major constituent of milk and its concentration describes the quality of the milk. Normally casein is analyzed by conventional analytical methods or by using Spectrophotometric methods. Here an attempt has been made to develop a simple portable system using optical instrumentation technique. The objective of the developed system is the real time analysis of the casein concentration of the milk at the field. The system involves UV light source, UV filter, cuvette, photo detector, display unit, data Acquisition Card (DAC as peripheral with USB port. Appropriate program has been developed in visual studio 6 and turbo C. Repeated number of real time analysis was carried out for different samples of milk; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the amount determined by standard conventional methods with an accuracy of ±1.5 %, and the response time is within 100 seconds. This system can be used in the field for the quality analysis of milk as an independent unit and can also be interfaced to PC with USB port. The system has good accuracy, less response time and low cost.

  19. Determination of toxic elements in tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Cam, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of toxic elements in the tobacco of six different brands of domestic and two brands of imported cigarettes heavily smoked in Turkey were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

  20. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  1. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis as a routine method for rock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.J.

    1977-06-01

    Instrumental neutron activation methods for the analysis of geological samples have been developed. Special emphasis has been laid on the improvement of sensitivity and accuracy in order to maximize tha quality of the analyses. Furthermore, the procedures have been automated as far as possible in order to minimize the cost of the analysis. A short review of the basic literature is given followed by a description of the principles of the method. All aspects concerning the sensitivity are discussed thoroughly in view of the analyst's possibility of influencing them. Experimentally determined detection limits for Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U are given. The errors of the method are discussed followed by actions taken to avoid them. The most significant error was caused by flux deviation, but this was avoided by building a rotating sample holder for rotating the samples during irradiation. A scheme for the INAA of 32 elements is proposed. The method has been automated as far as possible and an automatic γ-spectrometer and a computer program for the automatic calculation of the results are described. Furthermore, a completely automated uranium analyzer based on delayed neutron counting is described. The methods are discussed in view of their applicability to rock analysis. It is stated that the sensitivity varies considerably from element to element and instrumental activation analysis is an excellent method for the analysis of some specific elements like lanthanides, thorium and uranium but less so for many other elements. The accuracy is good varying from 2% to 10% for most elements. Instrumental activation analysis for most elements is rather an expensive method there being, however, a few exceptions. The most important of these is uranium. The analysis of uranium by delayed neutron counting is an inexpensive means for the analysis of large numbers of samples needed for

  3. Intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for special nuclear material assay data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Detection, Surveillance, Verification, and Recovery Group of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Energy Division/Nuclear Safeguards Programs is now utilizing intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for assay data analysis of special nuclear material. The data acquisition and analysis are enabled by the incorporation of a number-crunching microprocessor sequenced by a single component microcomputer. Microcomputer firmware establishes the capability for processing the computation of several selected functions and also the ability of instrumentation self-diagnostics

  4. Development Instruments Through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in Appropriate Intensity Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Saptono

    2017-01-01

    The research aims to develop the valid and reliable measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention in vocational secondary school students. Multi stage random sampling was used as the technique to determine sample (300 respondents). The research method used research and development with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Result of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) at the second order with robust maximum likelihood method shows that valid and reliable instrument with the acquisition v...

  5. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  6. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  7. Acceptance: what's in a name? A content analysis of acceptance instruments in individuals with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwerier, Emelien; Caes, Line; Van Damme, Stefaan; Goubert, Liesbet; Rosseel, Yves; Crombez, Geert

    2015-04-01

    Instruments to assess chronic pain acceptance have been developed and used. However, whether and to what extent the content of the items reflects acceptance remain uninvestigated. A content analysis of 13 instruments that aim to measure acceptance of chronic pain was performed. A coding scheme was used that consisted of 3 categories representing the key components of acceptance, that is, disengagement from pain control, pain willingness, and engagement in activities other than pain control. The coding scheme consisted of 5 additional categories in order to code items that do not represent acceptance, that is, controlling pain, pain costs, pain benefits, unclear, and no fit. Two coders rated to what extent the items of acceptance instruments belonged to one or more of these categories. Results indicated that acceptance categories were not equally represented in the acceptance instruments. Of note, some instruments had many items in the category controlling pain. Further analyses revealed that the meaning of acceptance differs among different instruments and among different versions of the same instrument. This study illustrates the importance of content validity when developing and evaluating self-report instruments. This article investigated the content validity of questionnaires designed to measure acceptance in individuals with chronic pain. Knowledge about the content of the instruments will provide further insight into the features of acceptance and how to measure them. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival Analysis of Factors Influencing Cyclic Fatigue of Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fišerová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to validate a survival analysis assessing the effect of type of rotary system, canal curvature, and instrument size on cyclic resistance. Materials and Methods. Cyclic fatigue testing was carried out in stainless steel artificial canals with radii of curvature of 3 or 5 mm and the angle of curvature of 60 degrees. All the instruments were new and 25 mm in working length, and ISO colour coding indicated the instrument size (yellow for size 20; red for size 25. Wizard Navigator instruments, Mtwo instruments, ProTaper instruments, and Revo-S instruments were passively rotated at 250 rotations per minute, and the time fracture was being recorded. Subsequently, fractographic analysis of broken tips was performed by scanning electron microscope. The data were then analysed by the Kaplan-Meier estimator of the survival function, the Cox proportional hazards model, the Wald test for regression covariates, and the Wald test for significance of regression model. Conclusion. The lifespan registered for the tested instruments was Mtwo > Wizard Navigator > Revo-S > ProTaper; 5 mm radius > 3 mm radius; and yellow > red in ISO colour coding system.

  9. Development of a Wide-Spectrum Organic Analysis Instrument

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modifying a two-step laser mass spectrometer (ultra-L2MS) to enable in situ micrometer-scale analysis of diverse organic molecules with sub-femtomole sensitivity....

  10. ANALYSIS COGNITIVE DOMAIN INSTRUMENTS OF EVALUATION IN SMA BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sepita ferazona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of competence achievement will be known by evaluating the students after all the basic competencies that exist in the standard of the content they are studying, which must be seen how the suitability of the evaluation instruments provided to the students with the demands of basic competencies and the process of learning in the class .. The method used in this researchis a descriptive method. Subjects were ten biology teachers from seven SMANs in Bandung as a sample, each school representing three clusters. Selection of this research sample is done by using stratified sampling technique, that is by choosing school with high category, medium and low. KD analyzed material of Class X Plantae and Class X Excression System. Plantae material learning process question and excretion system on cluster 1, the highest average at level C2 (understanding that is equal to 55,91%. While on cluster 2 the highest average also at level C2 (understanding that is equal to 50,96%. While on the cluster 3 the highest average is also at level C2 (understand that is equal to 48,91%. The cognitive domain of Plantae's exercise / material tasks in cluster 1, the highest average at the level C1 (knowledge is 57.5%. While on the cluster 2 the highest average also at level C1 (knowledge that is equal to 71,67%. While the highest average cluster is at level C2 (understanding that is equal to 51,67%. The cognitive domain of Plantae material repetition and Excretion System in cluster 1, the highest average at the level of C1 (knowledge is 56.67%. While on the cluster 2 average highest at level C1 (knowledge that is equal to 56,3%. While on the cluster 3 highest cognitive domain is at level C1 (knowledge that is equal to 52,55%.

  11. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  12. Screening for Psychiatric Symptoms: PAS-ADD Checklist Norms for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Hatton, C.; Dixon, L.; Douglas, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities Checklist (PAS-ADD Checklist) is a screening instrument designed to help carers recognize likely mental health problems in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). To date there are no published PAS-ADD Checklist data on a large nonpsychiatric population of adults…

  13. An analysis of ground and instrumental short-period noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ROVELLI

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available The main causes of background noise on seismic recordings are
    considered. For this purpose, numerical spectral analysis techniques are
    applied to records obtained from an analogue-digital converter.
    Firstly, the causes of noise due to the data acquisition system itself,
    particularly to the FM magnetic recording apparatus, are analysed.
    Subsequently, an analysis is made of seismic ground noise samples
    taken under various environmental conditions and recorded either in the
    field, or by telemetry, or on magnetic tape.

  14. Multielement characterization of atmospheric pollutants by x-ray fluorescence analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancitelli, L.A.; Tanner, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of a wide spectrum of elements in aerosols collected on air filters and in rainwater can yield information on the origin, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants. In order to determine the elemental content of these aerosols, a pair of highly sensitive, precise and complementing instrumental techniques, x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis, have been developed and employed. Data are presented on the results of combined x-ray fluorescence and activation analysis of aerosols collected in a number of urban areas of the USA and from the 80th median sampling network in March 1972. From a comparison of these ratios in granite and diabase with those of filters placed in urban areas, it is evident that Zn, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb levels have been increased by as much as several orders of magnitude. Al, Co, La, Fe, Eu, Sm, Tb, Ta, Hf, and Th appear to exist at levels compatible with an earth's crust origin

  15. [Irritation: analysis of an instrument to assess stress at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Tejedor, Enrique; Carbonero Martín, Miguel Angel; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Morante Benadero, María Eugenia

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this investigation is to verify the factorial validity of the "Scale Irritation" in a sample of 181 teachers of Secondary Education from the center of Spain. At the same time, the investigation tries to verify the validity of construct of the scale correlating the results with the burnout evaluated through the Brief Questionnaire of Burnout adapted for teachers. The results obtained by means of the exploratory factor analysis of the Scale Irritation confirm the presence of two factors, as it appears in other international investigations. The confirmatory analysis verifies the proposal of a model of two factors. The significant correlation obtained among the Irritation Scale and the burnout confirms the validity of construct and verifies that a high irritation is associated significantly to the burnout, as it is foreseen by the theory, which considers both aspects related to the process of stress at work.

  16. Time series analysis of nuclear instrumentation in EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imel, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    Results of a time series analysis of the scaler count data from the 3 wide range nuclear detectors in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II are presented. One of the channels was replaced, and it was desired to determine if there was any statistically significant change (ie, improvement) in the channel`s response after the replacement. Data were collected from all 3 channels for 16-day periods before and after detector replacement. Time series analysis and statistical tests showed that there was no significant change after the detector replacement. Also, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 channels, either before or after the replacement. Finally, it was determined that errors in the reactivity change inferred from subcritical count monitoring during fuel handling would be on the other of 20-30 cents for single count intervals.

  17. Time series analysis of nuclear instrumentation in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imel, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Results of a time series analysis of the scaler count data from the 3 wide range nuclear detectors in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II are presented. One of the channels was replaced, and it was desired to determine if there was any statistically significant change (ie, improvement) in the channel's response after the replacement. Data were collected from all 3 channels for 16-day periods before and after detector replacement. Time series analysis and statistical tests showed that there was no significant change after the detector replacement. Also, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 channels, either before or after the replacement. Finally, it was determined that errors in the reactivity change inferred from subcritical count monitoring during fuel handling would be on the other of 20-30 cents for single count intervals

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of pottery for provenience study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Penev, I.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for INAA of pottery is proposed. The combination of 3 irradiations - epithermal and pile (short and long time) - and 6 measurements (2 times after each irradiation) enables the determination of Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Si, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V and Yb. The accuracy and precision of the method is evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (USGS-BCR-1, USGS-W-1, ZGI-TB). The applicability of the method is demonstrated by analysis of 15 sgraffito ceramics from XV-XVIII cc. from Tsarevets, Veliko Tirnovo (Bulgaria). The results from the clustering of the analytical data are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of apatite-nepheline ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, E.I.; Bakhmatov, B.A.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Sotskov, Yu.P.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the technique for neutron activation determination of rare elements (cerium, samariu, europium, terbium, ytterbium et al.) in apatite-nepheline ores using Ge(Li)-spectrometer. The effect of interference is studied, the recognition threshold and accuracy of analysis of the above elements in this ores are estimated. The technique developed are recommended for the calculation of rare earth element reserves in phosphate raw products

  20. Comparison of neutron activation analysis with other instrumental methods for elemental analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P. de; Lievens, F.; Delespaul, I.; Monsecour, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of instrumental methods, including neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and emission spectrometry, for the analysis of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter is described. The merits and drawbacks of each method for the routine analysis of a large number of samples are discussed. The sample preparation technique, calibration and statistical data relevant to each method are given. Concordant results are obtained by the different methods for Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Less good agreement is obtained for Fe, Mn and V. The results are not in agreement for the elements Cd and Cr. Using data obtained on the dust sample distributed by Euratom-ISPRA within the framework of an interlaboratory comparison, the accuracy of each method for the various elements is estimated. Neutron activation analysis was found to be the most sensitive and accurate of the non-destructive analysis methods. Only atomic absorption spectrometry has a comparable sensitivity, but requires considerable preparation work. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is less sensitive and shows biases for Cr and V. Automatic emission spectrometry with simultaneous measurement of the beam intensities by photomultipliers is the fastest and most economical technique, though at the expense of some precision and sensitivity. (author)

  1. Manual Transcription and Instrumental Analysis of Singing through Praat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bravi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of ethnomusicology, the main tool-of-the-trade for music analysis has been musical transcription on the score, despite its acknowledged cultural bias and the limits of staff notation as a means of representing music conceived and performed outside of the Western music culture. In the digital era, a number of analytical tools have been designed which may serve to solve some of the problems related to the use of the score as a method for describing and visualizing music. These tools allow analyses to be performed, which were virtually impossible for most ethnomusicologists until a few decades ago. Praat, the well known software developed by Paul Boersma and David Weenink and designed for phonetic studies, may also be helpful for the annotation and analysis of the singing voice. This paper deals with some aspects of the use of this program for musicological aims, focussing on the relation between acoustic data and subjective musical interpretations and their relevance in analytic and perceptual investigations.

  2. Analysis of Bonds as an Instrument for Financing Mining Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranosz, Robert

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the structure of financing for mining enterprises in the years 2007-2013, with particular emphasis on bonds. The document pays special attention to Polish mining enterprises. The financing structure analysis was based on data collected from financial statements (cash flows) of the largest mining companies in Poland, and their comparison with the results of global mining enterprises pursuant to reports prepared by international advisory firms. The article takes into account capital sources such as: corporate bonds, bank loans and issue of shares. As indicated by the performed analysis, mining enterprises both around the world and in Poland are increasingly eager to take advantage of obtaining business financing from issue of corporate bonds. It should also be recognized that in the analyzed period, both global and Polish mining enterprises deviate from forms of financing such as issue of shares. This may be caused by the fact that the bonds market in Poland is becoming increasingly popular, mainly due to interest rate on bonds being lower in comparison with bank loans. Another reason may be that banks and potential buyers of shares are less eager to finance this type of investment due to a relatively substantial risk acceptable to bondholders.

  3. Delayed phenomena analysis from French PWR containment instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costaz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of the large amount of measurements which has been now gathered by EDF on its twenty two PWR 900 MW shows that the behaviour of concrete under creep and shrinkage effects is in good agreement with the values given as correct estimates by french regulations and taken into account for the design of nuclear prestressed structures. None of the containment buildings studied here showed significant differences with the regulations theoretical values and consequently all the measurements remain in the field of the allowable strain variations used for design. On the other hand, if the instant loading elastic modulus is clearly determined for each containment, and its effect on theoretical creep taken into account, it was not possible up till now to extract from measurements some particular effects such as type of concrete and agregates or climatic effects. (orig.)

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ancient punchmark coins from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhadane, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis technique is applied for the analysis of precious ancient punchmark coins. Coins ranging between 8th century B.C. to 2nd Century B.C. were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a 252 Cf neutron source facility and analyzed by comparator method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, using high purity germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer, the activities being measured at photopeak energies of the corresponding radioisotopes. It is observed that punchmark coins are mainly of two types: copper or silver based. Other elements present in varying proportions are gold, arsenic and antimony. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  5. A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the state of the art in elemental analysis of petroleum-related materials (crude oil, gasoline, additives, and lubricants) using modern instrumental analysis techniques. The major instrumental techniques used for elemental analysis of petroleum products include atomic absorption spectrometry (both with flame and with graphite furnace atomizer), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatography, microelemental methods, neutron activation, spark source mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence. Each of these techniques is compared for its advantages, disadvantages, and typical applications in the petroleum field

  6. Diesel engine coolant analysis, new application for established instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.P.; Lukas, M.; Lynch, B.K. [Spectro Incorporated, Littleton, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Rotating disk electrode (RDE) arc emission spectrometers are user` many commercial, industrial and military laboratories throughout the world to analyze millions of oil and fuel samples each year. In fact, RDE spectrometers have been used exclusively for oil and fuel analysis for so long that it has nearly been forgotten by most practitioners that when RDE spectrometers were first introduced more than 40 years ago, they were routinely used for aqueous samples as well. This presentation reviews early methods of aqueous sample analysis using RDE technology. This presentation also describes recent work to calibrate an RDE spectrometer for both water samples and for engine coolant samples which are a mixture of approximately 50 % water and 50 % ethylene or propylene glycol. Limits of detection determined for aqueous standards are comparable to limits of detection for oil standards. Repeatability of aqueous samples is comparable to the repeatability achieved for oil samples. A comparison of results for coolant samples measured by both inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) spectrometers is presented. Not surprisingly, RDE results are significantly higher for samples containing particles larger than a few micrometers. Although limits of detection for aqueous samples are not as low as can be achieved using the more modern ICP spectrometric method or the more cumbersome atomic absorption (AA) method, this presentation suggests that RDE spectrometers may be appropriate for certain types of aqueous samples in situations where the more sensitive ICP or AA spectrometers and the laboratory environment and skilled personnel needed for them to operate are not conveniently available. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Defect propagation in NiTi rotary instruments: A noncontact optical profilometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, I; Ferreira, F; Scelza, P; Neff, J; Russano, D; Montagnana, M; Scelza, M Zaccaro

    2018-04-10

    To evaluate the presence and propagation of defects and their effects on surfaces of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments using noncontact, three-dimensional optical profilometry, and to assess the accuracy of this method of investigation. The flute surface areas of instruments from two commercial instrumentation systems, namely Reciproc R25 (n = 5) and WaveOne Primary (n = 5), were assessed and compared before and after performing two instrumentation cycles in simulated root canals in clear resin blocks. All the analyses were conducted on areas measuring 211 × 211 μm, located 3 mm from the instrument tips. A quantitative analysis was conducted before and after the first and second instrumentation cycles, using the Sa (average roughness over the measurement field), Sq (root mean square roughness), and Sz (average height over the measurement field) amplitude parameters. All the data were submitted to statistical analysis at a 5% level of significance. There was a significant increase (p = 0.007) in wear in both groups, especially between baseline and the second instrumentation cycle, with significantly higher wear values being observed on WaveOne instruments (Sz median values = 33.68 and 2.89 μm, respectively for WO and RP groups). A significant increase in surface roughness (p = 0.016 and p = 0.008, respectively for Sa and Sq) was observed in both groups from the first to the second instrumentation cycle, mostly in WaveOne specimens. Qualitative analysis revealed a greater number of defects on the flute topography of all the instruments after use. More defects were identified in WaveOne Primary instruments compared to Reciproc R25, irrespective of the evaluation stage. The investigation method provided an accurate, repeatable, and reproducible assessment of NiTi instruments at different time points. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: a review of instrument development across the medical education continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela P

    2012-08-01

    Instrument development consistent with best practices is necessary for effective assessment and evaluation of learners and programs across the medical education continuum. The author explored the extent to which current factor analytic methods and other techniques for establishing validity are consistent with best practices. The author conducted electronic and hand searches of the English-language medical education literature published January 2006 through December 2010. To describe and assess current practices, she systematically abstracted reliability and validity evidence as well as factor analysis methods, data analysis, and reported evidence from instrument development articles reporting the application of exploratory factor analysis and principal component analysis. Sixty-two articles met eligibility criteria. They described 64 instruments and 95 factor analyses. Most studies provided at least one source of evidence based on test content. Almost all reported internal consistency, providing evidence based on internal structure. Evidence based on response process and relationships with other variables was reported less often, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not identified. Factor analysis findings suggest common method selection errors and critical omissions in reporting. Given the limited reliability and validity evidence provided for the reviewed instruments, educators should carefully consider the available supporting evidence before adopting and applying published instruments. Researchers should design for, test, and report additional evidence to strengthen the argument for reliability and validity of these measures for research and practice.

  9. Validation of an Instrument and Testing Protocol for Measuring the Combinatorial Analysis Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Harty, Harold

    1979-01-01

    Designs a testing situation to examine the presence of combinatorial analysis, to establish construct validity in the use of an instrument, Combinatorial Analysis Behavior Observation Scheme (CABOS), and to investigate the presence of the schema in young adolescents. (Author/GA)

  10. Network Analysis as a Communication Audit Instrument: Uncovering Communicative Strengths and Weaknesses Within Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Network analysis is one of the instruments in the communication audit toolbox to diagnose communication problems within organizations. To explore its contribution to a communication audit, the authors conducted a network analysis within three secondary schools, comparing its results with those of

  11. LOFT reactor vessel 2900 downcomer stalk instrument penetration flange stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finicle, D.P.

    1978-01-01

    The LOFT Reactor Vessel 290 0 Downcomer Stalk Instrument Penetration Flange Stress Analysis has been completed using normal operational and blowdown loading. A linear elastic analysis was completed using simplified hand analysis techniques. The analysis was in accordance with the 1977 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, for a Class 1 component. Loading included internal pressure, bolt preload, and thermal gradients due to normal operating and blowdown

  12. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  13. ISO Guest Observer Data Analysis and LWS Instrument Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The following is an interim annual report. Dr. Smith is currently on an extended TDY to the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) at the Consilio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, where he has been working on a related NASA grant in support of analysis of Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data on star formation in Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies and our galaxy. Work emphasizes development of metal mesh grids for use in spacecraft, and the design and fabrication of test elements by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. Work has progressed well, but slowly, on that program due to the departure of a key engineer. NASA has been advised of the delay, and granted a no-cost extension, whereby SAO has authorized a delay in the final report from NRL. Nevertheless NRL has continued to make progress. Two papers have been submitted to refereed journals related to this program, and a new design for mesh operating in the 20-40 micron region has been developed. Meetings continue through the summer on these items. A new technical scientist has been made a job offer and hopefully will be on board NRL shortly, although most of the present grant work is already completed. A more complete report, with copies of the submitted papers, designs, and other measures of progress, will be submitted to NASA in September when Dr. Smith returns from his current TDY.

  14. Elemental analysis of Korean adult toenail using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Ha; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The elemental contents in a toenail as a biological sample may depend on the dietary habit and health status. In this study, the inorganic elements in Korean adult toenail were determined by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Toenail samples were collected from Korean adults, and the total number of samples was 50. The collected samples were pretreated and analyzed using INAA facilities at the HANARO research reactor. 15 elements, i.e., Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Se, V, and Zn in the toenail samples were determined and evaluated for the level of elemental concentration. Finally, correlation between 15 elements was examined. It is found that Mn-V, Na-Cl, Br-K, and Cr-Fe seem to be in close correlation. (author)

  15. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges......; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally......This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...

  16. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The Household Risk Perception instrument and the Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction instrument: psychometric testing using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Gail; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Postma, Julie; Hill, Wade; Butterfield, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    To report the psychometric testing of the Household Risk Perception and Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction instruments using principal components analysis. There are limited instruments available to test household risk perception and self-efficacy related to environmental health behaviours. The Household Risk Perception instrument was developed to measure personal perceptions of household environmental health risks. The Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction instrument was designed to measure caregivers' confidence in taking steps to reduce household risks. An exploratory analysis of previous data was undertaken. Baseline data from 235 caregivers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial testing a healthy housing intervention were collected between 2006-2009. Principal components analysis was used to determine principal components from measured responses to each instrument. Components were explored and compared to constructs used to design the original instruments. A five-component structure showed the simplest solution and explained 65% of variance in the Household Risk Perception analysis. Cronbach's alpha values indicated satisfactory internal consistency for four of five identified components. Risk perception varied according to available sensory input of the specific risk. A four-component structure explained 64% of the variance in the Self-Efficacy in Environmental Risk Reduction analysis. Cronbach's alpha values were satisfactory. Items mapped to steps in an action-oriented process vs. agent-specific actions. Results from both analyses suggest that environmental tobacco smoke is perceived differently than other household risks. Previously, both instruments relied on item reliability and content validity testing. This study provides a basis for further instrument revision and theoretical testing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Instrument for stress-related job analysis for hospital physicians: validation of a short version

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Working conditions in hospitals may endanger physicians' health and impair patient care. For this reason, an instrument was developed in the form of a questionnaire, in order to record problems in physicians' working conditions and to suggest possible ways of improving them. Methods A survey was performed with 571 hospital physicians. The questionnaire used is a shortened version of the extensive Instrument for Stress-related Job Analysis for Hospital Physicians. This short version contains 14 scales with 30 items on stressors and resources. For validation purposes, several scales were also used for well-being. Results The factor structure of the short version of the instrument for hospital physicians was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's α and the analyses of interrater agreement with the parameter rwg(J) largely gave moderate to good results. The intercorrelations between the scales are mostly slight to moderate, indicating that the scales are largely independent. The bivariate correlations with different well-being variables are highly significant for most questionnaire scales. In multiple hierarchical regression analyses the scales explained a considerable amount of variance for different well-being variables. Taken together, this emphasizes the relevance of the scales for the stress process. Conclusions The short version of the Instrument for Stress-related Job Analysis for Hospital Physicians is a reliable and valid instrument, which can be used practically and economically for normal hospital work. PMID:23594798

  19. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to study ceramic fragments from Damascus Castle site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-three archaeological ceramic fragment samples from Damascus Castle archaeological site, Damascus city, Syria, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 36 elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that 84.8% of the ceramics samples classified by cluster analysis are correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results provided persuasive evidence that Castle pottery used at least four different clay sources. Moreover, by means of systematic local analysis it will be clear whether these sources are local or not. (author)

  20. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Loss of Instrument Air for PSA of Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Bong-Jin; Han, Sang-Gu; Kim, Sook-Kwan; Kim, Hyung-Jin [ACT, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes the analysis of loss of IA using the thermal Hydraulic code for PSA of Wolsong NPP Unit 1. There are 19 events in the event tree of loss of instrument air. Loss of instrument air (IA) can occur due to compressor failures, instrument air line failures, etc. A loss of cooling to the station loads that are served by Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) system can occur due to the loss of the RCW inventory, the loss of RCW flow and the loss of cooling to the RCW heat exchangers. Instrument air compressors are cooled by RCW. This means that a cross-link exists between RCW and instrument air. A loss of RCW can cause a loss of instrument air. These types of cross-links are either assessed during the development of the event trees or captured during the accident sequence quantification process in PSA. Reactor can be shut down safely after success of SDCS cooldown or secondary heat removal operation in event No. 1, 2, 7, 8, 13 and 14. Residual heat can be removed by ECC and Moderator Heat Sink (MHS) in the situation of pressure tubes contacting calandria tubes after failing SDCS cooldown or secondary heat removal operation.

  1. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. A. Esquef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  2. Implementation of picoSpin Benchtop NMR Instruments into Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories through Spectral Analysis of Fischer Esterification Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearty, Kasey L.; Sharp, Joseph T.; Meehan, Emma K.; Wallace, Doyle R.; Jackson, Douglas M.; Morrison, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis is an important analytical technique presented in introductory organic chemistry courses. NMR instrument access is limited for undergraduate organic chemistry students due to the size of the instrument, price of NMR solvents, and the maintenance level required for instrument upkeep. The University of Georgia Chemistry…

  3. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  4. Research on data analysis method of non-destructive assay radioactive waste measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhibo; He Lixia; Shao Jiewen; Sui Hongzhi; Gan Lin

    2008-01-01

    The research concerns in the data analysis and detection efficiency calculation based on Monte-Carlo method for non-destructive assay radioactive waste measurement instrument. The rationality of the methods was experimentally tested, and the tested result shows that the relative deviation between calculated and nominal 235 U content is within 10%. (authors)

  5. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelovali, M.C.; Guenduez, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 20 trace elements in nine brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco and in a brand of pipe tobacco ash has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The percent transference of elements into smoke has been estimated from the amounts remaining in the ash. (author)

  6. New development in nanostructure analysis by smaller-angle neutron scattering instrument of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Takata, Shin-ichi; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuya, Kentaro; Aizawa, Kazuya; Arai, Masatoshi; Otomo, Toshiya; Sugiyama, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    The technique of small-angle neutron scattering has been used to study structures of size between about 1 nm and 10 μm in materials and life sciences. This article introduces the smaller-angle neutron scattering instrument projected in J-PARC, which will produce new development in nanostructure analysis. (author)

  7. Validating Affordances as an Instrument for Design and a Priori Analysis of Didactical Situations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollervall, Håkan; Stadler, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the presented case study is to investigate how coherent analytical instruments may guide the a priori and a posteriori analyses of a didactical situation. In the a priori analysis we draw on the notion of affordances, as artefact-mediated opportunities for action, to construct hypothetical trajectories of goal-oriented actions that have…

  8. Instrument and Survey Analysis Technical Report: Program Implementation Survey. Technical Report #1112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical document provides guidance to educators on the creation and interpretation of survey instruments, particularly as they relate to an analysis of program implementation. Illustrative examples are drawn from a survey of educators related to the use of the easyCBM learning system. This document includes specific sections on…

  9. SeDA: A software package for the statistical analysis of the instrument drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Jang, S. C.; Lim, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    The setpoints for safety-related equipment are affected by many sources of an uncertainty. ANSI/ISA-S67.04.01-2000 [1] and ISA-RP6 7.04.02-2000 [2] suggested the statistical approaches for ensuring that the safety-related instrument setpoints were established and maintained within the technical specification limits [3]. However, Jang et al. [4] indicated that the preceding methodologies for a setpoint drift analysis might be insufficient to manage a setpoint drift on an instrumentation device and proposed new statistical analysis procedures for the management of a setpoint drift, based on the plant specific as-found/as-left data. Although IHPA (Instrument History Performance Analysis) is a widely known commercial software package to analyze an instrument setpoint drift, several steps in the new procedure cannot be performed by using it because it is based on the statistical approaches suggested in the ANSI/ISA-S67.04.01 -2000 [1] and ISA-RP67.04.02-2000 [2], In this paper we present a software package (SeDA: Setpoint Drift Analysis) that implements new methodologies, and which is easy to use, as it is accompanied by powerful graphical tools. (authors)

  10. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  11. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  12. Compositional characterization of thin foil by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Pal, Sujit; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.; Venkataramani, B.

    2007-01-01

    The elemental composition of a thin (2 mm) Havar foil was determined by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis (HIAA). The recoiled products, coming out of thin target, were separated and absorbed in graded thickness of aluminum catcher foils as per their recoil ranges. Activation technique was followed for the quantitative estimation using elemental standards by comparator technique. (author)

  13. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  14. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Taeho; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure student readiness in online learning with reliable predictors of online learning success factors such as learning outcomes and learner satisfaction. The validity and reliability of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) instrument were tested using exploratory factor…

  15. RoboSCell: An automated single cell arraying and analysis instrument

    KAUST Repository

    Sakaki, Kelly

    2009-09-09

    Single cell research has the potential to revolutionize experimental methods in biomedical sciences and contribute to clinical practices. Recent studies suggest analysis of single cells reveals novel features of intracellular processes, cell-to-cell interactions and cell structure. The methods of single cell analysis require mechanical resolution and accuracy that is not possible using conventional techniques. Robotic instruments and novel microdevices can achieve higher throughput and repeatability; however, the development of such instrumentation is a formidable task. A void exists in the state-of-the-art for automated analysis of single cells. With the increase in interest in single cell analyses in stem cell and cancer research the ability to facilitate higher throughput and repeatable procedures is necessary. In this paper, a high-throughput, single cell microarray-based robotic instrument, called the RoboSCell, is described. The proposed instrument employs a partially transparent single cell microarray (SCM) integrated with a robotic biomanipulator for in vitro analyses of live single cells trapped at the array sites. Cells, labeled with immunomagnetic particles, are captured at the array sites by channeling magnetic fields through encapsulated permalloy channels in the SCM. The RoboSCell is capable of systematically scanning the captured cells temporarily immobilized at the array sites and using optical methods to repeatedly measure extracellular and intracellular characteristics over time. The instrument\\'s capabilities are demonstrated by arraying human T lymphocytes and measuring the uptake dynamics of calcein acetoxymethylester-all in a fully automated fashion. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde.

  17. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of the instrumentation, monitoring, and control system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, M.

    1977-01-01

    With the aid of a newly developed method for the cost-benefit analysis the part an on-line computer system is playing in a nuclear power plant can be investigated. The application of this method is demonstrated for a hypothetical example, where the optimum relation, between redundancy in the computer system and the amount of conventional supporting instrumentation in the control room of a nuclear power plant with a BWR is to be assessed. Within the scope of this model analysis, three computer systems - simplex, duplex, and a microprocessor structure - are compared with each other. The level of the conventional supporting instrumentation is included in the optimization. The comparison consists of a cost-benefit analysis for which the principles of the present-day value are applied. (orig.) [de

  19. PANDA-A novel instrument for non-destructive sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, Jani; Peraejaervi, Kari; Poellaenen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri

    2010-01-01

    An instrument known as PANDA (Particles And Non-Destructive Analysis) for non-destructive sample analysis has been designed and built at the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). In PANDA the measurement techniques and instruments designed for the basic research are applied to the analysis of environmental samples. PANDA has two vacuum chambers, one for loading samples and the other for measurements. In the measurement chamber there are two individual measurement positions. Currently the first one hosts an HPGe gamma detector and a position-sensitive alpha detector. The second measurement position is intended for precise characterization of found particles. PANDA's data are recorded in event mode and events are timestamped. In the present article the technical design of PANDA is presented in detail. In addition, its performance using depleted uranium particles and an air filter is demonstrated.

  20. Systems analysis of instrumentation for in situ examination of rock properties. Final report. [Telemetered instrumentation for monitoring buried nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    If salt beds or shale beds are used for burial of nuclear wastes, then boreholes that penetrate the beds will be sealed to prevent transport of water into the beds via the boreholes. There will be interest in monitoring the environment in local regions of the borehole for years to come. Such monitoring may be aimed at providing assurance that the integrity of the borehole plug and the integrity of borehole wall seals have not degraded. Of course, there will be interest in monitoring the burial vault geology as well, and the results of this study are relevant to this requirement also. A study of buried instrumentation in boreholes without any wires between the buried instruments and the surface of the earth was performed. Consequently, buried power supplies and through-the-earth communications systems are required. Study ground rules included the following: burial depths to range between 150 m and 1500 m; maximum temperature of 100/sup 0/C at the burial depth; and system target lifetime of 10 to 100 years. The instrumentation system is separable into four functional subsystems: (A) a basic instrument subsystem; (B) a command, control, and data processing (CCD) subsystem; (C) a communication subsystem; and (D) a power supply subsystem. The major findings of the study are listed by subsystem. (WHK)

  1. Root canal centering ability of rotary cutting nickel titanium instruments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundappa, Mohan; Bansal, Rashmi; Khoriya, Sarvesh; Mohan, Ranjana

    2014-11-01

    To systematically review articles on canal centering ability of endodontic rotary cutting Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments and subject results to meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was initiated on canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti files such as Protaper, Hero Shaper, K3, Mtwo, Race, Wave One by selecting articles published in peer reviewed journals during 1991-2013 using "Pub Med" database. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. A data was created by tabulating: Author name, publication year, sample size, number of experimental groups, methods to evaluate canal centering ability, instrument cross section, taper, tip design, rake angle, mean and standard deviation. The data generated was subjected to meta-analysis. Maximum studies were found to be conducted on mesiobuccal canal of mandibular 1(st) molar with curvature ranging from 15-60°. The difference in canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments was not statistically significant. All endodontic rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments are capable of producing centered preparations. Protaper depicted the best centering ability. Computed tomography is an effective method of evaluating canal centering ability.

  2. EVA: laparoscopic instrument tracking based on Endoscopic Video Analysis for psychomotor skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Lamata, Pablo; Fernández, Alvaro; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Jansen, Frank Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-03-01

    The EVA (Endoscopic Video Analysis) tracking system is a new system for extracting motions of laparoscopic instruments based on nonobtrusive video tracking. The feasibility of using EVA in laparoscopic settings has been tested in a box trainer setup. EVA makes use of an algorithm that employs information of the laparoscopic instrument's shaft edges in the image, the instrument's insertion point, and the camera's optical center to track the three-dimensional position of the instrument tip. A validation study of EVA comprised a comparison of the measurements achieved with EVA and the TrEndo tracking system. To this end, 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts) were asked to perform a peg transfer task in a box trainer. Ten motion-based metrics were used to assess their performance. Construct validation of the EVA has been obtained for seven motion-based metrics. Concurrent validation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by EVA and the TrEndo for metrics, such as path length (ρ = 0.97), average speed (ρ = 0.94), or economy of volume (ρ = 0.85), proving the viability of EVA. EVA has been successfully validated in a box trainer setup, showing the potential of endoscopic video analysis to assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills. The results encourage further implementation of video tracking in training setups and image-guided surgery.

  3. Development Instruments Through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA in Appropriate Intensity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Saptono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to develop the valid and reliable measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention in vocational secondary school students. Multi stage random sampling was used as the technique to determine sample (300 respondents. The research method used research and development with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Result of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA at the second order with robust maximum likelihood method shows that valid and reliable instrument with the acquisition value of loading factor is more than 0.5 (> 0,5 and a significance value of t is more than 1,96 (> 1,96. Reliability test results shows that the value of the combined construct reliability (CR of 0.97and a variance value extract (VE to 0.52 is greater than the limit of acceptance CR ≥ 0.70 and VE ≥ 0.50. The conclusion of the measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention with three dimensions and 31 items met the standards of validity and reliability in accordance with the instrument development process.

  4. Instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations. Stocktaking, evaluation and deficit analysis; Instrumente zur Foerderung von Umweltinnovationen. Bestandsaufnahme, Bewertung und Defizitanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennings, Klaus; Rammer, Christian; Oberndorfer, Ulrich [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW), GmbH, Mannheim (DE)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    In the ecological report 2006 of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) with the title ''Environment - Innovation - Occupation'', the Federal Ministry outlines the concept of an innovative oriented environmental policy. An innovative environmental policy contributes to the reduction of the environmental pollution and the ecological damages of industrial production. In this background, the question arises, how the environmental policy can support appropriate innovative activities. For this, the research project under consideration presents the following contributions: (a) Overview of the most important instruments for the promotion of environmental innovations in Germany; (b) Estimation of the effectiveness of the instruments including gap analysis and deficit analysis; (c) Presentation of foreign Best Practice Examples (instruments and environmental political beginnings); (d) Proposals for priority environmental political starting points to the advancement of the equipment and pointing out the further research need.

  5. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-12-01

    Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across

  6. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Past observational studies of the associations of area-level/contextual social capital with health have revealed conflicting findings. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167 344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in women and men using country population density and corruption as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Past findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within countries may

  7. Safety and tolerability of once-daily tiotropium Respimat (R) as add-on to at least inhaled corticosteroids in adult patients with symptomatic asthma : A pooled safety analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, Ronald; Engel, Michael; Dusser, Daniel; Halpin, David; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Zaremba-Pechmann, Liliana; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Busse, William W.; Bateman, Eric D.

    Background: Tiotropium, a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, has demonstrated efficacy and safety as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), with or without other maintenance therapies, in patients with symptomatic asthma. Objective: To evaluate safety and tolerability of

  8. Southeast Economic Add-on 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey and...

  9. Southeast Economic Add-on 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To collect data on an angler's last trip for revealed preference models and economic valuation purposes. Typically done as an add-on to the MRIP intercept survey and...

  10. Thermal and Alignment Analysis of the Instrument-Level ATLAS Thermal Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal analysis and test design performed in preparation for the ATLAS thermal vacuum test. NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be flown as the sole instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). It will be used to take measurements of topography and ice thickness for Arctic and Antarctic regions, providing crucial data used to predict future changes in worldwide sea levels. Due to the precise measurements ATLAS is taking, the laser altimeter has very tight pointing requirements. Therefore, the instrument is very sensitive to temperature-induced thermal distortions. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a Structural, Thermal, Optical Performance (STOP) analysis not only for flight, but also to ensure performance requirements can be operationally met during instrument-level thermal vacuum testing. This paper describes the thermal model created for the chamber setup, which was used to generate inputs for the environmental STOP analysis. This paper also presents the results of the STOP analysis, which indicate that the test predictions adequately replicate the thermal distortions predicted for flight. This is a new application of an existing process, as STOP analyses are generally performed to predict flight behavior only. Another novel aspect of this test is that it presents the opportunity to verify pointing results of a STOP model, which is not generally done. It is possible in this case, however, because the actual pointing will be measured using flight hardware during thermal vacuum testing and can be compared to STOP predictions.

  11. Prevalence Estimation and Validation of New Instruments in Psychiatric Research: An Application of Latent Class Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brian Wells; Miller, William C.; Gaynes, Bradley N.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence and validation studies rely on imperfect reference standard (RS) diagnostic instruments that can bias prevalence and test characteristic estimates. The authors illustrate 2 methods to account for RS misclassification. Latent class analysis (LCA) combines information from multiple imperfect measures of an unmeasurable latent condition to…

  12. Add Audio and Video to Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Nothing spices up websites like cool sound effects (think ker-thunk as visitors press a button) or embedded videos. Think you need a programmer to add sizzle to your site? Think again. This hands-on guide gives you the techniques you need to add video, music, animated GIFs, and sound effects to your site. This Mini Missing Manual is excerpted from Creating a Web Site: The Missing Manual.

  13. Advances in Instrumental Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the recent advances and methodological improvements in instrumental techniques applied for the analysis of different brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The literature search strategy was based on the recent analytical reviews published on BFRs. The main selection criteria involved the successful development and application of analytical methods for determination of the target compounds in various environmental matrices. Different factors affecting chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of brominated analytes were evaluated and discussed. Techniques using advanced instrumentation to achieve outstanding results in quantification of different BFRs and their metabolites/degradation products were highlighted. Finally, research gaps in the field of BFR analysis were identified and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:27433482

  14. Determination of toxic elements in tobacco products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of 15 elements in various brands of cigarette tobacco and cigarette wrapping paper were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The paper of some of the brands contains higher concentrations of toxic elements than the tobacco. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the adsorption of toxic elements on the filter and their transference in smoke. The toxic effects of some of the elements have been briefly discussed. (author)

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Herber, R.F.M.

    1981-11-01

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  16. Salvinia auriculata: Aquatic bioindicator studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Soares, Daniel Cristian; Figueiredo de Oliveira, Ester [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, CEP 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Fatima Silva, Gracia Divina de; Duarte, Lucienir Pains [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Nucleo de estudos de Plantas Medicinais (NEPLAM), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Pott, Vali Joana [Empresa Brasileira de Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), BR 262 km 4, Caixa Postal 154, CEP 79002-970 Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Escola de Farmacia, DEFAR, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Rua Costa Sena, 171, CEP 35400-000 Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil)], E-mail: bibo@ef.ufop.br

    2008-05-15

    Through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the elemental chemical composition of Salvinia auriculata and Ouro Preto city public water was determined. Elements Ce, Th, Cr, Hf, Sb, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co, Au, La and Br were quantified. High chromium concentration was determined in this plant. But, chromium was determined only in low concentrations in the water. The results indicate the great capacity of this plant to absorb and accumulate inorganic elements.

  17. Determination of Cd and Cr in an ABS candidate reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwangwon [Division of Metrology for Quality Life, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 1 Doryong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: parkkw@kriss.re.kr; Kang, Namgoo; Cho, Kyunghaeng; Lee, Jounghae [Division of Metrology for Quality Life, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 1 Doryong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    In order to practically better cope with technical barriers to trade (TBT) of a great number of resin goods, our research presents first-ever results for the determination of Cd and Cr in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) candidate reference material using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) recently recognized as a candidate primary ratio method with a particular attention to the estimation of involved measurement uncertainties.

  18. Uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for lichen as bio indicators of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribere, M.; Guevara, S.R.; Calvelo, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three species of epiphytic lichens were sampled at NW Patagonia, Argentina, from urban and peripherical forest area environments Sixty lichen samples were analysed individually by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The elements present in the samples were determined by parametric methods at the Neutron Activation Laboratory at Centro Atomico Bariloche, Argentina. All concentration values were normalized to Al concentration. The average normalized concentrations for each element, discriminated by species and environment, are presented in this work. (author). 11 refs, 6 tabs

  19. Accurate determination of trace elements in sediment CRMs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate determination of major, minor and trace elements in two sediment reference materials is described. One material is from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (SRM 1646a), and the other is from the National Research Council of Canada (HISS-1). The analytical technique used was high accuracy instrumental neutron activation analysis. The procedures used are described, the problems found are discussed, and the results obtained are compared to the certified values for both CRMs. (author)

  20. The preparation of synthetic standards for use in instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, B.T.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Erasmus, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the formulation and preparation of synthetic standards suitable for the routine analysis of minerals, ores, and ore concentrates by instrumental neutron activation. Fifteen standards were prepared, each containing from one to seven elements. The standards contain forty-four elements that produce isotopes with half-lives longer than 12 hours. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of the method of preparation is given

  1. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myoung; Kim, Young Jin; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum

    2003-05-01

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  2. Mars Geochemical Instrument (MarGI): An instrument for the analysis of the Martian surface and the search for evidence of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Martin, Joe; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Geochemical Instrument, MarGI, was developed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the rocks and surface material on Mars. The instrument combines Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) with miniature Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) to identify minerals, the presence and state of water, and organic compounds. Miniature pyrolysis ovens are used to both, conduct DTA analysis of soil or crushed rocks samples, and pyrolyze the samples at temperatures up to 1000 degrees C for GC-IMS analysis of the released gases. This combination of analytical processes and techniques, which can characterize the mineralogy of the rocks and soil, and identify and quantify volatiles released during pyrolysis, has applications across a wide range of target sites including comets, planets, asteroids, and moons such as Titan and Europa. The MarGI analytical approach evolved from the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX) selected to fly on the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF).

  3. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

  4. Implementation of an ultrasonic instrument for simultaneous mixture and flow analysis of binary gas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhroob, M.; Boyd, G.; Hasib, A.; Pearson, B.; Srauss, M.; Young, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, (United States); Bates, R.; Bitadze, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, (United Kingdom); Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bonneau, P.; Botelho-Direito, J.; Bozza, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; DiGirolamo, B.; Favre, G.; Godlewski, J.; Lombard, D.; Zwalinski, L. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, (Switzerland); Bousson, N.; Hallewell, G.; Mathieu, M.; Rozanov, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, (France); Deterre, C.; O' Rourke, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, (Germany); Doubek, M.; Vacek, V. [Czech Technical University, Technick 4, 166 07 Prague 6, (Czech Republic); Degeorge, C. [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, (United States); Katunin, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 St. Petersburg, (Russian Federation); Langevin, N. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie of Marseille, University of Aix-Marseille, 142 Traverse Charles Susini, 13013 Marseille, (France); McMahon, S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory - Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 OQX, (United Kingdom); Nagai, K. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH, (United Kingdom); Robinson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Cambridge, (United Kingdom); Rossi, C. [INFN - Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Precision ultrasonic measurements in binary gas systems provide continuous real-time monitoring of mixture composition and flow. Using custom micro-controller-based electronics, we have developed an ultrasonic instrument, with numerous potential applications, capable of making continuous high-precision sound velocity measurements. The instrument measures sound transit times along two opposite directions aligned parallel to - or obliquely crossing - the gas flow. The difference between the two measured times yields the gas flow rate while their average gives the sound velocity, which can be compared with a sound velocity vs. molar composition look-up table for the binary mixture at a given temperature and pressure. The look-up table may be generated from prior measurements in known mixtures of the two components, from theoretical calculations, or from a combination of the two. We describe the instrument and its performance within numerous applications in the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The instrument can be of interest in other areas where continuous in-situ binary gas analysis and flowmetry are required. (authors)

  5. The instrumental neutron-activation analysis of granites from the Bushveld Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.I.W.

    1978-01-01

    Three methods of instrumental neutron-activation analysis, 14MeV, reactor thermal, and reactor epithermal, are compared for the analysis of granites form the Bushveld Complex. A total of 34 elements can be determined in the granites by these methods. Samples from the Zaaiplaats area were analysed by thermal neutron activation, and 22 elements were determined in all of them. These elements were used to distinguish between the mineralized Bobbejaankop and Lease granites and the Main granite by the use of multivariate statistics. The Bobbejaankop granite appears as a more-differentaited rock carrying greater amounts of the incompatible elements than does the Main granite [af

  6. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent developments in X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering instrumentation and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelten, J.

    1978-01-01

    The developments in instrumentation and data analysis that have occurred in the field of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering since 1973 are reviewed. For X-rays, the cone camera collimation was invented, synchrotrons and storage rings were demonstrated to be intense sources of X-radiation, and one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors were interfaced to cameras with both point and line collimation. For neutrons, the collimators and detectors on the Juelich and Grenoble machines were improved, new D11-type instruments were built or are under construction at several sites, double-crystal instruments were set up, and various new machines have been proposed. Significant progress in data analysis and evaluation has been made through application of mathematical techniques such as the use of spline functions, error minimization with constraints, and linear programming. Several special experiments, unusual in respect to the anisotropy of the scattering pattern, gravitational effects, moving scatterers, and dynamic fast time slicing, are discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G; Thompson, Grahame

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context...... an overall estimate of the causal relationship between the phenotype and the outcome, and an assessment of its heterogeneity across studies. As an example, we estimate the causal relationship of blood concentrations of C-reactive protein on fibrinogen levels using data from 11 studies. These methods provide...... a flexible framework for efficient estimation of causal relationships derived from multiple studies. Issues discussed include weak instrument bias, analysis of binary outcome data such as disease risk, missing genetic data, and the use of haplotypes....

  9. Calibration of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Stern, J. C.; Harpold, D.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SAM suite of instruments on the "Curiosity" Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is designed to provide chemical and isotopic analysis of organic and inorganic volatiles for both atmospheric and solid samples. The mission of the MSL investigations is to advance beyond the successful search for aqueous transformation in surface environments at Mars toward a quantitative assessment of habitability and preservation through a series of chemical and geological measurements. The SAM suite was delivered in December 2010 (Figure 1) to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for integration into the Curiosity Rover. We previously outlined the range of SAM solid and gas calibrations implemented or planned and here we discuss a specific set of calibration experiments to establish the response of the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) to the four most abundant gases in the Martian atmosphere CO2, N2, Ar, and O2, A full SAM instrument description and calibration report is presently in preparation.

  10. Long Term Analysis of Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform Power and Battery Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T.; Bowman, J. R.; Clauer, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Operation of the Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform (AAL-PIP) by the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Science Team (MIST) at Virginia Tech has been ongoing for about 10 years. These instrument platforms are deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau in remote locations that are difficult to access regularly. The systems have been designed to operate unattended for at least 5 years. During the Austral summer, the systems charge batteries using solar panels and power is provided by the batteries during the winter months. If the voltage goes below a critical level, the systems go into hibernation and wait for voltage from the solar panels to initiate a restart sequence to begin operation and battery charging. Our first system was deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau in 2008 and we report here on an analysis of the power and battery performance over multiple years and provide an estimate for how long these systems can operate before major battery maintenance must be performed.

  11. Pipe stress analysis on the instrument air in nuclear facilities pipe work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Santoso

    2009-01-01

    Piping stress analysis on Instrument Air System have been performed. Analysis carried out to estimate the provision of sufficient flexibility in the piping system to ensure that the heat expansion and contraction of the pipe is still in the allowable stress range. The stress analysis can be used to determine the location and type of support that will be installed. The stress calculation was carried out utilizing the CAESAR on the static load of dead weight, operating and therma. With performing the piping stress analysis, the layout (proper pipe routing) of the piping system can be design with the requirements of piping stress and pipe supports in mind the sufficient flexibility for thermal expansion, etc to commensurate with the intended service such as temperatures, pressure, and anticipated loading. (author)

  12. The Re-Analysis of Ozone Profile Data from a 41-Year Series of SBUV Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarova, Natalya; Frith, Stacey; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard; Labow, Gordon; Taylor, Steven; Fisher, Bradford

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the validation of ozone profiles from a number of Solar Back Scattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) and SBUV/2 instruments that were recently reprocessed using an updated (Version 8.6) algorithm. The SBUV dataset provides the longest available record of global ozone profiles, spanning a 41-year period from 1970 to 2011 (except a 5-year gap in the 1970s) and includes ozone profile records obtained from the Nimbus-4 BUV and Nimbus-7 SBUV instruments, and a series of SBUV(/2) instruments launched on NOAA operational satellites (NOAA 09, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19). Although modifications in instrument design were made in the evolution from the BUV instrument to the modern SBUV(/2) model, the basic principles of the measurement technique and retrieval algorithm remain the same. The long term SBUV data record allows us to create a consistent, calibrated dataset of ozone profiles that can be used for climate studies and trend analyses. In particular, we focus on estimating the various sources of error in the SBUV profile ozone retrievals using independent observations and analysis of the algorithm itself. For the first time we include in the metadata a quantitative estimate of the smoothing error, defined as the error due to profile variability that the SBUV observing system cannot inherently measure. The magnitude of the smoothing error varies with altitude, latitude, season and solar zenith angle. Between 10 and 1 hPa the smoothing errors for the SBUV monthly zonal mean retrievals are of the order of 1 %, but start to increase above and below this layer. The largest smoothing errors, as large as 15-20%, were detected in in the troposphere. The SBUV averaging kernels, provided with the ozone profiles in version 8.6, help to eliminate the smoothing effect when comparing the SBUV profiles with high vertical resolution measurements, and make it convenient to use the SBUV ozone profiles for data assimilation and model validation purposes. The smoothing error can

  13. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Pasternak-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. RESULTS: There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. CONCLUSION: The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  14. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046 Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: schweitz@phys.uconn.edu; Trombka, Jacob I. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Selavka, Carl [Massachusetts State Police Crime Laboratory, 59 Horse Pond Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 (United States); Zeosky, Gerald [Forensic Investigation Center, Crime Laboratory Building, 22 State Campus, Albany, NY 12226 (United States); Gahn, Norman [Assistant District Attorney, Milwaukee County, District Attorney' s Office, 821 West State Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233-1427 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burbine, Thomas [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  15. Bioanalytical and instrumental analysis of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in water sources along the Yangtze River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xiaoyi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing 210036 (China); Hu Guanjiu; Hao Yingqun [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Analysis for Organic Pollutants in Surface Water, Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanjing 210036 (China); Zhang Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Hongling, E-mail: hlliu@nju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei Si [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xinru [Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine and Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yu Hongxia, E-mail: hongxiayu@nju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources along the Yangtze River in China were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell-based TH reporter gene assay. Instrumental analysis was conducted to identify the responsible thyroid-active compounds. Instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) equivalents (T{sub 3}-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to dibutyl phthalate (DBP-EQs) were calculated from the concentrations of individual congeners. The reporter gene assay demonstrated that three out of eleven water sources contained TR agonist activity equivalents (TR-EQs), ranging from 286 to 293 ng T{sub 3}/L. Anti-thyroid hormone activities were found in all water sources with the TR antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (Ant-TR-EQs), ranging from 51.5 to 555.3 {mu}g/L. Comparisons of the equivalents from instrumental and biological assays suggested that high concentrations of DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations along the Yangtze River. - Research highlights: First of all, we indicated the instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) equivalents (T{sub 3}-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (DBP-EQs) for the very first time. Secondly, high concentrations of DBP and DEHP might be responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations. Finally, we found that thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activities were very common in Yangtze River. More attentions should be paid to the TR antagonist activities and the responsible compounds. - In vitro bioassay responses observed in Yangtze River source water extracts showed great TR antagonist activities, and DBP and DEHP were responsible.

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of penetration/removal response of endodontic instrument made of single crystal Cu-based SMA: comparison with NiTi SMA instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, M.; Xolin, P.; Gevrey, A.-M.; Thiebaud, F.; Engels-Deutsch, M.; Ben Zineb, T.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study showing that single crystal shape memory alloy (SMA) Cu-based endodontic instruments can lead to equivalent mechanical performances compared to NiTi-based instruments besides their interesting biological properties. Following a previous finite element analysis (FEA) of single crystal CuAlBe endodontic instruments (Vincent et al 2015 J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24 4128-39), prototypes with the determined geometrical parameters were machined and experimentally characterized in continuous rotation during a penetration/removal (P/R) protocol in artificial canals. The obtained mechanical responses were compared to responses of NiTi endodontic files in the same conditions. In addition, FEA was conducted and compared with the experimental results to validate the adopted modeling and to evaluate the local quantities inside the instrument as the stress state and the distribution of volume fraction of martensite. The obtained results highlight that single crystal CuAlBe SMA prototypes show equivalent mechanical responses to its NiTi homologous prototypes in the same P/R experimental conditions.

  17. 75 FR 45164 - ``Add Us In'' Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Assistant Secretary for Office of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Program AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications. The full...

  18. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  19. Electrostatic mirrors with two-plate electrodes in instruments for charged particle mass and energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karetskaya, S.P.; Kel'man, V.M.; Sajchenko, N.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A possibility is being discussed of using mirrors with twoiplate electrodes for analysis of charged particle energy in electrostatical spectrometers or for attaining double focusing in mass-spectrometers. It is shown that application of such mirrors permits to simplify the design, to reduce the sizes, simplify adjustment and improve performances of analytical instruments. Corpuscular-optical parameters are presented for a three-electrode mirror with an assigned intermediate electrode width and angle ofthe axial trajectory inlet to the electric field. Examples of using mirrors of such a design are considered

  20. Determination of phosphorus in wheat grass samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.D.; Rajurkar, N.S.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method using β-counting was used to determine phosphorus in wheat grass; grown in three different conditions. The phosphorus concentration was found to be in the range of 950-23000 mg/g in the samples grown in different conditions. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by determining phosphorus in three reference materials and the % deviations were within 10%. Reliability of the method was checked by following the half-life of the 32 P. (author)

  1. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid; Beladel, Brahim

    2016-01-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  2. Trace elements in cigarette tobacco by a method of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin Ibrahim

    1986-01-01

    A total of ten cigarette brands were investigated for determining the trace elemental concentrations in tobacco so as to assess their role in the induction of related diseases through smoking. A method instrumental Neutron Activation analysis was employed due to high sensitivity, speed and ability to analyse sample for a wide spectrum of elements simultaneously. A total of 18 elements were detected of which the majority are toxic elements. A full result and conclusion will be reported in the forthcoming paper. (A.J.)

  3. Neutron xyz – polarization analysis at a time-of-flight instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehlers G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When implementing a dedicated polarization analysis setup at a neutron time-of-flight instrument with a large area detector, one faces enormous challenges. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made towards this goal over the last few years. This paper addresses systematic limitations of the traditional method that is used to make these measurements, and a possible strategy to overcome these limitations. This will be important, for diffraction as well as inelastic experiments, where the scattering occurs mostly out-of-plane.

  4. Mercury determination in dentist's hair and nails by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, B.; Munita, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The mercury in scalp hair and fingernails of a group of dentists who usually handle with this toxic element in their profession is determined. The results were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The experimental procedure was based on the evaluation of the 197 Hg photopeak area, whose half life is 65h. After at a neutron fluxo of 5x10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 , the activity of the samples were measured by using a solid state Ge (Li) detector coupled to a 4.096 channel pulse height analyser. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Wide-angle polarization analysis with 3He for neutron scattering instrumentation at the JCNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, A.; Babcock, E.; Pipich, V.; Radulescu, A.

    2011-06-01

    Polarization analysis is an important technique for polarized neutron scattering as it allows one to obtain the full information about the vector magnetization in the sample that is critically important for detailed understanding of physical properties of molecular magnets, new superconductors, spin electronic and magnetic nanostructures, as well as the self-organization of magnetic nanostructures. In the simplified 1-dimensional version polarization analysis allows for the separation of coherent and incoherent scattering, making it a potentially important technique for studies of non-deuterated biological objects that themselves produce unavoidable background. We compare some of the major considerations between two different methods for the polarization analysis - supermirror based analyzers and polarized 3He neutron spin filters and point out when the latter is beneficial from the point of view of our neutron experiments and instrumentation. We will also discuss some specific requirements to such neutron spin filters and summarize the classes of instrumentation where they will be applied at the JCNS. Finally we will describe a successful application for small-angle neutron scattering from a biological sample.

  6. Wide-angle polarization analysis with 3He for neutron scattering instrumentation at the JCNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A; Babcock, E; Pipich, V; Radulescu, A

    2011-01-01

    Polarization analysis is an important technique for polarized neutron scattering as it allows one to obtain the full information about the vector magnetization in the sample that is critically important for detailed understanding of physical properties of molecular magnets, new superconductors, spin electronic and magnetic nanostructures, as well as the self-organization of magnetic nanostructures. In the simplified 1-dimensional version polarization analysis allows for the separation of coherent and incoherent scattering, making it a potentially important technique for studies of non-deuterated biological objects that themselves produce unavoidable background. We compare some of the major considerations between two different methods for the polarization analysis - supermirror based analyzers and polarized 3 He neutron spin filters and point out when the latter is beneficial from the point of view of our neutron experiments and instrumentation. We will also discuss some specific requirements to such neutron spin filters and summarize the classes of instrumentation where they will be applied at the JCNS. Finally we will describe a successful application for small-angle neutron scattering from a biological sample.

  7. Determination of selenium and zinc in rat plasma by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, Luis.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effects on the thyroid function when simple or multiple zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency are induced, research was carried out in laboratory animals. For simultaneously determining the Zn and Se concentration in rat plasma, an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was applied. A clean laboratory, was used for the preparation of samples. High purity materials were used for sample collection and storage. Irradiation, decay and counting parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity, accuracy and precision analysis. The Zn and Se concentrations were determined from the peak area of gamma-rays of 1115 and 265 KeV respectively. The analytical methodology used was validated with standard reference materials. The procedure used for the analysis, including the phases of collection, treatment of the samples and analytical determination was considered suitable for the study of trace elements in biological samples, especially plasma. (author) [es

  8. Determination of uranium and thorium in rock samples from Harargaj Anticline by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Molla, N.I.; Sharif, A.K.M.; Basunia, S.; Islam, S.; Miah, R.U.; Hossain, S.M.; Chowdhury, M.I.; Bhuiyan, A.D.; Stegnar, P.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium and thorium were determined in geological materials such as radioactive rock samples collected from the Harargaj Anticline in Moulavi Bazar. The pure instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used in qualitative and quantitative analysis of the rock samples for U and Th. The samples were properly prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of the order of 10 12 n*cm -2 *s -1 using the TRIGA MARK II research reactor facility at the AERE, Savar, Dhaka. After activation the samples were subjected to γ-ray spectrometry using a high purity germanium detection system. As a result of the analysis, U and Th could be determined. The data are consistent with the values reported by the ground radiometric survey group for some of the samples. (author) 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  9. Siderophile element concentrations in magnetic spherules from deep sea sediments revealed by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Ken-ichi; Shimamura, Tadashi; Tazawa, Yuji; Yamakoshi, Kazuo.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of deciding the extraterrestrial origin of the magnetic spherules found in deep sea sediments, the siderophile elements Co, Ni, Ir and/or Au etc., were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Spherules were collected from red clay samples which were dredged from Mid Pacific Ocean. Only spherules which had smooth surfaces and relatively high specific gravities were chosen for analysis. Existence of Co, Ni and Ir in most spherules suggests the possibility of an extraterrestrial origin for these spherules. It is not clear whether these spherules are droplets ablated from iron meteorites entering into the Earth's atmosphere or they are cosmic iron grains themselves. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that these spherules are the products of rapid cooling materials. (author)

  10. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Sun, G.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  11. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  12. Determination of rare earth elements in sea sediments from the Cuban northwestern coast by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Zayas, G.; Pena Fortes, B.; Diaz Riso, O.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.

    1998-01-01

    The multielemental characterization of sea sediments from an important Cuban coast was performed using instrumental Neutron activation analysis. The obtained results shown an impoverishment of in the studied zone, in comparison with the data taken from other Cuban coaster zones

  13. Passive Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: Analysis Framework and Instrument Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Timothy A.; Svard, Staffan J.; Smith, Leon E.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Jansson, Peter; Davour, Anna; Grape, Sophie; Trellue, H.; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Wittman, Richard S.; Honkamaa, Tapani; Vaccaro, Stefano; Ely, James

    2015-05-18

    The potential for gamma emission tomography (GET) to detect partial defects within a spent nuclear fuel assembly is being assessed through a collaboration of Support Programs to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the first phase of this study, two safeguards verification objectives have been identified. The first is the independent determination of the number of active pins that are present in the assembly, in the absence of a priori information. The second objective is to provide quantitative measures of pin-by-pin properties, e.g. activity of key isotopes or pin attributes such as cooling time and relative burnup, for the detection of anomalies and/or verification of operator-declared data. The efficacy of GET to meet these two verification objectives will be evaluated across a range of fuel types, burnups, and cooling times, and with a target interrogation time of less than 60 minutes. The evaluation of GET viability for safeguards applications is founded on a modelling and analysis framework applied to existing and emerging GET instrument designs. Monte Carlo models of different fuel types are used to produce simulated tomographer responses to large populations of “virtual” fuel assemblies. Instrument response data are processed by a variety of tomographic-reconstruction and image-processing methods, and scoring metrics specific to each of the verification objectives are defined and used to evaluate the performance of the methods. This paper will provide a description of the analysis framework and evaluation metrics, example performance-prediction results, and describe the design of a “universal” GET instrument intended to support the full range of verification scenarios envisioned by the IAEA.

  14. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis of teaching and learning guiding principles instrument among teacher educators in higher education institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuwai, Azwani; Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and establish the validity and reliability of an instrument to generate teaching and learning guiding principles using Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles Instrument (TLGPI). Participants consisted of 171 Malaysian teacher educators. It is an essential instrument to reflect in generating the teaching and learning guiding principles in higher education level in Malaysia. Confirmatory Factor Analysis has validated all 19 items of TLGPI whereby all items indicated high reliability and internal consistency. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis also confirmed that a single factor model was used to generate teaching and learning guiding principles.

  16. Synthesis of 4-aminophenyl substituted indole derivatives for the instrumental analysis and molecular docking evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Kumar, Keshav

    2017-07-01

    The Indole has been known to maintain celebrity status since so many decades and has been a centre point at the spectrum of pharmacological research. The present work stimulates an idea of generating a pool of library of lead compounds. The data collected can be used for the mapping of biologically active compounds. The reported derivatives of 4-aminophenyl substituted Indole were prepared by the methods of Fischer Indole synthesis and Vilsemeier reaction followed by screening for instrumental analysis and molecular docking studies. The synthesized compounds 4-(1-(2-phenylhydrazono)ethyl)aniline, 1, 4-(1H-indol-2-yl)aniline, 2 and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde, 3 were found to have remarkable yield and instrumental data analysis and also showed remarkable docked characteristic. The molecular docking studies revealed that ligand (amino acids) of comp. 1, 2 and 3 had been docked successfully on the binding site of the 3JUS protein selected from PDB with H bonding. The molecular docking data showed that compound 1, would possess remarkable biological activity and compd. 2 and 3 would possess mild to moderate biological activity. Thus this research work paves the way to synthesize new derivatives and thus to develop new compounds in future with accurate prediction.

  17. Integrating exhaled breath diagnostics by disease-sniffing dogs with instrumental laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim; Giese, Roger

    2017-09-07

    Dogs have been studied for many years as a medical diagnostic tool to detect a pre-clinical disease state by sniffing emissions directly from a human or an in vitro biological sample. Some of the studies report high sensitivity and specificity in blinded case-control studies. However, in these studies it is completely unknown as to which suites of chemicals the dogs detect and how they ultimately interpret this information amidst confounding background odors. Herein, we consider the advantages and challenges of canine olfaction for early (meaningful) detection of cancer, and propose an experimental concept to narrow the molecular signals used by the dog for sample classification to laboratory-based instrumental analysis. This serves two purposes; first, in contrast to dogs, analytical methods could be quickly up-scaled for high throughput sampling. Second, the knowledge gained from identifying probative chemicals could be helpful in learning more about biochemical pathways and disease progression. We focus on exhaled breath aerosol, arguing that the semi-volatile fraction should be given more attention. Ultimately, we conclude that the interaction between dog-based and instrument-based research will be mutually beneficial and accelerate progress towards early detection of cancer by breath analysis.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of New Governance Instruments in the Transnational Educational Space: A Shift to Knowledge-Based Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the ongoing development towards a knowledge-based society--associated with globalization, an aging population, new technologies and organizational changes--has led to a more intensive analysis of education and learning throughout life with regard to quantitative, qualitative and financial aspects. In this framework, education…

  19. Applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for geological samples in AMD for uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.B.; Koteswar Rao, V.; Acharyulu, A.A.P.S.R.; Rupa, N.; Raghuwanshi, S.S.; Chaki, Anjan

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Non-destructive Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used over last three decades in AMD for analysis of geological samples for estimation of Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Zr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Au, Th and U. The estimation has been done using various international standards. The irradiation of samples has been done in Cirus/Apsara Reactor in BARC, Mumbai. The measurement of desired gamma emission are carried out by Huge detector. The various geological samples from different parts of India are: 1. granites 2. charnokites 3. Basalts 4. Carbonatites 5. Xenotime 6. Monazite 7. Core samples 8. Black slabs. The efficiency modelling of HPGe detector was done using different sources and mathematical and statistical techniques. (author)

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of iron and zinc in compact eye shadow, compact face powder and compact rouge make-up cosmetic products. The steps of the procedure are: Irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons, counting of gamma-radioactivity of the radioisotopes of iron and zinc produced by this irradiation and calculation of the concentration of these elements from the gamma-ray spectra of samples and standards. Analysis of the I.A.E.A. standard reference material by this procedure give results in close agreement with certified values. The limit of quantitation is 45 μg for iron and 0.35 μg for zinc. The developed procedure could possibly be established as an official method for the simultaneous determination of iron and zinc in compact cosmetic products. (orig.) [de

  1. Advances in field-flow fractionation for the analysis of biomolecules: instrument design and hyphenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachermeyer, Samantha; Ashby, Jonathan; Zhong, Wenwan

    2012-09-01

    Field-flow fractionation (FFF) separates analytes by use of an axial channel-flow and a cross-field. Its soft separation capability makes it an ideal tool for initial fractionation of complex mixtures, but large elution volumes and high flow rates have limited its applicability without significant user handling. Recent advances in instrumentation and miniaturization have successfully reduced channel size and elution speed, and thus the volume of each fraction, making it possible to conveniently couple FFF with orthogonal separation techniques for improved resolution. More detailed analysis can also be performed on the fractions generated by FFF by use of diverse analytical techniques, including MS, NMR, and even X-ray scattering. These developmental trends have given FFF more power in the analysis of different types of molecule, and will be the direction of choice for further advances in FFF technology.

  2. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis. Instrumental aspects, trends and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguiniz, Marion; Heinisch, Sabine

    2017-10-25

    The interest in two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has been growing up since the last decades. This promising technique appears as a relevant solution for various analytical challenges encountered in pharmaceutical analysis. The objective of this review is to give an overview of past, current and emerging trends in 2D-LC techniques applied to pharmaceutical compounds. The referenced studies cover the late 1980s to the present. Information regarding the different aspects of this analytical technique, including chromatographic conditions, instrumental setup and compounds of interest, was compiled and summarized into a synoptic table. Particular attention is paid to key features including (i) the interfaces used for coupling the two dimensions, (ii) the application fields, and (iii) the chromatographic modes that can be combined together. Finally an attempt is made to predict future advances in two-dimensional separation techniqes for pharmaceutical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of arsenic and mercury in facial cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Martinez, J.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of arsenic and mercury in some chilean facial cosmetics was investiged. Since in Chile there is no regulations dealing with the maximum permisible concentration of some chemical elements in cosmetics products, the national industry control neither the presence nor the quantity, if any, of those elements. The study was performed on compact or powder eye shadows by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were analized without any chemical treatment and with minimum manipulation to avoid any possible contamination. A total of 67 samples from 9 different cosmetic industries were analysed. Arsenic was detected and determined quantitatively in 46 samples, ranging from 0.32 to 136 ppm. Mercury was not detected in any sample. The contamination of arsenic is due to the high concentration of this element in some of the raw material used in the manufacturing of the cosmetics, as was demonstrated by the analysis of these materials. (EC)

  4. Development of esMOCA Biomechanic, Motion Capture Instrumentation for Biomechanics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendra, A.; Akhmad, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to build motion capture instruments using inertial measurement unit sensors to assist in the analysis of biomechanics. Sensors used are accelerometer and gyroscope. Estimation of orientation sensors is done by digital motion processing in each sensor nodes. There are nine sensor nodes attached to the upper limbs. This sensor is connected to the pc via a wireless sensor network. The development of kinematics and inverse dynamamic models of the upper limb is done in simulink simmechanic. The kinematic model receives streaming data of sensor nodes mounted on the limbs. The output of the kinematic model is the pose of each limbs and visualized on display. The dynamic inverse model outputs the reaction force and reaction moment of each joint based on the limb motion input. Model validation in simulink with mathematical model of mechanical analysis showed results that did not differ significantly

  5. Comparison and determination of elemental composition in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Gwang-Min Sun; Jong-Hwa Moon; Jong-Il Choi; Beom-Seok Song; Jae-Hun Kim

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of mineral contents in several kinds of foods is needed to obtain information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as an investigation on the effects of human health and nutrition based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. In 2012, six kinds of new Korean space foods (KSF) such as sweet pumpkin porridge, dakgalbi (spicy grilled chicken), Manila clam porridge, ox leg bone-cabbage soup, ginseng-chicken porridge, and chicken curry rice were developed by KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were determined using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. A certified reference material associated with a biological food sample was used for analytical quality control. The analytical results were evaluated according to the elemental concentrations with KSF samples and compared with the reported values. These results will be applied toward the identification of gamma-irradiated foods. (author)

  6. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Sun Ha Kim; Gwang Min Sun; Jong Myoung Lim; Jong Hwa Moon; Kye Hong Lee; Young Jin Kim; Jong Il Choi; Ju Woon Lee

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  7. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G; Thompson, Grahame

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context...... of multiple genetic markers measured in multiple studies, based on the analysis of individual participant data. First, for a single genetic marker in one study, we show that the usual ratio of coefficients approach can be reformulated as a regression with heterogeneous error in the explanatory variable....... This can be implemented using a Bayesian approach, which is next extended to include multiple genetic markers. We then propose a hierarchical model for undertaking a meta-analysis of multiple studies, in which it is not necessary that the same genetic markers are measured in each study. This provides...

  8. Automatic evaluation and data generation for analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, laboratory activities are costly in terms of time, space, and money. As such, the ability to provide realistically simulated laboratory data that enables students to practice data analysis techniques as a complementary activity would be expected to reduce these costs while opening up very interesting possibilities. In the present work, a novel methodology is presented for design of analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises that can be automatically personalized for each student and the results evaluated immediately. The proposed system provides each student with a different set of experimental data generated randomly while satisfying a set of constraints, rather than using data obtained from actual laboratory work. This allows the instructor to provide students with a set of practical problems to complement their regular laboratory work along with the corresponding feedback provided by the system's automatic evaluation process. To this end, the Goodle Grading Management System (GMS, an innovative web-based educational tool for automating the collection and assessment of practical exercises for engineering and scientific courses, was developed. The proposed methodology takes full advantage of the Goodle GMS fusion code architecture. The design of a particular exercise is provided ad hoc by the instructor and requires basic Matlab knowledge. The system has been employed with satisfactory results in several university courses. To demonstrate the automatic evaluation process, three exercises are presented in detail. The first exercise involves a linear regression analysis of data and the calculation of the quality parameters of an instrumental analysis method. The second and third exercises address two different comparison tests, a comparison test of the mean and a t-paired test.

  9. Necessary steps in factor analysis : Enhancing validation studies of educational instruments. The PHEEM applied to clerks as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2009-01-01

    Background: The validation of educational instruments, in particular the employment of factor analysis, can be improved in many instances. Aims: To demonstrate the superiority of a sophisticated method of factor analysis, implying an integration of recommendations described in the factor analysis

  10. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  11. Add it up! fun with addition

    CERN Document Server

    First, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Make math fun with Add It Up! Fun photographs, colorful graphics, and simple text are used to teach young readers basic math concepts. From Word Problems to Number Lines this book will help kids develop the math skills they need. A simple activity at the end of the book encourages kids to put addition to use! Aligned to Common Core standards and correlated to state standards. Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  12. Instrumented gait analysis: a measure of gait improvement by a wheeled walker in hospitalized geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülein, Samuel; Barth, Jens; Rampp, Alexander; Rupprecht, Roland; Eskofier, Björn M; Winkler, Jürgen; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Klucken, Jochen

    2017-02-27

    In an increasing aging society, reduced mobility is one of the most important factors limiting activities of daily living and overall quality of life. The ability to walk independently contributes to the mobility, but is increasingly restricted by numerous diseases that impair gait and balance. The aim of this cross-sectional observation study was to examine whether spatio-temporal gait parameters derived from mobile instrumented gait analysis can be used to measure the gait stabilizing effects of a wheeled walker (WW) and whether these gait parameters may serve as surrogate marker in hospitalized patients with multifactorial gait and balance impairment. One hundred six patients (ages 68-95) wearing inertial sensor equipped shoes passed an instrumented walkway with and without gait support from a WW. The walkway assessed the risk of falling associated gait parameters velocity, swing time, stride length, stride time- and double support time variability. Inertial sensor-equipped shoes measured heel strike and toe off angles, and foot clearance. The use of a WW improved the risk of spatio-temporal parameters velocity, swing time, stride length and the sagittal plane associated parameters heel strike and toe off angles in all patients. First-time users (FTUs) showed similar gait parameter improvement patterns as frequent WW users (FUs). However, FUs with higher levels of gait impairment improved more in velocity, stride length and toe off angle compared to the FTUs. The impact of a WW can be quantified objectively by instrumented gait assessment. Thus, objective gait parameters may serve as surrogate markers for the use of walking aids in patients with gait and balance impairments.

  13. The development and implementation of an instrument to assess students' data analysis skills in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Brian J; Walton, Kristen L W; Grillo, Wendy Heck

    2014-12-01

    Developing visual literacy skills is an important component of scientific literacy in undergraduate science education. Comprehension, analysis, and interpretation are parts of visual literacy that describe related data analysis skills important for learning in the biological sciences. The Molecular Biology Data Analysis Test (MBDAT) was developed to measure students' data analysis skills connected with scientific reasoning when analyzing and interpreting scientific data generated from experimental research. The skills analyzed included basic skills, such as identification of patterns and trends in data and connecting a method that generated the data, and advanced skills, such as distinguishing positive and negative controls, synthesizing conclusions, determining if data supports a hypothesis, and predicting alternative or next-step experiments. Construct and content validity were established and calculated statistical parameters demonstrate that the MBDAT is valid and reliable for measuring students' data analysis skills in molecular and cell biology contexts. The instrument also measures students' perceived confidence in their data interpretation abilities. As scientific research continues to evolve in complexity, interpretation of scientific information in visual formats will continue to be an important component of scientific literacy. Thus science education will need to support and assess students' development of these skills as part of students' scientific training.

  14. The Development and Implementation of an Instrument to Assess Students’ Data Analysis Skills in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Rybarczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing visual literacy skills is an important component of scientific literacy in undergraduate science education.  Comprehension, analysis, and interpretation are parts of visual literacy that describe related data analysis skills important for learning in the biological sciences. The Molecular Biology Data Analysis Test (MBDAT was developed to measure students’ data analysis skills connected with scientific reasoning when analyzing and interpreting scientific data generated from experimental research.  The skills analyzed included basic skills such as identification of patterns and trends in data and connecting a method that generated the data and advanced skills such as distinguishing positive and negative controls, synthesizing conclusions, determining if data supports a hypothesis, and predicting alternative or next-step experiments.  Construct and content validity were established and calculated statistical parameters demonstrate that the MBDAT is valid and reliable for measuring students’ data analysis skills in molecular and cell biology contexts.  The instrument also measures students’ perceived confidence in their data interpretation abilities.  As scientific research continues to evolve in complexity, interpretation of scientific information in visual formats will continue to be an important component of scientific literacy.  Thus science education will need to support and assess students’ development of these skills as part of students’ scientific training.

  15. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon Wg; Goldie, Frank; Long, Steven; Lappin, David F; Ramage, Gordon; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-10

    The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  16. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136 of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170 of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p Conclusions Overall, the results show the superiority of central reprocessing for complex podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  17. New York State: Comparison of Treatment Outcomes for Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms Using an Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelis, Kimon; Missios, Symeon; Coy, Shannon; Singer, Robert J; MacKenzie, Todd A

    2015-07-13

    There is wide regional variation in the predominant treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms. We investigated the association of elective surgical clipping and endovascular coiling with mortality, readmission rate, length of stay, and discharge to rehabilitation. We performed a cohort study involving patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms, who underwent surgical clipping or endovascular coiling from 2009 to 2013 and were registered in the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. An instrumental variable analysis was used to investigate the association of treatment technique with outcomes. Of the 4643 patients undergoing treatment, 3190 (68.7%) underwent coiling, and 1453 (31.3%) underwent clipping. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we did not identify a difference in inpatient mortality (marginal effect, 0.13; 95% CI, -0.30, 0.57), or the rate of 30-day readmission (marginal effect, -1.84; 95% CI -4.06, -0.37) between the 2 treatment techniques for patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with a higher rate of discharge to rehabilitation (marginal effect, 2.31; 95% CI 0.21, 4.41), and longer length of stay (β, 2.01; 95% CI 0.85, 3.04). In sensitivity analysis, mixed-effect regression, and propensity score, adjusted regression models demonstrated identical results. Using a comprehensive all-payer cohort of patients in New York State with unruptured cerebral aneurysms, we did not identify an association of treatment method with mortality or 30-day readmission. Clipping was associated with a higher rate of discharge to rehabilitation and longer length of stay. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. INSTRUMENTATION AND BIOMECHANICAL MODEL FOR KINEMATIC AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF UPPER LIMBS DURING GAIT WITH CRUTCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez-Rizo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic model of the right upper extremity and a Lofstrand crutch in order to analyze joint displacements and loads during crutch-assisted gait. A Lofstrand crutch was instrumented with a six-component load cell to measure forces and moments at the crutch tip. The crutch and the right upper extremity of a subject were instrumented with markers to obtain kinematic data. A biomechanical model based on rigid bodies was implemented in biomechanical analysis software. To demonstrate the functionality of the model, a pilot test was conducted on one healthy individual during Lofstrand crutch-assisted gait. The shoulder extended during the support phase and flexed in the swing phase, the elbow flexed during the swing, and the wrist remained in extension throughout the cycle. In the shoulder and elbow joints, the predominant reaction forces were upward, whereas the internal force moments were flexion and extension, respectively. This tool will be useful when it comes to identifying risk factors for joint pathology associated with pattern gait, aid design or crutch overuse.

  19. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.

  20. Thin film analysis by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis using distributed recoil ranges of isotopic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thin foils (0.1 to 10 μm), metallic or polymeric, are frequently used in nuclear physics and chemistry experiments using ion beams from an accelerator. Very often it is important to know the major, minor and trace element composition of the foil. Several nuclear analytical techniques, namely RBS, ERDA, etc. are available for the near surface analysis. We have applied heavy ion activation analysis (HIAA) to explore the bulk composition of thin films. One of the difficulties in this method of thin film analysis is that the product nuclides from nuclear reaction come out of the sample surface due to high recoil energy. In thick sample, the recoiled nuclides are absorbed in the sample itself. This effect has been used to employ heavy ion activation for the analysis of thin films

  1. Reactor neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis of ancient glassware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, T.; Yonezawa, C.; Minai, Y.; Hoshi, M.; Ito, Y.; Tominaga, T.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental composition of ancient glassware provides a clue to estimate provenance, source material, and manufacturing procedures. In determination of their compositions it is usually desirable to apply nondestructive analytical techniques because even the shape of artifacts should be preserved as excavated for future studies. Reactor neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) are simultaneous multielement analytical methods providing information on elemental composition. Beside, both techniques are nondestructive method, which are appropriate for studies of such artifacts. In this work we have reported the elemental composition of ancient glassware (from the Yayoi period to the Edo period) excavated from the ruins in Japan to estimate provenance, source material, and manufacturing procedures. (author)

  2. Elemental analysis in bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, N.I.; Hossain, S.M.; Basunia, S.; Miah, R.U.; Rahman, M.; Sikder, D.H.; Chowdhury, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of rare earths and other elements have been determined in the bed sediment samples of Karnafuli estuarine zone in the Bay of Bengal by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples and the standards soil-5, soil-7, coal fly ash and pond sediment were prepared and simultaneously irradiated for short and long time at the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor facility of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka. The maximum thermal neutron flux was of the order of 10 13 n x cm -2 x s -1 . After irradiation the radioactivity of the product nuclides was measured by using a high resolution high purity germanium detector system. Analysis of γ-ray spectra and quantitative analysis of the elemental concentration were done via the software GANAAS. It has been possible to determine the concentration level of 27 elements including the rare earths La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb and uranium and thorium. (author)

  3. Enantioselective Analysis in instruments onboard ROSETTA/PHILAE and ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Thiemann, Wolfram; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Goesmann, Fred

    It has been suggested a number of times in the past, to look for chirality as a biomarker. So far, for lack of appropriate instrumentation, space missions have never included enantioselective analysis. The distinction between enantiomers is of crucial importance to the question of the origin of the very first (pre)biotic molecules. If molecules detected in situ on another celestial body were found to exhibit a chiral bias, this would mean that at least partial asymmetric synthesis could take place abiotically. If this chiral bias should be found to be near 100For the currently flying ESA mission ROSETTA an enantioselective instrument was built, to try for the first time to detect and separate chiral molecules in situ. This instrument is COSAC, the Cometary Sampling and Acquisition Experiment, an enantioselective GCMS device[1,2], which is included in the lander PHLIAE that will eventually in 2014 land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A similar but even more powerful type of enantioselective GC-MS is in preparation for ESA's ExoMars mission. This instrument is part of MOMA, the Mars Organic Molecules Analyser. It has the objective of identifying and quantifying chiral organic molecules in surface and subsurface samples of Mars. Currently ExoMars is scheduled for 2018. The newly developed enantioselective technique utilized by both COSAC and MOMA will be described, including sample acquisition, derivatization, and separation in space-resistant chiral stationary capillary columns with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. Results of enantioselective analyses of representative test samples with special emphasis on amino acids[3], the building blocks of protein polymers, will be presented and we will discuss potential results of space missions Rosetta and ExoMars. [1] Thiemann W.H.-P., Meierhenrich U.: ESA Mission ROSETTA Will Probe for Chirality of Cometary Amino Acids. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 31 (2001), 199-210. [2

  4. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Safety limits are required to maintain the integrity of physical barriers designed to prevent the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The safety analysis establishes two critical constraints that include an analytical limit in terms of a measured or calculated variable, and a specific time after the analytical limit is reached to begin protective action. Keeping with the nuclear regulations and industry standards, satisfying these two requirements will ensure that the safety limit will not be exceeded during the design basis event, either an anticipated operational occurrence or a postulated accident. Various studies on the setpoint determination methodology for the safety-related instrumentation have been actively performed to ensure that the requirement of the analytical limit is satisfied. In particular, the protection setpoint methodology for the advanced power reactor 1400 (APP1400) and the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been recently developed to cover both the design basis event and the beyond design basis event. The developed setpoint methodology has also been quantitatively validated using specific computer programs and setpoint calculations. However, the safety of nuclear power plants cannot be fully guaranteed by satisfying the requirement of the analytical limit. In spite of the response time verification requirements of nuclear regulations and industry standards, it is hard to find the studies on the systematically integrated methodology regarding the response time evaluation. In cases of APR1400 and OPR1000, the response time analysis for the plant protection system is partially included in the setpoint calculation and the response time test is separately performed via the specific plant procedure. The test technique has a drawback which is the difficulty to demonstrate completeness of timing test. The analysis technique has also a demerit of resulting in extreme times that not actually possible. Thus

  5. Comparative analysis of three screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers at high risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, I.J.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Visser, J.C.; Dietz, C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Several instruments have been developed to screen for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in high-risk populations. However, few studies compare different instruments in one sample. Data were gathered from the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire, Social Communication Questionnaire,

  6. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin; Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO 3 ) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbO, Pb(OH) 2 , ZnO, ZnS, TiO 2 , BaSO 4 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , As 2 S 3 , etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn 2 O 3 , etc.; red pigments were Fe 2 O 3 , Pb 3 O 4 , HgS, PbMo 4 , CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO 4 , ZnCrO 4 , CdS-ZnS, K 3 [Co(NO 2 ) 6 ], Pb(SbO 3 ) 2 , C 19 H 16 O 11 Mg, SrCrO 4 , etc.; green pigments were Cr 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O(OH) 4 , Cu(C 2 H 3 O 2 )-2Cu(OH) 2 ), Cr 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 , CoO-Al 2 O 3 , Na 8 - 10 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 S 2-4 , etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a non-destructive, simultaneously multi-elemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity. In order to characterize the elemental contents of art objects, the quantitative analysis of oil pigment series was

  7. Methodology and development of instruments for the safety analysis of a nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics and overlapping aspects in the elaboration of safety analyses for the nuclear and conventional units are presented. The current methods are presented and their limits of applicability characterized. The transferability of individual methods or their elements to the analysis of the reference plant of Wackersdorf is examined and the procedure for the systems analysis is determined. It is of great importance to prove that the essential kinds of incidents and possibilities of release with potential effects in the environment are completely identified. The incidents are divided into basic incidents, which are characterized by superior physical/chemical release mechanisms. An essential objective is to systematize the safety analysis and to summarize the presentation of results. Selection criteria are presented, which allow a limitation of the analysis to essential influencing parameters without removing aspects from the overall safety-relevant statement. Besides the selection criteria, instruments and mathematical models are explained with the help of which the representative and possible incidents covering all potential risks for all areas of the plant, systems and components can be selected. These design-basis accidents (criticality, self-heating, fire, explosion, leakages, earth quakes) are decisive for the determination of potential damaging effects in the environment and thus for the overall statement on the licensability. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Rapid measurement of selenium in biological samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKown, D.M.; Morris, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid instrumental system for measuring selenium via 17 second sup(77m)Se has been applied to the analysis of a wide variety of biological specimens encountered in biomedical research. Wet tissue specimens were lyophilized to remove water prior to analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated for 5 s at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 1x10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 in the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The pneumatic transfer facility had a delivery time to the counting station of about 7 s. The returned shuttle rabbit was quickly opened and the sample vial transferred to a 45 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system. All samples were analyzed using a 5 s irradiation, 15 s decay, and 20 s count with a sample-to-detector distance giving less than 10% dead time at the analyzer. The clock time counting interval was measured to facilitete calculated correction for counting interval dead time if necessary. Gamma-ray spectra were recorded on computer compatible magnetic tape to facilitate data reduction using a modified version of the GAMANL spectrum analysis code. The reliability and versatility of the method is documented for serum and animal tissue specimens. Analysis results for SRM 1577 bovine liver show excellent accuracy and precision. (T.G.)

  9. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency. PMID:21219613

  10. Interpretation of motion analysis of laparoscopic instruments based on principal component analysis in box trainer settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Enciso, Silvia; Rodríguez-Vila, Borja; Martínez, Arturo Minor; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J; Sánchez-González, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    Motion analysis parameters (MAPs) have been extensively validated for assessment of minimally invasive surgical skills. However, there are discrepancies on how specific MAPs, tasks, and skills match with each other, reflecting that motion analysis cannot be generalized independently of the learning outcomes of a task. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning of motion analysis in terms of surgical skills, making difficult the provision of meaningful, didactic feedback. In this study, new higher significance MAPs (HSMAPs) are proposed, validated, and discussed for the assessment of technical skills in box trainers, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Motion analysis data were collected from 25 volunteers performing three box trainer tasks (peg grasping/PG, pattern cutting/PC, knot suturing/KS) using the EVA tracking system. PCA was applied on 10 MAPs for each task and hand. Principal components were trimmed to those accounting for an explained variance > 80% to define the HSMAPs. Individual contributions of MAPs to HSMAPs were obtained by loading analysis and varimax rotation. Construct validity of the new HSMAPs was carried out at two levels of experience based on number of surgeries. Three new HSMAPs per hand were defined for PG and PC tasks, and two per hand for KS task. PG presented validity for HSMAPs related to insecurity and economy of space. PC showed validity for HSMAPs related to cutting efficacy, peripheral unawareness, and confidence. Finally, KS presented validity for HSMAPs related with economy of space and knotting security. PCA-defined HSMAPs can be used for technical skills' assessment. Construct validation and expert knowledge can be combined to infer how competences are acquired in box trainer tasks. These findings can be exploited to provide residents with meaningful feedback on performance. Future works will compare the new HSMAPs with valid scoring systems such as GOALS.

  11. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulovali, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of trace elements in nine different brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco, pipe tobacco and tobacco ash. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed, and a gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 1024 and 4096-channel analyzers were used. Samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of about 10 13 cm -2 sec -1 . Concentrations of Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Hf, Hg and Th were determined in tobacco and ash; percent transference of these elements into ash were calculated. It was found out that trace elements in cigarette tobacco are left in the ash but only a small percentage is transferred into the smoke

  12. Cost benefit analysis of instrumentation, supervision and control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, P.

    1973-08-01

    A cost benefit analysis is carried out on a BWR type reactor power plant in which an on-line computer performs plant supervision, reporting, logging, calibration and control functions, using display devices and plotters, while an off-line computer is available for bigger jobs such as fuel management calculations. All on-line functions are briefly described and specified. Three types of computer system are considered, a simplex system, a dual computer system and a multi-processor system. These systems are analysed with respect to reliability, back-up instrumentation requirements and costs. While the multiprocessor system gave in all cases the lowest annual failure costs, the margin to the duplex system was so small that hardware, maintenance and software costs would play an important role in making a decision. (JIW)

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  14. Accounting for the thermal neutron flux depression in voluminous samples for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overwater, R.M.W.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    At the Delft University of Technology Interfaculty Reactor Institute, a facility has been installed to irradiate cylindrical samples with diameters up to 15 cm and weights up to 50 kg for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) purposes. To be able to do quantitative INAA on voluminous samples, it is necessary to correct for gamma-ray absorption, gamma-ray scattering, neutron absorption, and neutron scattering in the sample. The neutron absorption and the neutron scattering are discussed. An analytical solution is obtained for the diffusion equation in the geometry of the irradiation facility. For samples with known composition, the neutron flux--as a function of position in the sample--can be calculated directly. Those of unknown composition require additional flux measurements on which least-squares fitting must be done to obtain both the thermal neutron diffusion coefficient D s and the diffusion length L s of the sample. Experiments are performed to test the theory

  15. Study on ambient environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju; Cho, Seong Yeon; Kang, Sang Hun

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance the use of nuclear analytical techniques (NAT) for air pollution studies and to study the feasibility on the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine monitoring tool to find out environmental pollution sources. For the collection of air particulates sample, the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sample and Nucleopore filters provided by IAEA for the coordination research program (CRP) were used. Trace elements in samples collected at two suburban residental sites, Taijon and Wonju city in the Republic of Korea, were analyzed by INAA. Variations of the elemental concentrations were measured monthly and the enrichment factors were calculated for the fine (<2μm EAD) and coarse size (2-10μm EAD) fractions, respectively. These results of the analyses are described to ensure emission source

  16. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  17. Determination of the elemental distribution in cigarette components and smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Larson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of particle released in indoor environments. A comprehensive study of the elemental distribution in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has been completed. Specifically, concentrations of thirty elements have been determined for the components of 15 types of cigarettes. Components include tobacco, ash, butts, filters, and cigarette paper. In addition, particulate matter from mainstream smoke (MS) and sidesstream smoke (SS) were analyzed. The technique of elemental determination used in the study is instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that certain heavy metals, such as As, Cd, K, Sb and Zn, are released into the MS and SS. These metals may then be part of the health risk of exposure to smoke. Other elements are retained, for the most part, in cigarette ash and butts. The elemental distribution among the cigarette components and smoke changes for different smoking conditions. (author)

  18. Account of spectral dependence of instrumental factor in quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, N.V.; Mosichev, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A new method for calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers using scanning spectrometric channel is proposed. The method is based on a separate account of matrix and instrumental effects and needs no calibration standards for the element analysed. For calibration in the whole spectral range of XRS (0.03-1.0 nm) it is sufficient to have from 10 to 15 pure element emitters made of most wide spread elements. The method provides rapid development of quantitative analysis for the elements which are not provided with standard samples and preparation of pure element emitters for which is impossible or problematic. The practical verification of the method was made by analysing a set of 146 standard samples covering a wide group of alloys. The mean relative error of the method was 3-5 % in an analytical range of 0.1-3.0 wt %

  19. Study of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yangshao

    1994-01-01

    Aerosol samples were collected to study the characteristics of marine aerosols in the different western Pacific ocean areas. During the first cruise from 15 October to 25 November 1989, aerosol samples were collected with a kA-200 Andersen cascade impactor and a kB-120 sampler. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of the aerosols. The concentrations of crustal and pollution elements in aerosols were higher over the ocean area close to the China coast and decreased very rapidly with increasing distance from land. The morphology and elemental composition of aerosol particles showed that the seasalt particles may conglomerate with small crustal and pollution particles from land to form large particles. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Use of the INAA [instrumental neutron activation analysis] Advance Prediction Computer Program [APCP] for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    An important aspect of the neutron irradiation of small samples (usually solids or liquids) in research-type nuclear reactors is advance knowledge of the gamma-ray activity levels of the samples at the end of irradiation (EOI) and at subsequent decay times thereafter. Such knowledge is important in neutron activation analysis (NAA) as well as in other work involving reactor irradiations of samples. Obviously, the activity levels of the various neutron-induced radionuclides depend on a variety of factors: sample weight and elemental composition; neutron fluxes; length of irradiation; and length of decay. The instrumental NAA (INAA) Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) was developed and tested experimentally some years ago for work in the field of INAA. Very recently, the program has been rewritten for use with an IBM-compatible personal computer. To illustrate some of the features of the APCP output, an example is cited

  1. Interfacing LabVIEW With Instrumentation for Electronic Failure Analysis and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K.; Bryan, Coleman; Ludwig, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workstation (LabVIEW) software is designed such that equipment and processes related to control systems can be operationally lined and controlled by the use of a computer. Various processes within the failure analysis laboratories of NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) demonstrate the need for modernization and, in some cases, automation, using LabVIEW. An examination of procedures and practices with the Failure Analaysis Laboratory resulted in the conclusion that some device was necessary to elevate the potential users of LabVIEW to an operational level in minimum time. This paper outlines the process involved in creating a tutorial application to enable personnel to apply LabVIEW to their specific projects. Suggestions for furthering the extent to which LabVIEW is used are provided in the areas of data acquisition and process control.

  2. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  3. Chemical contents in Lygeum spartum L. using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria)

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation was conducted to determine the chemical contents of Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae). Samples were analyzed in order to determine essential (Ca, K, Na, Fe, Co) and some potentially toxic elements (Eu, Sb, Tb) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general chemical element contents were in substantial amounts to meet adult sheep requirements. Potential intake of Ca, K, Zn, Co and Fe by ruminant weighing 50 kg BW consuming 2.0 kg per day DM was sufficient to satisfy their requirements. However, only Na level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants. Potential toxic elements in this species were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by NRC. Na supplementation would seem to be necessary in this zone, for optimum productivity of grazing animals.

  4. The Use of ATR-FTIR in Conjunction with Thermal Analysis Methods for Efficient Identification of Polymer Samples: A Qualitative Multiinstrument Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Karn, Nicole M.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-instrument approach has been applied to the efficient identification of polymers in an upper-division undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory course. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is used in conjunction with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to identify 18 polymer samples and…

  5. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  6. Safety and tolerability of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) as add-on to at least inhaled corticosteroids in adult patients with symptomatic asthma: A pooled safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Ronald; Engel, Michael; Dusser, Daniel; Halpin, David; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Zaremba-Pechmann, Liliana; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Busse, William W; Bateman, Eric D

    2016-09-01

    Tiotropium, a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, has demonstrated efficacy and safety as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), with or without other maintenance therapies, in patients with symptomatic asthma. To evaluate safety and tolerability of tiotropium delivered via the Respimat(®) device, compared with placebo, each as add-on to at least ICS therapy, in a pooled sample of adults with symptomatic asthma at different treatment steps. Data were pooled from seven Phase II and III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trials of 12-52 weeks' treatment duration, which investigated once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) (5 μg, 2.5 μg) versus placebo as add-on to different background maintenance therapy including at least ICS. Adverse events (AEs) including serious AEs were assessed throughout treatment + 30 days after the last dose of trial medication. Of 3474 patients analysed, 2157 received tiotropium. The percentage of patients with AEs was comparable between treatment groups: tiotropium 5 μg, 60.8%; placebo 5 μg pool, 62.5%; tiotropium 2.5 μg, 57.1%; placebo 2.5 μg pool, 55.1%. Consistent with the disease profile, the most frequent AEs overall were asthma, decreased peak expiratory flow rate (both less frequent with tiotropium) and nasopharyngitis. Overall incidence of dry mouth, commonly associated with use of anticholinergics, was low: tiotropium 5 μg, 1.0%; placebo 5 μg pool, 0.5%; tiotropium 2.5 μg, 0.4%; placebo 2.5 μg pool, 0.5%. The percentage of cardiac disorder AEs was comparable between tiotropium and placebo: tiotropium 5 μg, 1.4%; placebo 5 μg pool, 1.4%; tiotropium 2.5 μg, 1.4%; placebo 2.5 μg pool, 1.1%. The proportions of patients with serious AEs were balanced across groups: tiotropium 5 μg, 4.0%; placebo 5 μg pool, 4.9%; tiotropium 2.5 μg, 2.0%; placebo 2.5 μg pool, 3.3%. Tiotropium Respimat(®) demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with those of placebo, as add-on to at least

  7. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.

    1993-01-01

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on γ-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a γ-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the γ-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A γ-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the γ-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a γ-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all γ-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this 'holistic' approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of γ-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP)

  8. Determination of nitrogen in boron carbide by instrumental photon activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchel, Silke; Berger, Achim

    2007-05-01

    Boron carbide is widely used as industrial material, because of its extreme hardness, and as a neutron absorber. As part of a round-robin exercise leading to certification of a new reference material (ERM-ED102) which was demanded by the industry we analysed nitrogen in boron carbide by inert gas fusion analysis (GFA) and instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the 14N(gamma,n)13N nuclear reaction. The latter approach is the only non-destructive method among all the methods applied. By using photons with energy below the threshold of the 12C(gamma,n)11C reaction, we hindered activation of matrix and other impurities. A recently installed beam with a very low lateral activating flux gradient enabled us to homogeneously activate sample masses of approximately 1 g. Taking extra precautions, i.e. self-absorption correction and deconvolution of the complex decay curves, we calculated a nitrogen concentration of 2260+/-100 microg g-1, which is in good agreement with our GFA value of 2303+/-64 microg g-1. The values are the second and third highest of a rather atypical (non-S-shape) distribution of data of 14 round-robin participants. It is of utmost importance for the certification process that our IPAA value is the only one not produced by inert gas fusion analysis and, therefore, the only one which is not affected by a possible incomplete release of nitrogen from high-melting boron carbide.

  9. Determination of trace elements in Turkish tea leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.

    1986-01-01

    The human body continuously assimilates a variety of inorganic elements from food and the environment. Some of these elements are closely related to human health and disorder. Tea is one of the most popular stimulating beverages which is consumed by low and high income family groups in many countries. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is one of the preferred methods because information on a large number of elements can be obtained simultaneously. Five packets each of the seven commonly used brands of tea were obtained from the market. In order to determine the transfer of trace elements into the drinkable portion about 2-3g. of the tea leaves were boiled in hot water for 2 min. After filtration the used tea leaves were dried at 65 deg. C in an oven and a portion, about 200mg was used for analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min. and 2 hrs. at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor. After irradiation, the activities of samples and standards were measured with a aoaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Canbera 90 model multi- channel analyzer with an 8K memory was used for pulse height analysis. The system has a resolution of 2.0 KeV. for the 1332.5 KeV gamma ray of 60 Co. The activity of the sample and standard was compared and the element contst of the sample was calculated. (author)

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutyser, P.; Maenhaut, W.; Dams, R.

    1978-01-01

    An automated precipitation sampler and an instrumental neutron activation analysis (i.n.a.a.) method for the determination of some major and trace elements in dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water are presented. The sampler features a rain detector which makes separate collections of dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water possible. The sampler is equipped with u.v. lamps in order to avoid algal growth during extended collection periods. After collection, the samples are separated into water-soluble and insoluble fractions. The soluble fraction is preconcentrated before analysis by freeze-drying. The i.n.a.a. method involves the measurement of both short- and long-lived radioactivities so that a total of 35 elements can be determined. The possibility of losses during freeze-drying and the accuracy of the i.n.a.a. method were investigated for 7 elements by analysis of a soluble fraction with an independent method, viz. inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. (Auth.)

  11. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  12. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2010-01-01

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  13. Rare-earth elements in Egyptian granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit Branch (Egypt)]. E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com

    2007-04-15

    The mobilization of rare-earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in REEs chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of REEs and related elements. Therefore, INAA was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of REEs to find out what information could be obtained about the REEs of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi El-Allaqi, El-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pasha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7x10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was also used.

  14. A real time analysis of the self-assembly process using thermal analysis inside the differential scanning calorimeter instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debmalya; Shastri, Babita; Mukhopadhyay, K

    2012-07-12

    The supramolecular assembly of the regioregular poly-3-hexylthiophene (rr-P3HT) in solution has been investigated thoroughly in the past. In the current study, our focus is on the enthalpy of nanofiber formation using thermal analysis techniques by performing the self-assembly process inside the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) instrument. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out to check the concentration of the solvent during the self-assembly process of P3HT in p-xylene. Ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectophotometric technique, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiment, atomic force microscopic (AFM), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images were used to characterize the different experimental yields generated by cooling the reaction mixture at desired temperatures. Comparison of the morphologies of self-assembled products at different fiber formation temperatures gives us an idea about the possible crystallization parameters which could affect the P3HT nanofiber morphology.

  15. [ADD psychosis: treatment with antipsychotics and methylphenidate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J D; Kooij, J J S

    2012-01-01

    Two patients with a psychotic disorder who also met the diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD were treated with antipsychotics and methylphenidate. The first patient remained stable for many years with this combination treatment, whereas the second became psychotic several months after he had increased the dose of methylphenidate and had started to use cocaine. In the light of these two case studies, we have reviewed the literature on ADD psychosis, and we formulate recommendations regarding the specialised treatment needed for this uncommon disorder.

  16. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  17. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing: the PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon; Wolf, Felix G. [Juelich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Juelich

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to accomplish

  18. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing. The PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Computer and Information Science; Wolf, Felix G. [Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, Julich (Germany). Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-­end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-­performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-­fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to

  19. Using confirmatory factor analysis to validate the Chamberlin affective instrument for mathematical problem solving with academically advanced students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Scott A; Moore, Alan D; Parks, Kelly

    2017-09-01

    Student affect plays a considerable role in mathematical problem solving performance, yet is rarely formally assessed. In this manuscript, an instrument and its properties are discussed to enable educational psychologists the opportunity to assess student affect. The study was conducted to norm the CAIMPS (instrument) with gifted students. In so doing, educational psychologists are informed of the process and the instrument's properties. The sample was comprised of 160 middle-grade (7 and 8) students, identified as gifted, in the United States. After completing one of four model-eliciting activities (MEAs), all participants completed the CAIMPS (Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving). Data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis to ascertain the number of factors in the instrument. The normed fit index (0.6939), non-normed fit index (0.8072), and root mean square error approximation (.076) were at or near the acceptable levels. Alpha levels for factors were also robust (.637-.923). Data suggest that the instrument was a good fit for use with mathematics students in middle grades when solving problems. Perhaps the most impressive characteristic of the instrument was that the four factors (AVI: anxiety, value, and interest), SS (self-efficacy and self-esteem), ASP (aspiration), and ANX (anxiety) did not correlate highly with one another, which defies previous hypotheses in educational psychology. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Santos, C.

    1989-10-01

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . (autor) [pt

  1. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  2. Chemical analysis of nickel-titanium rotary instruments with and without electropolishing after cleaning procedures with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Antonio; Schäfer, Edgar; Condorelli, Guglielmo Guido; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Tripi, Teresa Roberta

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to chemically analyze rotary nickel-titanium instruments with and without electropolishing after cleaning procedures with NaOCl. To evaluate the effect of 5.25% NaOCl on electropolished RaCe instruments, a total of 18 instruments were tested. A control group of 18 nonelectropolished RaCe instruments was used. The surface of each instrument was analyzed before and after cleaning in NaOCl by using energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Surface defects were recorded, and a chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. After immersion in NaOCl, the nonelectropolished and electropolished files showed a significant increase of iron deposits as a result of galvanic corrosion of the shaft (P machining marks and microcracks. As regards the chemical nature of the surface, the electropolished files had an oxide increase compared with the low oxide concentration (mainly TiO2) before cleaning. The nonelectropolished files already possessed higher oxides concentration (TiO2 and NiO) before NaOCl cleaning. NaOCl treatment affects the chemical composition of the surface and, in particular for nonelectropolished instruments, of the bulk exposed through machining marks and fabrication microcracks.

  3. Preliminary error budget analysis of the coronagraphic instrument metis for the solar orbiter ESA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Poletto, Luca; Crescenzio, Giuseppe; Fineschi, Silvano; Antonucci, Ester; Naletto, Giampiero

    2017-11-01

    METIS, the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, is the solar coronagraph foreseen for the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. METIS is conceived to image the solar corona from a near-Sun orbit in three different spectral bands: in the HeII EUV narrow band at 30.4 nm, in the HI UV narrow band at 121.6 nm, and in the polarized visible light band (590 - 650 nm). It also incorporates the capability of multi-slit spectroscopy of the corona in the UV/EUV range at different heliocentric heights. METIS is an externally occulted coronagraph which adopts an "inverted occulted" configuration. The Inverted external occulter (IEO) is a small circular aperture at the METIS entrance; the Sun-disk light is rejected by a spherical mirror M0 through the same aperture, while the coronal light is collected by two annular mirrors M1-M2 realizing a Gregorian telescope. To allocate the spectroscopic part, one portion of the M2 is covered by a grating (i.e. approximately 1/8 of the solar corona will not be imaged). This paper presents the error budget analysis for this new concept coronagraph configuration, which incorporates 3 different sub-channels: UV and EUV imaging sub-channel, in which the UV and EUV light paths have in common the detector and all of the optical elements but a filter, the polarimetric visible light sub-channel which, after the telescope optics, has a dedicated relay optics and a polarizing unit, and the spectroscopic sub-channel, which shares the filters and the detector with the UV-EUV imaging one, but includes a grating instead of the secondary mirror. The tolerance analysis of such an instrument is quite complex: in fact not only the optical performance for the 3 sub-channels has to be maintained simultaneously, but also the positions of M0 and of the occulters (IEO, internal occulter and Lyot stop), which guarantee the optimal disk light suppression, have to be taken into account as tolerancing parameters. In the aim of assuring the scientific

  4. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  5. Instrumental dead-time and its relationship with matrix corrections in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.L.; Haukka, M.T.; Anderson, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between instrumental dead-time and the self-absorption coefficients, αsub(ii) in x.r.f. matrix correction by means of influence coefficients, is not generally recognized but has important analytical consequences. Systematic errors of the order of 1% (relative) for any analyte result from experimental uncertainties in instrumental dead-time. Such errors are applied unevenly across a given range of concentration because the error depends on the calibration standards and on the instrumental conditions used. Refinement of the instrumental dead-time value and other calibration parameters to conform with influence coefficients determined elsewhere assumes exact knowledge of dead-time of the instrument used originally, and quite similar excitation conditions and spectrometer geometry for the two instruments. Though these qualifications may not be met, adjustment of any of the parameters (dead-time, reference concentration, background concentration, self-absorption and other influence coefficients) can be easily achieved. (Auth.)

  6. Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical analyses of terrestrial impact structures: Current analytical procedures at the University of Vienna Geochemistry Activation Analysis Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, Dieter; Koeberl, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, has been upgraded in the year 2006. This paper describes the sample preparation, new instrumentation and data evaluation for hundreds of rock samples of two terrestrial impact structures. The measurement and data evaluation are done by using Genie TM 2000 and a custom-made batch software for the used analysis sequences.

  7. Cyclic fatigue resistance and three-dimensional analysis of instruments from two nickel-titanium rotary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, N M; Plotino, G; Pecci, R; Bedini, R; Malagnino, V A; Somma, F

    2006-10-01

    To determine how instrument design affects the fatigue life of two nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary systems (Mtwo and ProTaper) under cyclic fatigue stress in simulated root canals. Cyclic fatigue testing of instruments was performed in stainless steel artificial canals with radii of curvature of 2 or 5 mm and an angle of curvature of 60 degrees . A total of 260 instruments were rotated until fracture occurred and the number of cycles to failure were recorded. The morphology of Ni-Ti rotary instruments was investigated by measuring the volume of millimetre slices of each instrument size starting from the tip to the shank by means of microCT analysis. The fracture surface of three representative samples of each size was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analysed by one-way anova, Holm t-test, paired t-test and linear regression; the significance was determined at the 95% confidence level. Cycles to failure significantly decreased as the instrument volume increased for both the radii of curvature tested (P < 0.01). The radius of curvature had a statistically significant influence on the fatigue life of the instruments (P < 0.05). Larger instruments underwent fracture in less time under cyclic stress than smaller ones. SEM evaluation showed typical features of fracture through fatigue failure. The metal volume in the point of maximum stress during a cyclic fatigue test could affect the fatigue life of Ni-Ti rotary instruments. The larger the metal volume, the lower the fatigue resistance.

  8. Developing a PC-based expert system for fault analysis of reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, M.P.; Rathod, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.; Darbhe, M.D.; Joglekar, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an expert system for fault analysis of electronic instruments in the CIRUS nuclear reactor. The system was developed in Prolog on an IBM PC-XT compatible computer. A 'model-based' approach (Button et al, 1986) was adopted combining 'frames' and 'rules' to provide flexible control over the inferencing mechanisms. Frames represent the domain-objects as well as the inter-object relationships. They include 'demons' or 'active values' for triggering actions. Rules, along with frames, are used for fault analysis. The rules can be activated either in a data-driven or a goal-driven manner. The use of frames makes rule management easier. It is felt that developing in-house shell proved advantageous, compared to using commercially available shells. Choosing the model-based approach was efficient compared to a production system architecture. Therefore, the use of hybrid representations for diagnostic applications is advocated. Based on the experience, some general recommendations for developing such systems are presented. The expert system helps novice operators to understand the process of diagnosis and achieve a significant required level of competence. The system may not achieve the required level of proficiency by itself, but it can be used to train operators to become experts. (author). 12 refs

  9. Trace elements in California aerosols. Part I. Instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Ralston, H.R.; Garvis, D.; Kaifer, R.

    1975-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) done at LLL played a key role in the 1972--1974 California Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACHEX), a major experiment in the chemistry of aerosols in urban and non-urban sites of California sponsored by the State of California Air Resources Board. The main purpose of INAA was to measure the particle size distributions and diurnal patterns of key chemical constituents in aerosols collected in California. These data were used to satisfy some of the key objectives of ACHEX, including aerosol characterization and evaluation of the origins and evolutions of aerosols. Secondary uses of INAA were the validations of the Lundgren rotating drum cascade impactors used in the ACHEX, and validations of other analytical techniques used in the chemical analyses. As a result of these studies, it was concluded that techniques using INAA were useful operational methods for chemical analysis of aerosols collected over two-hour periods in urban air with an active monitoring program. (U.S.)

  10. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A.

    2013-01-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  11. Methodological Tool or Methodology? Beyond Instrumentality and Efficiency with Qualitative Data Analysis Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative data analysis software (QDAS has become increasingly popular among researchers. However, very few discussions have developed regarding the effect of QDAS on the validity of qualitative data analysis. It is a pressing issue, especially because the recent proliferation of conceptualizations of validity has challenged, and to some degree undermined, the taken-for-granted connection between the methodologically neutral understanding of validity and QDAS. This article suggests an alternative framework for examining the relationship between validity and the use of QDAS. Shifting the analytic focus from instrumentality and efficiency of QDAS to the research practice itself, we propose that qualitative researchers should formulate a "reflective space" at the intersection of their methodological approach, the built-in validity structure of QDAS and the specific research context, in order to make deliberative and reflective methodological decisions. We illustrate this new framework through discussion of a collaborative action research project. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1602160

  12. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  14. The distribution of selected inorganic elements in tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.W.; Grubbs, H.J.; Newman, R.H.; Bass, R.T.; Brenizer, J.S.; Jones, D.C.; Williamson, T.G.; Danehower, D.A.; Long, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in determining selected elements in biological materials has been reported by numerous authors. Some of these have detailed the use of INAA to determine an elemental analysis in tobaccos of various geographical origins. This paper describes the first use of INAA to measure the distribution of selected inorganic elements within the tobacco leaf at a single plant stalk position for one tobacco curing routine. Three replicate plots of a common bright tobacco cultivar were grown under normal cultural conditions characteristic for the bright variety. The tobacco leaves were sampled at selected positions in the leaf. The bright tobacco was cured in a conventional flue-curing barn using standard practices. Immediately after collection, each individual sample was freeze-dried, crushed and sampled. The leaf midrib samples were prepared using a similar procedure. A subsample of about 100 mg was taken from each sample, sealed in a polyethyelene bag, irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10 17 n-m -2 -s -1 in a pneumatic rabbit system, and subsequently counted to obtain the reported data. A standard reference material was used as a comparator to yield relative elemental concentrations for Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Cl, and Br. The data show that chlorine, potassium, sodium and calcium have definite concentration trends within the tobacco leaf. The data also show that some elements, e,g, Mn, were more uniformly distributed throughout the leaf. (author)

  15. Techniques and instruments used for real-time analysis of atmospheric nanoscale molecular clusters: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The extremely high concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic meter ≤ 2.5 μm during severe and persistent haze events in China have been closely related to the formation of secondary aerosols (SA. New particle formation (NPF is the critical initial step of SA formation. New particles are commonly formed from gas-phase precursors (e.g., SO2, volatile organic compounds via nucleation and initial growth, in which molecular clusters with a mobility diameter smaller than 3 nm (hereafter referred to nanoscale molecular clusters will be involved throughout the whole process. Recently, significant breakthroughs have been obtained on NPF studies, which are mostly attributed to the technical development in the real-time analysis of size-resolved number concentration and chemical composition of nanoscale molecular clusters. Regarding the detection of size-resolved number concentrations of nanoscale molecular clusters, both methods and instruments have been well built up; practical application in laboratory-scale experiments and field measurements have also been successfully demonstrated. In contrast, real-time analysis of chemical composition of nanoscale molecular clusters has still encountered the great challenges caused by the complex organic compositions of the clusters, and improvement of present analytical strategies is urgently required. The better understanding in NPF will not only benefit the atmospheric modeling and climate predictions but also the source control of SA.

  16. Investigation of trace elements in Elbe water by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, K.

    1977-01-01

    Investigations of trace elements in Elbe water were carried out as a contribution to environmental research, hydrology, and geochemistry. The method applied - instrumental neutron activation analysis - is described, and problems connected with the course of analysis - sample taking, handling and preparation as well as optimization of in-pile irradiation and measurement by means of γ spectrometry - are discussed and presented one by one. The computer programme set up for automatic evaluation is described in more detail. This programme AKAN has a very general concept which makes it applicable for general use. The reliability of the evaluation procedure - monostandard method - and the reproducibility of the results are discussed. For the studies, samples were taken at different times, every time from 8 positions along a long section of the Elbe. The content of solids was analyzed; in a number of samples, this was done by separating suspended and dissolved materials. Up to 38 elements were analyzed, whose local and time-dependent concentration curves are given. The contents of some elements are compared with the few available data from literature. Correlation calculations indicate a similar behaviour of single element groups and yield information on the natural origin of the trace elements and on anthropogenic influence to be noticed in the trace element contents. (orig.) [de

  17. Elemental characterization of some Nigerian gemstones. Tourmaline, fluorite and topaz by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbe, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was employed in the determination of the major and trace element constituents in tourmaline, fluorite and topaz collected from the gemstone mineralization within a SW-NE trending pegmatite zone, central Nigeria. Cost, turnaround time, high sensitivity for certain elements, the non-destructive nature of analysis and its precision and accuracy have combined to make INAA an indispensable method for multi-element determination in virtually all geological matrices. The major element constituents in tourmaline were Al (119,800 ppm), Mn (4,348 ppm), Na (15,540 ppm) and Fe (34,290 ppm). For fluorite, Ca was the major element with a concentration of 552,000 ppm. In topaz, Al was the major constituent with a concentration of 322,800 ppm. The data suites reveal the presence of As, Br, La, Sc, Co, Hf, Ta and Sb in tourmaline, Na, As, Br, La, Yb, Co, Zn, Eu, Hf, Th in fluorite and Mg, Mn, Na, Br, La, Sc, Co and Ta as trace contaminants. No attempt was made to identify the molecular structure of the gemstones as oxygen, fluorine and silicon contents in any of them were not determined. (author)

  18. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos [Coordenacao de Cursos Tecnicos e Superiores. Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easores@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Geociencias. Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  19. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  20. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose O. dos; Munita, Casimiro S.; Soares, Emilio A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  1. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  2. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis errors and interferences during the certification analysis of NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves (renewal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology is in the process of certification for a new supply of the botanical standard reference material (SRM) 1573, tomato leaves. This renewal SRM 1573a has already been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for 18 elements with 12 replicates and sample sizes averaging ∼140 mg. Elements determined by INAA were selected according to the needs of the SRM program and include some with short half-lives (aluminum, vanadium, calcium, magnesium), some with intermediate half-lives (sodium, potassium, manganese, barium, lanthanum, rubidium), and some with long half-lives (iron, chromium, zinc, cobalt, selenium, thorium, scandium, and antimony). The data obtained will also be used for homogeneity evaluation. During the initial evaluation and certification analyses, a number of potential errors and interferences were identified

  4. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, I.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. - Highlights: ► Elemental contents of three medicinal seeds have been analyzed using INAA. ► All three seeds contain K as major element with ample contents of Fe and Na. ► This baseline data that can be used in future research for medicinal preparations.

  5. Studies on elemental analysis of widely consumed traditional herbs in Libya by ko instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I. O.; Abunawael, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness of among different ethnic groups worldwide. It is vital to know the contents of these herbs used in Libya were analysed by k-0 instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 32 trace and major elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb and Zn) were determined. The concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. The study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The method was justified by analyzing two SRM. All the results are in good agreement with the certified values. (Author)

  6. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  7. How do Innovation Intermediaries add Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Hsuan, Juliana; Mahnke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Innovation intermediaries are increasingly being used in practice, but there is little concrete theoretical guidance on when and how they add value to client's new product development (NPD) processes. This paper develops propositions on innovation intermediaries value-added based on a detailed case...... study of an innovation intermediary's relations to three major clients in the European apparel fashion industry. We identify key contingencies to an innovation intermediary's value added (e.g. NDP speed and complexity of involvement). We also suggest a framework that specifies when a combination of four...... types of specific intermediary capabilities (best-cost capabilities, timing-capabilities, market-response capabilities, and product solution capabilities) increases value added in clients' NDP processes....

  8. Using the refined ICF Linking Rules to compare the content of existing instruments and assessments: a systematic review and exemplary analysis of instruments measuring participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Hopfe, Maren; Kus, Sandra; Mader, Luzius; Prodinger, Birgit

    2016-07-14

    Existing instruments measuring participation may vary with respect to various aspects. This study aimed to examine the comparability of existing instruments measuring participation based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by considering aspects of content, the perspective adopted and the categorization of response options. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify instruments that have been commonly used to measure participation. Concepts of identified instruments were then linked to the ICF following the refined ICF Linking Rules. Aspects of content, perspective adopted and categorization of response options were documented. Out of 315 instruments identified in the full-text screening, 41 instruments were included. Concepts of six instruments were linked entirely to the ICF component Activities and Participation; of 10 instruments still 80% of their concepts. A descriptive perspective was adopted in most items across instruments (75%), mostly in combination with an intensity rating. An appraisal perspective was found in 18% and questions from a need or dependency perspective were least frequent (7%). Accounting for aspects of content, perspective and categorization of responses in the linking of instruments to the ICF provides detailed information for the comparison of instruments and guidance on narrowing down the choices of suitable instruments from a content point of view. Implications for Rehabilitation For clinicians and researchers who need to identify a specific instrument for a given purpose, the findings of this review can serve as a screening tool for instruments measuring participation in terms of the following: • Their content covered based on the ICF. • The perspective adopted in the instrument (e.g., descriptive, need/dependency or appraisal). • The categorization of their response options (e.g., intensity or frequency).

  9. Analysis and simulation of a small-angle neutron scattering instrument on a 1 MW long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olah, G.A.; Hjelm, R.P.; Lujan, M. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the design and performance of a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument for a proposed 1 MW, 60 Hz long pulsed spallation source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). An analysis of the effects of source characteristics and chopper performance combined with instrument simulations using the LANSCE Monte Carlo instrument simulations package shows that the T 0 chopper should be no more than 5 m from the source with the frame overlap and frame definition choppers at 5.6 and greater than 7 m, respectively. The study showed that an optimal pulse structure has an exponential decaying tail with τ ∼ 750 μs. The Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the LPSS SANS, showing that an optimal length is 18 m. The simulations show that an instrument with variable length is best to match the needs of a given measurement. The performance of the optimized LPSS instrument was found to be comparable with present world standard instruments

  10. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo V, M.A.; Andrade Q, M.T. [Researcher of National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq, Center University of the East of Minas Gerais State, UNILESTE-MG (Brazil); Araujo M, R. [CDTN (Brazil); Albernaz A, I. [SCA- CNRS/USR/059, Lyon (France); Oliveira, A.H. de [Federal University of Minas Gerais State (Brazil)]. e-mail: marvv@cdtn.br

    2006-07-01

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 10{sup 11} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level ({mu}g/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  11. Non-destructive multielement analysis of airborne particulates by means of instrumental neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, T.

    1981-04-01

    Suspended particles released from various sources, such as iron and steel works, small facilities (metal melting furnaces, heat treatment furnaces), various boilers using different kinds of fuel, and glass manufactures were subjected to multi-element analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation methods and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Elemental concentrations of the suspended particles were naturally quite varied. The contribution of various aerosol generating sources to the urban atmosphere was estimated, considering seven main source components, namely soil particles of local and global origin, marine aerosols, suspended particles from iron- and steel industries, refuse incineration, fuel oil combustion and gasoline engine automobiles. Taking seven elements, such as Na, Al, K, Se, V, Un and Pb as index elements, their predicted atmospheric concentrations agreed with the observed ones for major elements within a factor of 1.5. Seasonal variations of atmospheric concentrations of various elements over some areas in Japan were observed. It was found that the concentration of global aerosol originating from the continental soil becomes high in spring, resulting in high concentrations of lithoidal elements, such as Al and Sc. Contrary to this, the concentration of elements originating mainly from human activities becomes high around November and December

  12. Trace elements determination in silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves; Vasconcellos, Marina Beatriz Agostini; Saiki, Mitiko; Iamashita, Celia Omine

    2002-01-01

    The use of certified reference materials, CRM, is of uppermost importance in the rastreability realization of the measurement process. At times, CRM use is restricted by the non existence of a suitable CRM with similarity to the sample in respect to matrix composition or with element levels in different orders of magnitude. IPT Chemical Division launched a project to prepare a metallic silicon CRM, due to the requirements of the industries in this field. To characterize this new CRM, IPEN Nuclear Reactor Center is able to perform instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, a very suitable method for silicon matrix samples because they produce basically the short lived radionuclide 3 1 Si under thermal neutrons flux, which after radioactive decay, does not interfere in the determination of other elements. In this paper, it is presented the determination of As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Na Nb, Sb, Sm, Sc, Th, Tb, U, V, W and Yb in silicon CRM NBS SRM 57; ferrosilicon CRM IPT 56; IPT 70; NBS SRM 58a; NBS SRM 59a and silicon RM under preparation IPT 132. From the results, the accuracy and the precision of the process were assessed. (author)

  13. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to plant medicines in Ghana. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Kyere, A.W.K.

    2003-01-01

    Some essential elements in eleven plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 x 10 11 n x s -1 x cm -2 . The plant medicines were: Sirappac powder-E, Tina-A powder, Blighia powder, Aphrodisiac powder, Ninga powder and Lippia tea. The others are Olax powder, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken and Fefe powder. Concentrations of seventeen elements namely Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, K, Mn, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, V, and Zn have been determined by short, medium and long irradiation times. Of these elements Co, Sb, and Sc are found to be present at the trace level, Br, Cu, Cr, Mn, Rb, Ta, V and Zn at the minor level, while Al, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na were generally at major level. The differences in the concentration of the elements are attributed mainly to soil composition and climate in which the plants grow. Standard reference material NIST SRM-1571 (Orchard Leaf) was analyzed simultaneously with the samples. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated using real samples and the standard reference material. It was found that the elemental concentrations measured in the NIST SRM-1571 were within ±10% of the reported values. The importance of these elements as related to human health and nutrition has been discussed. (author)

  14. Robust best linear estimation for regression analysis using surrogate and instrumental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y

    2012-04-01

    We investigate methods for regression analysis when covariates are measured with errors. In a subset of the whole cohort, a surrogate variable is available for the true unobserved exposure variable. The surrogate variable satisfies the classical measurement error model, but it may not have repeated measurements. In addition to the surrogate variables that are available among the subjects in the calibration sample, we assume that there is an instrumental variable (IV) that is available for all study subjects. An IV is correlated with the unobserved true exposure variable and hence can be useful in the estimation of the regression coefficients. We propose a robust best linear estimator that uses all the available data, which is the most efficient among a class of consistent estimators. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal under very weak distributional assumptions. For Poisson or linear regression, the proposed estimator is consistent even if the measurement error from the surrogate or IV is heteroscedastic. Finite-sample performance of the proposed estimator is examined and compared with other estimators via intensive simulation studies. The proposed method and other methods are applied to a bladder cancer case-control study.

  15. Quantitative analysis of silicates by instrumental epithermal neutron activation using (n,p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Perrin, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Instrumental epithermal neutron activation (IENA) involves the use of a neutron filter to screen out the thermal portion of the reactor neutron energy spectrum. Both Cd and B are efficient neutron filters. The principal advantage of epithermal over conventional thermal neutron activation for elemental analysis of geological materials is that the most common rock forming elements, which activate strongly with thermal neutrons (Na, Al, P, K, Fe, and Sc), have their activities suppressed, relative to elements which have cross-sectional resonances in the epithermal energy region. One-gram samples of various silicate standard reference materials were encapsulated in polyethylene vials and irradiated in the Los Alamos Omega West Reactor epithermal facility. Only six elements (F, Si, Na, Fe, Ni, and Ti) were successfully determined in geological matrices via (n,p) reactions. The single standard deviations among the measurements were less than 10% in all cases. The production ratio of (n,p) to (n,γ) and (n,p) to (n,α) interfering reactions are included for silicate materials having Mason's average crustal abundance of elements. Epithermal activation via (n,p) reactions provides an alternative method for the determination of Fe, Al, Na, Ni, and F. The preferred techniques are probably thermal neutron activation for the first three elements, atomic absorption for Ni, and ion selective electrode for F.Titanium and Si can be measured much more sensitively using the (n,p) reaction than by thermal neutron activation. 4 tables

  16. Determination of metallosis after AO plate osteosynthesis by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blettenberg, G.

    1975-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine metallosis after osteosynthesis in 11 samples of contact tissues and 6 samples of fascial tissues by means of AO-plates made of stainless steel. The concentrations of the elements specific for stainless steels such as Fe, Cr, Ni as well as the content of the elements unspecific for steel such as Zn, Co, Rb, Se, Cs, Sb, Sc, and Ag were determined. 7 samples of the contact tissue showed strong metallosis changes and 3 samples showed light metallosis changes which manifested themselves by increased Cr or Ni-concentrations and in 5 cases by increased Fe-content. 1 contact tissue sample did not show any metallosis changes. The 11 samples of contact tissue showed mainly decreased concentrations of Zn, Rb, Se, Cs. In the contact tissue samples which were strongly metallotic Co was to be found in an increased amount. The elements Sb, Sc, and Ag existed in the contact tissue samples in normal concentration. In the fascial samples examined increased Cr and Ni-concentrations indicated metallosis changes. The Fe-concentrations in the fascial changes were within the norm. The content of Zn, Rb, Cs, and Se in the fascial samples were decreased, while the concentrations of Sb, Co, Sc, and Ag were within the normal range. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Trace element contents in atmospheric suspended particles: inferences from instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Boix, A.; Sanfeliu, T.; Martynov, V.V.; Piven, P.I.; Kabina, L.P.; Souschov, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of trace element concentrations in total suspended particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in two different areas in Northeastern Spain (a rural area influenced by the emissions of a large coal-fired power station, and the urban and industrial areas of Castellon). Total suspended particles were sampled by means of standard MCV high- and medium-volume captors, using cellulose membrane filters of 0.8 and 0.45 μm pore size. Preliminary research was performed on the homogeneous distribution of elements in the sample filters and on the study of blank filters for the calculations of the background average element contents. The results obtained allowed to distinguish different major anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the atmosphere at the sampling sites: (a) Zr, Hf, Sc, U and Th are related to atmospheric pollution derived from the ceramic industry of the Castellon area; (b) As, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se, Zn are related to traffic and other industrial emission in the Castellon area, and As, Cr, Sb and Zn to power generation emissions in the rural area. (orig.). With 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Semi-automatic system for UV images analysis of historical musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Piercarlo; Invernizzi, Claudia; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lombardi, Luca; Malagodi, Marco; Rovetta, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The selection of representative areas to be analyzed is a common problem in the study of Cultural Heritage items. UV fluorescence photography is an extensively used technique to highlight specific surface features which cannot be observed in visible light (e.g. restored parts or treated with different materials), and it proves to be very effective in the study of historical musical instruments. In this work we propose a new semi-automatic solution for selecting areas with the same perceived color (a simple clue of similar materials) on UV photos, using a specifically designed interactive tool. The proposed method works in two steps: (i) users select a small rectangular area of the image; (ii) program automatically highlights all the areas that have the same color of the selected input. The identification is made by the analysis of the image in HSV color model, the most similar to the human perception. The achievable result is more accurate than a manual selection, because it can detect also points that users do not recognize as similar due to perception illusion. The application has been developed following the rules of usability, and Human Computer Interface has been improved after a series of tests performed by expert and non-expert users. All the experiments were performed on UV imagery of the Stradivari violins collection stored by "Museo del Violino" in Cremona.

  19. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  20. The investigation of calcium and iron participation in wound healing using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, F.; Bozanic, D.

    1979-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ag, Sb and Hg. Blood and tissue samples of 70 mg each were analysed to establish changes in the concentrations of calcium, iron and zinc in affected tissue. In this paper the results of the behaviour of calcium and iron are reported. The calcium concentration of fracture haematoma blood (FHB) is about 20 times as high as that of arterial or venous blood (rabbits). The level and the change with time of the calcium concentration in FHB-deposits (rabbits) can be explained by the participation of calcium in the haemolysis of the erythrocytes of the FHB which has been injected to form the deposits. The behaviour of the iron in the FHB-deposits is in agreement with this explanation. The change in calcium concentration in the crust of punch-hole wounds in the skin (rats) can be attributed to the mobilization of calcium for fibrin formation. As a likely reason for the level and change with time of the iron concentration in the tissue in the area of fascia and muscle incision wounds (rabbits), the participation of iron in the formation of collagen is discussed. From a comparison of the behaviour of the iron in the FHB-deposits with that in the area of incision wounds it follows that iron enrichments in the area of a complication-free wound are not predominantly caused by a wound haematoma. (author)

  1. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo V, M.A.; Andrade Q, M.T.; Araujo M, R.; Albernaz A, I.; Oliveira, A.H. de

    2006-01-01

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  2. Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Insup.

    1989-01-01

    Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue

  3. Determination of arsenic and other trace elements in cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cepeda, A.M.; Cienfuegos Silva, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A general survey of trace-elements in different types of cosmetics, in particular arsenic, was carried out in order to detect elements that might be detrimental to human health. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detectors. Different amounts of Br and Sb, detected in almost all the samples, produced interferencies in the determination of As when the 559 KeV photopeak was used. Since the triplet formed could not be resolved by the Ge(Li) detector, a mathematical procedure was developed using the 776 KeV gamma-ray emission of 82-Br and various factors found experimentally. This procedure was checked using laboratory-made samples of known concentrations and the results obtained had good precision and accuracy. In addition to arsenic the elements Co, Cr, Br, Sc, Fe and Zn were also quantitatively determined. Those cosmetics made from inorganic raw materials have an As concentration higher than those elaborated from organic materials. (EC)

  4. Epiboron instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of iodine in various salt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Osae, S.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Maakuu, B.T.

    2001-01-01

    Epiboron instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) using flexible boron as thermal neutron filter, has been used to analyze several salt samples obtained from various markets in Ghana for iodine. The method involves the irradiation of samples in boron carbide-lined polyethylene vials at the outer irradiation site of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1). The samples were then counted directly without any pre-treatment on a Canberra N-type HPGe detector. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were done using the 443 keV photopeak of 128 I. The precision and accuracy of the method have been evaluated and the detection limits of the various samples were calculated. The values of iodine determined in the iodized salt range between 10.0 and 210 ppm. For non-iodinated salts, iodine levels were below 500 ppb. The values obtained show great variations among the salt samples, sample collection time and from market to market. This results show that the method can be successfully applied in the determination of trace amount of iodine in salt samples without any chemical separation. (author)

  5. A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

  6. Study on elements concentrations on seabird feathers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theophilo, Carolina Y.S.; Moreira, Edson G.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Colabuono, Fernanda I.

    2017-01-01

    Seabirds are very sensitive to environmental changes and because of their large longevity they are also sensitive to cumulative impacts. These birds usually occupy the higher trophic levels. White-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) are Procellariiformes, which is a seabird order, composed of 4 families. In the last years, researches are being done and actions are being taken to reduce the mortality of albatrosses and petrels caused by human activities. Due to the great ecological importance of these birds and the developed work with Procellariiformes, this study purpose is to quantify the Br, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V elements in white-chinned petrel and black-browed albatross feathers. Bird specimens were killed accidentally by pelagic longline fisheries operating off southern Brazil. Feathers were cleaned with acetone and then milled in a cryogenic mill. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for quantification of the element concentrations and measurements of induced activities were performed in a HPGe detector for gamma ray spectrometry. The obtained results on feathers showed that concentrations in these birds are not higher than others studies with the same species and, with exception of Br, there are no significant differences between elements mean concentrations in the two seabirds. (author)

  7. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Elements in Some Food Spices Consumed In Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali asghar fathivand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is a growing interest in determining the concentration of various elements in food spices. In the present study, the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA was employed to measure the trace elements in 11 commonly food spices consumed in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods The levels of K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, Al, and As were determined and their effects on human health were discussed. The results were compared with the values reported in the literature. The accuracy and precision of the analytical procedure was estimated by analyzing the Lichen (IAEA-336 reference material. Results The concentrations of the measured elements in the spices were 3850-29157, 10-335, 153-2849, 186-3063, 0.2-2.8, 2.1-58.7, and 72-2102 ppm for K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, and Al, respectively. As was only detected in thyme (0.8 ppm and plantain (0.42 ppm. Conclusion As the findings of the present study indicated, the concentrations of K and Na in the black pepper, garlic, and ginger were significantly higher than the values reported in other countries. The Mn levels in the black pepper and garlic consumed in Tehran were comparable with those in Poland. Furthermore, the concentration of As in these spices were lower than the maximum permissible limit.

  8. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577{sup b} Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  9. Study of trace metals in phosphorite by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.U.

    1984-01-01

    Methods to determine U, Th and other constituent elements in mineral matrices by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been widely developed. The precise knowledge of these constituent elements is very important for the nuclear technology development. This justifies the use of a technique capable to extract information from small samples. The present work aimed the study of the phosphorites deriving from the State of Pernambuco (PE, Brazil). Its uranium concentration corresponds to one of the highest values found in industrial exploration of phosphate rocks. An experimental methodology based on the INAA associated to the cluster technique was developed. Concentrations of 22 different elements present in the ore were determined with less than 10% uncertainty. The results have shown high correlations in behavior between uranium and rare earth metals. However, the inverse was noted in relation to transition metals. These results indicate the applicability of this method to determine concentrations as well as to classify correlated element groups in mineral matrices. (Author) [pt

  10. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Mohamed Kamari, Halimah; Chee Kong, Yap; Suhaimi Hamzah, Mohd; Suhaimi Elias, Md

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Dampare, S.B.; Addo, M.A.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.K.; Adomako, D.

    2005-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite sample was determined as a function of particle size by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The concentrations of gold for the corresponding particle sizes were 16.4 ± 0.17mg/kg for sizes <63μm; 161± 0.75 mg/kg for 63 - 125 μm, 0.53 + 0.03 mg/kg for 125 - 250 μm, 4.66± 0.07 mg/kg for 250 - 355 μm, 1.55 ± 0.06 for 355 - 425 μm, 0.80 ± 0.008 mg/kg for 425 -1000 μm, and 1.27 + 0.05 mg/kg for 1000-2000 μm. The average gold content in a 7.127 kg composite sample based on particle size found to be 3.08 mg/kg. (au)

  12. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Ahmed, S.; Rahman, A; Waheed, S.; Chaudhary, M.M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1997-01-01

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  13. LabVIEW: a software system for data acquisition, data analysis, and instrument control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, C J

    1995-01-01

    Computer-based data acquisition systems play an important role in clinical monitoring and in the development of new monitoring tools. LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) is a data acquisition and programming environment that allows flexible acquisition and processing of analog and digital data. The main feature that distinguishes LabVIEW from other data acquisition programs is its highly modular graphical programming language, "G," and a large library of mathematical and statistical functions. The advantage of graphical programming is that the code is flexible, reusable, and self-documenting. Subroutines can be saved in a library and reused without modification in other programs. This dramatically reduces development time and enables researchers to develop or modify their own programs. LabVIEW uses a large amount of processing power and computer memory, thus requiring a powerful computer. A large-screen monitor is desirable when developing larger applications. LabVIEW is excellently suited for testing new monitoring paradigms, analysis algorithms, or user interfaces. The typical LabVIEW user is the researcher who wants to develop a new monitoring technique, a set of new (derived) variables by integrating signals from several existing patient monitors, closed-loop control of a physiological variable, or a physiological simulator.

  14. Elemental characterization of Nigerian Tourmaline, Fluorite and Topaz by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbe, S.O.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Ogunleye, P.O.; Oladipo, M.O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was employed in determination of the major and trace element constituent in tourmaline, fluorite and topaz collected from the gemstone mineralization within the SW-NE trending pegmatite zone, central Nigeria. Also, the trace contaminants in these gemstones were determined. The major elements constituent in tourmaline were Al (119,800 ppm), Mn (4,348 ppm), Na (15,540 ppm) and Fe (34,290 ppm); fluorite Ca (552,000 ppm) and topaz Al (322,800 ppm) while the trace contaminants were in the range of Sc (6.6 ppm) to La (68 ppm; Hf(1.00 ppm) to Zn (112 ppm) and Ta (0.9 ppm) to La (95 ppm) respectively in these gemstones. No attempt was made to identify the molecular structure of the gemstones as oxygen, fluorine and silicon contents in any of them were not determined. The health implications of the trace contaminants in the gemstones are highlighted.

  15. Attack tree based cyber security analysis of nuclear digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    To maintain the cyber security, nuclear digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems must be analyzed for security risks because a single security breach due to a cyber attack can cause system failure, which can have catastrophic consequences on the environment and staff of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Attack trees have been widely used to analyze the cyber security of digital systems due to their ability to capture system specific as well as attacker specific details. Therefore, a methodology based on attack trees has been proposed to analyze the cyber security of the systems. The methodology has been applied for the Cyber Security Analysis (CSA) of a Bistable Processor (BP) of a Reactor Protection System (RPS). Threats have been described according to their source. Attack scenarios have been generated using the attack tree and possible counter measures according to the Security Risk Level (SRL) of each scenario have been suggested. Moreover, cyber Security Requirements (SRs) have been elicited, and suitability of the requirements has been checked. (author)

  16. Study on elements concentrations on seabird feathers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theophilo, Carolina Y.S.; Moreira, Edson G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Colabuono, Fernanda I., E-mail: carolina.theophilo@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: ficolabuono@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanográfico

    2017-07-01

    Seabirds are very sensitive to environmental changes and because of their large longevity they are also sensitive to cumulative impacts. These birds usually occupy the higher trophic levels. White-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) are Procellariiformes, which is a seabird order, composed of 4 families. In the last years, researches are being done and actions are being taken to reduce the mortality of albatrosses and petrels caused by human activities. Due to the great ecological importance of these birds and the developed work with Procellariiformes, this study purpose is to quantify the Br, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V elements in white-chinned petrel and black-browed albatross feathers. Bird specimens were killed accidentally by pelagic longline fisheries operating off southern Brazil. Feathers were cleaned with acetone and then milled in a cryogenic mill. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for quantification of the element concentrations and measurements of induced activities were performed in a HPGe detector for gamma ray spectrometry. The obtained results on feathers showed that concentrations in these birds are not higher than others studies with the same species and, with exception of Br, there are no significant differences between elements mean concentrations in the two seabirds. (author)

  17. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, A.; Hamidatou Alghem, L.; Beladel, B.; Mokhtari, O.E.K.; Bendaas, A.; Benamar, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  18. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A.

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577 b Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  19. Determination of trace elements in food reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K. H.; Park, K. W.; Zeisler, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two biological Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), KRISS 108-04-001 (ouster tissue) and 108-05-001 (water dropwort stem), were prepared by Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) during FY '01. The certified values of these materials had been determined by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) for six elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn). Additional analytical works are now progressing to certify the concentrations of a number of the environmental and nutrimental elements in these CRMs. The certified values in a CRM are usually determined by using a single primary method with confirmation by other method(s) or using two independent critically-evaluated methods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) plays an important role in the determination of certified values as it can eliminate the possibility of common error sources resulting from sample dissolution. In this study INAA procedure was used in determination of 23 elements in these two biological CRMs to acquire the concentration information and the results were compared with KRISS certified values

  20. Mobile Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (MGIPF) for In Situ Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Planetary Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhöfer, G.; Romstedt, J.; Henkel, H.; Michaelis, H.; Brückner, J.; D'Uston, C.

    A first order requirement for any spacecraft mission to land on a solid planetary or moon surface is instrumentation for in-situ mineralogical and chemical analysis 2 Such analysis provide data needed for primary classification and characterization of surface materials present We will discuss a mobile instrument package we have developed for in-situ investigations under harsh environmental conditions like on Mercury or Mars This Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility is a compact box also called payload cab containing three small advanced geochemistry mineralogy instruments the chemical spectrometer APXS the mineralogical M o ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II 3 and a textural imager close-up camera The payload cab is equipped with two actuating arms with two degrees of freedom permitting precision placement of all instruments at a chosen sample This payload cab is the central part of the small rover Nanokhod which has the size of a shoebox 1 The Nanokhod rover is a tethered system with a typical operational range of sim 100 m Of course the payload cab itself can be attached by means of its arms to any deployment device of any other rover or deployment device 1 Andre Schiele Jens Romstedt Chris Lee Sabine Klinkner Rudi Rieder Ralf Gellert G o star Klingelh o fer Bodo Bernhardt Harald Michaelis The new NANOKHOD Engineeering model for extreme cold environments 8th International symposium on Artificial Intelligence Robotics and Automation in Space 5 - 9 September 2005

  1. Rapid determination of trace amounts of fluorine in silicon nitride by instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-01-01

    The rapid determination of ppm levels of F in silicon nitride powder and some reference materials by instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA), measuring the short-lived nuclide 20 F (half life: 11.00 s), has been studied. The determination was carried out by single and cyclic activation methods using an activation analysis facility (PN-3) of the 20 MW reactor JRR-3M. Using this method, the sample was irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 1.9 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 for 5 s, and the γ-ray spectrum was measured for 10 s after letting the sample stand for 7 s. In the cyclic-activation method, the single-activation method was repeated 5 times, including more than a 10 min cooling interval between each measurement. The effects of evaporating F during neutron irradiation and a side reaction due to 23 Na (n, α) 20 F were examined; it was confirmed that these effects can be neglected under the present experimental conditions. Due to the high Cd ratio of the irradiation field at PN-3, the effect of the side reaction from Na is 25- to 155-times lower than the values obtained by other reactors. The cyclic-activation method presents not only a lower detection limit, but also better analytical precision than the single-activation method. The analytical results of F in reference materials of Opal Glass (NIST SRM91) and Oyster Tissue (NIST SRM1566a) almost agreed within 5.1 to 5.9 % with the certified and reference values. The relationship between the detection limit of the F and Al contents was also clarified. (author)

  2. Instability and instrumentation failures after a PSO: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charosky, Sebastien; Moreno, Pierre; Maxy, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Finite element analysis. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is associated with a high rate of mechanical complications and implant failures. The biomechanical reasons for these failures are unclear. Using finite element analysis (FEA): to analyze the biomechanical instability after a PSO, to compare the effect of constructs with different rod contours and analyze the mechanical forces acting on these constructs to explain the mechanisms of failure. A 3D validated FE model of the spine from L1 to the sacrum was used. The model was modified to simulate a PSO of L4 in different situations: healthy, high dehydrated and completely degenerated discs. Loads were applied and range of motion (ROM) was measured. Pedicle screw constructs from L2 to S1 with different rod contours were added to the most instable scenario. Bending, torsion, shear moments and stress were measured. PSO alone had a moderate impact on the ROM of basic movements (flexion, extension and lateral bending). Secondary motion (torsion) in lateral bending increased 200 %. Greatest increase in ROM was observed with the PSO and degenerated discs. Secondary motion (torsion) in lateral bending increased +625 %. The instability after a PSO is rotational. Mean reduction of ROM was 95 % for all constructs tested. Rod contour affected the location of bending moments and stress. Sharp angle bend showed maximum bending moments (2,208 Nmm) and stress at the PSO level. Smooth contour of the rod showed maximum bending moments (1,940 Nmm) and stress at the sacral connection. Anterior support below the PSO reduced bending moments along the rod (-26 %). The instability observed after a PSO is mainly rotational and increases with disc degeneration. Shape of rod contour affects the location of maximum stress in the constructs. These findings may explain different instrumentation failures.

  3. Product analysis and initial reliability testing of the total mesorectal excision-quality assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Marko R; DeNardi, Franco G; Coates, Angela J; Szalay, David A; Eva, Kevin W

    2014-07-01

    Product analysis of rectal cancer resection specimens before specimen fixation may provide an immediate and relevant evaluation of surgical performance. We tested the interrater reliability (IRR) of a product analysis tool called the Total Mesorectal Excision-Quality Assessment Instrument (TME-QA). Participants included two gold standard raters, five pathology assistants, and eight pathologists. Domains of the TME-QA reflect total mesorectal excision principles including: (1) completeness of mesorectal margin; (2) completeness of mesorectum; (3) coning of distal mesorectum; (4) physical defects; and (5) overall specimen quality. Specimens were scored independently. We used the generalizability theory to assess the tool's internal consistency and IRR. There were 39 specimens and 120 ratings. Mean overall specimen quality scores for the gold standard raters, pathologists, and assistants were 4.43, 4.43, and 4.50, respectively (p > 0.85). IRR for the first nine items was 0.68 for the full sample, 0.62 for assistants alone, 0.63 for pathologists alone, and 0.74 for gold standard raters alone. IRR for the item overall specimen quality was 0.67 for the full sample, 0.45 for assistants, 0.80 for pathologists, and 0.86 for gold standard raters. IRR increased for all groups when scores were averaged across two raters. Assessment of surgical specimens using the TME-QA may provide rapid and relevant feedback to surgeons about their technical performance. Our results show good internal consistency and IRR when the TME-QA is used by pathologists. However, for pathology assistants, multiple ratings with the averaging of scores may be needed.

  4. Lurking in the Lab: Analysis of Data from Molecular Biology Laboratory Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Ferguson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This project examined primary research data files found on instruments in a molecular biology teaching laboratory. Experimental data files were analyzed in order to learn more about the types of data generated by these instruments (e.g. file formats, and to evaluate current laboratory data management practices.SETTING: This project examined experimental data files from instruments in a teaching laboratory at Brandeis University.METHODOLOGY: Experimental data files and associated metadata on instrument hard drives were captured and analyzed using Xplorer2 software. Formats were categorized as proprietary or open, and characteristics such as file naming conventions were noted. Discussions with the faculty member and lab staff guided the project scope and informed the findings.RESULTS: Files in both proprietary and open formats were found on the instrument hard drives. 62% of the experimental data files were in proprietary formats. Image files in various formats accounted for the most prevalent types of data found. Instrument users varied widely in their approaches to data management tasks such as file naming conventions.CONCLUSIONS: This study found inconsistent approaches to managing data on laboratory instruments. Prevalence of proprietary file formats is a concern with this type of data. Students express frustration in working with these data, and files in these proprietary formats could pose curation and preservation challenges in the future. Teaching labs afford an opportunity for librarians interested in learning more about primary research data and data management practices.

  5. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kofronova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 3 (2011), s. 769-772 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Instrumental neutron activation analysis * Hair * Arsenic poisoning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  6. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, I.; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Z.; Chvátil, D.; Krist, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 342, JAN (2015), s. 82-86 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : fluorine * instrumental photon activation analysis * IPAA * coal Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  7. Exploring Music Instrument Teaching and Learning Environments: Video Analysis as a Means of Elucidating Process and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines the methods developed to engage in a detailed investigation of video footage of piano teaching, involving advanced students in both one-to-one and small-group settings. The paper presents the research to date in the field of musical instrument teaching, considers various challenges associated with video footage analysis, and…

  8. School Music and Society: A Content Analysis of the Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music, 1946-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the session content presented in the first fifty years (1946-1996) of the (Michigan) state music education conference," The Midwestern Conference on School Vocal and Instrumental Music." The purpose of this study was to examine instructional techniques, technology, social/societal, and multicultural…

  9. Instrumental variable analysis using multiple databases: An example of antidepressant use and risk of hip/femur fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, Md Jamal; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.; De Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Gardarsdottir, Helga|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/321858131; Martin, Elisa; Candore, Gianmario; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C.B.; Klungel, Olaf H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649

    2014-01-01

    Background: Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce bias due to unmeasured confounding, yet it has not been widely used in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Objectives: To assess the performance of several IVs across multiple databases in a study of antidepressant use and risk of hip/femur

  10. Study of atmospheric aerosols in Zaire by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Lumu, B.M.; Matamba, K.; Ronneau, C.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy were applied to the determination of trace element abundances in airborne particulate matter collected throughout Kinshasa, Zaire. Statistical treatment of the resulting data was used to assess the variations between sites and to identify the sources of the pollutants. 10 refs, 5 tabs

  11. Correlating family nurse practitioners' perspectives of adult ADD/ADHD with employed pharmacotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Jennifer; Tang, Hsin-Yi Jean

    2010-08-01

    This study explores how family nurse practitioners (FNPs) in the state of Washington view adulthood attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) and how these views affect the pharmacotherapy FNPs employ. A confidential survey containing 30 questions was mailed to self-selected FNPs who practice in the state of Washington (N= 126). Descriptive and Kendall's rank correlations coefficient statistical methods were used for data analysis. The majority of respondents do not hold negative views toward adults with ADD/ADHD and are aware that their personal views may affect how they treat the disorder. Most of the respondents agreed that given the likelihood of co-morbidity of adult ADD/ADHD, it can be a challenge to diagnose the disorder. The predominant prescribed medications for adult ADD/ADHD are consistent with current pediatric guidelines, with the exception of buproprion, which was identified by 40% of the respondents as either their primary or secondary drug of choice for treating adult ADD/ADHD. Research effort needs to focus on the efficacy of buproprion for treating ADD/ADHD in adults. Moreover, exploration of the effectiveness of current pediatric guidelines to treat ADD/ADHD in adults must be assessed.

  12. Photon Activation Analysis Of Light Elements Using 'Non-Gamma' Radiation Spectroscopy - The Instrumental Determination Of Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segebade, Christian; Goerner, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    Unlike metal determinations the analysis of light elements (e.g., carbon, oxygen, phosphorus) is frequently problematic, in particular if analysed instrumentally. In photon activation analysis (PAA) the respective activation products do not emit gamma radiation in the most cases. Usually, annihilation quanta counting and subsequent decay curve analysis have been used for determinations of C, N, O, and F. However, radiochemical separation of the respective radioisotopes mostly is indispensable. For several reasons, some of the light elements cannot be analysed following this procedure, e.g. phosphorus. In this contribution the instrumental PAA of phosphorus in organic matrix by activation with bremsstrahlung of an electron linear accelerator and subsequent beta spectroscopy is described. The accuracy of the results was excellent as obtained by analysis of a BCR Reference Material.

  13. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  14. Application of an X-ray Fluorescence Instrument to Helicopter Wear Debris Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the application of an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument to determine the composition of wear debris collected from helicopter magnetic chip detectors and oil filters. The Twin-X XRF...

  15. Prediction performances of portable near infrared instruments for at farm forage analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Benozzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to analyze maize silage with a portable instrument. The instrument was a Zeiss Corona 45 working between 960 and 1700 nm which was used in Italy, Czech Republic and Poland. Best prediction performances were obtained using the Italian data set. Prediction error were 1.0, 0.16 and 0.4 respectively for DM, CP and NDF on a as is basis. With the instrument from Poland and Czech Republic there were lower accuracy of prediction compared to the Italian dataset, probably for their limited (less than 100 samples calibration data set. Merging all the data set improved prediction accuracy for CP but not DM. It would appear that some form of instrument standardization is needed before merging data set.

  16. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  17. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  18. Legal Analysis on Interlink Between International and National Instruments Towards Woman Rights in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatinah, Tri Lisiani

    2011-01-01

    International instruments such as the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the Internasional Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and Social and Cultural Rights, and the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Agaist Women (CEDAW) have led to what has been called a juridical revolution. Under these International instruments, the idea of all these rights including woman rights has been constitutionalized in almost all countries and practically all countries are now committed Inte...

  19. Cluster cosmological analysis with X ray instrumental observables: introduction and testing of AsPIX method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valotti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology is one of the fundamental pillars of astrophysics, as such it contains many unsolved puzzles. To investigate some of those puzzles, we analyze X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters. These surveys are possible thanks to the bremsstrahlung emission of the intra-cluster medium. The simultaneous fit of cluster counts as a function of mass and distance provides an independent measure of cosmological parameters such as Ω_m, σ_s, and the dark energy equation of state w0. A novel approach to cosmological analysis using galaxy cluster data, called top-down, was developed in N. Clerc et al. (2012). This top-down approach is based purely on instrumental observables that are considered in a two-dimensional X-ray color-magnitude diagram. The method self-consistently includes selection effects and scaling relationships. It also provides a means of bypassing the computation of individual cluster masses. My work presents an extension of the top-down method by introducing the apparent size of the cluster, creating a three-dimensional X-ray cluster diagram. The size of a cluster is sensitive to both the cluster mass and its angular diameter, so it must also be included in the assessment of selection effects. The performance of this new method is investigated using a Fisher analysis. In parallel, I have studied the effects of the intrinsic scatter in the cluster size scaling relation on the sample selection as well as on the obtained cosmological parameters. To validate the method, I estimate uncertainties of cosmological parameters with MCMC method Amoeba minimization routine and using two simulated XMM surveys that have an increasing level of complexity. The first simulated survey is a set of toy catalogues of 100 and 10000 deg"2, whereas the second is a 1000 deg"2 catalogue that was generated using an Aardvark semi-analytical N-body simulation. This comparison corroborates the conclusions of the Fisher analysis. In conclusion, I find that a cluster diagram that accounts for

  20. Analysis of surgical smoke produced by various energy-based instruments and effect on laparoscopic visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weld, Kyle J; Dryer, Stephen; Ames, Caroline D; Cho, Kuk; Hogan, Chris; Lee, Myonghwa; Biswas, Pratim; Landman, Jaime

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed the smoke plume produced by various energy-based laparoscopic instruments and determined its effect on laparoscopic visibility. The Bipolar Macroforceps, Harmonic Scalpel, Floating Ball, and Monopolar Shears were applied in vitro to porcine psoas muscle. An Aerodynamic Particle Sizer and Electrostatic Classifier provided a size distribution of the plume for particles >500 nm and Visibility was calculated using the measured-size distribution data and the Rayleigh and Mie light-scattering theories. The real-time instruments were successful in measuring aerosolized particle size distributions in two size ranges. Electron microscopy revealed smaller, homogeneous, spherical particles and larger, irregular particles consistent with cellular components. The aerosol produced by the Bipolar Macroforceps obscured visibility the least (relative visibility 0.887) among the instruments tested. Particles from the Harmonic Scalpel resulted in a relative visibility of 0.801. Monopolar-based instruments produced plumes responsible for the poorest relative visibility (Floating Ball 0.252; Monopolar Shears 0.026). Surgical smoke is composed of two distinct particle populations caused by the nucleation of vapors as they cool (the small particles) and the entrainment of tissue secondary to mechanical aspects (the large particles). High concentrations of small particles are most responsible for the deterioration in laparoscopic vision. Bipolar and ultrasonic instruments generate a surgical plume that causes the least deterioration of visibility among the instruments tested.

  1. Prediction of future falls in a community dwelling older adult population using instrumented balance and gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, C M; Gröger, I; Rupprecht, R; Marcar, V L; Gaßmann, K G

    2016-04-01

    The role of instrumented balance and gait assessment when screening for prospective fallers is currently a topic of controversial discussion. This study analyzed the association between variables derived from static posturography, instrumented gait analysis and clinical assessments with the occurrence of prospective falls in a sample of community dwelling older people. In this study 84 older people were analyzed. Based on a prospective occurrence of falls, participants were categorized into fallers and non-fallers. Variables derived from clinical assessments, static posturography and instrumented gait analysis were evaluated with respect to the association with the occurrence of prospective falls using a forward stepwise, binary, logistic regression procedure. Fallers displayed a significantly shorter single support time during walking while counting backwards, increased mediolateral to anteroposterior sway amplitude ratio, increased fast mediolateral oscillations and a larger coefficient (Coeff) of sway direction during various static posturography tests. Previous falls were insignificantly associated with the occurrence of prospective falls. Variables derived from posturography and instrumented gait analysis showed significant associations with the occurrence of prospective falls in a sample of community dwelling older adults.

  2. Numerical analysis of freezing controlled penetration behavior of the molten core debris in an instrument tube with MPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ronghua; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The EPRI-3 melt solidification test was successfully analyzed by MPS code. • Analysis of the solidification behavior of molten UO 2 and Fe in BWR instrument tube. • The melt had solidified and plugged the instrument tube in all the calculations. • Typical melt solidification behavior in instrument tube was revealed by MPS method. - Abstract: The freezing controlled penetration behavior of the molten core debris in the BWR instrument tube had been analyzed with a two dimensional geometry under severe accident conditions using Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method. The change of melt viscosity with temperature in the phase transition region was taken into account in the present MPS method. Accordingly, in order to improve the computation speed of such highly viscous fluid, the implicit calculation scheme was employed to solve the viscous term in this study. The surface tension model based on the inter-particle potential force was incorporated in the MPS method to track the melt leading front more accurately. The present MPS method was validated first by simulating the experiment of molten aluminum oxide penetrating in a prototypical PWR instrument tube which was performed by EPRI. The comparison of the predicted penetration length and the measured results showed a good agreement selecting a parameter. Then the penetration and solidification behaviors of molten stainless steel and uranium dioxide in the BWR instrument tube were simulated under a wide parametric range. The computational results showed that the melt penetration length increased with the melt superheat, and the melt had plugged the tube in all simulations. The melt flow resistance increased due to the formation of the crust on the tube surface and the increase of melt viscosity in the phase transition region. The present results indicated that the typical melt penetration and solidification behavior in the instrument tube was successfully revealed by MPS method

  3. Trace element characteristics of indian cigarette tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Vivek Singh; Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine hazardous effects of smoking five different brands of Indian cigarette tobacco including its ash and smoke, three brands of bi di (a typical of Indian subcontinent) and two of chewing tobacco have been analysed for 24 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Hf, La, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A simple and indigenous smoking device has been developed. A mean ash content of 16.5 ± 1.1% was obtained for different brands of cigarettes whereas smoke content was found to be 4.8±0.8%. It is observed that most elements are retained in ash and a few are transferred to smoke. Percent amount of elements retained in ash and transferred to smoke condensate have been calculated. Significant amounts of Sb, Hg, Co, Se and Zn are transferred to smoke but >90% of Ca, Fe, Sr and Cr are retained in ash. a comparison of elemental contents with the cigarette tobacco from other countries shows comparable amounts for most elements except few minor variations attributable to local soil characteristics. Most elemental contents in bi di and chewing tobacco are comparable except Br, Cr, Na, Se and Sr which are higher in chewing tobacco but its Ca content is lower. Standard Reference Materials Bowen's Kale, Kentucky Reference Cigarette and Citrus Leaves (SRM 1572) along with a newly developed tobacco CRM OTL-1 from Poland were also analysed. (author). 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamnev, Alexander A. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: aakamnev@ibppm.sgu.ru; Tugarova, Anna V. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Antonyuk, Lyudmila P. [Laboratory of Biochemistry of Plant-Bacterial Symbioses, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, 410049 Saratov (Russian Federation); Tarantilis, Petros A. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Kulikov, Leonid A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Perfiliev, Yurii D. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry Techniques, Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Polissiou, Moschos G. [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens (Greece); Gardiner, Philip H.E. [Division of Chemistry, School of Science and Mathematics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-28

    In biosciences and biotechnology, the expanding application of physicochemical approaches using modern instrumental techniques is an efficient strategy to obtain valuable and often unique information at the molecular level. In this work, we applied a combination of vibrational (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques, useful in overall structural and compositional analysis of bacterial cells of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, with {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy (EMS) used for sensitive monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live bacterial cells. The information obtained, together with ICP-MS analyses for metals taken up by the bacteria, is useful in analysing the impact of the environmental conditions (heavy metal stress) on the bacterial metabolism and some differences in the heavy metal stress-induced behaviour of non-endophytic (Sp7) and facultatively endophytic (Sp245) strains. The results show that, while both strains Sp7 and Sp245 take up noticeable and comparable amounts of heavy metals from the medium (0.12 and 0.13 mg Co, 0.48 and 0.44 mg Cu or 4.2 and 2.1 mg Zn per gram of dry biomass, respectively, at a metal concentration of 0.2 mM in the medium), their metabolic responses differ essentially. Whereas for strain Sp7 the FTIR measurements showed significant accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage materials involved in stress endurance, strain Sp245 did not show any major changes in cellular composition. Nevertheless, EMS measurements showed rapid binding of cobalt(II) by live bacterial cells (chemically similar to metal binding by dead bacteria) and its further transformation in the live cells within an hour.

  5. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, J.; Boldt, F.M.; Gerstenberg, H.; Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V.; Reber, S.; Wiehl, N.

    2011-01-01

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: → We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. → We make first experiments of locally

  6. Instrumental analysis of bacterial cells using vibrational and emission Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Antonyuk, Lyudmila P.; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Kulikov, Leonid A.; Perfiliev, Yurii D.; Polissiou, Moschos G.; Gardiner, Philip H.E.

    2006-01-01

    In biosciences and biotechnology, the expanding application of physicochemical approaches using modern instrumental techniques is an efficient strategy to obtain valuable and often unique information at the molecular level. In this work, we applied a combination of vibrational (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques, useful in overall structural and compositional analysis of bacterial cells of the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense, with 57 Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopy (EMS) used for sensitive monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live bacterial cells. The information obtained, together with ICP-MS analyses for metals taken up by the bacteria, is useful in analysing the impact of the environmental conditions (heavy metal stress) on the bacterial metabolism and some differences in the heavy metal stress-induced behaviour of non-endophytic (Sp7) and facultatively endophytic (Sp245) strains. The results show that, while both strains Sp7 and Sp245 take up noticeable and comparable amounts of heavy metals from the medium (0.12 and 0.13 mg Co, 0.48 and 0.44 mg Cu or 4.2 and 2.1 mg Zn per gram of dry biomass, respectively, at a metal concentration of 0.2 mM in the medium), their metabolic responses differ essentially. Whereas for strain Sp7 the FTIR measurements showed significant accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage materials involved in stress endurance, strain Sp245 did not show any major changes in cellular composition. Nevertheless, EMS measurements showed rapid binding of cobalt(II) by live bacterial cells (chemically similar to metal binding by dead bacteria) and its further transformation in the live cells within an hour

  7. Determination of some mineral components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, I.K; Acheampong, A.O.; Adu-Dapaah, H.

    2007-01-01

    Some mineral elements in the seeds of the cowpea were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The cowpea cultivars were made up of improved varieties (Soronko, Gbeho, Ayiyi, Asontem, Asontem1, Bengpla, Asetenapa and Adom), farmers' accessions (87/7, 87/1, 87/27, 87/147, 87/34, 87/49, 87/83, 87/157, 87/149, 87/30, 87/153, 96/046, 87/137, 96/129, BTB 96/091, OAA 96/30, BTB 96/054), and experimental materials (IT870-677-2, Caroni, Kaase Market, 1977 and 1239). A total of 14 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Br, Cl, K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ta, Si and In) were detected in the seeds of the 30 cowpea cultivars. Five of the elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) identified are classified as major elements in the human body, while four (Mn, Zn, V, Si) are trace elements. The major elements K, Na, Ca, Mg and Cl were detected in high concentration in cultivars 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34 and 87/49, respectively. The trace elements Mn, Zn, V, Si, Cu and Al were detected in high concentration in cultivars 87/34, 87/27, 87/34, Bengpla, 87/34 and 87/34, respectively. From the results the following accessions could be selected and incorporated into a cowpea mineral nutritional improvement programme: 96/129, 87/137, Ayiyi, 87/34, 87/49 and 87/27. The presence of the five major elements and the trace elements indicates that cowpea has a rich source of mineral elements and, therefore, can be used to improve the diet of both humans and livestock. (au)

  8. Determination of sodium in biological samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwate, D.V.; Garg, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium is one of the most essential elements needed for metabolic processes amongst human beings. It is consumed in the form of sodium chloride but it is also present in edible plant leaves. Sodium is mostly analyzed by flame photometric method, a destructive and time consuming technique. Sodium has been determined in some green leave vegetables samples-palak, radish, khatta palak (ambat chuka), chaulai leaves, chauli bean covers and its seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The method involves irradiation of samples with thermal neutrons from 241 Am-Be source and counting 24 Na activity (half life 15 hr) from the reaction 23 Na(n,γ) 24 Na. Activity due to 1.37 MeV photopeak was counted with a NaI(Tl) crystal coupled to gamma ray spectrometer. Green leaves of the vegetables were thoroughly washed, dried at constant temperature and powdered. Bowen's Kale powder was used as standard for measuring sodium abundances. About 2g each of samples and the standard were packed in polythene vials. They were irradiated for 24 hrs, delayed by 1 hr and then counted for 20 mts. It is found that radish leaves are most enriched in sodium (14.0 +-0.45%) amongst four leave samples analyzed. For three different parts of chaulai leaves, bean covers and seeds, sodium contents are 1.38%, 1820 and 1010 ppm. Palak contains 2.84 +-0.29% while khatta palak contains only 4210 +- 830 ppm sodium. All values reported here are for dry weight samples and are means of three replicate measurements with standard deviation. (author)

  9. Instrumental variable analysis as a complementary analysis in studies of adverse effects : venous thromboembolism and second-generation versus third-generation oral contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boef, Anna G C; Souverein, Patrick C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; de Boer, Anthonius; le Cessie, Saskia; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A potentially useful role for instrumental variable (IV) analysis may be as a complementary analysis to assess the presence of confounding when studying adverse drug effects. There has been discussion on whether the observed increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for

  10. Spectroscopic Analysis to Characterize Finishing Treatments of Ancient Bowed String Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, Giacomo; Rovetta, Tommaso; Gulmini, Monica; Piccirillo, Anna; Licchelli, Maurizio; Malagodi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Historical bowed string instruments exhibit acoustic features and aesthetic appeal that are still considered inimitable. These characteristics seem to be in large part determined by the materials used in the ground and varnishing treatments after the assembly of the instrument. These finishing processes were kept secret by the violinmakers and the traditional methods were handed down orally from master craftsmen to apprentices. Today, the methods of the past can represent a secret to be revealed through scientific investigations. The "Cremonese" methods used in the 17th and 18th centuries were lost as the last Great Masters from the Amati, Guarneri, and Stradivari families passed away. In this study, we had the chance of combining noninvasive and microinvasive techniques on six fragments of historical musical instruments. The fragments were detached from different instruments during extraordinary maintenance and restoration treatments, which involved the substitution of severely damaged structural parts like top plates, back plates, or ribs. Therefore, the fragments can offer to the scientists a valuable overview on the materials and techniques used by the violinmakers. The results obtained by portable X-ray fluorescence, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared microscopy allowed us to: (1) determine the stratigraphy of six instruments; (2) obtain new information about the materials involved in the finishing processes employed in Cremona; and (3) elucidate the technological relationship among the procedures adopted in the violin making workshops during the considered period.

  11. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syazwani Mohd Fadzil; Khoo Kok Sionga, Amran Ab Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2009-01-01

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g -1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  12. The study of the trace element in organisms by neutron analysis. I. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis of cannabis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinogi, M.; Murai, Y.; Mori, I.; Takeuchi, T.

    1977-05-01

    Examinations were made on optimal experimental conditions for instrumental determination of various elements in cannabis by neutron activation analysis, without any radiochemical separation, and the following conditions were found to be useful. Irradiation samples to be used are about 300 mg of the leaves or stem bark, and about 100 mg of the root. For soil sample, about 50 mg is used for the determination of short half-life nuclides and about 300 mg for long half-life nuclides. For short half-life nuclides, the samples are irradiated for 1 min, activity is measured for 200 sec after a decay of 3 min, and for 400 sec after a decay of 10 min. For long half-life nuclides, the samples are irradiated for 60 min and the activities are measured for 4 K sec after 1 week and for 10 K sec after 1 month. Use of supersonic waves is also convenient for cleansing of the samples. Thirty-five kinds of interesting elements were determined by this method from cannabis cultivated in Maizuru area. (Author)

  13. Job demands and job strain as risk factors for employee wellbeing in elderly care: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Jokela, Markus; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kivimäki, Mika; Sinervo, Timo

    2015-02-01

    The association between psychosocial work environment and employee wellbeing has repeatedly been shown. However, as environmental evaluations have typically been self-reported, the observed associations may be attributable to reporting bias. Applying instrumental-variable regression, we used staffing level (the ratio of staff to residents) as an unconfounded instrument for self-reported job demands and job strain to predict various indicators of wellbeing (perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems) among 1525 registered nurses, practical nurses and nursing assistants working in elderly care wards. In ordinary regression, higher self-reported job demands and job strain were associated with increased risk of perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems. The effect estimates for the associations of these psychosocial factors with perceived stress and psychological distress were greater, but less precisely estimated, in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands and job strain that was explained by staffing level. No association between psychosocial factors and sleeping problems was observed with the instrumental-variable analysis. These results support a causal interpretation of high self-reported job demands and job strain being risk factors for employee wellbeing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Suprathermal ions in the solar wind from the Voyager spacecraft: Instrument modeling and background analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, B M; Christian, E R

    2015-01-01

    Using publicly available data from the Voyager Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instruments, we investigate the form of the solar wind ion suprathermal tail in the outer heliosphere inside the termination shock. This tail has a commonly observed form in the inner heliosphere, that is, a power law with a particular spectral index. The Voyager spacecraft have taken data beyond 100 AU, farther than any other spacecraft. However, during extended periods of time, the data appears to be mostly background. We have developed a technique to self-consistently estimate the background seen by LECP due to cosmic rays using data from the Voyager cosmic ray instruments and a simple, semi-analytical model of the LECP instruments

  15. The collection and analysis of transient test data using the mobile instrumentation data acquisition system (MIDAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.

    1995-01-01

    Packages designed to transport radioactive materials are required to survive exposure to environments defined in Code of Federal Regulations. Cask designers can investigate package designs through structural and thermal testing of full-scale packages, components, or representative models. The acquisition of reliable response data from instrumentation measurement devices is an essential part of this testing activity. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed the Mobile Instrumentation Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) dedicated to the collection and processing of structural and thermal data from regulatory tests

  16. The Search for Nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer C.; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Chirstopher P.; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Coll, Partice J.; Glavin, Daniel Patrick; hide

    2013-01-01

    Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as N2 but it was lost by sputtering and photochemical loss to space, impact erosion, and chemical oxidation to nitrates. A nitrogen cycle may exist on Mars where nitrates, produced early in Mars' history, may have been later decomposed back into N2 by the current impact flux. Nitrates are a fundamental source of nitrogen for terrestrial microorganisms, and they have evolved metabolic pathways to perform both oxidation and reduction to drive a complete biological nitrogen cycle. Therefore, the characterization of nitrogen in Martian soils is important to assess habitability of the Martian environment, particularly with respect to the presence of nitrates. The only previous mission that was designed to search for soil nitrates was the Phoenix mission but N-containing species were not detected by TEGA or the MECA WCL. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in Nakhla meteorites, and if nitrogen was oxidized on Mars, this has important implications for the habitability potential of Mars. Here we report the results from the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite aboard the Curiosity rover during the first year of surface operations in Gale Crater. Samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit and sedimentary rocks (John Klein) were heated to approx 835degC under helium flow and the evolved gases were analyzed by MS and GC-MS. Two and possibly three peaks may be associated with the release of m/z 30 at temperatures ranging from 180degC to 500degC. M/z 30 has been tentatively identified as NO; other plausible contributions include CH2O and an isotopologue of CO, 12C18O. NO, CH2O, and CO may be reaction products of reagents (MTBSTFA/DMF) carried from Earth for the wet chemical derivatization experiments with SAM and/or derived from indigenous soil nitrogenated organics. Laboratory analyses indicate that it is also possible that <550degC evolved NO is produced via reaction of HCl with

  17. Losigamone add-on therapy for focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yousheng; Luo, Man; Wang, Jin; Luo, Hongye

    2018-01-22

    .72), but associated with a significant increase of treatment withdrawal when compared with those taking placebo (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.67). For the safety outcomes, results indicated that the proportion of participants who experienced adverse events in the losigamone group was higher than in the placebo group (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.80), dizziness was the only adverse event significantly reported in relation to losigamone (RR 3.82, 99% CI 1.69 to 8.64). The proportion of participants achieving seizure freedom was not reported in either trial report. A subgroup analysis according to different doses of losigamone showed that a higher dose of losigamone (1500 mg/day) was associated with a greater reduction in seizure frequency than lower doses, but was also associated with more dropouts due to adverse events. The results of this review showed that losigamone did reduce seizure frequency but was associated with more treatment withdrawals when used as an add-on therapy for people with focal epilepsy. However, the included trials were of short-term duration and uncertain quality. Future well-designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with a longer-term duration are needed. No new studies have been found since the last version of this review. We judged the overall quality of the evidence for the outcomes assessed as moderate.

  18. Social and Instrumental Interaction between Parents and Their Toddlers with Autism: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Call-Cummings, Meagan; Horn, Kathryn; Quest, Kelsey; Law, Rhiannon Steffen

    2018-01-01

    A qualitative study of three parents and their toddlers with autism was conducted to investigate the communicative functions underlying parent-toddler interactions and how the instrumental or social nature of one partner's actions influenced the other's engagement. Parent-child interaction videos collected from a separate intervention study were…

  19. Analysis instrument test on mathematical power the material geometry of space flat side for grade 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi; Dwijanto, Karomah, Nur

    2017-08-01

    The main problem of research to determine the quality of test items on the material side of flat geometry to assess students' mathematical power. The method used is quantitative descriptive. The subjects were students of class 8 as many as 20 students. The object of research is the quality of test items in terms of the power of mathematics: validity, reliability, level of difficulty and power differentiator. Instrument mathematical power ratings are tested include: written tests and questionnaires about the disposition of mathematical power. Data were obtained from the field, in the form of test data on the material geometry of space flat side and questionnaires. The results of the test instrument to the reliability of the test item is influenced by many factors. Factors affecting the reliability of the instrument is the number of items, homogeneity test questions, the time required, the uniformity of conditions of the test taker, the homogeneity of the group, the variability problem, and motivation of the individual (person taking the test). Overall, the evaluation results of this study stated that the test instrument can be used as a tool to measure students' mathematical power.

  20. Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME-GC-MS: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Students analyze "trans"-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS with ethyl benzoate as the internal standard. Aside from the instrumentation, the experiment utilizes readily available low hazard materials and can be completed within one four-hour laboratory period. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Instruments as Empirical Evidence for the Analysis of Higher Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Emanuela; Seeber, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy implementation in Higher Education (HE) analysed through the evolution and transformation of policy instruments related to government funding and evaluation. We investigate how steering and governance tools have been put into action, in order to analyse how original policy rationales and justifications have evolved and…

  2. Systems analysis of instrumentation for in situ examination of rock properties. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    If salt beds or shale beds are used for burial of nuclear wastes, then boreholes that penetrate the beds will be sealed to prevent transport of water into the beds via the boreholes. There will be interest in monitoring the environment in local regions of the borehole for years to come. Such monitoring may be aimed at providing assurance that the integrity of the borehole plug and the integrity of borehole wall seals have not degraded. Of course, there will be interest in monitoring the burial vault geology as well, and the results of this study are relevant to this requirement also. A study of buried instrumentation in boreholes without any wires between the buried instruments and the surface of the earth was performed. Consequently, buried power supplies and through-the-earth communications systems are required. Study ground rules included the following: burial depths to range between 150 m and 1500 m; maximum temperature of 100 0 C at the burial depth; and system target lifetime of 10 to 100 years. The instrumentation system is separable into four functional subsystems: (A) a basic instrument subsystem; (B) a command, control, and data processing (CCD) subsystem; (C) a communication subsystem; and (D) a power supply subsystem. The major findings of the study are listed by subsystem

  3. Analysis of in-core-coolant temperature distributions within FFTF instrumented fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoth, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumented fuel assembly tests are installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility and are monitoring in-core coolant temperatures. Comparison of measured temperature data to calculated temperatures from a thermal-hydraulic code confirms the validity of the thermal-hydraulic models

  4. A Satellite Data Analysis and CubeSat Instrument Simulator Tool for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jordan Vannitsen

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... host mission to Mars and jettisoned at the beginning of the journey (Segret et al. ... dency to remain well-connected magnetically to Earth in the early phase of the transfer and to Mars in ..... Figure 2. Angles between instruments FoV center and incoming Parker spiral. ACE/EPAM-SIS (blue), STEREO A/HET-.

  5. Cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation technique using reamer with alternating cutting edges system files: Histological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique using Reamer with Alternating Cutting Edges (RaCe system files in the apical third of mesial roots of mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth were selected and separated into two groups (n = 20 according to instrumentation technique as follows: BioRaCe - chemomechanical preparation with K-type files #10 and #15; and files BioRaCe BR0, BR1, BR2, BR3, and BR4; HybTec - hybrid instrumentation technique with K-type files #10 and #15 in the working length, #20 at 2 mm, #25 at 3 mm, cervical preparation with Largo burs #1 and #2; apical preparation with K-type files #15, #20, and #25 and RaCe files #25.04 and #30.04. The root canals were irrigated with 1 ml of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite at each change of instrument. The specimens were histologically processed and photographed under light optical microscope. The images were inserted onto an integration grid to count the amount of debris present in the root canal. Results: BioRaCe presented the highest percentage of debris in the apical third, however, with no statistically significant difference for HybTec (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The hybrid technique presented similar cleaning capacity as the technique recommended by the manufacturer.

  6. Using a Systematic Approach to Develop a Chemistry Course Introducing Students to Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao-Yu; Shen, Bo; Hardacre, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach to develop the teaching of instrumental analytical chemistry is discussed, as well as a conceptual framework for organizing and executing lectures and a laboratory course. Three main components are used in this course: theoretical knowledge developed in the classroom, simulations via a virtual laboratory, and practical…

  7. Incorporation of personal computers in a research reactor instrumentation system for data monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    The research contract was implemented by obtaining off-the shelf personal computer hardware and data acquisition cards, designing the interconnection with the instrumentation system, writing and debugging the software, and the assembling and testing the set-up. The hardware was designed to allow all variables monitored by the instrumentation system to be accessible to the computers, without requiring any major modification of the instrumentation system and without compromising reactor safety in any way. The computer hardware addition was also designed to have no effect on any existing function of the instrumentation system. The software was designed to implement only graphical display and automated logging of reactor variables. Additional functionality could be easily added in the future with software revision because all the reactor variables are already available in the computer. It would even be possible to ''close the loop'' and control the reactor through software. It was found that most of the effort in an undertaking of this sort will be in software development, but the job can be done even by non-computer specialized reactor people working with programming languages they are already familiar with. It was also found that the continuing rapid advance of personal computer technology makes it essential that such a project be undertaken with inevitability of future hardware upgrading in mind. The hardware techniques and the software developed may find applicability in other research reactors, especially those with a generic analog research reactor TRIGA console. (author)

  8. Reliability-Testing of Two Analysis Instruments for Decision-Making in Curriculum Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin; Brake, Jacqueline te

    1990-01-01

    The design and reliability testing of two instruments--the Macro Argumentation Structure (MARS) and the Coalition forming and Dominance (CODOM)--to assess the deliberation process (argumentation and interaction) during curriculum conferences/decision making are reported. The study was conducted at the Department of Education of the University of…

  9. MEDA, The New Instrument for Mars Environment Analysis for the Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alvarez, Jose F.; Pena-Godino, Antonio; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Cordoba, Elizabeth; MEDA Team

    2016-08-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. Designed to advance high-priority science goals for Mars exploration, the mission will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission will also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is an integrated full suite of sensors designed to address the Mars 2020 mission objectives of characterization of dust size and morphology and surface weather measurements.MEDA system consists of one control unit and 10 separated sensor enclosures distributed in different positions along the Mars 2020 rover. MEDA is composed of an ARM-based control computer with its flight software application, two wind sensors including mixed ASICs inside, five air temperature sensors, one sky pointing camera complemented with 16 photo- detectors looking up and around, one thermal infrared sensor using five measurement bands, one relative humidity sensor, one pressure sensor and the harness that interconnects all of them. It is a complex system intended to operate in one of the harshest environments possible, the Mars surface, for many years to come.This will become a short term reality thanks to the combination of a strong international science team driving the science and system requirements working together with a powerful industrial organization to design and build the instrument. The instrument is being built right now, with its Critical Design Review at the end of 2016, and the flight model to be provided in 2018.This paper summarizes the main scientific objective of the MEDA instrument, the links between the Mission and the MEDA science objectives, and the challenging environmental Mars requirements. It will then focus on the engineered definition of the instrument, showing the overall

  10. Subclinical Anal Sphincter Injuries Following Instrumental Delivery–A Physiological Analysis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girisha Balaraju

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries (OASIS has been reported in up to 25% patients and occult OASIS has been reported in up to 1.2%. Instrumental delivery has been considered a risk factor for OASIS. Aim: To compare the anal sphincter functions as assessed by Anorectal Manometry (ARM in asymptomatic patients following instrument delivery with those of patients who underwent Lower Segment Caesarian Section (LSCS after six months of delivery. Materials and Methods: Seventeen women who had instrumental delivery and thirteen who underwent elective cesarean section were recruited. Evaluation included a detailed history and physical examination, administration of the Cleveland Clinic Questionnaire and ARM to record the basal pressure, squeeze pressure, anorectal sensation and balloon expulsion time. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square test. All calculations were done using the software SPSS 21.0. Results: We found statistically significant lower basal (34 ± 3.4 vs 60±2.3 mm hg, p<0.05 and squeeze pressures (56±4.1 vs 76±5.2 mm hg, p<0.05, and higher balloon expulsion time (58±2.9 s vs 19±1.8 seconds, p<0.05 in women with instrument delivery compared to LSCS. The rectal sensation was comparable in both the groups. Conclusion: Persistent subtle anal sphincter dysfunctions are common following instrument delivery compared to LSCS. The role of identifying these and preventing future incontinence in such women needs to be assessed in future studies.

  11. Analysis and proposal of solutions to optimize service process in the company Analytical Medical Instruments, Ltd. (AMI, Ltd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The work is focused on the analysis of the service process in the company Analytical Medical Instruments Ltd. (hereinafter the firm AMI, Ltd.), and subsequent optimization of the service process . The main objective is service process to analyze and propose a solution that would optimize the service process . The first part is theoretical , includes a search of the sources and methodologies. Then I described the company AMI, Ltd. The second part is based on a brief description of the organiza...

  12. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 342, JAN (2015), s. 82-86 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GA13-27885S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Fluorine * instrumental photon activation analysis * IPAA * coal Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  13. Chemical compositions of magnetic, stony spherules from deep-sea sediments determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakoshi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Chemical compositions of magnetic, stony spherules from deep sea sediments were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. High Ir, Au, Ni and Co contents indicate their extraterrestrial origin. The obtained compositions are considerably different from those of chondrites. It can be qualitatively interpreted, however, that cosmic matters having the compositions of chondrites are changed into magnetic, stony spherules by thermal degenerations during their atmospheric entry. (author)

  14. Validation of an instrument to measure tutor performance in promoting self-directed learning by using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Fierros, Genoveva; Montesinos-López, Osval Antonio; Alcaráz Moreno, Noemí

    2016-04-01

    This work sought to validate and propose an instrument to measure the performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning in students involved in processes of problem-based learning. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to validate the instrument composed of 60 items and six factors (self-assessment of learning gaps within the United Nations specific context: self-assessment, reflexion, critical thinking, administration of information, group skills), using a sample of 207 students from a total of 279, which comprise the student population of the Faculty of Nursing at Universidad de Colima in Mexico. (2007). The CFA results demonstrated that the instrument is acceptable to measure performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning, given that all the indicators, variances, covariances, and thresholds are statistically significant. The instrument permits obtaining students' opinions on how much professors contribute for them to develop each of the 60 skills described in the scale. Lastly, the results could report if professors are placing more emphasis in some areas than in other areas they should address during the problem-based learning (PBL) process, or if definitely their actions are removed from the premises of PBL, information that will be useful for school management in decision making on the direction of teaching as a whole.

  15. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G M; Jehlička, Jan

    2014-12-13

    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of an instrument to measure tutor performance in promoting self-directed learning by using confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Amador Fierros

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to validate and propose an instrument to measure the performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning in students involved in processes of problem-based learning. Methods. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was applied to validate the instrument composed of 60 items and six factors (self-assessment of learning gaps within the United Nations specific context: self-assessment, reflexion, critical thinking, administration of information, group skills, using a sample of 207 students from a total of 279, which comprise the student population of the Faculty of Nursing at Universidad de Colima in Mexico. (2007. Results. The CFA results demonstrated that the instrument is acceptable to measure performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning, given that all the indicators, variances, covariances, and thresholds are statistically significant. Conclusion. The instrument permits obtaining students' opinions on how much professors contribute for them to develop each of the 60 skills described in the scale. Lastly, the results could report if professors are placing more emphasis in some areas than in other areas they should address during the problem-based learning (PBL process, or if definitely their actions are removed from the premises of PBL, information that will be useful for school management in decision making on the direction of teaching as a whole.

  17. Applicability of Three Alternative Instruments for Food Authenticity Analysis:GMO Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab901 TapeStation, and Shimadzu MCE-202 MultiNA for the detection of GMOs using PCR based on a previously validated protocol. Whilst minor differences in the performance characteristics of bias and precision were observed, all three instruments demonstrated their applicability in using this protocol for screening of GMO ingredients.

  18. Applicability of Three Alternative Instruments for Food Authenticity Analysis: GMO Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, A.; Foy, C.; Burns, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab901 TapeStation, and Shimadzu MCE-202 MultiNA) for the detection of GMOs using PCR based on a previously validated protocol. Whilst minor differences in the performance characteristics of bias and precision were observed, all three instruments demonstrated their applicability in using this protocol for screening of GMO ingredients. PMID:21527985

  19. Applicability of three alternative instruments for food authenticity analysis: GMO identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, A; Foy, C; Burns, M

    2011-03-06

    Ensuring foods are correctly labelled for ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue facing manufacturers, retailers, and enforcement agencies. DNA approaches for the determination of food authenticitys often use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products can be detected using capillary or gel electrophoresis. This study examines the fitness for purpose of the application of three laboratory electrophoresis instruments (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100, Lab901 TapeStation, and Shimadzu MCE-202 MultiNA) for the detection of GMOs using PCR based on a previously validated protocol. Whilst minor differences in the performance characteristics of bias and precision were observed, all three instruments demonstrated their applicability in using this protocol for screening of GMO ingredients.

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials by Bremsstrahlung measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1986-12-01

    The determination of phosphorus in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation via the reaction 31 P (n,γ) 32 P is described. The Bremsstrahlung produced by 32 P is measured in a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The samples are measured within the polyethylene irradiation container with no changes between irradiation and measurement. The sources of error were studied and the proposed method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in ten internationally certified materials. (author)

  1. Analysis and application of electromagnetic compatibility test for safety instrumentation and control electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuefeng; Zhou Liang; Zhang Longqiang

    2014-01-01

    The applicable qualification standard of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests for instrumentation and control electronic equipment was introduced. The electromagnetic interference immunity test, the radiated radio-frequency electromagnetic field immunity test, the sensibility test, the source surge immunity test and the electrostatic discharge immunity test for EMC test were mainly introduced. And the important of configuration and the selection of method for EMC sampler was especially introduced. (authors)

  2. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  3. Microchip capillary electrophoresis instrumentation for in situ analysis in the search for extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria F; Stockton, Amanda M; Willis, Peter A

    2012-09-01

    The search for signs of life on extraterrestrial planetary bodies is among NASA's top priorities in Solar System exploration. The associated pursuit of organics and biomolecules as evidence of past or present life demands in situ investigations of planetary bodies for which sample return missions are neither practical nor affordable. These in situ studies require instrumentation capable of sensitive chemical analyses of complex mixtures including a broad range of organic molecules. Instrumentation must also be capable of autonomous operation aboard a robotically controlled vehicle that collects data and transmits it back to Earth. Microchip capillary electrophoresis (μCE) coupled to laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection provides this required sensitivity and targets a wide range of relevant organics while offering low mass, volume, and power requirements. Thus, this technology would be ideally suited for in situ studies of astrobiology targets, such as Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and Titan. In this review, we introduce the characteristics of these planetary bodies that make them compelling destinations for extraterrestrial astrobiological studies, and the principal groups of organics of interest associated with each. And although the technology we describe here was first developed specifically for proposed studies of Mars, by summarizing its evolution over the past decade, we demonstrate how μCE-LIF instrumentation has become an ideal candidate for missions of exploration to all of these nearby worlds in our Solar System. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Endoscopic Removal of Ingested Dentures and Dental Instruments: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Mizuno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dentures and dental instruments are frequently encountered ingested foreign bodies. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopically removing ingested dental objects. Methods. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with 29 dental objects who were treated at the Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital from August 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristics of the patients and the ingested dental objects, the clinical features and findings of radiological imaging tests, and outcomes of endoscopic removal were analyzed. Results. Patients’ mean age was 62.9±21.0 years. The ingested dental objects included 23 dentures (13 crowns, 4 bridges, 4 partial dentures, and 2 other dentures and 6 dental instruments. Twenty-seven upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and 2 colonoscopies were performed, and their success rates were 92.6% and 100%, respectively. There were 2 cases of removal failure; one case involved an impacted partial denture in the cervical esophagus, and this case required surgical removal. Conclusions. Endoscopic removal of ingested dentures and dental instruments is associated with a favorable success rate and acceptable complications. The immediate intervention and appropriate selection of devices are essential for managing ingested dental objects.

  5. Application of six sigma and AHP in analysis of variable lead time calibration process instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimantho, Dino; Rahman, Tomy Abdul; Cahyadi, Bambang; Tina Hernawati, S.

    2017-02-01

    Calibration of instrumentation equipment in the pharmaceutical industry is an important activity to determine the true value of a measurement. Preliminary studies indicated that occur lead-time calibration resulted in disruption of production and laboratory activities. This study aimed to analyze the causes of lead-time calibration. Several methods used in this study such as, Six Sigma in order to determine the capability process of the calibration instrumentation of equipment. Furthermore, the method of brainstorming, Pareto diagrams, and Fishbone diagrams were used to identify and analyze the problems. Then, the method of Hierarchy Analytical Process (AHP) was used to create a hierarchical structure and prioritize problems. The results showed that the value of DPMO around 40769.23 which was equivalent to the level of sigma in calibration equipment approximately 3,24σ. This indicated the need for improvements in the calibration process. Furthermore, the determination of problem-solving strategies Lead Time Calibration such as, shortens the schedule preventive maintenance, increase the number of instrument Calibrators, and train personnel. Test results on the consistency of the whole matrix of pairwise comparisons and consistency test showed the value of hierarchy the CR below 0.1.

  6. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, O., E-mail: osierra@sgc.gov.co; Parrado, G., E-mail: gparrado@sgc.gov.co; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M., E-mail: mlpena@sgc.gov.co; Orozco, J. [Colombian Geological Survey, Nuclear Affairs Technical Division, Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Bogota D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  7. Application of instrumental neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis to the examination of objects of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Ligeza, M.; Walis, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw in collaboration with the Department of Preservation and Restoration of Works of Art of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow and National Museum in Warsaw systematic studies using nuclear methods, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis, have been carried out on the panel paintings from the Krakowska-Nowosadecka School and Silesian School of the period from the XIV-XVII century, Chinese and Thai porcelains and mummies fillings of Egyptian sarcophagi. These studies will provide new data to the existing data base, will permit to compare materials used by various schools and individual artists. (author)

  8. Application of instrumental neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis to the examination of objects of art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczyk, E.; Ligeza, M.; Walis, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw in collaboration with the Department of Preservation and Restoration of Works of Art of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow and National Museum in Warsaw systematic studies using nuclear methods, particulary instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis, have been carried out on the panel paintings from the Krakowska- Nowosadecka School and Silesian School of the period from the XIV-XVII century, Chinese and Thai porcelains and mummies fillings of Egyptian sarcophagi. These studies will provide new data to the existing data base, will permit to compare materials used by various schools and individual artists.

  9. National Bureau of Standards coal flyash (SRM 1633a) as a multielement standard for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotev, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. National Bureau of Standards standard reference material 1633a (coal flyash) was standardized for the concentrations of 29 elements against chemical standards by instrumental neutron activation analysis. United States Geological Survey basalt standard BCR-1 was analyzed concurrently as a check. SRM 1633a is a good multielement comparator standard for geochemical analysis for 25 of the elements analyzed and is a better standard than rock-powder SRMs commonly used. Analytical data for USGS DTS-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, BIR-1, DNC-1, and W-2; NBS SRMs 278 and 688; and GIT-IWG (French) anorthosite AN-G are also presented. (author)

  10. Comparison of two skin imaging analysis instruments: The VISIA® from Canfield vs the ANTERA 3D® CS from Miravex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linming, F; Wei, H; Anqi, L; Yuanyu, C; Heng, X; Sushmita, P; Yiming, L; Li, L

    2018-02-01

    The skin imaging analysis instruments are widely used to record and measure the surface and subsurface skin conditions. The main aim of this study is to reveal the differences and correlations in measuring wrinkle, skin texture, coloration/evenness, vascular features, and pore between two commercially available instruments. Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. A 2*2 cm cardboard was used to make sure the two instruments analyze the same area. Pictures were taken and analyzed by the VISIA ® from Canfield and the ANTERA 3D ® CS from Miravex, in sequence. The spot, ultraviolet spot, brown spot, red area, texture values measured with VISIA ® were positively correlated with age, while the pore and wrinkle values showed no significance. The wrinkle, texture, melanin, hemoglobin, pore index, pore volume values measured with ANTERA 3D ® had a significantly positive correlation with age. The spot, brown spot values from VISIA ® were positively correlated with the melanin value from ANTERA 3D ® . Texture value measured with the two instruments revealed positive linear correlation. Strong correlation was found between the red area value from VISIA ® and the hemoglobin value from ANTERA 3D ® . Ultraviolet spot from VISIA ® showed no linear correlation with the melanin value from ANTERA 3D ® . Neither of the wrinkle and pore measured with the two instruments showed linear correlation. ANTERA 3D ® relies on multidirectional illumination obtained by LEDs of different wavelengths from different directions which make it advanced at the qualitative evaluation of various dermatologic conditions. Compared with VISIA ® , ANTERA 3D ® is more sensitive in the assessment of wrinkle and it may also be available to evaluate the aging-related enlarged pore. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neural biomarkers for dyslexia, ADHD and ADD in the auditory cortex of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Serrallach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and attention deficit disorder (ADD show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N=147 using neuroimaging, magnet-encephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only a clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD, a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities.

  12. Post endodontic pain following single-visit root canal preparation with rotary vs reciprocating instruments: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Mei; Su, Zheng; Hou, Ben-Xiang

    2017-05-25

    In endodontic therapy, continuous rotary instrumentation reduced debris compared to reciprocal instrumentation, which might affect the incidence of post-endodontic pain (PP). The aim of our study was to assess whether PP incidence and levels were influenced by the choice of rotary or reciprocal instruments. In this meta-analysis the Pubmed and EM databases were searched for prospective clinical randomized trials published before April 20, 2016, using combinations of the keywords: root canal preparation/instrumentation/treatment/therapy; post-operative/endodontic pain; reciprocal and rotary instruments. Three studies were included, involving a total of 1,317 patients, 659 treated with reciprocating instruments and 658 treated with rotary instruments. PP was reported in 139 patients in the reciprocating group and 172 in the rotary group. The PP incidence odds ratio was 1.27 with 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.25, 6.52) favoring rotary instruments. The mild, moderate and severe PP levels odds ratios were 0.31 (0.11, 0.84), 2.24 (0.66, 7.59) and 11.71 (0.63, 218.15), respectively. No evidence of publication bias was found. Rotary instrument choice in endodontic therapy is associated with a lower incidence of PP than reciprocating instruments, while reciprocating instruments are associated with less mild PP incidence.

  13. Man Machine Interface Analysis For The Equipment And Instrumentation In MCR Of The TRIGA Mark II Modified Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu K; Piping S; Suharyo W; Kussigit S; Darlis; Bambang S; Sasongko Y

    2000-01-01

    Procedure and function of installation devices have been reviewed for the equipment and instrumentation in Main Control Room of TRIGA MARK II Modified Reactor. Analysis reviews carried out from the operation data/performances of the equipment and instrumentation of TRIGA II modified reactor and then evaluated. Instrumentation system and reactor control of TRIGA II is the reactor control system controlled by microprocessor installed at TM-II reactor to change analog system. These system consists of 4 parts that in such are control system console (CSC), data acquisition control unit (DAC), power monitor channel and temperature monitor. Beside that the system provided by supporting devices, for instances screen monitor, relay panel, analog and recorder includes analog input terminals and relay. Based on analysis reviewed from the procedures and function of installation devices at the obtaining system have been found that the display equipment enable to analyze reactor safety, enable to show operation condition directly and to perform information target to the each functions. Control equipment are consistent to the role of colour codes, shape and size, and also control classification fit to the reactor safety requirements priority. Alarm devices enable to transfer information promptly from the abnormal accidents and includes its anticipation. The early warning system (alarm, screen features) will show texts warning or warning signs if the reactor system is in the abnormal condition and then the operators will do proper needed immediately

  14. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  15. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  16. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  17. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  18. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    Full Text Available While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health.We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index.Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43 for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27 for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63.The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not

  19. X-ray analysis of cultural heritage at museums by using portable instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari

    2009-01-01

    We have been developing a portable powder diffractometer and XRF spectrometer since 2001 jointly with two X-ray makers: i.e., Institute of X-ray Technologies Co. Ltd. and OURSTEX Co. Ltd., respectively. The instruments were brought to several museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt, Turkey, Italy, etc. to characterize the cultural heritage and the results were reflected on their improvement. The instruments thus developed are suitable for on site analyses with enough sensitivity, accuracy, and durability. The latest version of our diffractometer (weight 15 kg) adopted Si-PIN as a detector, which enable us to obtain EDX spectrum of the sample as well as a good powder diffraction pattern with low background. The XRF spectrometer (25 kg) is equipped with SDD detector and monochromatic/white X-ray sources. Recently the Be window of the detector was replaced with MOXTEK AP3 polymer window and vacuum sample chamber was introduced to quantify Na and Mg. The instruments were brought to Archaeological Museum in Zadar, Croatia, Okayama Orient Museum and MIHO Museum in Japan. The samples are glass, pottery, metallic and stone objects dated from second millennium B.C. to modern. We have chemically characterized 109 Roman glass artifacts excavated at a Roman necropolis found in Zadar, and classified based on decolorants, impurity and vessel types. We have studied glass, faience, pottery and metal collections at the Orient Museum. The results include identification of cassiterite in glazed Islamic pottery. At MIHO museum, stone objects from China and Middle East were characterized by the diffractometer. The analyses were made as joint projects with S. Gluscevic (Archaeological Museum), R. Shikaku (Orient Museum), Y. Azuma and Y. Kuwabara (MIHO Museum). (author)

  20. Analysis of trace elements in power plant and industrial incinerator fly ashes by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2008-01-01

    An elemental analysis of fly ash samples from Selangor and Perak coal-fired power plants and an industrial incinerator from Negeri Sembilan were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All samples were irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency laboratory PUSPATI Reactor for 6 hours and later counted at the Nuclear Science Program, UKM using an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 10% and resolution of 1.8 KeV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coal fly ash 1633a reference material (SRM) was used as a standard for quantitative analysis. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Th and U) were determined in all three types of fly ashes. The concentration range of environmentally concern elements, As and Cr in the Selangor coal-fired power plant samples are 11.17 - 23.24 and 160.28 - 867.97 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of radioactive elements U and Th are 4.79 - 10.29 and 14.6 - 61.29 μg.g -1 respectively, and the concentration range of Co, Hf, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce, Ca are 11.88-83.61, 3.24 - 10.48, 30338 - 53885, 16.62 - 28.48, 178.97 - 8491, 127.41 - 217.2 and 10447 -20647 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of As, Cr, U, Th in the Perak samples were found to be 22.16 - 48.38, 44.37 - 74.78, 4.18 - 6.85, 8.71 - 11.43 μg.g -1 respectively, whereas the concentration range of Co, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce and Ca are 23.21 -29.66, 54621 - 71099, 30.9 - 31.77, 100.34 - 116.61 and 11533 -16423 μg.g -1 respectively. Differences exist in the elemental concentrations of both power plant fly ash samples due to the different feed coal and combustion temperature used. The concentration of Cr, Th and Ce in the Selangor fly ash samples was generally higher compared to the samples obtained from the Perak power plant. This study also shows that only As and Ca were detected in the Negeri Sembilan samples with the concentration ranging from 36.66 - 98.67 and 31709.10 - 45606 μg.g -1

  1. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  2. Analysis and upgrade of instrumentation and control systems for the modernization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document provides assistance in the review and planning process for the upgrade of instrumentation and control systems (I and C systems) and related safety features of the reactor protection system for research reactors. In the interest of safety a need was realized to evaluate the performance of outdated I and C systems. An advisory group was assembled to develop guidelines and to provide recommendations for the upgrade of I and C systems. The recommendations on I and C systems upgrade contained in this document were developed by the advisory group using as guidelines the established safety criteria and operating standards for research reactors. 24 refs

  3. The use of instrumented gait analysis for individually tailored interdisciplinary interventions in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    performance (1-min walk test) and patient-reported outcomes of functional mobility (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory), health-related quality of life (The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module) and overall health, pain and participation (The Pediatric Outcome Data Collection...... Instrument). The primary endpoint for assessing the outcome of the two interventions will be 52 weeks after start of intervention. A follow up will also be performed at 26 weeks; however, exclusively for the patient-reported outcomes. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial...

  4. Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

  5. Enhanced Measurements of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) for Water Quality Analysis using a New Simultaneous Absorbance and Fluorescence Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality, with respect to suspended particles and dissolved organic and inorganic compounds, is now recognized as one of the top global environmental concerns. Contemporary research indicates fluorescence spectral analyses coupled with UV-VIS absorbance assays have the potential, especially when combined and coordinated, to facilitate rapid, robust quantification of a wide range of compounds, including interactions among them. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) collected over the UV-VIS region provide a wealth of information on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM includes humic and fulvic acid, chlorophyll, petroleum, protein, amino acid, quinone, fertilizer, pesticide, sewage and numerous other compound classes. Analysis of the EEMs using conventional and multivariate techniques, including primarily parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), provides information about many types of CDOM relevant to carbon cycling and pollution of fresh, marine and drinking water sources. Of critical concern also are the CDOM interactions with, and optical activities of, dissolved inorganic compounds. Many of the inorganic compounds and oxygen demand parameters can be analyzed with a wide range of UV-VIS absorbance assays. The instrument is designed and optimized for high UV throughput and low stray light performance. The sampling optics are optimized for both fluorescence and absorbance detection with the same sample. Both EEM and absorbance measurements implement NIST traceable instrument correction and calibration routines. The fluorescence detection utilizes a high dynamic range CCD coupled to a high-resolution spectrograph while absorbance utilizes diode based detection with a high dynamic range and extremely low-stray light specifications. The CDOM analysis is facilitated by a transfer of the data and model information with the PARAFAC routine. The EEM analysis software package facilitates coordinated correction of and correlation with the

  6. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    accuracy. They expect to measure the probe's position within two-thirds of a mile (1 kilometer) at a distance of nearly 750 million miles. "That's like being able to sit in your back yard and watch the ball in a ping-pong game being played on the Moon," said Leonid Gurvits of JIVE. Both the JPL and JIVE teams will record the data collected by the radio telescopes and process it later. In the case of the Doppler measurements, some real-time information may be available, depending on the strength of the signal, but the scientists on this team also plan to do their detailed analysis on recorded data. The JPL team is utilizing special instrumentation from the Deep Space Network called Radio Science Receivers. One will be loaned to the GBT and another to the Parkes radio observatory. "This is the same instrument that allowed us to support the challenging communications during the landing of the Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers as well as the Cassini Saturn Orbit Insertion when the received radio signal was very weak," said Sami Asmar, the JPL scientist responsible for the data recording. When the Galileo spacecraft's probe entered Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995, a JPL team used the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico to directly track the probe's signal. Adding the data from the VLA to that experiment dramatically improved the accuracy of the wind-speed measurements. "The Galileo probe gave us a surprise. Contrary to some predictions, we learned that Jupiter's winds got stronger as we went deeper into its atmosphere. That tells us that those deeper winds are not driven entirely by sunlight, but also by heat coming up from the planet's core. If we get lucky at Titan, we'll get surprises there, too," said Robert Preston, another JPL scientist. The Huygens probe is a spacecraft built by the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition to the NRAO telescopes, the JPL Doppler Wind Experiment will use the Australia Telescope National Facility and other radio

  7. Relation between consumers' perceptions of color and texture of dairy desserts and instrumental measurements using a generalized procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tomás, L; Costell, E

    2006-12-01

    Consumers' perceptions of the color and texture of 8 commercial vanilla dairy desserts were studied and related to color and rheological measurements. First, the 8 desserts were evaluated by a group of consumers by means of the Free Choice Profile. For both color and texture, a 2-dimensional solution was chosen, with dimension 1 highly related to yellow color intensity in the case of color and to thickness in the case of texture. Second, mechanical spectra, flow behavior, and instrumental color were determined. All the samples showed a time-dependent and shear-thinning flow and a mechanical spectrum typical of a weak gel. Differences were found in the flow index, in the apparent viscosity at 10 s(-1), and in the values of the storage modulus, the loss modulus, the loss angle tangent, and the complex viscosity at 1 Hz, as well as in the color parameters. Finally, sensory and instrumental relationships were investigated by a generalized Procrustes analysis. For both color and texture, a 3-dimensional solution explained a high percentage of the total variance (>80%). In these particular samples, the instrumental color parameters provided more accurate information on consumers' color perceptions than was provided by the rheological parameters of consumers' perceptions of texture.

  8. Air quality status in Kinshasa as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    Three independent analytical techniques - instrumental neutron activation analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometry and ion-exchange chromatography - were applied to airborne particulate collected on filters and to atmospheric acid gases collected in carbonate buffer solutions. 20 trace elements and 7 acid gases and acid aerosols were determined. Results were compared with those observed elsewhere and showed that air pollution is low in Kinshasa and does not give rise to anxieties. The main known sources of pollutants are: vehicle exhaust and aeolian process on stripped soils. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  9. INTEGRATED ON-BOARD COMPUTING SYSTEMS: PRESENT SITUATION REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS ANALYSIS IN THE AVIATION INSTRUMENT-MAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paramonov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with present situation review and analysis of development prospects for integrated on-board computing systems, used in the aviation instrument-making industry. The main attention is paid to the projects carried out in the framework of an integrated modular avionics. Hierarchical levels of module design, crates (onboard systems and aviation complexes are considered in detail. Examples of the existing products of our country and from abroad and their brief technical characteristics are given and voluminous bibliography on the subject matter as well.

  10. Status inconsistency and mental health: A random effects and instrumental variables analysis using 14 annual waves of cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Petrie, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Status inconsistency refers to a discrepancy between the position a person holds in one domain of their social environment comparative to their position in another domain. For example, the experience of being overeducated for a job, or not using your skills in your job. We sought to assess the relationship between status inconsistency and mental health using 14 annual waves of cohort data. We used two approaches to measuring status inconsistency: 1) being overeducated for your job (objective measure); and b) not using your skills in your job (subjective measure). We implemented a number of methodological approaches to assess the robustness of our findings, including instrumental variable, random effects, and fixed effects analysis. Mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory-5. The random effects analysis indicates that only the subjective measure of status inconsistency was associated with a slight decrease in mental health (β-1.57, 95% -1.78 to -1.36, p < 0.001). This size of these coefficients was maintained in the instrumental variable analysis. We suggest that status inconsistency might explain some of the relationship between social determinants (such as work and education) and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An ex vivo comparative analysis on shaping ability of four NiTi rotary endodontic instruments using spiral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitin, Nitin; Arunagiri, D; Brave, Dexter; Maitin, Shipra Nangalia; Kaushik, Sandeep; Roy, Saumya

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of shaping ability of four different rotary endodontic instruments using spiral computed tomography (CT). Eighty freshly extracted human mandibular first molars were used in the present study. Samples were randomly divided into four experimental groups with twenty samples in each group. Images of mesiobuccal canal of each sample were obtained pre- and post-operatively using spiral CT. All samples were prepared using their respective endodontic file systems (group I - ProTaper, group II - K3, group III - RaCe, and group IV - Mtwo). Image analyses were done using image analysis software for evaluation of canal transportation and centering ability. Data was then statistically analyzed using analysis of variance. There was no statistically significance in transportation in their intergroup difference at any of the three locations (coronal, middle, and apical third). In centering ability there was no statistically significance in the coronal and middle third of the intergroup. However, there was a statistically significance of (P = 0.044) at the apical third between all the groups. Canals prepared with ProTaper had more canal transportation at all the three levels of root canal (coronal, middle, and apical third). Canals prepared with Mtwo were well centered at coronal and middle third whereas with RaCe canals were centered only at the apical third. All instruments showed some degree of canal aberrations in terms of shaping ability.

  12. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.; Casada, D.A.

    1996-11-26

    A new instrument is described for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician. 4 figs.

  13. In Situ Analysis of Martian Phyllosilicates Using the Chemin Minerological Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2008-01-01

    The CheMin minerological instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL'09) [1] will return quantitive Xray diffraction data (XRD) and quantative X-ray fluorescence data (XRF;14

  14. [Dynamic instrumentation of the lumbar spine. Clinical and biomechanical analysis of success factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Y P; Walter, A; Schuller, S; Steib, J-P

    2011-08-01

    Total disc replacement and posterior dynamic stabilization represent alternatives to lumbar spinal fusion which should reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration. Disc replacement is indicated for pure discopathy without facet joint degeneration. Spinopelvic balance influences the implant's biomechanics. Therefore pelvic incidence, sacral slope, segmental lordosis and the mean axis of rotation need to be considered. Dynamic stabilization is indicated in moderate discopathy and facet joint degeneration, in degenerative spondylolisthesis grade I with a hypermobile segment and in dynamic lumbar stenosis. The combination of caudal fusion and cranial dynamic stabilization allows a better maintenance of lordosis with multiple level instrumentation and prevents adjacent segment degeneration. If pelvic incidence and sacral slope are high, L5-S1 should be fused because of elevated shear forces.

  15. An instrument control and data analysis program for NMR imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.S.; Mushlin, R.A.; Veklerov, E.; Port, J.D.; Ladd, C.; Harrison, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a software environment created to support real-time instrument control and signal acquisition as well as array-processor based signal and image processing in up to five dimensions. The environment is configured for NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. It is designed to provide flexible tools for implementing novel NMR experiments in the research laboratory. Data acquisition and processing operations are programmed in macros which are loaded in assembled from to minimize instruction overhead. Data arrays are dynamically allocated for efficient use of memory and can be mapped directly into disk files. The command set includes primitives for real-time control of data acquisition, scalar arithmetic, string manipulation, branching, a file system and vector operations carried out by an array processor. 6 figs

  16. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  17. Limit of detection in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors: study of the possible sources of error and application to the analysis of 41 elements at trace levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Tapparo, Andrea; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the detection limit was estimated when signals were affected by two error contributions, namely instrumental errors and operational-non-instrumental errors. The detection limit was theoretically obtained following the hypothesis testing schema implemented with the calibration curve methodology. The experimental calibration design was based on J standards measured I times with non-instrumental errors affecting each standard systematically but randomly among the J levels. A two-component variance regression was performed to determine the calibration curve and to define the detection limit in these conditions. The detection limit values obtained from the calibration at trace levels of 41 elements by ICP-MS resulted larger than those obtainable from a one component variance regression. The role of the reagent impurities on the instrumental errors was ascertained and taken into account. Environmental pollution was studied as source of non-instrumental errors. The environmental pollution role was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis technique (PCA) applied to a series of nine calibrations performed in fourteen months. The influence of the seasonality of the environmental pollution on the detection limit was evidenced for many elements usually present in the urban air particulate. The obtained results clearly indicated the need of using the two-component variance regression approach for the calibration of all the elements usually present in the environment at significant concentration levels. - Highlights: • Limit of detection was obtained considering a two variance component regression. • Calibration data may be affected by instrumental and operational conditions errors. • Calibration model was applied to determine 41 elements at trace level by ICP-MS. • Non instrumental errors were evidenced by PCA analysis

  18. Woodfuel in Rwanda: Impact on Energy, Poverty, Environment and Policy Instruments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Mazimpaka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rwanda’s geographical and socio-economic situations have shaped the energy situation and limited access to modern fuels. Woodfuel is the main source of energy for households and its trade a source of income and jobs in rural areas. Currently 85.2% of households’ land holding is less than 1 ha, insufficient to grow food and fuelwood for a household of the average size of 5.5 persons. Without well documented reports of the individual impact of each deforestation factor, woodfuels have been most blamed. This paper investigates how the current woodfuel industry impacts on energy, poverty and forests and analyses the woodfuel policy instruments. Considering woodfuel consumption under an only environmental or energy perspective has resulted in a search for a narrowly environmental or energy solution. Both failed to solve the problem of forest depletion. Current regulations limit the benefits traditionally derived from woodfuel commoditisation leading to a negative attitude towards policy instruments. The processes involved in producing charcoal and using it as a cooking fuel is inefficient and resource intensive. The barriers to large dissemination of improved cooking stoves include availability, relatively low cost of woodfuels, lack of improved stove diversity on the local market and weak government policy in regard to the woodfuel industry. Policies aiming to substitute or reduce woodfuel consumption, have not achieved the desired results and their implementations have not unarguably reduced deforestation. The paper recommends the community-based woodfuel production as sustainable management approaches to mobilise community support for sustainable forestry management and woodfuel production.

  19. HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia

    In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

  20. FORMANT ANALYSIS FOR KISWAHILI VOWELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The LabView software with joint time- frequency analysis (JTFA) add-on software is the graphical design software that makes use of virtual instruments programming for designing and performing some functions. The system implemented to determine the formant frequencies comprised of three main parts namely; data ...

  1. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence instrument for bulk alloy analysis on low corroded indoor bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šatović, D.; Desnica, V.; Fazinić, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most often used non-destructive methods for elemental analysis when performing field measurements on bronze sculptures is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis based on portable instrumentation. However, when performing routine in-situ XRF analysis on corroded objects obtained results are sometimes considerably influenced by the corrosion surface products. In this work the suitability of portable XRF for bulk analysis of low corroded bronzes, which were initially precisely characterized using sophisticated and reliable laboratory methods, was investigated and some improvements in measuring technique and data processing were given. Artificially corroded bronze samples were analyzed by a portable XRF instrument using the same methodology and procedures as when performing in-situ analysis on real objects. The samples were first investigated using sophisticated complementary laboratory techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, in order to gain precise information on the formation of the corrosion product layers and in-depth elemental profile of corrosion layers for different aging parameters. It has been shown that for corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm a portable XRF can yield very accurate quantification results. - Highlights: • XRF quantification is very accurate for bronze corrosion layers of up to ca. 25 μm. • Corrosion layer formation on bronze described in two phases. • Corrosion layers precisely characterized using PIXE, RBS and SEM. • Corrosion approximated as CuO for layer thickness calculations via X-ray attenuations • Increasingly lighter corrosion matrix may cause SnLα radiation intensity inversion

  2. The Statistics Concept Inventory: Development and analysis of a cognitive assessment instrument in statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kirk

    The Statistics Concept Inventory (SCI) is a multiple choice test designed to assess students' conceptual understanding of topics typically encountered in an introductory statistics course. This dissertation documents the development of the SCI from Fall 2002 up to Spring 2006. The first phase of the project essentially sought to answer the question: "Can you write a test to assess topics typically encountered in introductory statistics?" Book One presents the results utilized in answering this question in the affirmative. The bulk of the results present the development and evolution of the items, primarily relying on objective metrics to gauge effectiveness but also incorporating student feedback. The second phase boils down to: "Now that you have the test, what else can you do with it?" This includes an exploration of Cronbach's alpha, the most commonly-used measure of test reliability in the literature. An online version of the SCI was designed, and its equivalency to the paper version is assessed. Adding an extra wrinkle to the online SCI, subjects rated their answer confidence. These results show a general positive trend between confidence and correct responses. However, some items buck this trend, revealing potential sources of misunderstandings, with comparisons offered to the extant statistics and probability educational research. The third phase is a re-assessment of the SCI: "Are you sure?" A factor analytic study favored a uni-dimensional structure for the SCI, although maintaining the likelihood of a deeper structure if more items can be written to tap similar topics. A shortened version of the instrument is proposed, demonstrated to be able to maintain a reliability nearly identical to that of the full instrument. Incorporating student feedback and a faculty topics survey, improvements to the items and recommendations for further research are proposed. The state of the concept inventory movement is assessed, to offer a comparison to the work presented

  3. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  4. Measuring social science concepts in pharmacy education research: From definition to item analysis of self-report instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken

    Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulatory Analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 142: Leakage through electrical isolators in instrumentation circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rourk, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    Generic Issue (GI) 142 deals with staff concerns about the design of isolation devices used to ensure separation between Class 1E and non-Class 1E electrical control and instrumentation circuits. This issue was initiated in June 1987. Staff reviews of the implementation of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) requirement indicated that some isolation devices used to provide an interface between the non-Class 1E SPDS and the Class 1E safety systems would allow signal leakage if electrically challenged. It was unknown if the amount of leakage posed a hazard to safe operation of the Class 1E system. A review of failure records does not reveal any incidents of system damage caused by isolation device challenge. Furthermore, a review of existing PRA data indicates that the safety significance of ID challenge is low, at the expected challenge event frequency. However, based upon the potential design variations in future control systems resulting from application of computer technology, additional design and qualification test requirements for future plants are recommended.

  6. An exchangeable-tip scanning probe instrument for the analysis of combinatorial libraries of electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Eric D.; Wang, Hongsen; Legard, Anna E.; Ritzert, Nicole L.; Bruce Van Dover, Robert; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2013-02-01

    A combined scanning differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (SDEMS)-scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) apparatus is described. The SDEMS is used to detect and spatially resolve volatile electrochemically generated species at the surface of a substrate electrode. The SECM can electrochemically probe the reactivity of the surface and also offers a convenient means of leveling the sample. It is possible to switch between these two different scanning tips and techniques without moving the sample and while maintaining potential control of the substrate electrode. A procedure for calibration of the SDEMS tip-substrate separation, based upon the transit time of electrogenerated species from the substrate to the tip is also described. This instrument can be used in the characterization of combinatorial libraries of direct alcohol fuel cell anode catalysts. The apparatus was used to analyze the products of methanol oxidation at a Pt substrate, with the SDEMS detecting carbon dioxide and methyl formate, and a PtPb-modified Pt SECM tip used for the selective detection of formic acid. As an example system, the electrocatalytic methanol oxidation activity of a sputter-deposited binary PtRu composition spread in acidic media was analyzed using the SDEMS. These results are compared with those obtained from a pH-sensitive fluorescence assay.

  7. Possible Detection of Nitrates on Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J.; Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; McAdam, A.; Franz, H. B.; McKay, C. P.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Ming, D. W.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early Martian atmosphere as dinitrogen (N2). However, it has been lost by sputtering and photochemical loss to space [1, 2], impact erosion [3], and chemical oxidation to nitrates [4]. Nitrates, produced early in Mars history, are later decomposed back into N2 by the current impact flux [5], making possible a nitrogen cycle on Mars. It is estimated that a layer of about 3 m of pure NaNO3 should be distributed globally on Mars [5]. Nitrates are a fundamental source for nitrogen to terrestrial microorganisms. Therefore, the detection of soil nitrates is important to assess habitability in the Martian environment. The only previous mission that was designed to search for soil nitrates was the Phoenix mission but was unable to detect evolved N-containing species by TEGA and the MECA WCL [6]. Nitrates have been tentatively identified in the Nakhla meteorite [7]. The purpose of this work is to determine if nitrates were detected in first solid sample (Rocknest) in Gale Crater examined by the SAM instrument.

  8. Separability Analysis of Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI Data for Burned Area Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a global phenomenon and systematic burned area mapping is of increasing importance for science and applications. With high spatial resolution and novelty in band design, the recently launched Sentinel-2A satellite provides a new opportunity for moderate spatial resolution burned area mapping. This study examines the performance of the Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI bands and derived spectral indices to differentiate between unburned and burned areas. For this purpose, five pairs of pre-fire and post-fire top of atmosphere (TOA reflectance and atmospherically corrected (surface reflectance images were studied. The pixel values of locations that were unburned in the first image and burned in the second image, as well as the values of locations that were unburned in both images which served as a control, were compared and the discrimination of individual bands and spectral indices were evaluated using parametric (transformed divergence and non-parametric (decision tree approaches. Based on the results, the most suitable MSI bands to detect burned areas are the 20 m near-infrared, short wave infrared and red-edge bands, while the performance of the spectral indices varied with location. The atmospheric correction only significantly influenced the separability of the visible wavelength bands. The results provide insights that are useful for developing Sentinel-2 burned area mapping algorithms.

  9. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  10. Analysis of Financial Instrument Disclosure Determinants by Means of Main Component Analysis: The Case of Mexican Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez-Quevedo, Noemí; Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de México.; Mora-Rivera, José Jorge; Tecnológico de Monterrey,Campus Ciudad de México

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the main characteristics that determine the compliance level of IFRS 7 (Financial instruments: disclosures) for a group of Mexican companies. Using the main components technique to measure the disclosure index of companies, the econometric results point out that the type of auditor, the multinationality level and, to a lesser extent, the size of companies are the key determinants for companies to comply with the International Financial Reporting Sta...

  11. Method for the Analysis of Temporal Change of Physical Structure in the Instrumentation and Control Life-Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, Markus; Fay, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The design of computer-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is determined by the allocation of I and C functions to I and C systems and components. Due to the characteristics of computer-based technology, component failures can negatively affect several I and C functions, so that the reliability proof of the I and C systems requires the accomplishment of I and C system design analyses throughout the I and C life-cycle. On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I and C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a meta model for the modeling of I and C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I and C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I and C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis

  12. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  13. Rare earth elements determination and distribution patterns in sediments of polluted marine environment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyil, S.; Yusof, A.M.; Wood, A.K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Results obtained from the analysis of sediment core samples taken from a fairly polluted marine environment were analyzed for the REE contents to determine the concentrations of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Core samples were divided into strata of between 2 to 3 cm intervals and prepared in the powdered form before irradiating them in a TRIGA Mk.II reactor. Down-core concentration profiles of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb in 3 core sediments from three sites are obtained. The shale-normalized REE pattern from each site was examined and later used to explain the history of sedimentation by natural processes such as shoreline erosion and weathering products deposited on the seabed and furnishing some baseline data and/or pollution trend occurring within the study area

  14. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  15. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Nullens, H.; Espen, P. van

    1983-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  16. The rapid determination of manganese, vanadium, and aluminium by instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.I.W.; Eddy, B.T.; Pearton, D.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    Aluminium, manganese, and vanadium were determined in chromuim, ferrochromium, and slags. Because of the short-lived isotopes produced, the technique is rapid, and the total analysis time per sample is 15 minutes. The reproducibility is 3 to 4 per cent, and this value can be improved by certain modifications, particularly to the irradiation facilities. A similar method could be applied to on-line or in-plant analysis if an isotopic source of neutrons were used [af

  17. Retrospective radiological outcome analysis following teriparatide use in elderly patients undergoing multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliya-Perumal, Arun-Kumar; Lu, Meng-Ling; Luo, Chi-An; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer; Niu, Chi-Chien

    2017-02-01

    Elderly patients with chronic nonresolving symptoms due to degenerative spine pathologies are prone to have poor surgical outcomes and hardware-related complications, especially following multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion surgeries. With intention of analyzing if teriparatide can be an effective adjunct therapy to surgical management, radiological outcomes are studied. Sixty-two elderly patients were divided into 2 similar groups. Group 1 (n = 30; mean age = 69.83 years; fusion levels = 137; screws = 269) had taken teriparatide (20 mcg SC injection, once daily) for a duration of 7.4 ± 2.4 months following surgery and Group 2 (n = 32; mean age = 70.38 years; fusion levels = 144; screws = 283) did not take teriparatide. Radiological evaluation was done to determine the state of postero lateral fusion mass and to investigate the incidence of pedicle screw loosening at 1-year follow-up. Unilateral or bilateral bridging bone formation across the transverse process of adjacent vertebras showing continuous trabeculation suggestive of solid fusion was obtained in 66.7% patients in the teriparatide group and 50% patients in the control group (P = 0.20). 13.4% of the total no. of screws showed signs of loosening in the teriparatide group, compared to 24.4% in the control group (P = 0.001). Percentage of patients achieving solid fusion following teriparatide use was found to be more than that of the control group. This difference may have clinical importance but was not statistically significant. However, teriparatide use was more significantly influential in reducing the incidence of subsequent pedicle screw loosening.

  18. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  19. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Depressive symptoms and obesity: instrumental variable analysis using mother-offspring pairs in the 1970 British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, M; Batty, G D; Kivimaki, M

    2016-11-01

    The extent to which depression and obesity are causally related remains to be determined. We used intergenerational data on mother-offspring pairs in an instrumental variable analysis to examine the longitudinal association between adolescent depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. A total of 4733 mother-offspring pairs were identified from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Mothers completed the Malaise Inventory to assess depressive symptoms on three occasions across their offsprings' childhood/adolescence (aged 5, 10 and 16 years). Height and weight were recorded in mother and offspring (aged 16 years). Measures of height, weight and the Malaise Inventory were repeated in the participant at the age of 42 years. Maternal malaise score was associated with offspring malaise score, thus confirming the validity of the chosen instrumental variable. A higher mother's malaise score was associated with higher offspring BMI at follow-up (B=0.043; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.013, 0.072). There was a higher risk of adulthood offspring obesity in mothers with two or three episodes of depression compared with one or none (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.76). The maternal malaise-offspring BMI association remained (P=0.003) after adjustment for offspring malaise score, suggesting that maternal mental health influences offspring obesity through mechanisms other than depression. Results from standard and instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal pathway in a direction from BMI to depression. Our data support a causal pathway linking adolescent depressive symptoms to adiposity in adulthood over 26 years follow-up. The reverse direction, that is, adiposity to depression, was not supported.