WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis indian springs

  1. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  2. Hydrologic and chemical data for selected thermal-water wells and springs in the Indian Bathtub area, Owyhee County, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data collected during January through September 1989 from 86 thermal-water wells and 5 springs in the Indian Bathtub area, southwestern Idaho. The data include well and spring locations, well-construction and water level information, hydrographs of water levels in 9 wells, hydrographs of discharges in 4 springs, and chemical and isotopic analysis of water from 33 thermal-water wells and 5 springs. These data were collected as part of a continuing study to determine the cause or causes of decreased discharge at Indian Bathtub Spring and other thermal springs along Hot Creek.

  3. Acquisition of Resort Property Located in Indian Springs, Nevada, Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Indian Springs (Nellis AFB 1997). A diverse herpetofauna is present that includes desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), zebra-tailed lizard...Received on December 26, 2010 from: http://gisgate.co.clark.nv.us/ gisplot_ pdfs /cp/nwindianspringsplu.pdf Myhrer, Keith. 2011. Indian Springs

  4. Weakening of Spring Wyrtki Jets in the Indian Ocean during 2006-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    Weakening of spring Wyrtki jets in the Indian Ocean during 2006–2011 Sudheer Joseph,1 Alan J. Wallcraft,2 Tommy G. Jensen,2 M. Ravichandran,1 S. S. C...measurements of Indian Ocean equatorial currents near addu atoll., Deep Sea Res Oceanogr Abstr., 23(3), 211–221. Large, W. G., J. C. McWilliams , and S. C. Doney

  5. Post irradiation examination of tight fit garter springs from Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, J.S., E-mail: jsdubey@barc.gov.in; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Kumar, Ashwini; Shah, Priti Kotak; Rath, B.N.; Kumar, Sunil; Mishra, Prerna; Alur, V.D.; Mallik, G.K.; Anantharaman, S.

    2015-07-15

    Garter springs play an important role in maintaining the annulus gap between hot pressure tubes and cold calandria tubes of PHWRs. Post irradiation examination (PIE) was carried out on the garter springs removed from Indian PHWR after around 8 and 15 Hot Operating Years (HOY). PIE studies included visual examination, dimensional measurements, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests. The girdle wires of these garter springs were also examined and subjected to the tension and bend tests. This paper gives the results of the PIE investigations and discusses its relevance for continued performance of garter springs in PHWRs.

  6. The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to Indian Territory. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Mike; Jones, Ralph

    Union Army troops marched south through Indian territory on July 17, 1863, to face the Confederate Army forces in a battle that would help determine whether the Union or the Confederacy would control the West beyond the Mississippi River. The Confederate troops that these soldiers faced in the Battle of Honey Springs concealed themselves among the…

  7. Water quality of selected springs and public-supply wells, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota, 1992-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of a water-quality study for the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. The study was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Water Resources Department of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. Discharge and water-quality data were collected during 1992-97 for 14 contact springs located in the northwestern part of the Reservation. Data were collected to evaluate potential alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt, which currently obtains water of marginal quality from a well completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. During 1995-97, water-quality data also were collected for 44 public-supply wells that serve about one-half of the Reservation's population. Quality-assurance sampling was used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of environmental samples. Ten of the springs sampled contact the White River Group, and four contact the Pierre Shale. Springs contacting the White River Group range from calcium bicarbonate to sodium bicarbonate water types. Two springs contacting the Pierre Shale have water types similar to this; however, sulfate is the dominant anion for the other two springs. In general, springs contacting the White River Group are shown to have better potential as alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt than springs contacting the Pierre Shale. Nine of the springs with better water quality were sampled repeatedly; however, only minor variability in water quality was identified. Six of these nine springs, of which five contact the White River Group, probably have the best potential for use as water supplies. Discharge from any of these six springs probably would provide adequate water supply for Red Shirt during most periods, based on a limited number of discharge measurements collected. Concentrations of lead exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 15 ?g/L for three of these six springs. Five of these six springs also had arsenic

  8. Predator Force Structure Changes at Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, Nevada Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    the North Las Vegas Library (Main Branch), the Indian Springs Library, and online at www.cevp.com and www.nellis.af.mil. A Notice of Availability...USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2001. Online Table of Seismic Hazards. http://geohazards.cr.usgs.gov/eq/faults/fsrpage11.html Predator Force...Sincerely, __ ~~~-~ Heather K. Elliott Nevada State Clearinghouse/ SPOC NEVADA STATE CLEARINGHOUSE Department of Administration Budget and Planning

  9. Phonological Analysis of Indian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiprana Yogatama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research are to find out the language sounds produced by India speakers, to enrich the scientific realm of language sounds and to stimulate the students to deeply examine other foreign language sounds. For the purpose of the study, the researcher collected data from several sources. The data which were in the form of theoretical research literature were obtained from books in general linguistics, especially on Phonology, both English and Indonesian. For data or material which were in the form of research material to be studied, the researcher presented a native speaker of Indian language named Kour Herbinder. This research is a qualitative research with recording and note technique. To analyze the data, the researcher used phonetics chart, both for cconsonants and vowels. From the analysis result, the researcher found that the sounds in India language are dominated by alveolar sounds like usually pronounced by speakers of Indonesian Balinese dialect. The researcher also found that there are many variations of Indian language sound as allophones, such as sound [k '] is an allophone of [k], and sound [dh] is an allophone of [d]. The pronunciation of sound [t], [d] and [k] dominantly resembles with [t], [d] and [k] on Indonesian Balinese.

  10. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Funk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia, poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers implement disaster risk reduction measures while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts in that region to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST gradient, we show that the two dominant modes of East African boreal spring rainfall variability are tied, respectively, to western-central Pacific and central Indian Ocean SST. Variations in these rainfall modes can be predicted using two previously defined SST indices – the West Pacific Gradient (WPG and Central Indian Ocean index (CIO, with the WPG and CIO being used, respectively, to predict the first and second rainfall modes. These simple indices can be used in concert with more sophisticated coupled modeling systems and land surface data assimilations to help inform early warning and guide climate outlooks.

  11. Failure Analysis of Aviation Torsional Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Weiguo; ZHANG Weifang; LIU Xiao; WANG Zongren; DING Meili

    2011-01-01

    Cracks and fractures occur during the assembly process to a type of torsional springs used in the aviation mechanism.Besides visual examination,other experimental techniques used for the investigation are:1) fracture characteristics,damage morphology and ffactography by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),2) spectrum analysis of covering,3) metallographic observation of cracks and 4) hydrogen content testing.The results are obtained through the analysis of manufacture process and experimental data.Since no changes of microstructure are found,failures are irrelevant to the material.The cracks and fractures initiate on the inner surface,cracks initiate before the cadmium plating and after the winding.No obvious stress corrosion cracks are found near the crack source region.The opening direction of cracks is consistent with the residual tensile stress of the spring inner surface,and the springs are easy to contact hydrogen media between the spring winding and the cadmium plating.The cracks are caused by hydrogen-induced delayed cracking under the action of the residual tensile stress and hydrogen.

  12. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  13. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. JADHAO,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011 can be used which was more economical this will reduce total cost of composite leaf spring. A spring with constant width and thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique which was very simple and economical. The experiments were conducted on UTM and numerical analysis was done via (FEA using ANSYS software. Stresses and deflection results were verified for analytical and experimental results. Result shows that, the composite spring has stresses much lower than steel leaf spring and weight of composite spring was nearly reduced up to 85%.

  15. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  16. Buckling analysis of planar compression micro-springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Sui, Li; Shi, Gengchen [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Science and Technology on Electromechanical Dynamic Control Laboratory, 5 South Street Zhongguancun, Haidian 100081, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-15

    Large compression deformation causes micro-springs buckling and loss of load capacity. We analyzed the impact of structural parameters and boundary conditions for planar micro-springs, and obtained the change rules for the two factors that affect buckling. A formula for critical buckling deformation of micro-springs under compressive load was derived based on elastic thin plate theory. Results from this formula were compared with finite element analysis results but these did not always correlate. Therefore, finite element analysis is necessary for micro-spring buckling analysis. We studied the variation of micro-spring critical buckling deformation caused by four structural parameters using ANSYS software under two constraint conditions. The simulation results show that when an x-direction constraint is added, the critical buckling deformation increases by 32.3-297.9%. The critical buckling deformation decreases with increase in micro-spring arc radius or section width and increases with increase in micro-spring thickness or straight beam width. We conducted experiments to confirm the simulation results, and the experimental and simulation trends were found to agree. Buckling analysis of the micro-spring establishes a theoretical foundation for optimizing micro-spring structural parameters and constraint conditions to maximize the critical buckling load.

  17. Supporting the Career Aspirations of American Indian Youth. CURA Reporter, Spring 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliman-Brissett, Annette E; Turner, Sherri L.

    2005-01-01

    Dropout rates among American Indian young people are greater than 50% in some places in the country, and the rate of unemployment and underemployment among American Indians still far exceeds that of the majority population, despite affirmative action and other parity-seeking policies. In addition, U.S. Census trends indicate an influx of American…

  18. Analysis of Composite Leaf Spring Enhanced With Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ganesan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight reduction is now the main issue in automobile industries. In this work due to reduce the weight of steel spring with composite leaf spring due to high strength ratio is need to improve. The main aim is to compare to the load carrying capacity, stiffness and weight savings of composite leaf spring with that of steel leaf spring at rated-load and over-load condition. The analysis has been carried out for the leaf spring made up of steel and Composite materials. Composite specimens are fabricated with two different staking sequences like the (resin with clay and enhanced with Nanoparticles. The thickness and width for constant cross section is maintained on the moulding techniques. The design of multi leaf spring was modeled in PRO-E and imported in ANSYS 14.5.the dimensions of an existing multi leaf spring is taken for modeling and analysis of a laminated composite multi leaf spring with different composite sequence materials subjected to the same load as that of steel spring.

  19. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, Fisheries Resource Management, Yakima Indian Nation1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Larry

    1984-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.

  20. [Analysis of Canada goose banding at Fish Springs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing an analysis of the Canada goose banding data from Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Banding data is analyzed for the following...

  1. Numerical and Experimental Stress Analysis of a Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveri A. Katake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile sector is always focusing on enhancing level of comfort, fuel economy, customer satisfaction and safety. Vehicle weight reduction increases the overall fuel efficiency. Use of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle, without reduction in load carrying capacity. Now a day's manufacturers and researchers are trying to replace conventional material parts with composites. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio as compared to steel. This paper is related to Numerical and experimental strength analysis of suspension leaf springs for a light motor vehicle made of composite materials. Two materials Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP are selected for manufacturing of leaf spring. The strength of these composite depends on angle orientation, volume to weight ratio of reinforcement and length to depth ratio of fiber. In this work two leaf springs made of GFRP and a sandwich of CFRP and GFRP are developed. Numerical and experimental static stress analyses are carried out for these two springs. These results are compared with analytical results of conventional metal spring. The comparison shows that composite material springs have compatible strength to withstand load. Comparative results for weight, cost and deformation are presented at the end of the paper.

  2. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  3. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  4. Spring 2014 Internship Diffuser Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigaie, Robert T.; Ryan, Harry M.

    2014-01-01

    showed different data dependent on section. Section 1 strains were small, and were in the range of 50 to 150 microstrain, which would result in stresses from 1.45 to 4.35 ksi. The yield stress of the material, A-285 Grade C Steel, is 29.7 ksi. Section 4 strain gages showed much higher values with strains peaking at 1600 microstrain. This strain corresponds to a stress of 46.41 ksi, which is in excess of the yield stress, but below the ultimate stress of 55 to 75 ksi. The decreased accelerations and strain in Section 1, and the increased accelerations and strain in Sections 3 and 4 verified the computer simulation prediction of increased plume oscillations in the lower sections of the diffuser. Hot-Fire Test 2 ran for a duration of 125 seconds. The engine operated at a slightly higher power level than Hot-Fire Test 1 for the initial 35 seconds of the test. After 35 seconds the power level was lowered to Hot-Fire Test 1 levels. The acceleration and strain data for Hot-Fire Test 2 was similar during the initial part of the test. However, just prior to the engine being lowered to the Hot-Fire Test 1 power level, the strain gage data in Section 4 showed a large decrease to strains near zero microstrain from their peak at 1500 microstrain. Future work includes further strain and acceleration data analysis and evaluation.

  5. Flip-flop between soft-spring and hard-spring bistabilities in the approximated Toda oscillator analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Goswami

    2011-11-01

    We study theoretically the effect of truncating the nonlinear restoring force (exp $()−1 = \\Sum^{∞}_{n=1} ^n/n!$) in the bistability pattern of the periodically driven, damped one-degree-of-freedom Toda oscillator that originally exhibits soft-spring bistability with counterclockwise hysteresis cycle. We observe that if the truncation is made third order, the harmonic bistability changes to hard-spring type with a clockwise hysteresis cycle. In contrast, for the fourth-order truncation, the bistability again becomes soft-spring type, overriding the effect of third-order nonlinearity. Furthermore, each higher odd-order truncation attempts to introduce hard-spring nature while each even-order truncation turns to soft-spring type of bistability. Overall, the hard-spring effect of every odd-order nonlinear term is weaker in comparison to the soft-spring effect of the next even-order nonlinear term. As a consequence, higher-order approximations ultimately converge to the soft-spring nature. Similar approximate analysis of Toda lattice has in recent past revealed remarkably similar flip-flop pattern between stochasticity (chaotic behaviour) and regularity (integrability).

  6. Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery evaluation and anadromous fish study on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon: 1975-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1975 the USFWS began studies designed to define the biological characteristics of wild spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the...

  7. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  8. Characteristics Analysis and Testing of SMA Spring Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzuo Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biasing form two-way shape memory alloy (SMA actuator composed of SMA spring and steel spring is analyzed. Based on the force equilibrium equation, the relationship between load capacity of SMA spring and geometric parameters is established. In order to obtain the characteristics of SMA spring actuator, the output force and output displacement of SMA spring under different temperatures are analyzed by the theoretical model and the experimental method. Based on the shape memory effect of SMA, the relationship of the SMA spring actuator's output displacement with the temperature, the stress and strain, the material parameters, and the size parameters is established. The results indicate that the trend of theoretical results is basically consistent with the experimental data. The output displacement of SMA spring actuator is increased with the increasing temperature.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. JADHAO,; DR. R.S DALU

    2011-01-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011) can be used which was more economical this will reduce ...

  10. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry R Jacob

    importantly, about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  11. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sherry R; Tyagi, Vandana; Agrawal, Anuradha; Chakrabarty, Shyamal K; Tyagi, Rishi K

    2015-01-01

    , about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  12. Possible impacts of spring sea surface temperature anomalies over South Indian Ocean on summer rainfall in Guangdong-Guangxi region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dachao; Guan, Zhaoyong; Huo, Liwei; Wang, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Based on observational and reanalysis data for 1979-2015, the possible impacts of spring sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over the South Indian Ocean on the inter-annual variations of summer rainfall in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces (i.e., the Guangdong-Guangxi area, GG) were analysed in this study. The physical mechanism behind these impacts was explored. Two geographic regions over [65°E-95°E, 35°S-25°S] and [90°E-110°E, 20°S-5°S] were defined as the western pole region and the eastern pole region, respectively, for the GG summer precipitation (PGG)-related South Indian Ocean dipole SSTA pattern (R-SIODP). The difference between springtime SST anomalies averaged over the western pole region and that averaged over the eastern pole region was defined as the R-SIODP index. The correlation between the spring R-SIODP index and GG summer precipitation can reach up to 0.52. In the spring of positive R-SIODP anomaly, southerly winds over the western pole of the R-SIODP weaken, whereas the southeast trade winds over the eastern pole strengthen. By means of the wind-evaporation-SST feedback mechanism, the enhanced southeast trade winds can weaken the evaporation over the western pole of the R-SIODP and enhance the evaporation over the eastern pole. This results in a sustained positive SSTA in the western pole of the R-SIODP and a sustained negative SSTA in the eastern pole, whereby the distribution of the SSTAs maintains until summer. The SST dipole abnormally enhances the cross-equatorial airflow near 105°E, which intensifies the anomalous anti-cyclonic circulation over South China Sea at 850 hPa and simultaneously results in abnormal enhancement of water vapour transport to GG. Additionally, the SST dipole promotes abnormal divergence in the lower troposphere and abnormal convergence in the upper troposphere over the maritime continent (MC) region. Moreover, the low-level convergence in GG is enhanced, which results in abnormal enhancement of ascending

  13. Optimization of fermentation conditions for cellulases production by Bacillus licheniformis MVS1 and Bacillus sp. MVS3 isolated from Indian hot spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Acharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of some nutritional and environmental factors on the production of cellulases, in particular endoglucanase (CMCase and exoglucanases (FPase from Bacillus licheniformis MVS1 and Bacillus sp. MVS3 isolated from an Indian hot spring. The characterization study indicated that the optimum pH and temperature value was 6.5 to 7.0 and 50-55°C, respectively. Maximum cellulases production by both the isolates was detected after 60 h incubation period using wheat and rice straw. The combination of inorganic and organic nitrogen source was suitable for cellulases production. Overall, FPase production was much higher than CMCase production by both of the strains. Between the two thermophiles, the cellulolytic activity was more in B.licheniformis MVS1 than Bacillus sp. MVS3 in varying environmental and nutritional conditions.

  14. Analysis on Main Traits of Spring Wheat Landraces in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jishan XIANG; Xiaogang MA; Peiyuan MU; Lihua CHEN; Hongjun XU

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 9 main traits of 774 spring wheat landraces in Tibet were investigated and analyzed. The results show that spring wheat landraces in Tibet have high plant height (with an average of 126.1 cm) and long growth period (with an average of 135.2 d), with an average spike length of 9.5 cm, average effective tiller number per plant of 5.9, average spikelet number per spike of 19.9, average kernel number per spikelet of 3.5, average spikelet number per spike of 51.8, aver- age kernel weight per spike of 2.0 g, and average 1 000-grain weight of 38.1 g. Specifically, kernel number per spikelet of 2 landraces is larger than 6.0, spikelet number per spike of 2 landraces is larger than 100, kernel weight per spike of 2 landraces is larger than 4.0 g, 1 000-grain weight of 11 tandraces is larger than 50 g. There is abundant genetic diversity in those traits except in growth period, and the coefficient variation of 9 traits is in a decreasing order of effective tiller number per plant 〉 kernel weight per spike 〉 kernel number per spike 〉 spike length 〉 kernel number per spikelet 〉 1 000-grain weight 〉 plant height 〉 spikelet number per spike 〉 growth period. There is different relevance among different traits. Growth period is extremely significantly positively related to yield traits; grain number traits are extremely significantly positively relative to plant height and spike length, but ex- tremely significantly negatively relative to effective tiller number per plant; kernel number per spike is extremely significantly positively relative to kernel weight per spike, but extremely significantly negatively related to 1 000-grain weight; 1 000-grain weight is extremely significantly positively related to kernel weight per spike. Based on principal component analysis, these 9 traits could be included by 5 principal com- ponents (grain number, grain weight, spike length, tiller number and growth period). According to the comprehensive evaluation

  15. Molecular analysis of gut microbiota in obesity among Indian individuals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak P Patil; Dhiraj P Dhotre; Sachin G Chavan; Armiya Sultan; Dhawal S Jain; Vikram B Lanjekar; Jayshree Gangawani; Poonam S Shah; Jayshree S Todkar; Shashank Shah; Dilip R Ranade; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is a consequence of a complex interplay between the host genome and the prevalent obesogenic factors among the modern communities. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disorder was recently discovered; however, 16S-rRNA-based surveys revealed compelling but community-specific data. Considering this, despite unique diets, dietary habits and an uprising trend in obesity, the Indian counterparts are poorly studied. Here, we report a comparative analysis and quantification of dominant gut microbiota of lean, normal, obese and surgically treated obese individuals of Indian origin. Representative gut microbial diversity was assessed by sequencing fecal 16S rRNA libraries for each group (n=5) with a total of over 3000 sequences. We detected no evident trend in the distribution of the predominant bacterial phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. At the genus level, the bacteria of genus Bacteroides were prominent among the obese individuals, which was further confirmed by qPCR ( > 0.05). In addition, a remarkably high archaeal density with elevated fecal SCFA levels was also noted in the obese group. On the contrary, the treated-obese individuals exhibited comparatively reduced Bacteroides and archaeal counts along with reduced fecal SCFAs. In conclusion, the study successfully identified a representative microbial diversity in the Indian subjects and demonstrated the prominence of certain bacterial groups in obese individuals; nevertheless, further studies are essential to understand their role in obesity.

  16. Failure analysis of energy storage spring in automobile composite brake chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zai; Wei, Qing; Hu, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper set energy storage spring of parking brake cavity, part of automobile composite brake chamber, as the research object. And constructed the fault tree model of energy storage spring which caused parking brake failure based on the fault tree analysis method. Next, the parking brake failure model of energy storage spring was established by analyzing the working principle of composite brake chamber. Finally, the data of working load and the push rod stroke measured by comprehensive test-bed valve was used to validate the failure model above. The experimental result shows that the failure model can distinguish whether the energy storage spring is faulted.

  17. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  18. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the third year (2000) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, genetics, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species declined from 1999 observations. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout increased while brook trout abundance was similar to 1999 observations in eight index reaches. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the second year. Mean relative densities of both species, within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in a 2.4 km control reach. Mill Creek was surveyed for the presence of juvenile bull trout. The American Fisheries Society ''Interim protocol for determining bull trout presence'' methodology was field tested. No bull trout were found in the 2 km survey area.

  19. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  20. FEM Analysis of Spring-backs in Age Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Lin; Wan Min; Chi Cailou; Ji Xiusheng

    2007-01-01

    The age forming technology, characterized by huge spring-backs, has been developed to manufacture large integral wing-skin panel parts, which necessitates devising a method of predicting spring-backs. A 7B04-T7451 aluminum alloy creep test in tension is accomplished at 155 ℃, and the creep curves are obtained. The material constants of the mechanism-based creep constitutive equations are determined through experiments. The age forming process and the spring-backs of 7B04 aluminum alloy plates are analyzed using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The effects of plate thickness and formingtime on spring-backs are researched. The spring-backs decrease with the increase of plate thickness and forming time. The test results verify the reliability of the finite element method (FEM) analysis.

  1. Analysis of Dynamic Stiffness Effect of Primary Suspension Helical Springs on Railway Vehicle Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Thompson, D. J.; Zhou, J.; Gong, D.

    2016-09-01

    Helical springs within the primary suspension are critical components for isolating the whole vehicle system from vibration generated at the wheel/rail contact. As train speeds increase, the frequency region of excitation becomes larger, and a simplified static stiffness can no longer represent the real stiffness property in a vehicle dynamic model. Coil springs in particular exhibit strong internal resonances, which lead to high vibration amplitudes within the spring itself as well as degradation of the vibration isolation. In this paper, the dynamic stiffness matrix method is used to determine the dynamic stiffness of a helical spring from a vehicle primary suspension. Results are confirmed with a finite element analysis. Then the spring dynamic stiffness is included within a vehicle-track coupled dynamic model of a high speed train and the effect of the dynamic stiffening of the spring on the vehicle vibration is investigated. It is shown that, for frequencies above about 50 Hz, the dynamic stiffness of the helical spring changes sharply. Due to this effect, the vibration transmissibility increases considerably which results in poor vibration isolation of the primary suspension. Introducing a rubber layer in series with the coil spring can attenuate this effect.

  2. Analysis of Helical Stainless Steel 08X18H10 Spring Relaxation at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to study a cylindrical helical spring to be applied at high temperatures. The aim of this work is to study the regularity of relaxation stresses in spring and evaluate its long-term stresses.The work allowed us to establish relaxation dependencies of springs under high temperatures. According to the results of creep tests at 600°, the theoretical equation of steel creep was defined concretely. It was then used for the analysis at 350°.The paper presents a created finite element model of spring relaxation. It is the stainless steel 08Х18Н10 spring to be used at the temperature of 350°.In this paper describes the basic theory of creep, considers the relationship between the creep speed and parameters. The changing compression force of springs is analyzed under fixed compression amount.The paper also analyzes the changing length of springs in the free state after various stages of high-temperature relaxation test. It determines the results of compression forces and free length under different amount of compression.The analysis to compare the theoretical calculation of the compression forces with the experimental results is conducted. Computer modeling is created in Abaqus for calculation. Spring relaxation experiments are carried out under fixed compression amount and at the temperature of 350°. It is shown that the simulation results, which are carried out in Abaqus coincide with experimental results. The study shows that it is possible to use the creep equation parameters, based on the experimental results at high temperatures, to predict creep and relaxation properties of springs, which work at less high temperatures. The work results can be used as a basis in designing the springs working at high temperatures.

  3. Filed and granted Indian Patents in dentistry from 2005-2009: A critical analysis and review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle; Shankargouda Patil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patent policies have proved to be extremely important for several countries to develop. India has achieved its global status since 2005; a critical analysis of the patents at IPO will help us to identify the potential, available for patents with Indian Dental Fraternity. Aim: The aim of this study is to critically analyze and review Indian Patents in the field of Dentistry from 2005-2009 for evaluation of status of Indian Patents in Dentistry. Materials and Methods: A tota...

  4. Fractal Analysis of Prime Indian STOCK Market Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadder, Swetadri; Ghosh, Koushik; Basu, Tapasendra

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the fractal behaviour of prime Indian stock exchanges, namely Bombay Stock Exchange Sensitivity Index (BSE Sensex) and National Stock Exchange (NSE). To analyze the monofractality of these indices we have used Higuchi method and Katz method separately. By applying Mutifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) technique we have calculated the generalized Hurst exponents, multifractal scaling exponents and generalized multifractal dimensions for the present indices. We have deduced Hölder exponents as well as singularity spectra for BSE and NSE. It has been observed that both the stock exchanges are possessing self-similarity at different small ranges separately and inhomogeneously. By comparing the multifractal behaviour of the BSE and NSE indices, we have found that the second one exhibits a richer multifractal feature than the first one.

  5. Spatial-Temporal Analysis on Spring Festival Travel Rush in China Based on Multisource Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spring Festival travel rush is a phenomenon in China that population travel intensively surges in a short time around Chinese Spring Festival. This phenomenon, which is a special one in the urbanization process of China, brings a large traffic burden and various kinds of social problems, thereby causing widespread public concern. This study investigates the spatial-temporal characteristics of Spring Festival travel rush in 2015 through time series analysis and complex network analysis based on multisource big travel data derived from Baidu, Tencent, and Qihoo. The main results are as follows: First, big travel data of Baidu and Tencent obtained from location-based services might be more accurate and scientific than that of Qihoo. Second, two travel peaks appeared at five days before and six days after the Spring Festival, respectively, and the travel valley appeared on the Spring Festival. The Spring Festival travel network at the provincial scale did not have small-world and scale-free characteristics. Instead, the travel network showed a multicenter characteristic and a significant geographic clustering characteristic. Moreover, some travel path chains played a leading role in the network. Third, economic and social factors had more influence on the travel network than geographical location factors. The problem of Spring Festival travel rush will not be effectively improved in a short time because of the unbalanced urban-rural development and the unbalanced regional development. However, the development of the modern high-speed transport system and the modern information and communication technology can alleviate problems brought by Spring Festival travel rush. We suggest that a unified real-time traffic platform for Spring Festival travel rush should be established through the government's integration of mobile big data and the official authority data of the transportation department.

  6. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING FOR LIGHT WEIGHT VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan Kapadia*, Palak H. Desai, Ajay Sonani

    2016-01-01

    In today’s scenario, the main weightage of investigation is to reduce the weight of product while upholding its strength. To solve that problem, this work is carried out for the design and analysis of mono composite materials leaf spring and entire new design criteria of mounting. The automobile vehicles have number of parts which can be able to replace by composite material. The foremost component of the suspension system of vehicle is leaf spring. It has substantial amount of weight, ...

  7. Numerical bifurcation analysis of the bipedal spring-mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Andreas; Kaiser, Dieter; Hermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The spring-mass model and its numerous extensions are currently one of the best candidates for templates of human and animal locomotion. However, with increasing complexity, their applications can become very time-consuming. In this paper, we present an approach that is based on the calculation of bifurcations in the bipedal spring-mass model for walking. Since the bifurcations limit the region of stable walking, locomotion can be studied by computing the corresponding boundaries. Originally, the model was implemented as a hybrid dynamical system. Our new approach consists of the transformation of the series of initial value problems on different intervals into a single boundary value problem. Using this technique, discontinuities can be avoided and sophisticated numerical methods for studying parametrized nonlinear boundary value problems can be applied. Thus, appropriate extended systems are used to compute transcritical and period-doubling bifurcation points as well as turning points. We show that the resulting boundary value problems can be solved by the simple shooting method with sufficient accuracy, making the application of the more extensive multiple shooting superfluous. The proposed approach is fast, robust to numerical perturbations and allows determining complete manifolds of periodic solutions of the original problem.

  8. Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Ognjen

    2001-07-01

    Analyses are presented of the conditions that limit the discharge of some karst springs. The large number of springs studied show that, under conditions of extremely intense precipitation, a maximum value exists for the discharge of the main springs in a catchment, independent of catchment size and the amount of precipitation. Outflow modelling of karst-spring discharge is not easily generalized and schematized due to numerous specific characteristics of karst-flow systems. A detailed examination of the published data on four karst springs identified the possible reasons for the limitation on the maximum flow rate: (1) limited size of the karst conduit; (2) pressure flow; (3) intercatchment overflow; (4) overflow from the main spring-flow system to intermittent springs within the same catchment; (5) water storage in the zone above the karst aquifer or epikarstic zone of the catchment; and (6) factors such as climate, soil and vegetation cover, and altitude and geology of the catchment area. The phenomenon of limited maximum-discharge capacity of karst springs is not included in rainfall-runoff process modelling, which is probably one of the main reasons for the present poor quality of karst hydrological modelling. Résumé. Les conditions qui limitent le débit de certaines sources karstiques sont présentées. Un grand nombre de sources étudiées montrent que, sous certaines conditions de précipitations extrêmement intenses, il existe une valeur maximale pour le débit des sources principales d'un bassin, indépendante des dimensions de ce bassin et de la hauteur de précipitation. La modélisation des débits d'exhaure d'une source karstique n'est pas facilement généralisable, ni schématisable, à cause des nombreuses caractéristiques spécifiques des écoulements souterrains karstiques. Un examen détaillé des données publiées concernant quatre sources karstiques permet d'identifier les raisons possibles de la limitation de l'écoulement maximal: (1

  9. Factors Influencing Asian Indian Graduate Students' Attitudes toward People with Disabilities: A Conjoint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Divya; Chan, Fong; Leierer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Asian Indians are one of the fastest-growing immigrant groups in the United States, yet little is known about their attitudes toward persons with disabilities and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing Asian Indian students' attitudes toward people with disabilities, using a conjoint analysis design (N = 90).…

  10. Deterring War or Courting Disaster: An Analysis of Nuclear Weapons in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    the strategic environment “[imposes] burdens of the sort that cannot be neutralized through land-based solutions” would the Indian government...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited DETERRING WAR OR...COURTING DISASTER: AN ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN by Diana Beth Wueger March 2015 Thesis Advisor: S. Paul Kapur

  11. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2015-08-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  12. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  13. Cytotaxonomical analysis of Momordica L. (Cucurbitaceae) species of Indian occurrence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. K. Bharathi; A. D. Munshi; Vinod; Shanti Chandrashekaran; T. K. Behera; A. B. Das; K. Joseph John; Vishalnath

    2011-04-01

    Somatic chromosome number and detailed karyotype analysis were carried out in six Indian Momordica species viz. M. balsamina, M. charantia, M. cochinchinensis, M. dioica, M. sahyadrica and M. cymbalaria (syn. Luffa cymbalaria; a taxon of controversial taxonomic identity). The somatic chromosome number $2n = 22$ was reconfirmed in monoecious species (M. balsamina and M. charantia). Out of four dioecious species, the chromosome number was reconfirmed in M. cochinchinensis $(2n = 28)$, M. dioica $(2n = 28)$ and M. subangulata subsp. renigera $(2n = 56)$, while in M. sahyadrica $(2n = 28)$ somatic chromosome number was reported for the first time. A new chromosome number of $2n = 18$ was reported in M. cymbalaria against its previous reports of $2n = 16$, 22. The karyotype analysis of all the species revealed significant numerical and structural variations of chromosomes. It was possible to distinguish chromosomes of M. cymbalaria from other Momordica species and also between monoecious and dioecious taxa of the genus. Morphology and crossability among the dioecious species was also studied. Evidence from morphology, crossability, pollen viability and chromosome synapsis suggests a segmental allopolyploid origin for M. subangulata subsp. renigera. The taxonomic status of the controversial taxon M. cymbalaria was also discussed using morphological, karyological and crossability data.

  14. Numerical Analysis on Combustion Characteristic of Leaf Spring Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate combustion characteristics for rotary engine via numerical studies. A 3D numerical model was developed to study the influence of several operative parameters on combustion characteristics. A novel rotary engine called, “Leaf Spring Rotary Engine”, was used to illustrate the structure and principle of the engine. The aims are to (1 improve the understanding of combustion process, and (2 quantify the influence of rotational speed, excess air ratio, initial pressure and temperature on combustion characteristics. The chamber space changed with crankshaft rotation. Due to the complexity of chamber volume, an equivalent modeling method was presented to simulate the chamber space variation. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations via the commercial code FLUENT using a transport equation-based combustion model; a realizable  turbulence model and finite-rate/eddy-dissipation model were used to account for the effect of local factors on the combustion characteristics.

  15. Microbial community analysis of pH 4 thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoben; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the majority of thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is from 1 to 3 and 6 to 10; relatively few springs (~5%) have a pH range of 4-5. We used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to investigate microbial communities sampled from four pH 4 thermal springs collected from four regions of YNP that differed in their fluid temperature and geochemistry. Our results revealed that the composition of bacterial communities varied among the sites, despite sharing similar pH values. The taxonomic composition and metabolic functional potential of the site with the lowest temperature (55 °C), a thermal spring from the Seven Mile Hole (SMH) area, were further investigated using shotgun metagenome sequencing. The taxonomic classification, based on 372 Mbp of unassembled metagenomic reads, indicated that this community included a high proportion of Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Functional comparison with other YNP thermal spring metagenomes indicated that the SMH metagenome was enriched in genes related to energy production and conversion, transcription, and carbohydrate transport. Analysis of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism revealed assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, whereas the majority of genes involved in sulfur metabolism were related to the reduction of sulfate to adenylylsulfate, sulfite, and H2S. Given that pH 4 thermal springs are relatively less common in YNP and thermal areas worldwide, they may harbor novel microbiota and the communities that inhabit them deserve further investigation.

  16. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    characterized by a slight-green color, with varying water clarity, low dissolved oxygen (indicative of deep groundwater), and a hydrogen sulfide odor. Water-quality samples detected ammonium-nitrogen and nitrates, but at low concentrations. The drinking water standard for nitrate adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 10 milligrams per liter, measured as nitrogen. Water samples collected at spring vents by divers on April 29, 2015, had concentrations of 0.9 milligram per liter nitrate-nitrogen at vent A and 0.04–0.05 milligram per liter at vents B, C, and D. Typically, the water clarity is highest in the morning (about 30 feet Secchi depth) and often decreases throughout the day.Analysis of existing data provided some insight into the hydrologic processes affecting Warm Mineral Springs; however, data have been sparsely and discontinuously collected since the 1940s. Continuous monitoring of hydrologic characteristics such as discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, and water-quality indicators, such as nitrate and turbidity (water clarity), would be valuable for monitoring and development of models of spring discharge and water quality. In addition, water samples could be analyzed for isotopic tracers, such as strontium, and the results used to identify and quantify the sources of groundwater that discharge at Warm Mineral Springs. Groundwater flow/transport models could be used to evaluate the sensitivity of the quality and quantity of water flowing from Warm Mineral Springs to changes in climate, aquifer levels, and water use.

  17. Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Tracks in the North Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, A.; Paliwal, M.; Mohapatra, M.

    2011-12-01

    Cyclones are regarded as one of the most dangerous meteorological phenomena of the tropical region. The probability of landfall of a tropical cyclone depends on its movement (trajectory). Analysis of trajectories of tropical cyclones could be useful for identifying potentially predictable characteristics. There is long history of analysis of tropical cyclones tracks. A common approach is using different clustering techniques to group the cyclone tracks on the basis of certain characteristics. Various clustering method have been used to study the tropical cyclones in different ocean basins like western North Pacific ocean (Elsner and Liu, 2003; Camargo et al., 2007), North Atlantic Ocean (Elsner, 2003; Gaffney et al. 2007; Nakamura et al., 2009). In this study, tropical cyclone tracks in the North Indian Ocean basin, for the period 1961-2010 have been analyzed and grouped into clusters based on their spatial characteristics. A tropical cyclone trajectory is approximated as an open curve and described by its first two moments. The resulting clusters have different centroid locations and also differently shaped variance ellipses. These track characteristics are then used in the standard clustering algorithms which allow the whole track shape, length, and location to be incorporated into the clustering methodology. The resulting clusters have different genesis locations and trajectory shapes. We have also examined characteristics such as life span, maximum sustained wind speed, landfall, seasonality, many of which are significantly different across the identified clusters. The clustering approach groups cyclones with higher maximum wind speed and longest life span in to one cluster. Another cluster includes short duration cyclonic events that are mostly deep depressions and significant for rainfall over Eastern and Central India. The clustering approach is likely to prove useful for analysis of events of significance with regard to impacts.

  18. A Finite-Element Analysis on the Rheorolling Process of Semi-Solid Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo DONG; Yonglin KANG

    2003-01-01

    With a geometrical model of porous material, a 3D finite-element analysis on the rolling process of spring steel60Si2Mn in the semi-solid state is carried out using software MARC. In terms of flat and groove rolling conditions,stress field and strain fiel

  19. Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Thermophile Community Within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring, South Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Yohandini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A community of thermophiles within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring (South Sumatera have been cultivated and identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The hot spring has temperature 80C-91C and pH 7-8. We used a simple method for culturing the microbes, by enriching the spring water with nutrient broth media. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the method could recover microbes, which clustered within four distinct taxonomic groups: Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Bacillus. These microbes closely related to Anoxybacillus rupiensis, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Geobacillus pallidus, Brevibacillus thermoruber, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of one isolate only had 96% similarity with Brevibacillus sequence in GenBank.

  20. INDIAN CAPITAL MARKET REVIEW: ISSUES, DIMENSIONS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shamim Ansari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an efficient capital market is to mobilize funds from those who have it and route each them to those who can utilize it in the best possible way. India’s financial market is multi-facet but not balanced. It has state of art equity market but relatively less developed and immature corporate bond market. The Indian capital market in the recent year has undergone a lot of innovation in term regulation and mode of operation. A well developed corporate bond market is also essential for financial system stability, efficiency and overall economic growth. However, If we look at the scenario of capital market in India we find that Indian households have traditionally preferred parking their surpluses in bank deposits, government savings schemes and less than 10% of their investments in financial assets in shares, debentures and mutual funds. The Indian capital market has recently put the worst behind and moved towards strong growth. In this back drop the present paper aims to (i identify various grey points of Indian capital market; (ii Evaluated how it performed during post financial crisis period; and (iii suggests necessary policy reforms for a relatively mature capital market.

  1. Factors influencing ERP implementation in Indian SMEs: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Basu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is essentially a commercial software package that enables the integration of transaction - oriented data and business processes throughout an organization. In order to remain competitive in this global business scenario, the small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs are opting for ERP implementation. In Indian SME sector, the adoption of ERP is rapidly increasing. Literature shows many instances where organizations, even after implementing such novel information systems like ERP, are unable to derive the benefits of integration. It is, therefore, not surprising that implementation of enterprise information systems in general is quite difficult due to their size, scope and complexity. Therefore, there is a need to identify some issues that would lead to positive outcome for the implementation of ERP systems in the context of Indian SME sector. This paper thus attempts to identify and to prioritize the factors influencing proper implementation of ERP systems in a business organization particularly for Indian small and medium businesses (SMBs. The research presented here is specifically targeted the Indian SMEs, which have already completed the process of implementing ERP system.

  2. Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

  3. Analysis of vulnerability factors that control nitrate occurrence in natural springs (Osona Region, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Boy, Mercè; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2011-07-15

    Nitrate pollution is one of the main concerns of groundwater management in most of the world's agricultural areas. In the Osona region of NE Spain, high concentrations of nitrates have been reported in wells. This study uses the occurrence of this pollutant in natural springs as an indicator of the sub-surface dynamics of the water cycle and shows how groundwater quality is affected by crop fertilization, as an approach to determine the aquifer vulnerability. Nitrate concentration and other hydrochemical parameters based on a biannual database are reported for approximately 80 springs for the period 2004-2009. The background concentration of nitrate is first determined to distinguish polluted areas from natural nitrate occurrence. A statistical treatment using logistic regression and ANOVA is then performed to identify the significance of the effect of vulnerability factors such as the geological setting of the springs, land use in recharge areas, sampling periods, and chemical parameters like pH and EC, on groundwater nitrate pollution. The results of the analysis identify a threshold value of 7-8 mg NO(3)(-)/L for nitrate pollution in this area. Logistic regression and ANOVA results show that an increase in EC or a decrease in pH values is linked to the possibility of higher nitrate concentrations in springs. These analyses also show that nitrate pollution is more dependent on land use than the geological setting of springs or sampling periods. Indeed, the specific geological and soil features of the uppermost layers in their recharge areas do not contribute to the buffering of nitrate impacts on aquifers as measured in natural springs. Land use, and particularly fertilization practices, are major factors in groundwater vulnerability.

  4. Surface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean during spring and fall - An altimetry based analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    to just south of the equator, whereas, the fall jet derived between October and December is almost symmetrical about the equator. These jets are found to be about 400 km wide with a speed of 70-80 cm/sec. Maximum duration of these wind-driven, eastward...

  5. Population and genomic lessons from genetic analysis of two Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Garima; Mondal, Mayukh; Luisi, Pierre; Laayouni, Hafid; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Heutink, Peter; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Thelma, B K; Casals, Ferran

    2014-10-01

    Indian demographic history includes special features such as founder effects, interpopulation segregation, complex social structure with a caste system and elevated frequency of consanguineous marriages. It also presents a higher frequency for some rare mendelian disorders and in the last two decades increased prevalence of some complex disorders. Despite the fact that India represents about one-sixth of the human population, deep genetic studies from this terrain have been scarce. In this study, we analyzed high-density genotyping and whole-exome sequencing data of a North and a South Indian population. Indian populations show higher differentiation levels than those reported between populations of other continents. In this work, we have analyzed its consequences, by specifically assessing the transferability of genetic markers from or to Indian populations. We show that there is limited genetic marker portability from available genetic resources such as HapMap or the 1,000 Genomes Project to Indian populations, which also present an excess of private rare variants. Conversely, tagSNPs show a high level of portability between the two Indian populations, in contrast to the common belief that North and South Indian populations are genetically very different. By estimating kinship from mates and consanguinity in our data from trios, we also describe different patterns of assortative mating and inbreeding in the two populations, in agreement with distinct mating preferences and social structures. In addition, this analysis has allowed us to describe genomic regions under recent adaptive selection, indicating differential adaptive histories for North and South Indian populations. Our findings highlight the importance of considering demography for design and analysis of genetic studies, as well as the need for extending human genetic variation catalogs to new populations and particularly to those with particular demographic histories.

  6. Optimization and Static Stress Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Muhammed Ali Ismaeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A monofiber reinforced composite leaf spring is proposed as an alternative to the typical steel one as it is characterized by high strength-to-weight ratio. Different reinforcing schemes are suggested to fabricate the leaf spring. The composite and the typical steel leaf springs are subjected to the same working conditions. A weight saving of about more than 60% can be achieved while maintaining the strength for the structures under consideration. The objective of the present study was to replace material for leaf spring. This study suggests various materials of hybrid fiber reinforced plastics (HFRP. Also the effects of shear moduli of the fibers, matrices, and the composites on the composites performance and responses are discussed. The results and behaviors of each are compared with each other and verified by comparison with analytical solution; a good convergence is found between them. The elastic properties of the hybrid composites are calculated using rules of mixtures and Halpin-Tsi equation through the software of MATLAB v-7. The problem is also analyzed by the technique of finite element analysis (FEA through the software of ANSYS v-14. An element modeling was done for every leaf with eight-node 3D brick element (SOLID185 3D 8-Node Structural Solid.

  7. Skill gap analysis and training needs in Indian aerospace industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar Balaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the paper is on assessing the global aerospace industry as well as Indian scenario, and attempts to assess the skill gaps and training needs of Indian aerospace industry.  Design/methodology/approach: The study is qualitative in nature, and employs wide array of qualitative tools which includes desktop study, focus group interviews and secondary sources of information. Around 10 focus groups were used in the study, with each focus group having a minimum of 6 members of experts in the aerospace and allied industries. The study evolved into a 2 staged one, with the first study elucidating the growing importance and potential of aerospace industry, justifying the significance to take forward the second part of the study. And the second study specifically focuses on skill gaps and training needs. Findings and Originality/value: The Study yields varied results on existing generic expectations of aerospace industry, specific needs of aerospace industry, identification of aerospace job categories unique to aerospace industry, key issues of training in Indian scenario and recommendations. The paper in summary reflects the current scenario of aerospace industry potentials for India and its likely impact on skills gap and training needs. Practical implications: Skills gap is a significant gap between an organization’s current capabilities and the skills it needs to achieve its goals. As a number of Global forecasts project, India as an emerging aviation market, the skill gaps in this sector is predicted to be huge and necessitates the study on assessing the skill gaps and its allied training needs. Originality/value: The Study is highly original and first one of its kind in reflecting the current situation of the skills gap and training needs in Indian Aerospace industry. The focus group interviews were conducted with the experts at various levels in the industyr without any bias yielding valid and realtime data for the

  8. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  9. Performance Analysis of Leaf Spring by Contact Mechanics Approach Based on the Nature of Material Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Gandhi, Veeramalai Chinnasamy; Kumaravelan, Radhakrishnan; Ramesh, Sengottuvelu; Joemax Agu, Maxwell Thompson

    2014-01-01

    In an automotive system, a curved leaf spring is used for the purpose of suspension and for reducing the transient vibration of the system. Composite materials are widely used in automobile industries as a replacement for steel to reduce the weight and to increase the strength of an automotive system. In this study, various materials have been considered for an analysis based on the Young modulus-to-yield strength ratio. The study has been carried out by considering the material properties. T...

  10. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

  11. Impact of Six Sigma in a developing economy: analysis on benefits drawn by Indian industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshak A. Desai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Overall operational excellence is the key requirement of any business to have global competence and sustained growth. Indian industries are not the exception to this. Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective business improvement strategies world wide.  Nothing much has been published so far illustrating an overall experience of Indian industries with Six Sigma. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of Six Sigma on developing economy like India.  The paper provides an insight into what kind of benefits Indian industries are gaining from Six Sigma as a whole. The study further highlights similarity and differences of benefit gained by different scales and sectors of Indian industries through Six Sigma. This exhaustive analysis of the benefits drawn by Indian industries through Six Sigma can assist other industries in India as well as those in other developing countries, who have yet not experimented with Six Sigma, to become more focused regarding their expectations from this improvement drive. 

  12. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  13. Analysis and comparison of the tidal gravity observations obtained with LCR-ET20 spring gravimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙和平; 陈晓东; 刘明; 周百力

    2002-01-01

    Based on the tidal gravity observations recorded with LCR-ET20 spring gravimeter at Wuhan international fundamental tidal gravity station, the characteristics of the ET20 and the atmospheric and oceanic gravity signals are studied systematically by using international standard data pre-processing and analysis methods, and by comparing the results with those obtained using superconducting gravimeter (SG) at same station. The numerical results indicate that the identical tidal gravity parameters same as those with the SG are obtained, the instrument can be used effectively to record temporal change of the gravity field, though the accuracy of the ET20 is one order lower than that of the SG, and has also the large drift induced by the spring creep character.

  14. Stiffness analysis of spring mechanism for semi automatic gripper motion of tendon driven remote manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Remote handling manipulators are widely used for performing hazardous tasks, and it is essential to ensure the reliable performance of such systems. Toward this end, tendon driven mechanisms are adopted in such systems to reduce the weight of the distal parts of the manipulator while maintaining the handling performance. In this study, several approaches for the design of a gripper system for a tendon driven remote handling system are introduced. Basically, this gripper has an underactuated spring mechanism that is combined with a slave manipulator triggered by a master operator. Based on the requirements under the specified tendon driven mechanism, the connecting position of the spring system on the gripper mechanism and kinematic influence coefficient (KIC) analysis are performed. As a result, a suitable combination of components for the proper design of the target system is presented and verified.

  15. Grinding analysis of Indian coal using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Twinkle Singh; Aishwarya Awasthi; Pranjal Tripathi; Shina Gautam; Alok Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The present work discusses a systematic approach to model grinding parameters of coal in a ball mill.A three level Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology using second order model was applied to the experiments done according to the model requirement.Three parameters ball charge (numbers 10-20),coal content (100-200 g) and the grinding time (4-8 min) were chosen for the experiments as well as for the modeling work.Coal fineness is defined as the d80 (80 % passing size).A quadratic model was developed to show the effect of parameters and their interaction with fineness of the product.Three different sizes (4,1 and 0.65 mm) of Indian coal were used.The model equations for each fraction were developed and different sets of experiments were performed.The predicted values of the fineness of coal were in good agreement with the experimental results (R2 values of d80 varies between 0.97 and 0.99).Fine size of three different coal sizes were obtained with larger ball charge with less grinding time and less solid content.This work represents the efficient use of response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken design use for grinding of Indian coal.

  16. Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Stanley, Christy D.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus has 2 recognized subspecies: the Florida T. m. latirostris and Antillean T. m. manatus manatee, both of which are found in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. A better understanding of manatee feeding preferences and habitat use is essential to establish criteria on which conservation plans can be based. Skin from manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico, as well as aquatic vegetation from their presumed diet, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This is the first application of stable isotope analysis to Antillean manatees. Stable isotope ratios for aquatic vegetation differed by plant type (freshwater, estuarine, and marine), collection location, and in one instance, season. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for manatee skin differed between collection location and in one instance, season, but did not differ between sex or age class. Signatures in the skin of manatees sampled in Belize and Puerto Rico indicated a diet composed primarily of seagrasses, whereas those of Florida manatees exhibited greater regional variation. Mixing model results indicated that manatees sampled from Crystal River and Homosassa Springs (Florida, USA) ate primarily freshwater vegetation, whereas manatees sampled from Big Bend Power Plant, Ten Thousand Islands, and Warm Mineral Springs (Florida) fed primarily on seagrasses. Possible diet-tissue discrimination values for 15N were estimated to range from 1.0 to 1.5 per mil. Stable isotope analysis can be used to interpret manatee feeding behavior over a long period of time, specifically the use of freshwater vegetation versus seagrasses, and can aid in identifying critical habitats and improving conservation efforts.

  17. The Changing Well-Being of Older Adult Registered Indians: An Analysis Using the Registered Indian Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Martin; Guimond, Eric; McWhirter, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The demographic aging of the Registered Indian population suggests that the social, economic, and health conditions of older Registered Indians will be increasingly important for communities and policymakers. We have adapted the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Index using data from the Census of Canada and the Indian…

  18. Analysis on the Influence of Spring Low Temperature on the Agriculture and the Formation Reason in Liaoning Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the influence of spring low temperature on the agriculture and the formation reason in Liaoning Province in 2010. [Method] Based on the synoptics analysis principle, by analyzing the atmospheric circulation situation and satellite cloud map, the influence of spring low temperature on the agriculture and the formation reason of low temperature weather in Liaoning Province during April-May, 2010 were discussed. [Result] The high-altitude situation analysis showed that i...

  19. Genome-wide analysis in Brazilian Xavante Indians reveals low degree of admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C Kuhn

    Full Text Available Characterization of population genetic variation and structure can be used as tools for research in human genetics and population isolates are of great interest. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genetic structure of Xavante Indians and compare it with other populations. The Xavante, an indigenous population living in Brazilian Central Plateau, is one of the largest native groups in Brazil. A subset of 53 unrelated subjects was selected from the initial sample of 300 Xavante Indians. Using 86,197 markers, Xavante were compared with all populations of HapMap Phase III and HGDP-CEPH projects and with a Southeast Brazilian population sample to establish its population structure. Principal Components Analysis showed that the Xavante Indians are concentrated in the Amerindian axis near other populations of known Amerindian ancestry such as Karitiana, Pima, Surui and Maya and a low degree of genetic admixture was observed. This is consistent with the historical records of bottlenecks experience and cultural isolation. By calculating pair-wise F(st statistics we characterized the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and representative populations of the HapMap and from HGDP-CEPH project. We found that the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and populations of Ameridian, Asian, European, and African ancestry increased progressively. Our results indicate that the Xavante is a population that remained genetically isolated over the past decades and can offer advantages for genome-wide mapping studies of inherited disorders.

  20. Genome-wide analysis in Brazilian Xavante Indians reveals low degree of admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Patricia C; Horimoto, Andréa R V Russo; Sanches, José Maurício; Vieira Filho, João Paulo B; Franco, Luciana; Fabbro, Amaury Dal; Franco, Laercio Joel; Pereira, Alexandre C; Moises, Regina S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of population genetic variation and structure can be used as tools for research in human genetics and population isolates are of great interest. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genetic structure of Xavante Indians and compare it with other populations. The Xavante, an indigenous population living in Brazilian Central Plateau, is one of the largest native groups in Brazil. A subset of 53 unrelated subjects was selected from the initial sample of 300 Xavante Indians. Using 86,197 markers, Xavante were compared with all populations of HapMap Phase III and HGDP-CEPH projects and with a Southeast Brazilian population sample to establish its population structure. Principal Components Analysis showed that the Xavante Indians are concentrated in the Amerindian axis near other populations of known Amerindian ancestry such as Karitiana, Pima, Surui and Maya and a low degree of genetic admixture was observed. This is consistent with the historical records of bottlenecks experience and cultural isolation. By calculating pair-wise F(st) statistics we characterized the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and representative populations of the HapMap and from HGDP-CEPH project. We found that the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and populations of Ameridian, Asian, European, and African ancestry increased progressively. Our results indicate that the Xavante is a population that remained genetically isolated over the past decades and can offer advantages for genome-wide mapping studies of inherited disorders.

  1. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of low carbon energy technologies: Indian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Manish; Deswal, Surinder; Chandna, Pankaj

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, techno-economic and an environmental investigation and analysis of Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) has been presented, with special emphasis on India. The paper identify, analyze and recommend, on the basis of available and collected / collated information and data, the promising and potential low carbon energy technology options suited to Indian conditions for grid connected power generation. The evaluation criteria adopted include - emission reduction potential, technological feasibility, and economic viability; and on its basis recommend a detailed action plan and strategy for guiding future research and development with a more focused approach considering current Indian policy framework.

  2. Collusion in the Indian Tea Industry in the Great Depression : An Analysis of Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effectiveness of the control schemes in the Indian tea industry during the Great Depression, whereby producers attempted to collude by reducing output. Analysis of data from a panel of plantations shows that collusion was effective. We suggest that the system of management of

  3. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  4. Genetic analysis of familial spontaneous pneumothorax in an Indian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anindita; Paul, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Esita; Kundu, Susmita; Roy, Bidyut

    2015-06-01

    Familial spontaneous pneumothorax is one of the phenotypes of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), an autosomal dominant condition associated with folliculin (FLCN). We investigated clinical and genetic data of an Indian family having two patients suffering from spontaneous pneumothorax in the absence of skin lesions or renal tumors. HRCT scan of patient's lung revealed paracardiac cysts, and DNA sequencing of all 14 exons of FLCN from patients showed the presence of heterozygous "C allele" deletion in the poly-cytosine (poly-C) tract of exon 11 leading to truncated folliculin. This mutation was also observed in four asymptomatic members of the family. Our results confirmed the presence of deletion mutation in poly-C tract of FLCN in members of BHDS family. This is the first report of genetic insight in a BHDS family from India but in-depth studies with a larger sample set are necessary to understand mechanism of familial pneumothorax.

  5. Impact of Technology on Indian Media-An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar Ghanta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology is playing a major role in disseminating the information. The ethical use ofnew technologies in journalistic work is imperative given the widespread use of such technology forthe benefit of society. In general the usage of information technology can be found in the form ofInternet-based technologies in information gathering and news writing. Attribution of onlineinformation, general use of online content, plagiarism of Web-based news, use of direct quotationsfound online. In this regard a million dollars question will emerge that whither these new mediatechnologies? This paper examines the ethics of Indian newsgathering practices in the context of newmedia technologies.The methodology of the paper is descriptive and explorative in nature.

  6. 75 FR 12536 - City of Tenakee Springs; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Tenakee Springs; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting... Tenakee Springs. e. Name of Project: Indian River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Indian River Hydroelectric Project will be located on the Indian River near the City of Tenakee Springs,...

  7. Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, Paban Kumar, E-mail: pabandash@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a

  8. What leads Indians to participate in clinical trials? A meta-analysis of qualitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Y Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the globalization of clinical trials, large developing nations have substantially increased their participation in multi-site studies. This participation has raised ethical concerns, among them the fear that local customs, habits and culture are not respected while asking potential participants to take part in study. This knowledge gap is particularly noticeable among Indian subjects, since despite the large number of participants, little is known regarding what factors affect their willingness to participate in clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of all studies evaluating the factors and barriers, from the perspective of potential Indian participants, contributing to their participation in clinical trials. We searched both international as well as Indian-specific bibliographic databases, including Pubmed, Cochrane, Openjgate, MedInd, Scirus and Medknow, also performing hand searches and communicating with authors to obtain additional references. We enrolled studies dealing exclusively with the participation of Indians in clinical trials. Data extraction was conducted by three researchers, with disagreement being resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Six qualitative studies and one survey were found evaluating the main themes affecting the participation of Indian subjects. Themes included Personal health benefits, Altruism, Trust in physicians, Source of extra income, Detailed knowledge, Methods for motivating participants as factors favoring, while Mistrust on trial organizations, Concerns about efficacy and safety of trials, Psychological reasons, Trial burden, Loss of confidentiality, Dependency issues, Language as the barriers. CONCLUSION: We identified factors that facilitated and barriers that have negative implications on trial participation decisions in Indian subjects. Due consideration and weightage should be assigned to these factors while planning future trials in India.

  9. High frequency analysis of a plate carrying a concentrated nonlinear spring-mass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Dean; Dowell, Earl

    2016-09-01

    Examining the behavior of dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom undergoing random excitation at high frequency often requires substantial computation. These requirements are even more stringent for nonlinear systems. One approach for describing linear systems, Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA), has been extended to nonlinear systems in this paper. A prototypical system, namely a thin plate carrying a concentrated hardening cubic spring-mass, is explored. The study focuses on the response of three principal variables to random, frequency-bounded excitation: the displacement of the mounting location of the discrete spring-mass, the relative displacement of the discrete mass to this mounting location, and the absolute displacement of the discrete mass. The results indicate that extending AMA to nonlinear systems for input frequency bands containing a large number of modes is feasible. Several advantageous properties of nonlinear AMA are found, and an additional reduced frequency-domain modal method, Dominance-Reduced Classical Modal Analysis (DRCMA), is proposed that is intermediate in accuracy and the cost of computation between AMA and Classical Modal Analysis (CMA).

  10. Determinants of Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing Industries: A Firm Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar SAHU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy; particularly for commercial purposes, has been growing rapidly with growth of the economy, changes in the demographic structure, rising urbanization, socio-economic development, and the desire for attaining and sustaining self-reliance in some sectors of the economy. Energy intensity of Indian industries is among the highest in the world and specifically the Indian manufacturing sector is the largest consumer of energy sources. This study attempts to analyze the determinants of energy intensity of Indian manufacturing firms using data from the PROWESS database of the Center for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE for the period 2000-2008. The results of the econometric analysis suggest a non-linear (U shape relationship between energy intensity and firm size, implying that both very large and very small firms tend to be more energy intensive as compared to the medium size firms. The analysis also highlights that, foreign owned firms are less energy intensive as compared to the domestic firms. Further, technology imports are found to be important in contributing to the decline firmlevel energy intensity. The paper also identifies that there is a sizable difference in energy intensity between energy intensive firms and others. In addition, the result also shows that younger firms are more energy efficient as compared to the older firms.

  11. Multifractal detrended Cross Correlation Analysis of Foreign Exchange and SENSEX fluctuation in Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Chatterjee, Sucharita

    2016-12-01

    The manuscript studies autocorrelation and cross correlation of SENSEX fluctuations and Forex Exchange Rate in respect to Indian scenario. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis (MFDXA) were employed to study the correlation between the two series. It was observed that the two series are strongly cross correlated. The change of degree of cross correlation with time was studied and the results are interpreted qualitatively.

  12. Community health orientation of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: A bibliometric analysis of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Kanica; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endocrine and metabolic diseases especially diabetes have become focus areas for public health professionals. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM), a publication of Endocrine Society of India, is a peer-reviewed online journal, which covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. This bibliometric analysis assesses the journal from a community health perspective. Materials and Methods: Every article published in IJEM over a period of 4 years (2011–2014) was accessed to review coverage of community health in the field of endocrinology. Results: Seven editorials, 30 review articles, 41 original articles, 12 brief communications, 20 letter to editors, 4 articles on guidelines and 2 in the section “endocrinology and gender” directly or indirectly dealt with community health aspects of endocrinology. Together these amounted to 17% of all articles published through these 4 years. There were 14 articles on general, 60 pertaining to pancreas and diabetes, 10 on thyroid, 7 on pituitary/adrenal/gonads, 21 on obesity and metabolism and 4 on parathyroid and bone; all community medicine related. Conclusion: Community health is an integral part of the modern endocrinology diabetology and metabolism practice and it received adequate journal space during the last 4 years. The coverage is broad based involving all the major endocrine disorders. PMID:25932398

  13. Community health orientation of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: A bibliometric analysis of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanica Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endocrine and metabolic diseases especially diabetes have become focus areas for public health professionals. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM, a publication of Endocrine Society of India, is a peer-reviewed online journal, which covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. This bibliometric analysis assesses the journal from a community health perspective. Materials and Methods: Every article published in IJEM over a period of 4 years (2011-2014 was accessed to review coverage of community health in the field of endocrinology. Results: Seven editorials, 30 review articles, 41 original articles, 12 brief communications, 20 letter to editors, 4 articles on guidelines and 2 in the section "endocrinology and gender" directly or indirectly dealt with community health aspects of endocrinology. Together these amounted to 17% of all articles published through these 4 years. There were 14 articles on general, 60 pertaining to pancreas and diabetes, 10 on thyroid, 7 on pituitary/adrenal/gonads, 21 on obesity and metabolism and 4 on parathyroid and bone; all community medicine related. Conclusion: Community health is an integral part of the modern endocrinology diabetology and metabolism practice and it received adequate journal space during the last 4 years. The coverage is broad based involving all the major endocrine disorders.

  14. FE Analysis of Nitinol Leaf Springs Used in a Compression Anastomosis Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Amir; Monassevitch, Leonid; Greenberg, Kobby; Millis, Shahar; Harari, Boaz; Dar, Idan

    2011-07-01

    Reconstruction of the digestive system lumen patency (anastomosis creation) after its partial surgical removal is a common and crucial procedure. The conventional anastomosis methods use devices for mechanical suturing which are associated with high failure risk and can lead to major complications. The compression anastomosis as a sutureless method seems to be a promising alternative. However, attempts during the last two centuries have not been completely successful due to the complex character of the tissue-healing process. The specific mechanical behavior of Nitinol alloys was applied to the force element of the compression devices. These devices are becoming more widely adopted in surgery practice. The compression anastomosis device enables the anastomosis of colonic and intestinal tissue based on compression forces exerted by Nitinol leaf springs. By means of changing the strain distribution in the stressed leaves with varying moments of inertia, one can gain full control of the different stages in the force-deflection profile (i.e., linear elastic stage and the force plateau stage). The target of this study is the comparison of different Nitinol leaf geometries and evaluation of the finite elements analysis as a tool for preliminary design of such geometries. The results of this analysis allow us to establish regulation of the spring's mechanical behavior, thus controlling the anastomosis creation in the compression anastomosis device.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Effects of Reduced Discharge onThermal Habitat of Pedersen Warm Springs Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A preliminary report to study the potential impacts of possible flow reductions in thermal spring systems located in the Warm Springs area of Moapa Valley NWR on the...

  16. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of an Amazonian geothermal spring in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay; Cortez, Yolanda; Vera, Nadia; Villena, Gretty K; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Aguas Calientes (AC) is an isolated geothermal spring located deep into the Amazon rainforest (7°21'12″ S, 75°00'54″ W) of Peru. This geothermal spring is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-7.0) in nature, with temperatures varying from 45 to 90 °C and continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). Pooled water sample was analyzed at 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable region by amplicon metagenome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 2,976,534 paired ends reads were generated which were assigned into 5434 numbers of OTUs. All the resulting 16S rRNA fragments were then classified into 58 bacterial phyla and 2 archaeal phyla. Proteobacteria (88.06%) was found to be the highest represented phyla followed by Thermi (6.43%), Firmicutes (3.41%) and Aquificae (1.10%), respectively. Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were the only 2 archaeal phyla detected in this study with low abundance. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX1809286. Functional categorization of the assigned OTUs was performed using PICRUSt tool. In COG analysis "Amino acid transport and metabolism" (8.5%) was found to be the highest represented category whereas among predicted KEGG pathways "Metabolism" (50.6%) was the most abundant. This is the first report of a high resolution microbial phylogenetic profile of an Amazonian hot spring.

  17. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  18. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  19. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems.

  20. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING QUALITY OF INDIAN AND AMERICAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Munshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The content analysis method has been adopted to study the pattern of reporting on sustainability indicators by 10 American and 10 Indian manufacturing firms in their sustainability reports prepared as per the GRI framework and published during 2011-2013. Scores of 2, 1 and 0 have been respectively assigned for full, partial and non disclosure of sub clauses of economic, environmentand social indicators to compute a SDI (sustainability disclosure index. Independent t test found a significant difference in the quality of sustainability disclosure of the sampled American and Indian manufacturing firms during 2011-13. The improvement/ deterioration in the quality of disclosure over the period were correlated with changes in performance parameters like EPS and ROA to examine if betterment in quality of sustainability reporting translates into financial performance of the firms. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the variables which explain the variation in the sustainability reporting quality of firms.

  1. Energy use efficiency of Indian cement companies. A data envelopment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sabuj Kumar [T.A. Pai Management Institute, Manipal, 576104, Karnataka (India); Madheswaran, S. [Centre for Economic Studies and Policy, Institute for Social and Economic change, Nagarabhavi (P.O), Bangalore, 560072, Karnataka (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present paper aims at measuring energy use efficiency in Indian cement industry and estimating the factors explaining inter-firm variations in energy use efficiency. Within the framework of production theory, data envelopment analysis has been used to measure energy use efficiency. Using firm-level data from electronic PROWESS database for the years 1989-1990 through 2006-2007, the study first estimates energy use efficiency of the firms and then compares the efficiency scores across. Empirical results suggest that there is enough scope for the Indian cement firms to reduce energy uses, though this potential for energy saving varies across firms. A second-stage regression analysis reveals that firms with larger production volume have higher energy efficiency scores and that age of the firms impacts differently on energy use efficiency obtained from two different models. Also, higher quality of labor force associates with higher energy use efficiency.

  2. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  3. Clinical examination and foot pressure analysis of diabetic foot: Prospective analytical study in Indian diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshanand Popalwar

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Meticulous clinical examination can easily identify diabetic neuropathy and related pathological complications of diabetic foot. This shall help for early diagnosis and prevention of diabetic foot complications. Foot pressure analysis can be useful tool to screen patients of diabetic foot for abnormal high pressure point areas and can predict future risk of ulceration due to high foot pressure. This study states findings in Indian diabetic patients. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 17-22

  4. Morphometric analysis of sella turcica in North Indian population: a radiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Puja Chauhan; Sunita Kalra; Shashi M. Mongia; Sadakat Ali; Anurag Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology and measure the size of the sella turcica in North Indian population. Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 12 - 65 years were taken. Morphology of sella turcica was studied and various measurements were taken to determine the shape of the sella. Statistical analysis was done to calculate differences in dimensions and to establish if any, relationship...

  5. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  6. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of voice: A normative study in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Fernandes, Radish Kumar Balasubramanium, Arivudai Nambi Pitchaimuthu, Jayashree S. Bhat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to establish normative data for the Indian population using Nonlinear dynamic analysis. In this study, correlation dimension, a measure of nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed for normophonic young, middle aged and elderly voices. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, normophonic young, middle aged and elderly individuals were selected without a history of voice/respiratory problems and vocal abuse/ misuse. 60 participants were selected in each group. All of these individuals had a normal voice as evaluated through GRBAS scale. Sound Recorder, on a computer desktop was used for voice recording and “convert” code in MATLAB as well as D2.ini.writer software based on TISEAN package (Hegger, Kantz & Schreiber, 1999 was used for the calculation of Correlation dimension (D2. Correlation dimension measures were obtained for each participant, for both steady vowel phonations (/a/, /i/, /u/ as well as narration samples. Results: The correlation dimension measures across the group revealed a significant main effect of the groups indicating correlation dimension increases with increase in age. Conclusions: The application of nonlinear dynamic measures in the assessment of voice is a novel venture and thus this study provides normative data for correlation dimensions in the Indian population for future comparisons against the disordered voice samples. Further studies are warranted to investigate the same in the clinical population. Also other nonlinear dynamic analysis methods need to be investigated to obtain the normative data in the Indian population.

  7. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Träger-Chatterjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture–atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958–2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with

  8. Geographical and biological analysis of the water quality of Moravica spring in the Sokobanjska Moravica drainage basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we performed a geographical analysis of the Moravica spring locality in the Sokobanjska Moravica drainage basin in Serbia, as well as an analysis of the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of the water during a one-year period. The basic sanitary characteristics and physical, chemical, and biological parameters, necessary for understanding locality conditions, were studied, and the saprobity index, class of quality, O/H index, degree of saprobity, degree of trophicity, and category based on the phosphatase activity index (PAI were determined. Our results point to the need for continual monitoring of the water quality in the spring locality.

  9. Genome Analysis of a New Rhodothermaceae Strain Isolated from a Hot Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mau Goh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain, designated RA, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring on Langkawi Island of Malaysia using marine agar. Strain RA is an aerophilic and thermophilic microorganism that grows optimally at 50–60°C and is capable of growing in marine broth containing 1–10% (w/v NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this strain is most closely related (< 90% sequence identity to Rhodothermaceae, which currently comprises of six genera: Rhodothermus (two species, Salinibacter (three species, Salisaeta (one species, Rubricoccus (one species, Rubrivirga (one species, and Longimonas (one species. Notably, analysis of average nucleotide identity values indicated that strain RA may represent the first member of a novel genus of Rhodothermaceae. The draft genome of strain RA is 4,616,094 bp with 3,630 protein-coding gene sequences. Its GC content is 68.3%, which is higher than that of most other genomes of Rhodothermaceae. Strain RA has genes for sulfate permease and arylsulfatase to withstand the high sulfur and sulfate contents of the hot spring. Putative genes encoding proteins involved in adaptation to osmotic stress were identified which encode proteins namely Na+/H+ antiporters, a sodium/solute symporter, a sodium/glutamate symporter, trehalose synthase, malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase, choline-sulfatase, potassium uptake proteins (TrkA and TrkH, osmotically inducible protein C, and the K+ channel histidine kinase KdpD. Furthermore, genome description of strain RA and comparative genome studies in relation to other related genera provide an overview of the uniqueness of this bacterium.

  10. Finite element analysis on the static and fatigue characteristics of composite multi-leaf spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo-teck Jeffrey KUEH; Tarlochan FARIS

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the static and fatigue behaviors of steel and composite multi-leaf spring using the ANSYS V12 software.The dimensions of an existing conventional leaf spring of a light commercial vehicle were used.The same dimensions were used to design composite multi-leaf spring for the two materials,E-glass fiber/epoxy and E-glass fiber/vinyl ester,which are of great interest to the transportation industry.Main consideration was given to the effects of material composition and its fiber orientation on the static and fatigue behaviors of leaf spring.The design constraints were bending stresses,deflection and fatigue life.Compared to the steel leaf spring,the designed composite spring has much lower bending stresses and deflections and higher fatigue life cycles.

  11. Paleoclimate record and paleohydrogeological analysis of travertine from the Niangziguan Karst Springs, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李义连; 王焰新; 邓安力

    2001-01-01

    Travertine deposited around the Niangziguan karst springs was used as a new type of paleoclimate record in this study. Five stages of climate change in northern China from 200± ka to 36± ka before the present (B. P.) were reconstructed using the 18O and 13C isotope record of the travertine. Tendency of the change was towards a more arid climate. Coupling the temporal-spatial evolution of the springs with climate change, the hydrogeological evolution could be divided into four major periods since middle Pleistocene: (1)No spring period; (2)The initial period of spring outcropping as the predominant way of discharge; (3)The culmination period of spring development; and (4)The spring discharge attenuation period. The attenuation is partly related to the decrease of recharge as a result of the dry climate after 90±kaBP.

  12. The construction of HIV/AIDS in Indian newspapers: a frame analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    India has the largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Asia and the second largest in the world after South Africa (UNAIDS, 2004). The Indian media play an important role in the social construction of the HIV/AIDS problem nationally. This article uses grounded theory and the concept of media framing to understand the manner in which Indian newspapers make sense of the HIV/ AIDS problem. Specifically, this analysis focuses on the multiple and often times competing frames and resources used by stakeholders with respect the following topical categories (a) severity of HIV/AIDS in India, (b) causes and solutions, and (c) beliefs about who is at risk. The discussion elaborates on the tensions that emerge within the discursive space with respect to the HIV/AIDS frames.

  13. Comparative analysis of Japanese Just-in-Time Purchasing and Traditional Indian Purchasing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Singh,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Just-in –Time purchasing strategy is being recognized as a corner stone of the Japanese success story. Just-in –Time Purchasing has received an increasing amount of attention throughout the world due to its potential for quality improvement and cost saving. Today many reputed Indian industries have also switched to the Japanese JIT Purchasing concept to improve their product quality and productivity. This paper discusses the major activities of JIT Purchasing and provides a comparative analysis of differences between the JIT urchasing and traditional Indian purchasing systems. In this article the problems encountered in JIT Purchasing implementation and its benefits, the companies benefited in India and other countries are also discussed.

  14. Optimization and Static Stress Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Composite Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Luay Muhammed Ali Ismaeel

    2015-01-01

    A monofiber reinforced composite leaf spring is proposed as an alternative to the typical steel one as it is characterized by high strength-to-weight ratio. Different reinforcing schemes are suggested to fabricate the leaf spring. The composite and the typical steel leaf springs are subjected to the same working conditions. A weight saving of about more than 60% can be achieved while maintaining the strength for the structures under consideration. The objective of the present study was to rep...

  15. Characterization of casein gene complex and genetic diversity analysis in Indian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, P K; Kumar, A; Mandal, A; Laloe, D; Singh, S K; Roy, R

    2010-04-01

    Milk protein polymorphism plays an important role in genetic diversity analysis, phylogenetic studies, establishing geographical diversity, conservation decision, and improving breeding goals. Milk protein polymorphism in Indian goat breeds has not been well studied; therefore, an investigation was carried out to analyze the genetic structure of the casein gene and milk protein diversity at six milk protein loci in nine Indian goat breeds/genetic groups from varied agro-climatic zones. Milk protein genotyping was carried out in 1098 individual milk samples by SDS-PAGE at alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), alphaS2-CN (CSN1S2), kappa-CN (CSN3), beta-LG, and alpha-LA loci. Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-casein A allele in higher frequency in the majority of breeds except Ganjam and local goats. The alphaS1-casein A allele frequencies varied from 0.45 to 0.77. A total of 16 casein haplotypes were observed in seven breeds and breed specific haplotypes were observed with respect to geographic region. The average number of alleles was lowest in Ganjam (1.66 +/- 0.81) and highest in Sirohi goats (2.50 +/- 1.05). Expected heterozygosity at six different loci demonstrated genetic diversity and breed fragmentation. Neighbor-Joining tree was built basing on Nei's distance. There was about 16.95% variability due to differences between breeds, indicating a strong subdivision. Principal component analysis was carried out to highlight the relationship among breeds. The variability among goat breeds was contributed by alphaS2-CN, beta-LG and alphaS1-CN. The Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1) A allele in higher frequency in all the breeds indicating the higher casein yield in their milk.

  16. The determination of paleo-indian territoriality through the exploratory spatial data analysis of paleo-indian fluted points and their lithic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Aagesen, Sonja Angelique

    2010-01-01

    Territories have long been proposed for highly mobile Early Paleo-Indians based on the presence of their distinctive fluted point. However, there has not yet been a systematic spatial and statistical analysis of fluted points and their lithic sources to determine if the territories did exist or if Fluted Point peoples remained ―free wandering‖. By first determining if cultural groups could be inferred from point morphology and then examining the transportation of fluted points away from their...

  17. English for American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  18. Analysis and Prediction of West African Moist Events during the Boreal Spring of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roberto Javier

    Weather and climate in Sahelian West Africa are dominated by two major wind systems, the southwesterly West African Monsoon (WAM) and the northeasterly (Harmattan) trade winds. In addition to the agricultural benefit of the WAM, the public health sector is affected given the relationship between the onset of moisture and end of meningitis outbreaks. Knowledge and prediction of moisture distribution during the boreal spring is vital to the mitigation of meningitis by providing guidance for vaccine dissemination. The goal of the present study is to (a) develop a climatology and conceptual model of the moisture regime during the boreal spring, (b) investigate the role of extra-tropical and Convectively-coupled Equatorial Waves (CCEWs) on the modulation of westward moving synoptic waves and (c) determine the efficacy of a regional model as a tool for predicting moisture variability. Medical reports during 2009, along with continuous meteorological observations at Kano, Nigeria, showed that the advent of high humidity correlated with cessation of the disease. Further analysis of the 2009 boreal spring elucidated the presence of short-term moist events that modulated surface moisture on temporal scales relevant to the health sector. The May moist event (MME) provided insight into interplays among climate anomalies, extra-tropical systems, equatorially trapped waves and westward-propagating synoptic disturbances. The synoptic disturbance initiated 7 May and traveled westward to the coast by 12 May. There was a marked, semi-stationary moist anomaly in the precipitable water field (kg m-2) east of 10°E through late April and early May, that moved westward at the time of the MME. Further inspection revealed a mid-latitude system may have played a role in increasing the latitudinal amplitude of the MME. CCEWs were also found to have an impact on the MME. A coherent Kelvin wave propagated through the region, providing increased monsoonal flow and heightened convection. A

  19. Rapid method of proximate analysis of coals from Indian coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, N.; Paul, S.K. [CFRI, Dhanbad (India)

    2001-07-01

    The proximate analysis has been useful in finding out the percentage of ash in coal, which is the threshold requirement by which the commercial value of coal is adjudged. In the present study, a rapid method for determination of ash percentage in coal has been discussed. Rapid method is always warranted to release more quality parameters within scheduled time. The results obtained by this method were found to be satisfactory and comparable with the results obtained by the British Standard specifications. It is concluded that this method can be effectively adopted where sulphur, carbonates and alkalis are present in low amounts. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Onset of Indian Summer Monsoon: a retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruthi, S.; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    The monsoon onset over Kerala is considered as the beginning of rain fall over India and it is the end of hot summer. Different criteria have been used to define the monsoon onset over Kerala, with the one given by India Meteorological Department taken as the standard criteria. The analysis of the past 20 years of observations shows that the variables during the monsoon onset do not behave in the same way always. The purpose of this paper is to analyses the monsoon onset phases and to find possible reasons behind the variable nature of the monsoon onset. Different meteorological parameters like precipitation, outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), winds, air temperature, and specific humidity at different levels are analyzed for the same. Research has been done on various distinct features of monsoon such as Low Level Jet (LLJ), Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ), monsoon trough, and depressions etc., during the onset phase. The analysis showed that in some years the strength of LLJ is lesser compared to the normal years. It is also seen that in some years the wind flow pattern is different from that observed during a standard onset year. The results of these analyses will be presented in detail in the paper.

  1. An Analysis of Performance of the Indian Textile Industry after Phase of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Goel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the Indian textile industry is one of the most important andvital industry of our economy not only in terms of output but alsoin terms of foreign exchange earnings and employment generation.The Indian textile industry managed to penetrate its roots deep inthe international market but that was in the era when multi-fiberAgreement (MFA was in existence, but now, since 1 January2005, the Multi-fiber Agreement has phased out and India needsto strive harder to sustain its past achievement.MFA is an agreement through which developing countries of theworld were restricted to export their textile products beyond acertain level to the markets of developed nations. Thus, the motivebehind this was to provide a window of opportunity for developedand underdeveloped economies or to save the interest of thedomestic textile industry of the European Union and the US. Nowsince the quota is phased out it is a grand opportunity fordeveloping countries. This development may have a positiveimpact not only on the textile sector of the country but also on theentire economy as a whole. The present research tries to make anattempt to analysis the export performance the Indian textileindustry after the abolition of the multi-fiber Agreement.

  2. Long-term change analysis of satellite-based evapotranspiration over Indian vegetated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Krishna, Akhouri P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, trend of satellite based annual evapotranspiration (ET) and natural forcing factors responsible for this were analyzed. Thirty years (1981-2010) of ET data at 0.08° grid resolution, generated over Indian region from opticalthermal observations from NOAA PAL and MODIS AQUA satellites, were used. Long-term data on gridded (0.5° x 0.5°) annual rainfall (RF), annual mean surface soil moisture (SSM) ERS scatterometer at 25 km resolution and annual mean incoming shortwave radiation from MERRA-2D reanalysis were also analyzed. Mann-Kendall tests were performed with time series data for trend analysis. Mean annual ET loss from Indian ago-ecosystem was found to be almost double (1100 Cubic Km) than Indian forest ecosystem (550 Cubic Km). Rainfed vegetation systems such as forest, rainfed cropland, grassland showed declining ET trend @ - 4.8, -0.6 &-0.4 Cubic Kmyr-1, respectively during 30 years. Irrigated cropland initially showed ET decline upto 1995 @ -0.8 cubic Kmyr-1 which could possibly be due to solar dimming followed by increasing ET @ 0.9 cubic Kmyr-1 after 1995. A cross-over point was detected between forest ET decline and ET increase in irrigated cropland during 2008. During 2001-2010, the four agriculturally important Indian states eastern, central, western and southern showed significantly increasing ET trend with S-score of 15-25 and Z-score of 1.09-2.9. Increasing ET in western and southern states was found to be coupled with increase in annual rainfall and SSM. But in eastern and central states no significant trend in rainfall was observed though significant increase in ET was noticed. The study recommended to investigate the influence of anthropogenic factors such as increase in area under irrigation, increased use of water for irrigation through ground water pumping, change in cropping pattern and cultivars on increasing ET.

  3. Evaluation of Moyer's mixed dentition space analysis in Indian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Kamalshikha; Babaji, Prashant; Ali, Meer J.; Surana, Ashish; Mishra, Samvit; Srivastava, Madhulika

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Tooth size prediction values are not universal for all ethnic and racial groups. The present study evaluated the applicability of Moyer's mixed dentition space analysis in the Marwari community of Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: The mesiodistal dimension of permanent mandibular incisors, maxillary and mandibular canine, and premolars of both sides were measured and averaged in 200 adolescents (100 males and 100 females) of the Marwari population in Rajasthan using digital Vernier caliper. Data were statistically analyzed using Student's t–test. The data were then compared with Moyer's predicted values. The tooth measurements of male and female participants were compared with unpaired t-test. Results: Moyer's prediction chart was not comparable with the study population group. The coefficient of correlation and coefficient of determination in our study was 0.57 and 0.25, respectively. Mesiodistal width of measured teeth was lesser in females compared to males for both canine and premolars (P = 0.471 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion: There was significant statistical difference between values of the present study and Moyer's prediction values. Hence, new regression equation and prediction table can be used to predict mesiodistal dimensions of canine and premolars in Marwari children of Rajasthan. PMID:27891312

  4. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  5. Design, Fabrication, and Analysis of a Hybrid FIBER Composite Monoleaf Spring Using Carbon and E-Glass Fibers for Automotive Suspension Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, M.; Tamilselvam, P.; Kumaravelan, R.; Dharmalingam, R.

    2014-03-01

    The leaf spring is an important component that provides suspension and plays a vital role in automotive applications. As a vehicle travels, a tremendous force, mostly in terms of a fatigue load, is applied to the leaf spring assembly, particularly to the eye point of the rear axle. In a vehicle with rear-wheel drive, the leaf spring is subject to twisting forces that are opposite in direction and magnitude during the acceleration of drive wheels. A multileaf spring provides an additional strength, but lacks the flexibility and increases the overall weight of the vehicle. Considering the loading conditions, the availability of space in a vehicle, and geometrical considerations, a composite monoleaf spring is designed. In due consideration of the tensile behavior, fatigue resistance, chipping resistance, and base part resistance, a hybrid laminated spring is constructed for the purpose. The present study focuses on an analysis and behavior of a monoleaf spring made of hybrid composite materials, i.e., carbon and E-glass fibers. It is observed that the natural frequency of a hybrid composite leaf spring is twice the frequency of a conventional leaf spring, particularly in the vertical direction, which means that the occurrences of resonance will be less. Also, it is observed that the stress produced in it is lower than that in a conventional leaf spring. The hybrid composite monoleaf spring proved to have better impact and tensile behavior than a steel one.

  6. Standing Waves in an Elastic Spring: A Systematic Study by Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniel Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Dias, Marco Adriano

    2017-04-01

    The word "wave" is part of the daily language of every student. However, the physical understanding of the concept demands a high level of abstract thought. In physics, waves are oscillating variations of a physical quantity that involve the transfer of energy from one point to another, without displacement of matter. A wave can be formed by an elastic deformation, a variation of pressure, changes in the intensity of electric or magnetic fields, a propagation of a temperature variation, or other disturbances. Moreover, a wave can be categorized as pulsed or periodic. Most importantly, conditions can be set such that waves interfere with one another, resulting in standing waves. These have many applications in technology, although they are not always readily identified and/or understood by all students. In this work, we use a simple setup including a low-cost constant spring, such as a Slinky, and the free software Tracker for video analysis. We show they can be very useful for the teaching of mechanical wave propagation and the analysis of harmonics in standing waves.

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  8. Explicit nonlinear finite element geometric analysis of parabolic leaf springs under various loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y S; Omar, M Z; Chua, L B; Abdullah, S

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE) method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability.

  9. Explicit Nonlinear Finite Element Geometric Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Springs under Various Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability.

  10. Application of the CO2-PENS risk analysis tool to the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P.H.; Pawar, R.J.; Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Deng, H.; Lettelier, B.C.; Viswanathan, H.S.; Sanzo, D.L.; Keating, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary application of the CO2-PENS performance and risk analysis tool to a planned geologic CO2 sequestration demonstration project in the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU), located in south western Wyoming. We use data from the RSU to populate CO2-PENS, an evolving system-level modeling tool developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tool has been designed to generate performance and risk assessment calculations for the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Our approach follows Systems Analysis logic and includes estimates of uncertainty in model parameters and Monte-Carlo simulations that lead to probabilistic results. Probabilistic results provide decision makers with a range in the likelihood of different outcomes. Herein we present results from a newly implemented approach in CO 2-PENS that captures site-specific spatially coherent details such as topography on the reservoir/cap-rock interface, changes in saturation and pressure during injection, and dip on overlying aquifers that may be impacted by leakage upward through wellbores and faults. We present simulations of CO 2 injection under different uncertainty distributions for hypothetical leaking wells and faults. Although results are preliminary and to be used only for demonstration of the approach, future results of the risk analysis will form the basis for a discussion on methods to reduce uncertainty in the risk calculations. Additionally, we present ideas on using the model to help locate monitoring equipment to detect potential leaks. By maintaining site-specific details in the CO2-PENS analysis we provide a tool that allows more logical presentations to stakeholders in the region. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING IN A DEFENCE SUMO VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Venkatesan; V. C. SATHISH GANDHI; E. JANARTHAN

    2015-01-01

    The composite material has taking place a major role in an automobiles industries. The leaf spring, which is considered for this study is a specially designed leaf spring used in SUMO design by the ordinance factory. The leaf spring which is an automotive component used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of vehicle. It also acts as a structure to support vertical loading due to the weight of the vehicle and payload. In this study the Finite element method is used for analysing ...

  12. Digraph Matrix Analysis for systems interactions at Indian Point Unit 3. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.J.; Prassinos, P.G.; Lappa, D.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Fromme, D.C.; Hershberger, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the Indian Point Plant, Unit 3 (IP-3) for adverse systems interactions using DMA. The primary objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of DMA in finding systems interactions. To this end a parallel study was funded at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The results of this study and the BNL study will then be compared by NRC to the results of a similar study performed by the Power Authority of the State of New York. A secondary objective of this study was to determine systems interactions in selected combinations of safety systems at IP-3. 24 refs., 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Availability of essential trace elements in Ayurvedic Indian medicinal herbs using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N. [Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Specific parts of several plants (fruits, leaves, stem, bark and roots) often used as medicines in the Indian Ayurvedic system have been analysed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Most of the medicinal herbs have been found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. (Author).

  14. Whole mitochondrial genome analysis in South Indian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Bibhuti Ballav; Dubey, Sushil Kumar; Shanmugam, Mahesh Kumar; Sundaresan, Periasamy

    2016-10-28

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) associated neurodegenerative disorder of retinal ganglion cells. In this study, whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 75 LHON patients and 40 controls was performed to identify the mutation frequency and haplogroup background of South Indian population. Analysis of mtDNA revealed 559 different variants in LHON patients, including 7 pathogenic mutations, 30 private, and 22 other disease associated variants. A significantly higher (p=0.0008) overall variation load per individual was noted among LHON patients versus controls. We reported for the first time, the association of M haplogroup (p=0.028) with LHON in this cohort.

  15. 75 FR 57976 - Designation of Service Area for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Designation of Service Area for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs of... Tribes of Warm Springs of Oregon, Warm Springs, Oregon (Warm Springs Tribe) for financial assistance and...: The Warm Springs Tribe submitted to BIA a request with supporting documentation to modify its...

  16. Time-series analysis of ion and isotope geochemistry of selected springs of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, B.F.; Edkins, J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.

    1990-11-01

    The temporal variations of ion and isotope geochemistry were observed at six selected springs on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada and included: Cane, Whiterock, Captain Jack, Topopah, Tippipah, and Oak Springs. The sites were monitored from 1980 to 1982 and the following parameters were measured: temperature, pH, electrical conductance, discharge, cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}), anions Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, silica, stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 13}C), and radioactive isotopes ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C). A more detailed study was continued from 1982 to 1988 at Cane and Whiterock Springs. Field microloggers were installed at these sites in 1985 to measure the high frequency response of temperature, electrical conductance, and discharge to local precipitation. Stage fluctuations near the discharge point dissolve minerals/salts as groundwater inundates the mineralized zone immediately above the equilibrium water table. This phenomena was most noticeable at Whiterock Spring and lagged the discharge response by several hours. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation and groundwater suggests a 1.5 to 2 month travel time for meteoric water to migrate from the recharge area to the discharge point. Groundwater age determinations suggest a mean age of approximately 30 years at Whiterock Spring and possibly older at Cane Spring. However, the short travel time and geochemical integrity of recharge pulses suggest that the waters are poorly mixed along the flow paths. 25 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. METALS DISTRIBUTION AND PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT OF THE DJETINJA RIVER AND DRAGIĆA SPRING (SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA KIURSKI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on total metal concentration (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn in water and sediment of the Djetinja river basin in the area of western Serbia. Samples were collected in spring season. Based on the comparison of the concentrations of all analyzed metals it is possible to differentiate two zo¬nes: zone I (sampling sites 1-4, affected by the discharge of the Dragića spring, and zone II (sites 5-8, affected by the confluence of the Dragića spring with the Djetinja river. The analysis of suspended solid particle size in water as well as in sediment samples was performed in size range 0.02-2000 m and a posi¬tive corelation was found with the concentration of aluminium, zinc, iron and nickel in water samples. The study of particle size and metals distribution through the river basin of the Djetinja was a useful tool for getting information about the distribution degree of the polluting agents, and their possible evolution growth and pollution sources. The research of metals distribution and particle size analysis in water and sediment of the Djetinja river and Dragića spring (Serbia was conducted for the first time.

  18. Trajectory analysis for the nucleus and dust of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Chodas, Paul W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tricarico, Pasquale [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L., E-mail: Davide.Farnocchia@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will experience a high velocity encounter with Mars on 2014 October 19 at a distance of 135,000 km ± 5000 km from the planet center. We present a comprehensive analysis of the trajectory of both the comet nucleus and the dust tail. The nucleus of C/2013 A1 cannot impact on Mars even in the case of unexpectedly large nongravitational perturbations. Furthermore, we compute the required ejection velocities for the dust grains of the tail to reach Mars as a function of particle radius and density and heliocentric distance of the ejection. A comparison between our results and the most current modeling of the ejection velocities suggests that impacts are possible only for millimeter to centimeter size particles released more than 13 AU from the Sun. However, this level of cometary activity that far from the Sun is considered extremely unlikely. The arrival time of these particles spans a 20-minute time interval centered at 2014 October 19 at 20:09 TDB, i.e., around the time that Mars crosses the orbital plane of C/2013 A1. Ejection velocities larger than currently estimated by a factor >2 would allow impacts for smaller particles ejected as close as 3 AU from the Sun. These particles would reach Mars from 19:13 TDB to 20:40 TDB.

  19. STEADY STATE RESPONSE ANALYSIS ON HELICAL SPRING IMPACTED BY SHORT WAVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Chaoxing; WANG Xiulun; WANG Jirong; LIU Dawei

    2006-01-01

    The wave transmission character of helical spring is applied to establish 2-DOF model of impacted vehicle on the wave impact theory. Considering the concrete structure of helical spring,corresponding responses under different impact frequency of the vehicle are imitated. The reason why the vehicle floor overresponds in some special frequency fields is explored based on analyzing the responses. When the impactions are in low frequency, the change of the spring has not been considered, but this does not affect the results. Because the transmission characters of velocity and acceleration are unanimous in helical spring, the responses characters of velocity and acceleration are also unanimous, the only difference is the magnitude, which can make use of acceleration responses to analyse velocity responses.

  20. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  1. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING IN A DEFENCE SUMO VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VENKATESAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The composite material has taking place a major role in an automobiles industries. The leaf spring, which is considered for this study is a specially designed leaf spring used in SUMO design by the ordinance factory. The leaf spring which is an automotive component used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of vehicle. It also acts as a structure to support vertical loading due to the weight of the vehicle and payload. In this study the Finite element method is used for analysing the composite spring for different parameters such us stress, deformation and mode frequencies for three different ratios of epoxy and E fiberglass materials. The composite specimen has been made in the three different ratios of material combination by hand layout moulding technique. The three different samples are 40% epoxy and 60% Efiberglass, 60% epoxy and 40% E-fiberglass, 70% epoxy and 30% E-fiberglass. The experiments were carried out for different test like tensile test, flexural test and hardness test. The experimental results are well within the simulation results and identified that the 40% epoxy and 60% E-fiberg as composite leaf spring is suitable for designing a spring in SUMO vehicle.

  2. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS] has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%, calcifications of falx cerebri (60%, palmar-plantar pits (80%, rib anomalies (80%, macroencephaly (60%, ocular hypertelorism (80%, and frontal bossing (60% in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested.

  3. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  4. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  5. Hemoglobin Constant Spring among Southeast Asian Populations: Haplotypic Heterogeneities and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Jomoui

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS is an abnormal Hb caused by a mutation at the termination codon of α2-globin gene found commonly among Southeast Asian and Chinese people. Association of Hb CS with α°-thalassemia leads to a thalassemia intermedia syndrome commonly encountered in the region. We report chromosome background and addressed genetic origins of Hb CS observed in a large cohort of Hb CS among Southeast Asian populations.A study was done on 102 Vietnamese (aged 15-49 year-old and 40 Laotian (aged 18-39 year-old subjects with Hb CS and results compared with 120 Hb CS genes in Thailand. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis. Hb CS mutation and thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Six DNA polymorphisms within α-globin gene cluster including 5'Xba I, Bgl I, Inter-zeta HVR, AccI, RsaI and αPstI 3', were determined using PCR-RFLP assay.Nine different genotypes of Hb CS were observed. In contrast to the Thai Hb CS alleles which are mostly linked to haplotype (+-S + + -, most of the Vietnamese and the Laotian Hb CS genes were associated with haplotype (+-M + + -, both of which are different from that of the European Hb CS.Hb CS is commonly found in combination with other thalassemias among Southeast Asian populations. Accurate genotyping of the cases requires both hematologic and DNA analyses. At least two independent origins are associated with the Hb CS gene which could indirectly explain the high prevalence of this Hb variant in the region.

  6. Analysis of CCR5 and SDF-1 genetic variants and HIV infection in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Padh, Harish

    2015-08-01

    HIV-1 infection and progression exhibits interindividual variation. The polymorphism in the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, the principal coreceptors for HIV-1 and their ligands like SDF-1 have a profound effect in altering the HIV-1 disease progression rate. A single nucleotide polymorphism designated SDF1-3'UTR-801G-A has been associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection or delayed progression to AIDS. In this study, the SDF1-3'A polymorphism, CCR5∆32 polymorphism and CCR5 promoter polymorphism at positions 58934 G/T, 59029 G/A, 59353 T/C, 59356 C/T, 59402 A/G and 59653 C/T were analysed in Indian population. The polymorphisms in HIV-1 patients and healthy individuals were evaluated by conventional PCR, RFLP-PCR and direct sequencing techniques. The CCR5∆32 mutant allele was found to be almost absent in Indian population. The analysis of the CCR5-59356C/T polymorphism revealed a trend towards an association of the C allele with an increased risk of HIV-1 infection. The frequency of allele CCR5-59356C was higher in HIV-1 patients (100%) as compared to healthy control subjects (89%, P = 0.003). The correlation of SDF1-3'A and CCR5 promoter CCR5-58934G/T, CCR5-59029G/A, CCR5-59353T/C, CCR5-59402 A/G and CCR5-59653C/T polymorphisms and protection to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS was found to be nonsignificant. Nine haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected but were not significant in their protective role against HIV. Comparative analysis with global populations showed a noteworthy difference in CCR5 and SDF-1 polymorphisms' frequency distribution, indicating the ethnic variability of Indians. Although susceptibility to infections cannot be completely dependent on one or few genetic variants, it is important to remember that SDF-1 and CCR5 variants have been correlated globally with HIV-1 infection and disease progression. In the light of that, higher frequency of SDF-1 variants in the Indian population is noteworthy.

  7. Effects of Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis Training on Static and Dynamic Balance in Indian Female Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of dynamic neuromuscular analysis on static and dynamic balance of Indian state level female athletes. It was hypothesized that the training protocol would improve both static and dynamic components of the balance, improving dynamic balance more than static. A total of 43 randomly selected state level female basketball players aged 16 -18 years participated in the study. The subjects were further divided into two groups, viz. Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis (DNA group (n=23 and control group (n = 20. Pre and post static balance was tested to all the subjects by Stork Balance Test (SBT and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS, and dynamic balance was measured by Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. DNA intervention of 90 minutes was given for 6 weeks while the control group followed traditional training. Results showed a significant improvement both in static and dynamic balance (p<0.001. It might be concluded that 6 week DNA training designed for the prevention of ACL injuries could also improve both static and dynamic balance in Indian female basketball players.

  8. Theoretical energy saving analysis of air conditioning system using heat pipe heat exchanger for Indian climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jadhav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX is an excellent device used for heat recovery in air conditioning systems. The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC – Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE India classifies Indian climatic zones into five categories viz., Hot and Dry (e.g. Ahmedabad, Jodhpur etc, Warm and Humid (e.g. Mumbai, Chennai etc, Composite (e.g. Nagpur, Jaipur etc, Cold (e.g. Guwahati etc and Temperate (e.g. Bengaluru etc. The literature review indicated that very limited information is available on annual energy saving analysis of air conditioning system with HPHX for Indian climatic zones. The paper investigates the possible energy savings using HPHX for heat recovery in air conditioning system for Indian climatic zones. The analysis is carried out for total 25 Indian cities representing different climatic zones. The analysis is performed for a 6 row HPHX and assuming outdoor air quantity as 1 m3/s, return air dry bulb temperature as 23 °C and compressor power as 1 kW/TR. This paper discusses the use of HPHX only for the heat recovery application (exchange of sensible heat between fresh outdoor air and conditioned return air. The annual energy savings with HPHX for a particular city is calculated for number of hours when outdoor air dry bulb temperature exceeds 25 °C. The maximum energy saving potential is revealed for hot and dry, warm and humid and composite Indian climatic zones.

  9. Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  10. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  11. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  12. Analysis and Testing of MR Shear Transmission Driven by SMA Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission method of magnetorheological (MR fluid in cylindrical-type driven by shape memory alloy (SMA spring with the thermal effect was proposed. The torque can change rapidly with temperature. Based on the thermal effect of SMA, the expression for displacement of SMA spring was established. The rheological property of MR fluid under the magnetic fields was described by Bingham model. Based on momentum equation, the shear flow of MR fluid between two cylinders was analyzed and the expressions of flow velocity and torque have been obtained. The experimental results show the output displacement of SMA spring and the transmit torque of MR fluid is directly proportional to the temperature and the applied magnetic field, respectively.

  13. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR OF COILED SPRINGS VIA SCREW THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method is presented to describe and analyze the spatial compliance of coiled springs using screw theory.After an abbreviated description for the deformation of a beam element using screw theory, the spatial compliance den-sity for a beam element is derived based on the fundamental material theory and reasonable assumptions, and the spatialcompliance of the beam with finite length is obtained by integral. The spatial compliance of coiled springs is furtheranalyzed using the spatial compliance density of the beam element. By calculating the eigencompliance and Ball's prin-ciple screws for the whole compliance of system, the compliance properties varying with the basic physical parameters ofthe system are illustrated in detail. The basic ideas can be used for the design and application of the coiled springs and theother compliant mechanisms with spatial compliant beam element.

  14. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Quality data in Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, M.; Ye, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon, is part of the longest barrier island complex in the United States, is a region of particular concern to the environmental scientist because of the rapid rate of human development throughout the region and the geographical position in between the colder temperate zone and warmer sub-tropical zone. Thus, the surface water quality analysis in this region always brings the newer information. In this present study, multivariate statistical procedures were applied to analyze the spatial and temporal water quality in the Indian River Lagoon over the period 1998-2013. Twelve parameters have been analyzed on twelve key water monitoring stations in and beside the lagoon on monthly datasets (total of 27,648 observations). The dataset was treated using cluster analysis (CA), principle component analysis (PCA) and non-parametric trend analysis. The CA was used to cluster twelve monitoring stations into four groups, with stations on the similar surrounding characteristics being in the same group. The PCA was then applied to the similar groups to find the important water quality parameters. The principal components (PCs), PC1 to PC5 was considered based on the explained cumulative variances 75% to 85% in each cluster groups. Nutrient species (phosphorus and nitrogen), salinity, specific conductivity and erosion factors (TSS, Turbidity) were major variables involved in the construction of the PCs. Statistical significant positive or negative trends and the abrupt trend shift were detected applying Mann-Kendall trend test and Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK), for each individual stations for the important water quality parameters. Land use land cover change pattern, local anthropogenic activities and extreme climate such as drought might be associated with these trends. This study presents the multivariate statistical assessment in order to get better information about the quality of surface water. Thus, effective pollution control/management of the surface

  15. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of an Amazonian geothermal spring in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sujay Paul; Yolanda Cortez; Nadia Vera; Villena, Gretty K.; Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2016-01-01

    Aguas Calientes (AC) is an isolated geothermal spring located deep into the Amazon rainforest (7°21′12″ S, 75°00′54″ W) of Peru. This geothermal spring is slightly acidic (pH 5.0–7.0) in nature, with temperatures varying from 45 to 90 °C and continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). Pooled water sample was analyzed at 16S rRNA V3–V4 hypervariable region by amplicon metagenome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 2,976,5...

  16. Mean values of Arnett's soft tissue analysis in Maratha ethnic (Indian) population — A cephalometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shikha; Deshmukh, Sonali; Merani, Varsha; Rejintal, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the mean cephalometric values for Arnett's soft tissue analysis in the Maratha ethnic (Indian) population. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 60 patients (30 males and 30 females) aged 18–26 years were obtained with the patients in the Natural Head Position (NHP), with teeth in maximum intercuspation and lips in the rest position. Moreover, hand tracings were also done. The statistical analysis was performed with the help of a statistical software, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16, and Microsoft word and Excel (Microsoft office 2007) were used to generate the analytical data. Results: Statistical significance was tested atP level (1% and 5% level of significance). Statistical analysis using student's unpaired t-test were performed. Various cephalometric values for the Maratha ethnic (Indian) population differed from Caucasian cephalometric values such as nasolabial inclination, incisor proclination, and exposure, which may affect the outcome of the orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. Conclusion: Marathas have more proclined maxillary incisors, less prominent chin, less facial length, acute nasolabial angle, and all soft tissue thickness are greater in Marathas except lower lip thickness (in Maratha males and females) and upper lip angle (in Maratha males) than those of the Caucasian population. It is a fact that all different ethnic races have different facial characters. The variability of the soft tissue integument in people with different ethnic origin makes it necessary to study the soft tissue standards of a particular community and consider those norms when planning an orthodontic and orthognathic treatment for particular racial and ethnic patients. PMID:27583221

  17. Temporal shifts and temperature sensitivity of avian spring migratory phenology: a phylogenetic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Takuji; Butchart, Stuart H M; Phillimore, Albert B

    2017-03-01

    There are wide reports of advances in the timing of spring migration of birds over time and in relation to rising temperatures, though phenological responses vary substantially within and among species. An understanding of the ecological, life-history and geographic variables that predict this intra- and interspecific variation can guide our projections of how populations and species are likely to respond to future climate change. Here, we conduct phylogenetic meta-analyses addressing slope estimates of the timing of avian spring migration regressed on (i) year and (ii) temperature, representing a total of 413 species across five continents. We take into account slope estimation error and examine phylogenetic, ecological and geographic predictors of intra- and interspecific variation. We confirm earlier findings that on average birds have significantly advanced their spring migration time by 2·1 days per decade and 1·2 days °C(-1) . We find that over time and in response to warmer spring conditions, short-distance migrants have advanced spring migratory phenology by more than long-distance migrants. We also find that larger bodied species show greater advance over time compared to smaller bodied species. Our results did not reveal any evidence that interspecific variation in migration response is predictable on the basis of species' habitat or diet. We detected a substantial phylogenetic signal in migration time in response to both year and temperature, suggesting that some of the shifts in migratory phenological response to climate are predictable on the basis of phylogeny. However, we estimate high levels of species and spatial variance relative to phylogenetic variance, which is consistent with plasticity in response to climate evolving fairly rapidly and being more influenced by adaptation to current local climate than by common descent. On average, avian spring migration times have advanced over time and as spring has become warmer. While we are able to

  18. Technology whitespaces India should focus: a comparative anti-cancer patent rational analysis of Indian and international public funded universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    The article reported an in-depth comparative technology analysis of 1708 Anti-cancer patents from top 20 international universities and leading 10 Indian public funded organization and research institutes. The study segregated pioneer universities vs. technologies used in the field of Anticancer research at a level of drug discovery, development, diagnosis and treatment, which are illustrated in the form of novel substantive patent landscape maps. The reported competitive intelligent maps identified genetics, composition and synthetic compounds as dominating technologies; followed by natural extracts, combination and drug delivery systems as upcoming technologies. The least number of patents were reported by surgical apparatus, targeted therapy and animal models. In addition, the study analysed the key technologies followed by Indian universities in comparison to the international universities, to identify the overlooked technologies by the Indian public funded institutes. In an ever changing competitive world, it is essential for every university to have their own research plan and thrust areas; but at the same time, it is equally important for any organisation to have an idea of their competitor's research plan as well. So, the article suggested Indian institutes to focus on the latest emerging Anti-cancer technology trends, which are in practice by the international universities. Concurrently, this study may be a landmark indication for Indian public funded universities and institutes, calling for a U-turn from their traditional approaches.

  19. Pedagogy and Quality in Indian Slum School Settings: A Bernsteinian Analysis of Visual Representations in the Integrated Child Development Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla-Duggan, Rita

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the micro level of the pre-school classroom, taking the example of the Indian Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), and the discourse of "child-centred" pedagogy that is often associated with quality pre-schooling. Through an analysis of visual data, semi-structured and film elicitation interviews drawn…

  20. Multilocus sequence analysis of Thermoanaerobacter isolates reveals recombining, but differentiated, populations from geothermal springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isaac D.; Varghese, Litty B.; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wiegel, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Thermal environments have island-like characteristics and provide a unique opportunity to study population structure and diversity patterns of microbial taxa inhabiting these sites. Strains having ≥98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the obligately anaerobic Firmicutes Thermoanaerobacter uzonensis were isolated from seven geothermal springs, separated by up to 1600 m, within the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka, Russian Far East). The intraspecies variation and spatial patterns of diversity for this taxon were assessed by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 106 strains. Analysis of eight protein-coding loci (gyrB, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, recG, rplB, and rpoB) revealed that all loci were polymorphic and that nucleotide substitutions were mostly synonymous. There were 148 variable nucleotide sites across 8003 bp concatenates of the protein-coding loci. While pairwise FST values indicated a small but significant level of genetic differentiation between most subpopulations, there was a negligible relationship between genetic divergence and spatial separation. Strains with the same allelic profile were only isolated from the same hot spring, occasionally from consecutive years, and single locus variant (SLV) sequence types were usually derived from the same spring. While recombination occurred, there was an “epidemic” population structure in which a particular T. uzonensis sequence type rose in frequency relative to the rest of the population. These results demonstrate spatial diversity patterns for an anaerobic bacterial species in a relative small geographic location and reinforce the view that terrestrial geothermal springs are excellent places to look for biogeographic diversity patterns regardless of the involved distances. PMID:23801987

  1. Comparative Analysis of Two Industries for Validating Green Manufacturing (GM) Framework: An Indian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Minhaj Ahemad Abdul; Shrivastava, Rakesh Lakshmikumar; Shrivastava, Rashmi Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    Green Manufacturing (GM) deals with manufacturing practices that reduces or eliminates the adverse environmental impact during any of its phases. It emphasizes the use of processes that do not contaminate the environment or hurt consumers, employees, or other stakeholders. This paper presents the comparative analysis of two Indian industries representing different sectors for validating GM framework. It also highlights the road map of the companies for achieving performance improvement through GM implementation and its impact on organisational performance. The case studies helps in evaluating the companies GM implementation and overall business performance. For this, a developed diagnostic instrument in the form of questionnaire was administered amongst employees in the companies respectively and their responses were analysed. In order to have a better understanding of the impact of GM implementation, the information about overall business performance was obtained over the last 3 years. The diagnostic instrument developed here may be used by manufacturing organisations to prioritise their management efforts to assess and implement GM.

  2. Critical Analysis of Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System Fixed Dose Combinations Available in Indian Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Krunal; Shah, Samidh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) are being increasingly used to improve compliance and achieve greater benefits of the two or more active ingredients given together than the corresponding individual drug components given separately. Aim To analyse the rationality of Cardiovascular (CV) and Central Nervous System (CNS) FDCs available in Indian market. Materials and Methods CVS and CNS FDCs, enlisted in Indian Drug Review, 2014, were analysed by a pretested validated eight point criteria tool. Each FDC was assessed for number of active pharmacological ingredients, approval by regulatory authority, listing in WHO Essential Medicine List. While efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic interactions and advantages of each FDC were analysed by literature search. The total score of the tool was 12 and score ≥7 was considered rational. FDCs were divided in four groups as per rationality and DCGI approval. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and p45 belonged to CNS group and 40 had documented evidence of efficacy and safety. Majority of FDCs showed advantage of being convenient by reducing pill count and only 32 showed reducing adverse drug reactions. Out of 107 CV FDCs, 46 were rational and 61 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.72±2.82 (CI– 95 %, 3.90 - 9.54). While out of 45 CNS FDCs, 8 were rational and 37 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.22±2.08 (CI – 95 %, 4.14 - 8.30). A significant difference in mean rationality score of group A (DCGI approved + rational) was observed as compared to group B (DCGI approved + irrational) and group C (DCGI unapproved + rational) as compared to group D (DCGI unapproved + irrational) (p<0.05). Conclusion The absence of watertight pre-requisite, critical analysis of the scientific validity of the formulations and ‘convenience’ category has resulted into proliferation of irrational FDCs. This calls for strict regulatory approval process to avoid miserable FDC scenario in

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of combination therapies for visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Meheus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic parasitic disease that is fatal unless treated. We assessed the cost and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. In particular we examined whether combination therapies are a cost-effective alternative compared to monotherapies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of all possible mono- and combination therapies for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent (India, Nepal and Bangladesh from a societal perspective using a decision analytical model based on a decision tree. Primary data collected in each country was combined with data from the literature and an expert poll (Delphi method. The cost per patient treated and average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios expressed as cost per death averted were calculated. Extensive sensitivity analysis was done to evaluate the robustness of our estimations and conclusions. With a cost of US$92 per death averted, the combination miltefosine-paromomycin was the most cost-effective treatment strategy. The next best alternative was a combination of liposomal amphotericin B with paromomycin with an incremental cost-effectiveness of $652 per death averted. All other strategies were dominated with the exception of a single dose of 10mg per kg of liposomal amphotericin B. While strategies based on liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome were found to be the most effective, its current drug cost of US$20 per vial resulted in a higher average cost-effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis showed the conclusion to be robust to variations in the input parameters over their plausible range. CONCLUSIONS: Combination treatments are a cost-effective alternative to current monotherapy for VL. Given their expected impact on the emergence of drug resistance, a switch to combination therapy should be considered once final results from clinical trials are

  4. Foreign exchange risk management by Indian IT companies:an empirical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Mukund; Sharma; V.Prabhu; Dev

    2008-01-01

    The increased volatility in the foreign exchange market in recent years has increased the foreign exchange risk faced by companies worldwide. This phenomenon holds good in the Indian context also. This paper tries to report on the foreign exchange risk-management practices among Indian IT (information technology) companies. The results are consistent with expectations that foreign exchange risks faced by Indian IT companies is very high especially in the light of the recent appreciation of the rupee against...

  5. Indian Writers and Indian Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of popular Indian stereotypes and counter-stereotypes in literature, based on the thesis that the introduction of the literature of the American Indian, traditional and modern, will help to increase the Indian child's pride in his culture and add to the understanding of the non-Indian child. (EH)

  6. Quantitative descriptive analysis and principal component analysis for sensory characterization of Indian milk product cham-cham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ritika; Khamrui, Kaushik; Khetra, Yogesh; Malhotra, Ravinder; Devraja, H C

    2016-02-01

    Promising development and expansion in the market of cham-cham, a traditional Indian dairy product is expected in the coming future with the organized production of this milk product by some large dairies. The objective of this study was to document the extent of variation in sensory properties of market samples of cham-cham collected from four different locations known for their excellence in cham-cham production and to find out the attributes that govern much of variation in sensory scores of this product using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and principal component analysis (PCA). QDA revealed significant (p quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring attributes of cham-cham that contribute most to its sensory acceptability.

  7. Associations of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in Indian women: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Singian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reported associations of CYP1A1 polymorphisms with breast cancer have been inconsistent. In this meta-analysis examining breast cancer associations of three CYP1A1 polymorphisms (M1, M2 and M4 among Indian women may yield information that may be of clinical and epidemiological use for this particular demography. We searched MEDLINE using PubMed and Embase for association studies. From seven published case-control studies, we estimated overall associations and applied subgroup analysis to explore differential effects. All three polymorphisms exhibited overall increased risk, significant in M1 (OR 1.61-1.65, p = 0.04 and M4 (OR 2.02-3.92, p = 0.02-0.04. Differential effects were observed only in the M1 polymorphism where M1 effects were significant in South Indians (OR 2.20-4.34, p < 0.0001 but not the North population, who were at reduced risk (OR 0.64-0.77, p = 0.03-0.55. These populations were not materially different in regard to M2 and M4 as did the women stratified by menopausal status. In this meta-analysis, M1 and M4 effects may render Indian women susceptible, but may be limited by heterogeneity of the studies. Differential effects of the M1 polymorphism in breast cancer render South Indians susceptible compared to those in the North.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling and Analysis of Torsional Spring-Loaded Antibacklash Gear with Time-Varying Meshing Stiffness and Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsional spring-loaded antibacklash gear which can improve the transmission precision is widely used in many precision transmission fields. It is very important to investigate the dynamic characteristics of antibacklash gear. In the paper, applied force analysis is completed in detail. Then, defining the starting point of double-gear meshing as initial position, according to the meshing characteristic of antibacklash gear, single- or double-tooth meshing states of two gear pairs and the transformation relationship at any moment are determined. Based on this, a nonlinear model of antibacklash gear with time-varying friction and meshing stiffness is proposed. The influences of friction and variations of torsional spring stiffness, damping ratio and preload on dynamic transmission error (DTE are analyzed by numerical calculation and simulation, and the results show that antibacklash gear can increase the composite meshing stiffness; when the torsional spring stiffness is large enough, the oscillating components of the DTE (ODTE and the RMS of the DTE (RDTE trend to be a constant value; the variations of ODTE and RDTE are not significant, unless preload exceeds a certain value.

  9. Determination of sex by discriminant function analysis of mandibles from a Central Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchankumar P Wankhede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Identification of sex from skeletal remains is one of the important forensic considerations. Discriminant function analysis is increasingly used to determine the sex from skeleton. Aims: To develop discriminant function to determine sex from mandible in a Central Indian population. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study done at the Department of Anatomy. Materials and Methods: The mandibles used in the present study were from the museum specimens. Only 82 adult mandibles (55 male and 27 female that had been preserved were selected. Ten mandibular parameters were measured. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows, version 16. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Using stepwise discriminant function analysis, only six variables were selected as the best discriminant between sexes, with the projection length of corpus mandibulae being the most dimorphic. It was observed that sex classification accuracy of the discriminant functions ranged from 57.3 to 80.5% for the individual variables, 81.7% for the stepwise method, and 85.4% for the direct method. Conclusion: The results of the study show that mandibles can be used for determining sex and the results are comparable with other similar studies. The studied mandibular variables showed sexual dimorphism with an accuracy comparable with other skeletal remains, next to cranium and pelvis.

  10. SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR: A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN THE NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita Sikka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bones are an important tool for establishing the biological profile of an individual. In the absence of skull and pelvis, long bones can play a major role in determining the sex. Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body and resists environmental effects and hence becomes important in medico-legal investigations. AIMS To determine the sex of 180 femora and to set up baseline parameters for the North Indian population with the help of demarcating and limiting values. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven parameters were studied in 180 femora to determine their sex. Mean and standard deviation were calculated. They were analysed using student ‘t’ test, Hotelling T2 square test for multivariate analysis and discriminant function analysis. Also, demarcating and limiting values were calculated for each parameter. RESULTS The difference between males and females for all parameters was highly significant. Males showed higher values as compared to females. By multivariate analysis also, p value was less than 0.001. We could correctly classify 90% bones using discriminant function analysis. CONCLUSION Femur exhibits significant sexual dimorphism. Different populations require their own standards of sex determination. The accuracy of classification increases with increase in number of parameters

  11. Design and Stability Analysis of a 3D Rimless Wheel with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazuo

    A two-dimensional rimless wheel provides a simple model of bipedal walking. The motion of the rimless wheel is stable, and this particular property has clarified the fundamental role of a swing leg in planar bipedal walking that addresses the problem of falling forward. In this paper, a three-dimensional rimless wheel is investigated as a simple model of three-dimensional bipedal walking. The 3D rimless wheel model is useful in understanding the essential dynamics of 3D bipedal locomotion. The model consists of two rimless wheels connected by a link at the center of the wheels, and flat feet connected to the spokes with springs. The first numerical stability studies indicated that the motion of the 3D rimless wheel could be unstable; however, numerical simulations and experimental results showed that for a given slope and physical parameters, including the spring constant at the ankles, a stable motion is obtained. This indicates the usefulness of ankle springs in providing stable bipedal locomotion in three-dimensions.

  12. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  13. Analysis of Aeromagnetic data of the NE region of the Indian sub-continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, M.; S. P, A.

    2007-12-01

    The NE region of the Indian subcontinent is a very interesting place for geodynamic and tectonic studies due to the collision of the Indian plate with the Himalayas in the North and with Myanmar in the East. Some of these areas are difficult to access due to the high topography and air borne surveys help map the region efficiently. Further, the NE region including areas of Assam and Bangladesh are drained by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers that bring thick sediments with them giving rise to the Bengal Fan that has sediments of up to 20 km in some regions and these mask the underlying crust and pose severe restrictions in constructing the geodynamical history of the region. Geopotential data offer the unique opportunity of addressing some of these issues. We utilize available / published aeromagnetic maps over Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Chachar, parts of North Assam, Brahmaputra valley, Manipur and Nagaland in the North Eastern region of India for understanding the complexities of the tectonics of the Indian sub-continent. All available data are reduced to a common altitude to prepare a composite magnetic anomaly map of the region. We also look at the Grace and Bouguer / isostatic gravity maps of the region; the highest isostatic gravity anomaly of the Indian region lies over Meghalaya with a trough in Sylhet (Bangladesh) to its south. The Eocene hinge zone is a 25-km wide northeast-southwest zone that separates the Precambrian platform in the northwest from the geosynclinal basin to the southeast of Bangladesh. We find that the Hinge Zone in Bangladesh and part of the Dauki fault form a strong divide such that the gravity anomalies and aeromagnetic anomalies show high frequency anomalies to the north of this divide and also most of the magnetic sources as seen from the analytic signal are concentrated to the north and the Euler solutions give shallow solutions to the north and deep solutions to the south of this divide. The tilt derivative of the aeromagnetic data

  14. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  15. Hantavirus in Indian Country: The First Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Hantavirus, caused due to close contact with mice in a dwelling, first emerged in the spring of 1993 on the Navajo Reservation and although it is by no means an Indian disease, there are four times as many cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) among non-Indians. Inadequate rural housing, especially common in western Indian Country,…

  16. Functional analysis of normalized difference vegetation index curves reveals overwinter mule deer survival is driven by both spring and autumn phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Mark A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Dray, Stéphane; Taylor, Kyle A; Smith, W K; Zager, Pete; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Large herbivore populations respond strongly to remotely sensed measures of primary productivity. Whereas most studies in seasonal environments have focused on the effects of spring plant phenology on juvenile survival, recent studies demonstrated that autumn nutrition also plays a crucial role. We tested for both direct and indirect (through body mass) effects of spring and autumn phenology on winter survival of 2315 mule deer fawns across a wide range of environmental conditions in Idaho, USA. We first performed a functional analysis that identified spring and autumn as the key periods for structuring the among-population and among-year variation of primary production (approximated from 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) along the growing season. A path analysis showed that early winter precipitation and direct and indirect effects of spring and autumn NDVI functional components accounted for 45% of observed variation in overwinter survival. The effect size of autumn phenology on body mass was about twice that of spring phenology, while direct effects of phenology on survival were similar between spring and autumn. We demonstrate that the effects of plant phenology vary across ecosystems, and that in semi-arid systems, autumn may be more important than spring for overwinter survival.

  17. Application of Factor Analysis on the Financial Ratios of Indian Cement Industry and Validation of the Results by Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Chakraborty, B. N.

    2010-10-01

    Financial ratio analysis is an important and commonly used tool in analyzing financial health of a firm. Quite a large number of financial ratios, which can be categorized in different groups, are used for this analysis. However, to reduce number of ratios to be used for financial analysis and regrouping them into different groups on basis of empirical evidence, Factor Analysis technique is being used successfully by different researches during the last three decades. In this study Factor Analysis has been applied over audited financial data of Indian cement companies for a period of 10 years. The sample companies are listed on the Stock Exchange India (BSE and NSE). Factor Analysis, conducted over 44 variables (financial ratios) grouped in 7 categories, resulted in 11 underlying categories (factors). Each factor is named in an appropriate manner considering the factor loads and constituent variables (ratios). Representative ratios are identified for each such factor. To validate the results of Factor Analysis and to reach final conclusion regarding the representative ratios, Cluster Analysis had been performed.

  18. The 2007 North Atlantic spring bloom in operational analysis from the TOPAZ system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samuelsen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A reanalysis of the North Atlantic spring bloom in 2007 was produced using the real-time analyses from the TOPAZ (Towards an Operational Prediction system for the North Atlantic European coastal Zones North Atlantic and Arctic forecasting system. The TOPAZ system uses a hybrid coordinate general circulation ocean model and assimilates physical observations: sea surface anomalies, sea surface temperatures, and sea-ice concentrations using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. This ocean model was coupled to an ecosystem model, NORWECOM (Norwegian Ecological Model System, and the TOPAZ-NORWECOM coupled model was run throughout the spring and summer of 2007. The ecosystem model was run online, restarting from analyzed physical fields (result after data assimilation every 7 days. Biological variables were not assimilated in the model. The forecast was compared to remotely sensed chlorophyll and in-situ data. The impact of physical data assimilation on the ecosystem model was determined by comparing the results to those from a model without assimilation of physical data. The regions of focus are the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The results show that the model reproduces a realistic annual cycle, but the chlorophyll concentrations tend to be too low during winter and spring and too high during summer. Surface nutrients on the other hand are generally too low throughout the year. Assimilation of physical variables does not affect the results from the ecosystem model significantly. The differences between the weekly mean values of chlorophyll are normally within 5–10% during the summer months, and the maximum difference of ~20% occurs in the Arctic, also during summer. Special attention was paid to the nutrient input from the North Atlantic to the Nordic Seas and the impact of ice-assimilation on the ecosystem. The ice-assimilation increased the phytoplankton concentration: because there was less ice in the assimilation run, this increased both the

  19. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial and archaeal assemblages in the soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Bhatia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil-mousse surrounding a geothermal spring was analyzed for bacterial and archaeal diversity using 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing which revealed the presence of 18 bacterial phyla distributed across 109 families and 219 genera. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and the Deinococcus-Thermus group were the predominant bacterial assemblages with Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota as the main archaeal assemblages in this largely understudied geothermal habitat. Several metagenome sequences remained taxonomically unassigned suggesting the presence of a repertoire of hitherto undescribed microbes in this geothermal soil-mousse econiche.

  20. Design, Development and Scaling Analysis of a Variable Stiffness Magnetic Torsion Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Sudano

    2013-10-01

    simulations have been computed parameterizing the geometry and the number of pole pairs of the magnets.The maximum torque density reached for one pole pair is 47.21 · 103 N m m−3 , whereas for a fixed geometry similar to that of the developed prototype, the maximum torque is reached for seven pole pairs. Overall, compared to mechanical springs, MAVERIC has no fatigue or overloading issues. Compared to other magnetic couplers, torsion stiffness can be varied continuously from a maximum value down to exactly zero, when the device acts as a disengaged clutch, disconnecting the load from the actuator.

  1. Comparative analysis of electrical and hot water actuation of shape memory alloy spring using thermo-mechanical cycle test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tameshwar Nath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal design and analysis of hot water actuated shape memory alloy spring is presented. Smart materials exhibit special properties that make them a preferred choice for industrial applications in many branches of engineering. The serviceable properties of a Ni-Ti piece can be improved by altering the energy source. With hot water actuation, as the temperature reaches 70 °C - 90 °C, spring gets fully compressed for the first few cycles followed by loss in actuation. The actuation loss is then studied with different characterisation methods such as thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. With SEM results, it can be strongly recommended that the energy source is sufficient for actuation (not affecting too much the structure. Results observed from TGA shows high oxygen content at lower temperature, suggest the need of conducting experiments in inert atmosphere. For the validation of hot water actuation, comparative analysis between electrical and hot water actuation is done. Graph shows that, there is a good agreement between both the methods. In addition to this, the application of hot water actuation is some micro-devices like micro-valve, drug delivery, directional control valve, also in engine in place of thermostat valve etc.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene of canine parvovirus and comparison with Indian and world isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, G; Chandra, M; Dwivedi, P N

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) causes hemorrhagic enteritis, especially in young dogs, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has four main antigenic types CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Virus protein 2 (VP2) is the main capsid protein and mutations affecting VP2 gene are responsible for the evolution of various antigenic types of CPV. Full length VP2 gene from field isolates was amplified and cloned for sequence analysis. The sequences were submitted to the GenBank and were assigned Acc. Nos., viz. KP406928.1 for P12, KP406927.1 for P15, KP406930.1 for P32, KP406926.1 for Megavac-6 and KP406929.1 for NobivacDHPPi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the samples were forming a separate clad with vaccine strains. When the samples were compared with the world and Indian isolates, it was observed that samples formed a separate node indicating regional genetic variation in CPV.

  3. Ingredients and Process Standardization of Thepla: An Indian Unleavened Vegetable Flatbread using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Arya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thepla is an Indian unleavened flatbread made from whole-wheat flour with added spices and vegetables. It is particularly consumed in western zone of the India. The preparation of thepla is tedious, time consuming and requires skill. In the present study standardization of thepla ingredients were carried out by standardizing each ingredient on the basis of Overall Acceptability (OA score. Sensory analysis was carried out using nine-point hedonic rating scale with ten trained panellists. Standardized ingredients of thepla were: salt 3%, red chili powder 2.5%, fenugreek leaves 12%, cumin seed powder 0.6%, coriander seed powder 0.6%, ginger garlic paste (1:1 6%, asafoetida 0.6% and oil 3% w/w of whole wheat flour on the basis of highest sensory OA score. Further thepla process parameters such as time, temperature, diameter of thepla and weight of dough were standardized on the basis of sensory OA score. Obtained sensory score data was processed for Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA.

  4. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Multi-drug Resistance in Indian Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman Siddiqi

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 116 isolates from patients attending the out-patient department at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and the New Delhi Tuberculosis Centre, New Delhi, India were collected. They were analyzed for resistance to drugs prescribed in the treatment for tuberculosis. The drug resistance was initially determined by microbiological techniques. The Bactec 460TB system was employed to determine the type and level of resistance in each isolate. The isolates were further characterized at molecular level. The multi-drug loci corresponding to rpo b, gyr A, kat G were studied for mutation(s by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP technique. The SSCP positive samples were sequenced to characterize the mutations in rpo b, and gyr A loci. While previously reported mutations in the gyr A and rpo b loci were found to be present, several novel mutations were also scored in the rpo b locus. Interestingly, analysis of the gyr A locus showed the presence of point mutation(s that could not be detected by PCR-SSCP. Furthermore, rifampicin resistance was found to be an important marker for checking multi-drug resistance (MDR in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is the first report on molecular genetic analysis of MDR tuberculosis one from India, highlights the increasing incidence of MDR in the Indian isolates of M. tuberculosis.

  5. Perceived Costs and Benefits of IFRS Adoption of Cross-Border Mergers: A Statistical Analysis of Indian and Chinese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the links between IFRS adoption status, mergers tempo, and perception of IFRS costs and benefits among Indian and Chinese companies. As more capital accrues in India and China, more cross-border mergers activity initiated from these countries should be expected. This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the results related the adaption of IFRS in India and China. During the analyses around 2 authors‘ books were related to this paper. During the study it was focused to collect information observation through published academic books and articles. Some questions raised by the increased tempo of cross-border mergers activity are as follows: (a What are the differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? (b What are the differences between IFRS adopters and IFRS non-adopters in perceptions of IFRS costs and benefits? This study identified some significant differences between Indian and Chinese companies‘ perceived IFRS costs and benefits, centering on the role that management accounting played for Chinese companies. Additionally, there were significant differences between how IFRS adopters and non-adopters perceived IFRS in terms of statement simplification, global credibility, and investor attractiveness. This study provides a statistical analysis for the IFRS adaption process of Indian and Chinese companies for the crossborder merger actions.

  6. Raman and SEM analysis of a biocolonised hot spring travertine terrace in Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Villar Susana E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A profile across 8 layers from a fossil travertine terrace from a low temperature geothermal spring located in Svalbard, Norway has been studied using both Raman spectroscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques to identify minerals and organic life signals. Results Calcite, anatase, quartz, haematite, magnetite and graphite as well as scytonemin, three different carotenoids, chlorophyll and a chlorophyll-like compound were identified as geo- and biosignatures respectively, using 785 and/or 514 nm Raman laser excitation wavelengths. No morphological biosignatures representing remnant microbial signals were detected by high-resolution imaging, although spectral analyses indicated the presence of organics. In contrast, in all layers, Raman spectra identified a series of different organic pigments indicating little to no degradation or change of the organic signatures and thus indicating the preservation of fossil biomarker compounds throughout the life time of the springs despite the lack of remnant morphological indicators. Conclusion With a view towards planetary exploration we discuss the implications of the differences in Raman band intensities observed when spectra were collected with the different laser excitations. We show that these differences, as well as the different detection capability of the 785 and 514 nm laser, could lead to ambiguous compound identification. We show that the identification of bio and geosignatures, as well as fossil organic pigments, using Raman spectroscopy is possible. These results are relevant since both lasers have been considered for miniaturized Raman spectrometers for planetary exploration.

  7. Principal component analysis of cardiovascular risk traits in three generations cohort among Indian Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddoza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study focused to determine significant cardiovascular risk factors through principal component factor analysis (PCFA among three generations on 1827 individuals in three generations including 911 males (378 from offspring, 439 from parental and 94 from grand-parental generations and 916 females (261 from offspring, 515 from parental and 140 from grandparental generations. The study performed PCFA with orthogonal rotation to reduce 12 inter-correlated variables into groups of independent factors. The factors have been identified as 2 for male grandparents, 3 for male offspring, female parents and female grandparents each, 4 for male parents and 5 for female offspring. This data reduction method identified these factors that explained 72%, 84%, 79%, 69%, 70% and 73% for male and female offspring, male and female parents and male and female grandparents respectively, of the variations in original quantitative traits. The factor 1 accounting for the largest portion of variations was strongly loaded with factors related to obesity (body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist to hip ratio (WHR, and thickness of skinfolds among all generations with both sexes, which has been known to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The second largest components, factor 2 and factor 3 for almost all generations reflected traits of blood pressure phenotypes loaded, however, in male offspring generation it was observed that factor 2 was loaded with blood pressure phenotypes as well as obesity. This study not only confirmed but also extended prior work by developing a cumulative risk scale from factor scores. Till today, such a cumulative and extensive scale has not been used in any Indian studies with individuals of three generations. These findings and study highlight the importance of global approach for assessing the risk and need for studies that elucidate how these different cardiovascular risk factors

  8. Secular spring rainfall variability at local scale over Ethiopia: trend and associated dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu

    2016-07-01

    Spring rainfall secular variability is studied using observations, reanalysis, and model simulations. The joint coherent spatio-temporal secular variability of gridded monthly gauge rainfall over Ethiopia, ERA-Interim atmospheric variables and sea surface temperature (SST) from Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) data set is extracted using multi-taper method singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD). The contemporaneous associations are further examined using partial Granger causality to determine presence of causal linkage between any of the climate variables. This analysis reveals that only the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly has direct causal links with spring rainfall over Ethiopia and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) over Africa inspite of the strong secular covariance of spring rainfall, SST in parts of subtropical Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean and MSLP. High secular rainfall variance and statistically significant linear trend show consistently that there is a massive decline in spring rain over southern Ethiopia. This happened concurrently with significant buildup of MSLP over East Africa, northeastern Africa including parts of the Arabian Peninsula, some parts of central Africa and SST warming over all ocean basins with the exception of the ENSO regions. The east-west pressure gradient in response to the Indian Ocean warming led to secular southeasterly winds over the Arabian Sea, easterly over central Africa and equatorial Atlantic. These flows weakened climatological northeasterly flow over the Arabian Sea and southwesterly flow over equatorial Atlantic and Congo basins which supply moisture into the eastern Africa regions in spring. The secular divergent flow at low level is concurrent with upper level convergence due to the easterly secular anomalous flow. The mechanisms through which the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly modulates rainfall are further explored in the context of East Africa using a simplified atmospheric

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented

  10. Genetic relationships among five nemipterid fish species from the Indian coast using allozyme analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Arolkar, U.; Rathod, V.

    Based on Nei's genetic distance Nemipterus peronii and N. japonicus showed a greater affinity to Parascolopsis aspinosa than to the other Nemipterus species studied. Significant differences between the Indian west and east coast samples of N...

  11. Identification of novel positive-strand RNA viruses by metagenomic analysis of archaea-dominated Yellowstone hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Shaughnessy, Daniel P; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V; Roberto, Francisco F; Young, Mark

    2012-05-01

    There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes.

  12. Indian IT industry: a performance analysis and a model for possible adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Somesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    India's software and services exports have been rising rapidly. The annual growth rate ranges between 20 -22% in IT services and nearly 55 % in IT-enabled services (ITES), such as call centres, Business Process Outsourcing ( BPO) and other administrative support operations. Together they are predicted to grow at 25% pa till 2010.The IT industry is highly export oriented and the exporters are predominantly Indian. The Indian BPOs (ITES) are moving up the value chain, handling high end data for...

  13. From Porcupine to Tiger : An Analysis of Discourses and Changes in Indian Climate Politics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Indian climate politics have changed since 2007. Climate change has gone from being merely a foreign policy issue to being a concern for national policy-making. Consequently, India launched the National Action Plan on Climate Change in 2008, and a voluntary carbon intensity target in 2009. This thesis, based on interviews with key actors in the national climate debate and policy-making in India, presents three discourses about Indian climate politics: the Third World discourse, the Win-Win di...

  14. Filed and granted Indian Patents in dentistry from 2005-2009: A critical analysis and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Contribution from Indian Nationals as inventors for patents in the field of Dentistry is limited, thus reducing the pace of progress and development. Indian inventors in the field of Dentistry have to go a long way to compete with the fellow mates of developed countries like USA and Europe. Continuing Dental Education programs on Intellectual property rights should be conducted on regular basis especially for Dentist′s involved in research.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals three stocks of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.M.

    is yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (YFT), distributed globally in areas of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean having surface temperature above 18° C (Collette and Nauen 1983). Globally, YFT contributes approximately 27 % of all tuna catches, making... it second largest among principal market tunas (FAO, 2012). Similarly, they are the most dominant species among larger pelagic fishes and contribute approximately 19% of all tuna catches in Indian waters (Vijayakumaran and Verghese 2010). The key...

  16. Morphometric analysis of the cervical spine of Indian population by using computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Banerjee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to measure the surgically important morphological parameters of cervical spine region of a representative sample of Indian population from the images obtained through computerized tomography (CT. Another purpose has been to compare the computed statistical mean, standard deviation and range of variation of these data with those of other Asian population and also European/American populations. With that aim, ninety five (95 CT scan data of Indian people (73 for male patients and 22 for female patients pertaining to undeformed normal cervical spine has been collected from an Indian hospital. From these, 15 important morphological parameters have been measured. These values have been tabulated and their mean, standard deviation and range of variation have been computed. It has been found that pedicle dimensions of Indian people are smaller at almost all vertebra levels as compared to Caucasian people. Pedicle axis length for Indian people are found to be smaller at C3, C4 and C5 levels than those for other Asian people including Chinese people, but it is bigger at C6 and C7 levels. Indian people have longer measurements of pedicle length + lateral mass on an average than their other Asian counterparts at C5, C6 and C7 levels, but shorter measurements at C3 and C4 levels. The results of the present work may help in better understanding of morphological parameters of cervical spine region of Indian population. It may be further useful in designing spinal implants which would be biomechanically compatible to the anatomy of Indian people.

  17. Vibrational Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Material for Automobile Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabhakaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The composites have found extensive application in various fields. The aim of this work is to analyze the mechanical properties and damping effect of the laminates of the composites. The vibration in the composite material that to be used in the application of automobiles for the purpose of leaf spring has to be reduced. So the damping capacity of the composites was found out. Also the tensile and impact properties were studied using existing ASTM standard testing procedures and the results are reported. Based on the experimental study, it is observed that the tensile and impact strength are similar to that of steel. After studying the tensile strength, impact strength, damping capacity and water absorption of the composite, it is useful in suggesting the different types of composites, may be hybrid or may be with uni-directional fiber or with some other fibers, so that the required mechanical properties is achieved.

  18. Analysis of Foot Slippage Effects on an Actuated Spring-mass Model of Dynamic Legged Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhar Or

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP and its extensions have been widely accepted as a simple description of dynamic legged locomotion at various scales in humans, legged robots and animals. Similar to the majority of models in the literature, the SLIP model assumes ideal sticking contact of the foot. However, there are practical scenarios of low ground friction that causes foot slippage, which can have a significant influence on dynamic behaviour. In this work, an extension of the SLIP model with two masses and torque actuation is considered, which accounts for possible slippage under Coulomb’s friction law. The hybrid dynamics of this model is formulated and numerical simulations under representative parameter values reveal several types of stable periodic solutions with stick slip transitions. Remarkably, it is found that slippage due to low friction can sometimes increase average speed and improve energetic efficiency by significantly reducing the mechanical cost of transport.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of selected Indian folk medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen. H

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of chemotherapy lies in the continuous search for new drugs to counter the challenge posed by resistant strains. Methanol extracts of six plant species traditionally used in Indian folklore medicine for the treatment of various bacterial and fungal infections were investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts of Eugenia jambolana and Cassia auriculata showed the highest toxicity against all the bacteria. The plant extracts showed antibacterial activity but not antifungal activity against any of the fungi used. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay were determined for these two extracts against bacteria. E. jambolana revealed the highest antimicrobial activity at a minimum oncentration (0.75 mg/ml against S. aureus. The phytochemical analysis carried out revealed the presence of coumarins, flavanoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, saponins and steroids. Alkaloids were not detected from any of the plant extracts under study. The resultsprovide justification for the use of the plants in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases.

  20. Objective analysis of microtia reconstruction in Indian patients and modifications in management protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An ideal ear, with representation of all anatomic landmarks, is the aim of any reconstructive surgeon embarking on reconstructing the ear in a microtia patient. The literature is abundant with the description of techniques, but these have been reported mainly in Caucasian and Oriental population. There have been very few publications on results in the population belonging to the Indian subcontinent. In spite of strictly adhering to the recommended techniques of reconstruction, the results obtained in these patients have often been marred by problems that are not reported with the Oriental or Caucasian populations. This may necessitate a relook into the management strategy of these cases. Hindering the assessment of the results, their reporting and auditing the improvement obtained by such change in the management strategy, is the lack of a standardized method for assessment of the outcome. Hence, an attempt was made in a series of patients who underwent microtia reconstruction to assess the outcome using a new tool based on the attained definition of anatomical components of the reconstructed pinna. Further effort was made to document the modifications in the technical execution of the reconstruction during the period of the study. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 44 patients and a prospective analysis of 11 patients, who underwent ear reconstruction for microtia from December 2003 to September 2014 at a tertiary care teaching hospital, was undertaken. Taking a cue from Nagata′s description of an ′ideal reconstructed ear′ which should show all the anatomical components, we developed an objective grading system to assess our results. The technique had undergone several changes during these years combining the principles of three universally accepted methods, that is, those described by Nagata, Brent, and Firmin. These changes, as well as the reasons behind them, were documented. Results: On objectively

  1. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  2. Analysis of subsurface mound spring connectivity in shale of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halihan, Todd; Love, Andrew; Keppel, Mark; Berens, Volmer

    2013-11-01

    Mound springs provide the primary discharge mechanism for waters of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. Though these springs are an important resource in an arid environment, their hydraulics as they discharge from shale are poorly defined. The springs can include extensive spring tails (groundwater-dependent wetlands) and hundreds of springs in a given spring complex. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to evaluate spring subsurface hydraulic-connectivity characteristics at three spring complexes discharging through the Bulldog Shale. The results demonstrate that fresher GAB water appears as resistors in the subsurface at these sites, which are characterized by high-salinity conditions in the shallow subsurface. Using an empirical method developed for this work, the ERI data indicate that the spring complexes have multiple subsurface connections that are not always easily observed at the surface. The connections are focused along structural deformation in the shale allowing fluids to migrate through the confining unit. The ERI data suggest the carbonate deposits that the springs generate are deposited on top of the confining unit, not precipitated in the conduit. The data also suggest that spring-tail ecosystems are not the result of a single discharge point, but include secondary discharge points along the tail.

  3. STOCHASTIC DOMINANCE AND ANALYSIS OF ODI BATTING PERFORMANCE: THE INDIAN CRICKET TEAM, 1989-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Damodaran

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of 'not out' scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the 'not-out' scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the 'not out' innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the 'utility' of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less. However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored. This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman, the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal

  4. Transcriptome generation and analysis from spleen of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) through normalized cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Barman, A S; Sood, Neeraj; Mohindra, Vindhya

    2013-12-01

    Catfishes are commercially important fish for both the fisheries and aquaculture industry. Clarias batrachus, an Indian catfish species is economically important owing to its high demand. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from spleen of the Indian catfish to identify genes associated with immune function. One thousand nine hundred thirty seven ESTs were submitted to the GenBank with an average read length of approximately 700 bp. Clustering analysis of ESTs yielded 1,698 unique sequences, including 184 contigs and 1,514 singletons. Significant homology to known genes was found by homology searches against data in GenBank in 576 (34 %) ESTs, including similarity to functionally annotated unigenes for 158 ESTs. Additionally, 433 ESTs revealed similarity to unigenes and ESTs in the dbEST but the remaining 658 EST sequences (39 %) did not match any sequence in GenBank. Of a total of 1,698 ESTs generated, 65 ESTs were found to be associated with immune functions. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of C. batrachus ESTs collectively revealed a preponderance of immune relevant pathways apart from the presence of pathways involved in protein processing, localization, folding and protein degradation. This study constitutes first EST analysis of lymphoid organ in aquaculturally important Indian catfish species and could pave the way for further research of immune-related genes and functional genomics in this catfish.

  5. Model Test Based Soil Spring Model and Application in Pipeline Thermal Buckling Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xi-feng; LIU Run; YAN Shu-wang

    2011-01-01

    The buckling of submarine pipelines may occur due to the action of axial soil frictional force caused by relative movement of soil and pipeline,which is induced by the thermal and internal pressure.The likelihood of occurrence of this buckling phenomenon is largely determined by soil resistance.A series of large-scale model tests were carried out to facilitate the establishment of substantial data base for a variety of burial pipeline relationships.Based on the test data,nonlinear soil spring can be adopted to simulate the soil behavior during the pipeline movement.For uplift resistance,an ideal elasticity plasticity model is recommended in the case of H/D (depth-to-diameter ratio)>5 and an elasticity softened model is recommended in the case of H/D≤5.The soil resistance along the pipeline axial direction can be simulated by an ideal elasticity plasticity model.The numerical analyzing results show that the capacity of pipeline against thermal buckling decreases with its initial imperfection enlargement and increases with the burial depth enhancement.

  6. Natural selection among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland: A comparative analysis with other Indian and Himalayan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Rajesh K; Kapoor, Anup K; Kshatriya, G K

    2009-09-01

    The present investigation on fertility and mortality differential among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland is based on data collected from 160 post-menopausal women belonging to the middle and high altitude region of Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh (Indian Himalayas). Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality was computed for middle-and high-altitude women. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among middle-altitude women (0.386) as compared with high-altitude (0.370) women, whereas for the total population it is estimated to be 0.384. It was found that the Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland showing moderate index of total selection and relative contribution of the mortality component (Im) to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding fertility component (If). The analysis of embryonic and post-natal mortality components shows that the post-natal mortality components are higher in comparison with the embryonic mortality components among highlanders and needs special intervention and health care. The present findings are compared with other Indian tribes as well as non-tribes of the Himalayan region and other parts of the country. It reveals that this index among Kinnaura is moderate than the other population groups; among the Himalayan population, the highest was reported for Galong (It = 1.07) of Arunachal, whereas the lowest was reported from Ahom (It = 0.218) of Manipur. The correlation and regression analysis between total index of selection (It) and fertility (If) and mortality (Im) components for pooled data of populations of the Indian Himalayan states show that If and Im account for 21.6 and 29.1% variability, respectively. In Crow's total index of selection (It) along with strong association, which is significant at the 1% level, this indicates that mortality plays a greater role in natural selection in comparison with fertility among populations of the Indian

  7. Causes Analysis on Fracture of Valve Springs of Motors%发动机气门弹簧断裂原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史霞; 刘志莹; 王道勇

    2016-01-01

    The physical and chemical testing and SEM analysis of the fracture were carried out on three typically fractured valve springs of motors.It was concluded that all the fracture mechanisms of the three valve springs were the fatigue fracture.The reasons causing the fracture were related to surface quality of valve springs. The fracture reason of No.1 valve spring was that non-metallic inclusions exsited in the surface.The fracture reason of No.2 valve spring was that corrosion pits exsited in the surface.The fracture reason of No.3 valve spring was that the folding defect exsited in the surface.Therefore,the key measures to improve the service life of valve springs were to control the quality of raw materials and avoid the surface defects of the valve springs.%对3个典型的发动机气门弹簧断裂件进行了理化检验和扫描电镜断口分析。结果表明:3个气门弹簧的失效机理均为疲劳断裂,而引起疲劳断裂的原因均与气门弹簧的表面质量有关;1号气门弹簧的断裂原因是表面存在非金属夹杂物,2号气门弹簧的断裂原因是表面存在锈蚀坑,3号气门弹簧的断裂原因是表面存在折叠缺陷。因此,控制原材料质量和避免表面缺陷是提高气门弹簧服役寿命的关键举措。

  8. Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). [Leach Hot Springs, Grass Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H.F.; Goldstein, N.E.; Hoversten, M.; Oppliger, G.; Riveros, C.

    1978-10-01

    The three sections describe the transmitter, the receiver, and data interpretations and indicate the advances made toward the development of a large moment electromagnetic (EM) system employing a magnetic dipole source. A brief description is given of the EM-60 transmitter, its general design, and the consideration involved in the selection of a practical coil size and weight for routine field operations. A programmable, multichannel, multi-frequency, phase-sensitive receiver is described. A field test of the EM-60, the data analysis and interpretation procedures, and a comparison between the survey results and the results obtained using other electrical techniques are presented. The Leach Hot Springs area in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, was chosen for the first field site at which the entire system would be tested. The field tests showed the system capable of obtaining well-defined sounding curves (amplitude and phase of magnetic fields) from 1 kHz down to 0.1 Hz. (MHR)

  9. Analysis and interpretation of Ibuji spring magnetic anomaly using the Mellin transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozebo, Vitalis; Ogunsanwo, Fidelis; Adebayo, Gboyega; Adeniran, Olusola

    2013-03-01

    The Mellin transform is a mathematical tool which has been applied in many areas of Mathematics, Physics and Engineering. Its application in Geophysics is in the computation of solution of potential problems for the determination of the mass as well as the depth to the basement of some solid mineral deposits. In this study, the Mellin transform is used to determine the depth to the top (h) and the depth to the bottom (H) of the basement of a profile of an anomalous magnetic body. Ibuji, the study area is located in Ifedore Local Government area of Ondo state, Nigeria, underlain by Precambrian complex rocks and bounded by geographical co-ordinate of Easting 5°00t'00″ to 5°4t'30″ and Northing 7°24t'00″ to 7°27t'36″. The magnetic anomaly profile due to a two- dimensional body(vertical thin sheet)over magnetic spring of the study area was digitised and the values of magnetic amplitude (nT) with respect to its horizontal distance (say interval of 5 m) obtained from the digitized profile was then used in the computation of Mellin transform using Matlab programs. In order to determine the depths H and h, the amplitudes were considered at three arbitrary point (s = 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4) such that, (0 methods. Meanwhile, the value obtained for h has a convergence restriction, whereby, at lower values of s, there is divergence, while at higher values of s, (about 0.9), the result converges and h was obtained to be 32.56 m. The Ibuji magnetic anomaly was therefore analysed to have a depth to the bottom (H) of 47.95 m and depth to the top of 32.56 m using this mathematical tool.

  10. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    -ecological conditions. The present analysis also indicated that grass must be used as a vegetative strip to maintain soil quality in sloppy arable areas (8.5 Mha) of Indian hilly regions. Similarly, due attention should be paid for establishing grasses in 3 Mha of degraded pasture lands and 3.5 Mha of shifting cultivation areas in India to reverse the land degradation.

  11. Analysis of elastic stiffness for the leaf type holddown spring assembly with uniformly tapered width base on strain energy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    A formula for the elastic stiffness of the leaf type holddown spring assembly with uniformly tapered width from w{sub 0} to w{sub 1} (w{sub 0} < w{sub 1}) has been analytically derived by applying the engineering beam theory and Casiliano`s theory based on strain energy. Elastic stiffnesses for the leaf type holddown springs which are newly designed in the same dimensional design spaces as 14x14 type and 17x17 type KOFA holddown spring assembly have been estimated from the derived formula and also their elastic stiffnesses have been compared with those of KOFA holddown spring assemblies. It is found that elastic stiffnesses of the newly designed leaf type holddown spring assemblies have been about 32-33% about higher than those of KOFA holddown spring assemblies and that effects of axial and shear force on the elastic stiffness have been 0.15-0.21% of the elastic stiffness. Therefore in case that the newly designed holddown spring assemblies have been adapted in KOFA, it is expected that numbers of leaves composing a holddown spring assembly could be lessened by on due to their having a high elastic stiffness and in addition, manufacturing cost of the newly designed holddown spring assembly may be reduced due to easy machinability of each leaf. 4 tabs., 4 figs., 16 refs. (Author) .new.

  12. Analysis of price variation amongst different formulations of anxiolytic drugs available in Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: There is a wide variation in the price of different brands of anxiolytic drugs available in Indian market. Government of India should reduce the pricing of drugs by bringing them under drug pricing control order (DPCO. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2398-2401

  13. Loyalty Switching from Traditional to e-Learning in Indian Higher Education: A Markov Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, Mamilla; Anitha, Cuddapah

    2005-01-01

    It is high time for Indian universities to transform themselves from sellers to marketers, though they are non-profit organizations, in marketing their degrees to its customers (students). In this direction e-learning could be one of the tools that helps achieve this objective. The authors in this survey-based article studied the consumers'…

  14. Measuring Organizational Learning Capability in Indian Managers and Establishing Firm Performance Linkage: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to measure Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) perception in the managers of public, private and multinational organizations and establish the link between OLC and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from a sample of 612 managers randomly drawn from Indian industry,…

  15. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  16. Geothermal investment analysis with site-specific applications to Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1978-12-01

    The analysis and modeling of investment behavior in the development of hydrothermal electric power facilities are reported. This investment behavior reflects a degree of sensitivity to public policy alternatives concerning taxation and regulation of the resource and its related energy conversion facilities. The objective of the current research is to provide a realistic and theoretically sound means for estimating the impacts of such public policy alternatives. A stochastic simulation model was developed which offers an efficient means for site-specific investment analysis of private sector firms and investors. The results of the first year of work are discussed including the identification, analysis, quantification and modeling of: a decision tree reflecting the sequence of procedures, timing and stochastic elements of hydrothermal resource development projects; investment requirements, expenses and revenues incurred in the exploration, development and utilization of hydrothermal resources for electric power generation; and multiattribute investment decision criteria of the several types of firms in the geothermal industry. An application of the investment model to specific resource sites in the state of Utah is also described. Site specific data for the Known Geothermal Resource Areas of Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale are given together with hypothesized generation capacity growth rates.

  17. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, G.R.K.; Balaji, T. [Department of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati (India); Denschlag, H.O.; Mauerhofer, E.; Porte, N. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed.

  18. An Indian Ocean precursor for Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, O. P.; Panickal, S.; Pai, S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) depicts large interannual variability strongly linked with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, many of the El Niño years were not accompanied by deficient ISMR. The results from the study reveal the significant role of coupled air-sea interaction over the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) in modifying the ENSO-ISMR association. The IO warm water volume (WWV), a measure of heat content variations in the equatorial IO has strong influence on ISMR. A deepening (shoaling) of thermocline in the eastern equatorial IO (EEIO) during late boreal spring (April-May) accompanied by increase (decrease) in WWV anomalies weaken (enhance) the ISMR by enhancing (suppressing) the convection over EEIO resulting in the below (above) normal ISMR. Thus, the changes in the WWV anomalies in the EEIO along with ENSO conditions during boreal spring can be considered as a precursor for the performance of subsequent ISMR.

  19. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  20. Large springs of east Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J.H.; Poole, J.L.

    1963-01-01

    Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients

  1. An Evaluation of Chinese Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳蕊

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,many Chinese people felt that Spring Festival is bored;feeling of celebrating Spring Festival is not as strong as before.Some experts stated that the physical part of Spring Festival shrouded the cultural celebrations.This article analysis the phenomenon through comparing how Chinese people had Spring Festivals in the past and now,and comparing different economic status Chinese people have in these two periods.

  2. Critical Issues of Lean Implementation in Indian Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises-an Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ravikumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is a strategic tool, which is used to reduce waste and to improve the efficiency of an organization. Indian MSME’s are struggling to implement these techniques. The aim of the study is to investigate the various critical issues faced by the Indian MSMEs while implementing lean. A questionnaire containing 29 problems under five categories was prepared and sent to 200 MSME’s all over India. Eighty two companies responded and their responses were analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics 20 package to find the rating on various issues. Ratings were also obtained from three lean consultants and compared to find the closer value. This enables to have better understanding on critical issues for successful implementation.

  3. Mutation analysis of codons 345 and 347 of rhodopsin gene in Indian retinitis pigmentosa patients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhurima Dikshit; Rakhi Agarwal

    2001-08-01

    More than 100 mutations have been reported till date in the rhodopsin gene in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. The present study was undertaken to detect the reported rhodopsin gene point mutations in Indian retinitis pigmentosa patients. We looked for presence or absence of codon 345 and 347 mutations in exon 5 of the gene using the technique of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction by designing primers for each mutation. We have examined 100 patients from 76 families irrespective of genetic categories. Surprisingly, in our sample the very widely reported highly frequent mutations of codon 347 (P → S/A/R/Q/L/T) were absent while the codon 345 mutation V → M was seen in three cases in one family (autosomal dominant form) and in one sporadic case (total two families). This is the first report on codon 345 and 347 mutation in Indian retinitis pigmentosa subjects.

  4. EFFECT OF WATER BORNE DISEASES ON INDIAN ECONOMY: A COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATHAK Hemant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper expressed the effect of water borne diseases, risk assessment and potential consequences on Indian economy. In Indian sub-continent higher burden of waterborne diseases due to a deteriorating public drinking water distribution system, increasing numbers of unregulated private water systems, and a limited, passive waterborne disease surveillance system. This shows that degraded water quality can contribute to water scarcity as it limits its availability for both human use and for the ecosystem. It isn’t cheap to treat water so that it is safe to drink. But it also isn’t cheap to treat everyone who becomes ill during a waterborne illness outbreak. As the level of protection becomes more effective, the cost of water treatment generally rises, as well. Unfortunately, government agencies generally attempt to minimize costs while the health effects have not been properly assessed.

  5. The application of remote sensing techniques for air pollution analysis and climate change on Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palve, S. N.; Nemade, P. D., Dr.; Ghude, S. D., Dr.

    2016-06-01

    India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The subcontinent is characterized by high levels of air pollution due to intensively developing industries and mass fuel consumption for domestic purposes. The main tropospheric pollutants (O3, NO2, CO, formaldehyde (HCHO) and SO2) and two major greenhouse gases (tropospheric O3 and methane (CH4)) and important parameters of aerosols, which play a key role in climate change and affecting on the overall well-being of subcontinent residents. In light of considering these facts this paper aims to investigate possible impact of air pollutants over the climate change on Indian subcontinent. Satellite derived column aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a cost effective way to monitor and study aerosols distribution and effects over a long time period. AOD is found to be increasing rapidly since 2000 in summer season that may cause adverse effect to the agricultural crops and also to the human health. Increased aerosol loading may likely affect the rainfall which is responsible for the observed drought conditions over the Indian subcontinent. Carbon monoxide is emitted into the atmosphere by biomass burning activities and India is the second largest contributor of CO emissions in Asia. The MOPITT CO retrievals at 850 hPa show large CO emission from the IG region. The development of convective activity associated with the ASM leads to large scale vertical transport of the boundary layer CO from the Indian region into the upper troposphere. TCO over the Indian subcontinent during 2007 has a systematic and gradual variation, spatial as well as temporal. Higher amount of TCO in the northern latitudes and simultaneous lower TCO at near equatorial latitudes indicates depletion of ozone near the equator and accumulation at higher latitudes within the subcontinent. In addition, changes

  6. Cost variation analysis of Oral Hypoglycaemic agents available in Indian market: An Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes, a chronic disorder and requires life-long treatment. Cost of drug treatment is a major hurdle related to medication compliance in Type2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: To compare the cost and percentage price variation of single and combination therapy of oral hypoglycaemic agents across the different brands available in the Indian market. Methods: India’s medical research body, particularly Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR issue guidelines for the management of T2DM. ICMR guidelines were perused to understand the management of T2DM. Current Index of Medical Specialities (CIMS Oct.-Jan.2015 edition and Indian Drug Review (IDR Issue 1, Jan.2015 were used to capture the price of oral hypoglycaemic agents across the different brands available in the Indian market. Percentage price variations between minimum and maximum cost of drugs were computed. Results: In the single drug therapy sulfonylurea group of drugs like Glipizide 5mg shows maximum variation of 780% followed by Glimepiride 2mg formulation by 682%, while the non-sulfonylurea groups of drug say, Pioglitazone 15mg shows maximum variation of 600%. In combination therapy Glimepiride 1mg + Metformin 500mg shows maximum price variation of 533%. Positive correlation exists between the number of manufacturing companies and percentage price variation of drugs. Conclusion: There is wide variation exist between the minimum and maximum cost among single as well as combination therapy of oral hypoglycaemic agents. A maximum of 9 & 6 fold price variation was reported in single and combination therapy respectively.

  7. SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR: A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN THE NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aprajita Sikka; Anjali Jain

    2016-01-01

    Bones are an important tool for establishing the biological profile of an individual. In the absence of skull and pelvis, long bones can play a major role in determining the sex. Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body and resists environmental effects and hence becomes important in medico-legal investigations. AIMS To determine the sex of 180 femora and to set up baseline parameters for the North Indian population with the help of demarcating and limiting value...

  8. Advancing smartness of traditional settlements-case analysis of Indian and Arab old cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Dhingra

    2016-12-01

    The study enlists smart urban elements in our existing old cities, which are derived from extensive literature study of Middle East cities and primary surveys of around 160 samples in a medium sized old Indian city in Rajasthan. The study assesses the baseline situation of culturally rich and varied old cities and need to advance from their inherent smartness using innovative and interactive ICT and urban engineering solutions.

  9. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linjun, Xie, E-mail: linjunx@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Graphical abstract: HDS stress coefficient test apparatus. - Highlights: • This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. • The mathematical relation between the load and the strain is obtained about the HDS, and the mathematical model of the stress coefficient and the friction coefficient is established. So, a set of test apparatuses for obtaining the stress coefficient is designed according to the model scaling criterion and the friction coefficient of the K1000 HDS is calculated to be 0.336 through the obtained stress coefficient. • The relation curve between the theoretical load and the friction coefficient is obtained through analysis and indicates that the change of the friction coefficient f would influence the pretightening load under the condition of designed stress. The necessary pretightening load in the design process is calculated to be 5469 kN according to the obtained friction coefficient. Therefore, the friction coefficient and the pretightening load under the design conditions can provide accurate pretightening data for the analysis and design of the reactor HDS according to the operations. - Abstract: This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. By carrying out tests and researches through a stress testing technique, P–σ curves in loading and unloading processes of the HDS are obtained and the stress coefficient k{sub f} of the HDS is obtained. So, the

  10. Analysis of Equatorial Currents Observed by Eastern Indian Ocean Cruises in 2010 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xue-Zhi; LI Yi-Neng; PENG Shi-Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Hydrographic and direct current measurements were made in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean in May 2010 and April 2011 as part of the Eastern Indian Ocean Cruises (EIOC) organized by the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO). Analyses of the shipdrift Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data in- dicate that the equatorial currents observed in May 2010 are characterized by a strongly eastward surface current (Wyrtki Jets, WJs) with a maximum velocity of 0.9 m s-1, while that observed in April 2011 is weak and without a consistent direction. The strongly eastward WJ transports the surface water eastward, resulting in a deeper upper mixed layer, as shown in the temperature and salinity pro- files. However, it was found that the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) in the Eastern Indian Ocean is strong in April 2011 and weak in May 2010. The EUC was located approximately at the position of the thermocline, and it had higher salinity (up to approximately 35.5 psu) than the upper and lower waters.

  11. Molecular analysis of the human faecal archaea in a southern Indian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANDYA B RANI; RAMADASS BALAMURUGAN; BALAKRISHNAN S RAMAKRISHNA

    2017-03-01

    Archaea are an important constituent of the human gut microbiota, but there is no information on human gut archaea inan Indian population. In this study, faecal samples were obtained from different age groups (neonatal babies, preschoolchildren, school-going children, adolescents, adults and elderly) of a southern Indian population, and from atribal population also resident in southern India). 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to Archaea were amplified frompooled faecal DNA in each group, sequenced, and aligned against the NCBI database. Of the 806 adequate sequencesin the study, most aligned with 22 known sequences. There were 9 novel sequences in the present study. All sequenceswere deposited in the GenBank nucleotide sequence database with the following accession numbers: KF607113 -KF607918. Methanobrevibacter was the most prevalent genus among all the age groups accounting for 98% inneonates, 96% in post-weaning, and 100% each in preschool, school and adult population. In the elderly, Methanobrevibacteraccounted for 96% and in tribal adults, 99% of the clones belonged to Methanobrevibacter genus. Othergenera detected included Caldisphaera, Halobaculum, Methanosphaeraand Thermogymnomonas. Methanobrevibactersmithii predominated in all age groups, accounting for 749 (92.9%) of the 806 sequences. Archaea can befound in the faeces of southern Indian residents immediately after birth. Methanobrevibacter smithii was the dominantfaecal archeon in all age groups, with other genera being found at the extremes of age.

  12. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn. Fortified Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  13. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  14. Analysis and evaluation of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) forecast data for Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Medha; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Masutani, Michiko; Ma, Zaizhong; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter; Hardesty, Michael; Emmitt, Dave; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Goswami, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    An attempt is made here to evaluate the skill of forecast during boreal summer monsoon regime over the Indian region using the Observation Simulation System Experiment (OSSE) with Doppler Wind LIDAR (DWL) onboard International Space Station (ISS), assimilated in the initial condition. Through various techniques such as pattern correlation, root mean square error etc, we found that there is some positive impact of assimilating the DWL data on the forecast particularly at the lower tropospheric level. Impact on lowering the RMSE is seen for wind fields in the 850 and 500 hPa over Indian domain but not much impact is seen over larger domain. The moisture field and cloud also show marginal impact due to assimilation of DWL. This indicates that possibly due to lower spatial resolution of DWL data and more data gap over Indian and surrounding oceanic region, the impact on forecast is less. However, it shows the promise that monsoon being a convectively coupled system; increase in spatial data by DWL may better resolve the low level wind and subsequently the low level shear which is important for convection trigger in boundary layer.

  15. MEAN SQUARE DEVIATION ANALYSIS OF INTERANNUAL SST VARIABILITY IN TROPICAL PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严华生; 李艳; 等

    2002-01-01

    Using the SST data series in tropical ocean(20°N-20°S,50°E-80°W)during 1951-1997 to calculate its monthly mean square deviation,the work obtains results showing that interannual SST variability of the Pacific is more significant than that of the Indian Ocean.Especially near the central and eastern equatorial Pacific(165°W-90°W,6°N-6°S)。where it ranges from 2℃ to 4℃.The interannual SST variability is obvious in November and December but small in March and April.The interannual variabiltiy of "warm pool"SST is not so obvious as that of the eastern equatorial Pacific,Howerver,interannual SST variability of the Indian Ocean ranges from 1℃to 2℃ or so,being smaller than that of the Pacific,In the Indian ocean.Interannual SST variability of the Southern Hemisphere is more obvious than that of the Northern Hemisphere,According to above characterstics of interannual SST variability,the key sectors are determined.

  16. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  17. Rainfall analysis for Indian monsoon region using the merged rain gauge observations and satellite estimates: Evaluation of monsoon rainfall features

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Roy Bhowmik; Ananda K Das

    2007-06-01

    Objective analysis of daily rainfall at the resolution of 1° grid for the Indian monsoon region has been carried out merging dense land rainfall observations and INSAT derived precipitation estimates. This daily analysis, being based on high dense rain gauge observations was found to be very realistic and able to reproduce detailed features of Indian summer monsoon. The inter-comparison with the observations suggests that the new analysis could distinctly capture characteristic features of the summer monsoon such as north–south oriented belt of heavy rainfall along the Western Ghats with sharp gradient of rainfall between the west coast heavy rain region and the rain shadow region to the east, pockets of heavy rainfall along the location of monsoon trough/low, over the east central parts of the country, over north–east India, along the foothills of Himalayas and over the north Bay of Bengal. When this product was used to assess the quality of other available standard climate products (CMAP and ECMWF reanalysis) at the grid resolution of 2.5°, it was found that the orographic heavy rainfall along Western Ghats of India was poorly identified by them. However, the GPCC analysis (gauge only) at the resolution of 1° grid closely discerns the new analysis. This suggests that there is a need for a higher resolution analysis with adequate rain gauge observations to retain important aspects of the summer monsoon over India. The case studies illustrated show that the daily analysis is able to capture large-scale as well as mesoscale features of monsoon precipitation systems. This study with data of two seasons (2001 and 2003) has shown sufficiently promising results for operational application, particularly for the validation of NWP models.

  18. Detailed Analysis of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Processes with Modern/High-Quality Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2007-01-01

    We examine, in detail, Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall processes using modernhigh quality satellite precipitation measurements. The focus here is on measurements derived from three NASA cloud and precipitation satellite missionslinstruments (TRMM/PR&TMI, AQUNAMSRE, and CLOUDSATICPR), and a fourth TRMM Project-generated multi-satellite precipitation measurement dataset (viz., TRMM standard algorithm 3b42) -- all from a period beginning in 1998 up to the present. It is emphasized that the 3b42 algorithm blends passive microwave (PMW) radiometer-based precipitation estimates from LEO satellites with infi-ared (IR) precipitation estimates from a world network of CEO satellites (representing -15% of the complete space-time coverage) All of these observations are first cross-calibrated to precipitation estimates taken from standard TRMM combined PR-TMI algorithm 2b31, and second adjusted at the large scale based on monthly-averaged rain-gage measurements. The blended approach takes advantage of direct estimates of precipitation from the PMW radiometerequipped LEO satellites -- but which suffer fi-om sampling limitations -- in combination with less accurate IR estimates from the optical-infrared imaging cameras on GEO satellites -- but which provide continuous diurnal sampling. The advantages of the current technologies are evident in the continuity and coverage properties inherent to the resultant precipitation datasets that have been an outgrowth of these stable measuring and retrieval technologies. There is a wealth of information contained in the current satellite measurements of precipitation regarding the salient precipitation properties of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Using different datasets obtained from the measuring systems noted above, we have analyzed the observations cast in the form of: (1) spatially distributed means and variances over the hierarchy of relevant time scales (hourly I diurnally, daily, monthly, seasonally I intra-seasonally, and inter

  19. Flow-Log Analysis for Hydraulic Characterization of Selected Test Wells at the Indian Point Energy Center, Buchanan, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Flow logs from 24 test wells were analyzed as part of the hydraulic characterization of the metamorphosed and fractured carbonate bedrock at the Indian Point Energy Center in Buchanan, New York. The flow logs were analyzed along with caliper, optical- and acoustic-televiewer, and fluid-resistivity and temperature logs to determine the character and distribution of fracture-flow zones and estimate their transmissivities and hydraulic heads. Many flow zones were associated with subhorizontal to shallow-dipping fractured zones, southeast-dipping bedding fractures, northwest-dipping conjugate fractures, or combinations of bedding and conjugate fractures. Flow-log analysis generally provided reasonable first-order estimates of flow-zone transmissivity and head differences compared with the results of conventional hydraulic-test analysis and measurements. Selected results of an aquifer test and a tracer test provided corroborating information in support of the flow-log analysis.

  20. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuikSCAT and moored buoy winds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B N Goswami; E N Rajagopal

    2003-03-01

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) during 1999, 2000 and 2001. The NCMRWF surface winds su ered from easterly bias of 1.0-1.5 ms-1 in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) and northerly bias of 2.0-3.0 ms-1 in the south equatorial IO during 1999 and 2000 compared to QSCT winds. The amplitude of daily variability was also underestimated compared to that in QSCT. In particular, the amplitude of daily variability of NCMRWF winds in the eastern equatorial IO was only about 60% of that of QSCT during 1999 and 2000. The NCMRWF surface winds during 2001 have significantly improved with the bias of the mean analyzed winds considerably reduced everywhere bringing it to within 0.5 ms-1 of QSCT winds in the equatorial IO. The amplitude and phase of daily and intraseasonal variability are very close to that in QSCT almost everywhere during 2001. It is shown that the weakness in the surface wind analysis during 1999 and 2000 and its improvement in 2001 are related to the weakness in simulation of precipitation by the forecast model in the equatorial IO and its improvement in 2001.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of the Wind-Waves Field Variability in the Indian Ocean During 1998-2009 Years

    CERN Document Server

    Polnikov, V G; Sannasiraj, S A; Sundar, V

    2011-01-01

    To calculate the wind-waves in the Indian Ocean (IO), the wind field for the period from 1998 to 2009 was used, obtained from the NCEP/NOAA archive, and numerical model WAM (Cycle-4) was applied, modified by the new source function proposed in Polnikov (2005). Based on buoy data for the Indian Ocean, the fitting of the modified model WAM was done, which provides the win in accuracy of calculations on 35%, in comparison with the original model. All the further calculations of the wave fields in IO were made for these model settings. At the first stage, the analysis of the simulation results involves a) mapping the fields of the significant wave height and the wave energy , calculated with different scales of averaging in time T and space R; b) estimating the fields of seasonal, annual and long-term variability; and c) determining the 12-year trend of the annually averaged fields. The analysis was carried out taking into account the previously introduced zoning the ocean area, provided by the spatial inhomogen...

  2. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  3. Time-series analysis of surface deformation at Brady Hot Springs geothermal field (Nevada) using interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Akerley, J. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Baluyut, E. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cardiff, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Davatzes, N. C. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science; Feigl, K. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Foxall, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratta, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spielman, P. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Wang, H. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zemach, E. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014, by the ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellite missions to measure and characterize time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada due to extraction of fluids. The long axis of the ~4 km by ~1.5 km elliptical subsiding area coincides with the strike of the dominant normal fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, likely associated with damaged regions where fault segments mechanically interact. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing a high permeability conduit to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We also explore mechanisms that could potentially cause the observed deformation, including thermal contraction of rock, decline in pore pressure and dissolution of minerals over time.

  4. Statistical analysis of North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) signal trains in Cape Cod Bay, spring 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R

    2014-11-01

    Statistical characteristics of signal trains produced by North Atlantic right whales (NARW) during the winter and early spring in Cape Cod Bay, MA are described. Data analysis was based on four days of acoustic recordings that were obtained with synchronized hydrophones. Based on temporal and geographical clustering of detected signals, 7264 NARW sounds were identified and associated with 559 signal trains. The detected signals were assigned to four classes of narrowband tonal calls--upcalls, downcalls, complex, and high frequency, and two classes of wideband sounds--gunshots and complex. Empirical distributions of the number of signals in trains, total duration of trains, the positions of NARW, and signal classes are presented. Results indicate that 68.9% of all signal trains consisted of 10 or fewer signals. Low and high frequency tonals that lacked wideband sounds formed 69.1% of trains; 5.0% of trains lacked tonals. Trains consisting of only upcalls comprised 44.2% of all detected trains. Because 18.3% of trains contained no upcalls, using detectors that identify all signal classes would improve right whale detection.

  5. [Analysis of wheat and rye semidwarfing gene distribution in spring hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) varieties and lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunova, A D; Divashchuk, M G; Solov'ev, A A; Karlov, G I

    2015-03-01

    A collection of spring hexaploid triticale varieties and promising breeding lines has been examined for the presence of wheat Rht-B1b, Rht-B1e, and Rht8c semidwarfing genes and the rye Hl semidwarfing gene. It was discovered in spring triticale that these semidwarfing genes are represented by only one, the Rht-B1b wheat gene. The presence of this gene is associated with shortening of spring triticale plants by 28 cm on average, which constituted 26% of their initial height. Rht-B1b was found in all of the studied commercial varieties of spring triticale, which rendered it possible to conclude that plant height reduction is a necessary condition for increasing the competitiveness of this crop culture.

  6. Analysis of walrus reproductive organs and stomachs from the 1980 spring harvest in the Bering Strait region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a report on analyses of some of the materials collected from the walruses taken during the 1980 spring harvest. Those materials included 104 samples...

  7. Shallow Analysis on the First Spring Soaking Rain Weather and Its Precipitation Enhancement Potential Forecast in Jinzhou Area in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the first spring soaking rain weather and its precipitation enhancement potential forecast in Jinzhou area in 2010. [Method] From the weather situation characteristics, main influence system, forecast service, artificial precipitation enhancement operation and so on, the first spring soaking rain weather process in Jinzhou area in 2010 was summarized comprehensively. [Result] The weather situation characteristics of soaking rain were that the high-altitude cold air wa...

  8. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  9. Analysis and Numerical Simulations of the Teleconnection Between Indian Summer Monsoon and Precipitation in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunyun; DING Yihui

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1980s, Chinese meteorologists discovered the positive correlation in summer rainfall be-tween India and North China and the correlation was later confirmed by some researches in and outside China. Based on a variety of meteorological data from 1951 to 2005 and numerical simulations, the present study investigates such a correlation between Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and precipitation in North China. Furthermore, we discuss the intrinsic relations of the positive (Northwest India)-negative (the Ti-betan Plateau)-positive (North China) precipitation anomaly teleconnection pattern from two aspects of thermal and dynamical factors, which not only confirms the precipitation teleconnection previously discov-ered again, but also reveals the influence mechanism of the ISM on the rainfall in North China. The results show that: (1) When the ISM is strong (weak), the precipitation in North China tends to be more (less) than normal; however, when the rainfall in North China is more (less) than normal, the probability of the strengthening (weakening) of the ISM is relatively lower. This implies that the ISM anomaly has more impact on the rainfall in North China. (2) The Indian low usually dominantly impacts the intensity of the ISM. When the Indian low deepens, the low troughs in mid-high latitudes are frequently strengthened, and the ridge of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) extends westward. The southwesterly water vapor transport originated from low-latitudes and the southeasterly water vapor transport along the southwestern flank of the WPSH converge in North China, which is favorable for more rainfall there than normal, and vice versa. (3) The simulations from the regional climate model developed by National Climate Center (ReGCM_NCC) capture the salient feature of the precipitation teleconnection between India and North China. The simulated anomalous atmospheric circulations are close to observations, which confirms the existence of such a

  10. Breast Cancer Research: A Scientometric Analysis of Indian Publications during 2004–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines 5189 Indian publications on breast cancer research, as covered in Scopus database during 2005–2014, experiencing an annual average growth rate of 21.94% and citation impact of 3.38. The world breast cancer output (203,879 publications came from several countries, of which the top 15 most productive countries (United States, U.K., China, Germany, Italy, Canada, France, Japan, etc., accounted for 89.89% share of the global output during 2005–2014. India’s global publication share was 2.55% and hold 12th rank in global output during 2005–2014. The Indian publications on breast cancer came from several organizations, of which the top 15 most productive contributed 27.89% share in the national breast cancer output during 2005–2014. India’s international collaborative publications share in breast cancer was 19.89% during 2005–2014, which increased from 19.25% to 20.11% from 2005–2009 to 2010–2014. Medicine accounted for the largest share (54.58% of output in breast cancer, followed by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (38.08%, pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics (23.11%, chemistry (11.29%, agricultural and biological sciences (3.87% share and immunology and microbiology (2.04% share during 2005–2014. Diagnosis, chemotherapy, screening, prognosis, surgery and radiotherapy together account for 72.58% publications share among treatments methods used in Indian breast cancer research during 2005–2014. Maharashtra, Delhi, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka together accounted for 53.52% of the India’s breast cancer output during 2005–2014.

  11. The Indian Summer Monsoon onset revisited: new approach based on the analysis of historical wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Paulina; Gallego, David; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gómez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon onset is one of the meteorological events most anticipated in the world. Due to its relevance for the population, the India Meteorological Department has dated the onset over the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula (Kerala) since 1901. The traditional method to date the onset was based in the judgment of skilled meteorologist and because of this, the method was considered subjective and not adequate for the study of long-term changes in the onset. A new method for determining the monsoon onset based solely on objective criteria has been in use since 2006. Unfortunately, the new method relies -among other variables- on OLR measurements. This requirement impedes the construction of an objective onset series before the satellite era. An alternative approach to establish the onset by objective methods is the use of the wind field. During the last decade, some works have demonstrated that the changes in the wind direction in some areas of the Indian Ocean can be used to determine the monsoon onset rather precisely. However, this method requires precise wind observations over a large oceanic area which has limited the periods covered for such kind of indices to those of the reanalysis products. In this work we present a new approach to track the Indian monsoon onset based solely on historical wind direction measurements taken onboard ships. Our new series provides an objective record of the onset since the last decade of the 19th century and perhaps more importantly, it can incorporate any new historical wind record not yet known in order to extend the series length. The new series captures quite precisely the rapid precipitation increase associated to the monsoon onset, correlates well with previous approaches and it is robust against anomalous (bogus) onsets. Although no significant trends in the onset date were detected, a tendency to later than average onsets during the 1900-1925 and 1970-1990 periods and earlier than average onsets between

  12. Study of association and molecular analysis of human papillomavirus in breast cancer of Indian patients: Clinical and prognostic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Saimul; Dasgupta, Hemantika; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Rittwika; Mukherjee, Nupur; Roy, Anup; Mandal, Gautam Kumar; Alam, Neyaz; Biswas, Jaydip; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes tumors primarily Cervical cancer. Recently, inconsistent reports came up in Breast cancer (BC) too. In India, despite treatment 70,218 BC patients die each year. So, we explored the association of HPV, if any, with BC prognosis in Indian pre-therapeutic (PT) and Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) patients with subsequent analysis of HPV profile. Methods HPV prevalence was checked and analysis of physical status, copy number, genome variation, promoter methylation and expression (mRNA and protein) of the prevalent subtype was done. Results High prevalence of HPV was observed in both PT (64.0%) and NACT (71.0%) cases with significant association with younger (20–45 yrs) PT patients. Interestingly, HPV infection was significantly increased from adjacent normal breast (9.5%, 2/21), fibro adenomas (30%, 3/10) to tumors (64.8%, 203/313) samples. In both PT and NACT cases, HPV16 was the most prevalent subtype (69.0%) followed by HPV18 and HPV33. Survival analysis illustrated hrHPV infected PT patients had worst prognosis. So, detailed analysis of HPV16 profile was done which showed Europian-G350 as the most frequent HPV16 variant along with high rate of integration. Moreover, low copy number and hyper-methylation of P97 early promoter were concordant with low HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression. Notably, four novel variations (KT020838, KT020840, KT020841 and KT020839) in the LCR region and two (KT020836 and KT020837) in the E6 region were identified for the first time along with two novel E6^E7*I (KU199314) and E6^E7*II (KU199315) fusion transcript variants. Conclusion Thus, significant association of hrHPV with prognosis of Indian BC patients led to additional investigation of HPV16 profile. Outcomes indicated a plausible role of HPV in Indian BC patients. PMID:28245287

  13. Finite Element Analysis on Belleville Spring in Flanged Joints%法兰接头用碟形弹簧的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊和

    2015-01-01

    Normal belleville spring and belleville spring used in flanged joints are simulated through 2-D finite element analysis and the friction effect on the load of the belleville spring used in flanged joints is considered. The results show that the fraction has intense impact on the rigidity of the belleville spring used in flanged joints which is quite significant in the design process.%利用2-D有限元法模拟了普通碟形弹簧和法兰接头用碟形弹簧, 并考虑了摩擦对法兰接头用碟形弹簧承载的影响. 结果表明, 有限元法对碟簧的模拟十分精确. 此外, 摩擦对法兰接头用碟形弹簧的刚度影响较大, 这在设计过程中不容忽视.

  14. Analysis of the metatranscriptome of microbial communities of an alkaline hot sulfur spring revealed different gene encoding pathway enzymes associated with energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Samanta, Mrinal; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline sulfur hot springs notable for their specialized and complex ecosystem powered by geothermal energy are abundantly rich in different chemotrophic and phototrophic thermophilic microorganisms. Survival and adaptation of these organisms in the extreme environment is specifically related to energy metabolism. To gain a better understanding of survival mechanism of the organisms in these ecosystems, we determined the different gene encoding enzymes associated with anaerobic pathways of energy metabolism by applying the metatranscriptomics approach. The analysis of the microbial population of hot sulfur spring revealed the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms indicating dual mode of lifestyle of the community members. Proteobacteria (28.1 %) was the most dominant community. A total of 988 reads were associated with energy metabolism, out of which 33.7 % of the reads were assigned to nitrogen, sulfur, and methane metabolism based on KEGG classification. The major lineages of hot spring communities were linked with the anaerobic pathways. Different gene encoding enzymes (hao, nir, nar, cysH, cysI, acs) showed the involvement of microbial members in nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and methane generation. This study enhances our understanding of important gene encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism, required for the survival and adaptation of microbial communities in the hot spring.

  15. Analysis of air quality and nighttime light for Indian urban regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Prakhar; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    Indian urban regions suffer severe air pollution issues. A 2014 study by WHO highlighted that out of 20 cities globally with worst air quality, 13 lie in India. Although insufficient ground monitoring data and incomplete air pollution source characterization impedes putting policy measures to tackle this issue, remote sensing and GIS can overcome this hurdle to some extent. To find out how much of this hazard is due to economic growth, past researches have tried to make use of socio-economic growth indicators like GDP, population or urban area to establish its correlation with air quality in urban centres. Since nightlight has been found to correlate well with economic conditions at national and city level, an attempt has been made to analyse it with air quality levels to find regions with high contribution of anthropogenic emissions. Nighttime light activity was observed through DayNight Band (DNB) of VIIRS sensor while the air quality levels were obtained for ANG and AOD (using MODIS sensor) and SO2 and NO2 (using OMI sensor). We have classified Indian landmass into 4 air-quality and DNB classes: LowLight- HighPollution, HighLight-HighPollution, LowLight-LowPollution and HighLight- LowPollution for each air quality species using June 2014 data. It was found that around half of urban regions show high AOD and ANG values. On the other hand almost all urban regions exhibit high SO2 and NO2 values.

  16. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  17. Microbial community analysis of a coastal hot spring in Kagoshima, Japan, using molecular- and culture-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Minako; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Kurosawa, Norio

    2013-08-01

    Ibusuki hot spring is located on the coastline of Kagoshima Bay, Japan. The hot spring water is characterized by high salinity, high temperature, and neutral pH. The hot spring is covered by the sea during high tide, which leads to severe fluctuations in several environmental variables. A combination of molecular- and culture-based techniques was used to determine the bacterial and archaeal diversity of the hot spring. A total of 48 thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from two sites (Site 1: 55.6°C; Site 2: 83.1°C) and they were categorized into six groups based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Two groups (including 32 isolates) demonstrated low sequence similarity with published species, suggesting that they might represent novel taxa. The 148 clones from the Site 1 bacterial library included 76 operational taxonomy units (OTUs; 97% threshold), while 132 clones from the Site 2 bacterial library included 31 OTUs. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were frequently detected in both clone libraries. The clones were related to thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Approximately half of the sequences in bacterial clone libraries shared <92% sequence similarity with their closest sequences in a public database, suggesting that the Ibusuki hot spring may harbor a unique and novel bacterial community. By contrast, 77 clones from the Site 2 archaeal library contained only three OTUs, most of which were affiliated with Thaumarchaeota.

  18. Detection and analysis of elusive members of a novel and diverse archaeal community within a thermal spring streamer consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Thomas, Raquela; Maas, Kendra R; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2015-03-01

    Recent metagenomic analyses of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) thermal spring communities suggested the presence of minor archaeal populations that simultaneous PCR-based assays using traditional 'universal' 16S rRNA gene primers failed to detect. Here we use metagenomics to identify PCR primers effective at detecting elusive members of the Archaea, assess their efficacy, and describe the diverse and novel archaeal community from a circum-neutral thermal spring from the Bechler region of YNP. We determined that a less commonly used PCR primer, Arch349F, captured more diversity in this spring than the widely used A21F primer. A search of the PCR primers against the RDP 16S rRNA gene database indicated that Arch349F also captured the largest percentage of Archaea, including 41 % more than A21F. Pyrosequencing using the Arch349F primer recovered all of the phylotypes present in the clone-based portion of the study and the metagenome of this spring in addition to several other populations of Archaea, some of which are phylogenetically novel. In contrast to the lack of amplification with traditional 16S rRNA gene primers, our comprehensive analyses suggested a diverse archaeal community in the Bechler spring, with implications for recently discovered groups such as the Geoarchaeota and other undescribed archaeal groups.

  19. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  20. QTL analysis of the spring wheat "Chapio" identifies stable stripe rust resistance despite inter-continental genotype × environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E-N; Rosewarne, G M; Herrera-Foessel, S A; Huerta-Espino, J; Tang, Z-X; Sun, C-F; Ren, Z-L; Singh, R P

    2013-07-01

    Chapio is a spring wheat developed by CIMMYT in Mexico by a breeding program that focused on multigenic resistances to leaf rust and stripe rust. A population consisting of 277 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed by crossing Chapio with Avocet. The RILs were genotyped with DArT markers (137 randomly selected RILs) and bulked segregant analysis conducted to supplement the map with informative SSR markers. The final map consisted of 264 markers. Phenotyping against stripe rust was conducted for three seasons in Toluca, Mexico and at three sites over two seasons (total of four environments) in Sichuan Province, China. Significant loci across the two inter-continental regions included Lr34/Yr18 on 7DS, Sr2/Yr30 on 3BS, and a QTL on 3D. There were significant genotype × environment interactions with resistance gene Yr31 on 2BS being effective in most of the Toluca environments; however, a late incursion of a virulent pathotype in 2009 rendered this gene ineffective. This locus also had no effect in China. Conversely, a 5BL locus was only effective in the Chinese environments. There were also complex additive interactions. In the Mexican environments, Yr31 suppressed the additive effect of Yr30 and the 3D locus, but not of Lr34/Yr18, while in China, the 3D and 5BL loci were generally not additive with each other, but were additive when combined with other loci. These results indicate the importance of maintaining diverse, multi-genic resistances as Chapio had stable inter-continental resistance despite the fact that there were QTLs that were not effective in either one or the other region.

  1. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mo eKim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptive and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars, wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabit this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms, and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2 in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1 the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2 photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3 glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4 fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their niches

  2. Experimental and micromagnetic first-order reversal curves analysis in NdFeB-based bulk 'exchange spring'-type permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Lupu, Nicoleta [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050, Iasi (Romania); Stoleriu, Laurentiu [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: lstoler@uaic.ro; Postolache, Petronel [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stancu, Alexandru [Al. I. Cuza University, Department of Solid State and Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol I, 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper we present the results of applying the first-order reversal curves (FORC) diagram experimental method to the analysis of the magnetization processes of NdFeB-based permanents magnets. The FORC diagrams for this kind of exchange spring magnets show the existence of two magnetic phases-a soft magnetic phase and a hard magnetic one. Micromagnetic modeling is used for validating the hypotheses regarding the origin of the different features of the experimental FORC diagrams.

  3. Metatranscriptomic analysis of a high-sulfide aquatic spring reveals insights into sulfur cycling and unexpected aerobic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Spain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zodletone spring is a sulfide-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma characterized by shallow, microoxic, light-exposed spring water overlaying anoxic sediments. Previously, culture-independent 16S rRNA gene based diversity surveys have revealed that Zodletone spring source sediments harbor a highly diverse microbial community, with multiple lineages putatively involved in various sulfur-cycling processes. Here, we conducted a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial populations in Zodletone spring source sediments to characterize the relative prevalence and importance of putative phototrophic, chemolithotrophic, and heterotrophic microorganisms in the sulfur cycle, the identity of lineages actively involved in various sulfur cycling processes, and the interaction between sulfur cycling and other geochemical processes at the spring source. Sediment samples at the spring’s source were taken at three different times within a 24-h period for geochemical analyses and RNA sequencing. In depth mining of datasets for sulfur cycling transcripts revealed major sulfur cycling pathways and taxa involved, including an unexpected potential role of Actinobacteria in sulfide oxidation and thiosulfate transformation. Surprisingly, transcripts coding for the cyanobacterial Photosystem II D1 protein, methane monooxygenase, and terminal cytochrome oxidases were encountered, indicating that genes for oxygen production and aerobic modes of metabolism are actively being transcribed, despite below-detectable levels (<1 µM of oxygen in source sediment. Results highlight transcripts involved in sulfur, methane, and oxygen cycles, propose that oxygenic photosynthesis could support aerobic methane and sulfide oxidation in anoxic sediments exposed to sunlight, and provide a viewpoint of microbial metabolic lifestyles under conditions similar to those seen during late Archaean and Proterozoic eons.

  4. Metatranscriptomic analysis of a high-sulfide aquatic spring reveals insights into sulfur cycling and unexpected aerobic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Najar, Fares Z.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2015-01-01

    Zodletone spring is a sulfide-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma characterized by shallow, microoxic, light-exposed spring water overlaying anoxic sediments. Previously, culture-independent 16S rRNA gene based diversity surveys have revealed that Zodletone spring source sediments harbor a highly diverse microbial community, with multiple lineages putatively involved in various sulfur-cycling processes. Here, we conducted a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial populations in Zodletone spring source sediments to characterize the relative prevalence and importance of putative phototrophic, chemolithotrophic, and heterotrophic microorganisms in the sulfur cycle, the identity of lineages actively involved in various sulfur cycling processes, and the interaction between sulfur cycling and other geochemical processes at the spring source. Sediment samples at the spring’s source were taken at three different times within a 24-h period for geochemical analyses and RNA sequencing. In depth mining of datasets for sulfur cycling transcripts revealed major sulfur cycling pathways and taxa involved, including an unexpected potential role of Actinobacteria in sulfide oxidation and thiosulfate transformation. Surprisingly, transcripts coding for the cyanobacterial Photosystem II D1 protein, methane monooxygenase, and terminal cytochrome oxidases were encountered, indicating that genes for oxygen production and aerobic modes of metabolism are actively being transcribed, despite below-detectable levels (oxygen in source sediment. Results highlight transcripts involved in sulfur, methane, and oxygen cycles, propose that oxygenic photosynthesis could support aerobic methane and sulfide oxidation in anoxic sediments exposed to sunlight, and provide a viewpoint of microbial metabolic lifestyles under conditions similar to those seen during late Archaean and Proterozoic eons. PMID:26417542

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a protease inhibitor from the haemolymph of the Indian tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sobhan [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Aravind, Penmatsa [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad (India); Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Sankaranarayanan, Rajan, E-mail: sankar@ccmb.res.in [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad (India); Das, Amit Kumar, E-mail: sankar@ccmb.res.in [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2006-07-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a protease inhibitor from the haemolymph of the Indian tasar silk worm A. mylitta is reported. A protein with inhibitory activity against fungal proteases was purified from the haemolymph of the Indian tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyethylene glycol 3350 was used as a precipitant. Crystals belonged to space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 60.6, c = 85.1 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å.

  6. Analysis of BRCA1 involvement in breast cancer in Indian women

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P H Pestonjamasp; I Mittra

    2000-03-01

    The involvement of the familial breast-ovarian cancer gene (BRCA1) in the molecular pathogenesis of breast cancer among Indian women is unknown. We have used a set of microsatellite polymorphisms to examine the frequency of allele loss at the BRCA1 region on chromosome 17q21, in a panel of 80 human breast tumours. Tumour and blood leukocyte/normal tissue DNA from a series of 80 patients with primary breast cancer was screened by PCR-amplified microsatellite length polymorphisms to detect deletions at three polymorphic BRCA1 loci. PCR-allelotype was valuable in examining allele losses from archival and small tumour samples. Loss of alleles at BRCA1 in the patient set, confirmed a noteworthy role of this gene in the molecular pathogenesis of breast cancer and was in accordance with its well-documented tumour suppressive function.

  7. Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians Energy Conservation and Options Analysis - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Turner

    2008-07-11

    The Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant through the Department of Energy First Steps program in June of 2006. The primary purpose of the grant was to enable the Tribe to develop energy conservation policies and a strategy for alternative energy resource development. All of the work contemplated by the grant agreement has been completed and the Tribe has begun implementing the resource development strategy through the construction of a 1.0 MW grid-connected photovoltaic system designed to offset a portion of the energy demand generated by current and projected land uses on the Tribe’s Reservation. Implementation of proposed energy conservation policies will proceed more deliberately as the Tribe acquires economic development experience sufficient to evaluate more systematically the interrelationships between conservation and its economic development goals.

  8. COST ANALYSIS OF LONG ESTABLISHED AND NEWER ORAL ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS AVAILABLE IN THE INDIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatak Abhishek M, Hotwani Jitendra H, Deshmukhkiran R, Panchal Sagar S, Naik Madhura S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large number of pharmaceutical companies manufactures antiepileptic drugs in India. The price variations among the marketed drugs are wide. Aims: The present study was aimed to find the cost of different oral antiepileptic drugs available in Indian market as monotherapy, combination therapy and number of manufacturing companies for each, to evaluate difference in cost of different brands of same dosage of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods and Materials: Cost of a drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength and dosage forms was obtained from “Indian Drug Review” Vol. XXI, Issue No.4, 2014 and “Current Index of Medical Specialties” July-October 2014. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: The percentage price variation noted of long-established drugs was – Phenytoin (50mg: 140%, Carbamazepine (100mg: 1033%, Phenobarbital (30mg : 730%, Valproic acid (300mg : 420%. Newer drugs –Levetiracetam (250mg: 75%, Lamotrigine (25mg: 66%, Topiramate (50mg: 108%, Zonisamide (100mg: 19%. Combination drugs – Phenobarbital + Phenytoin (30+100 mg: 354.55%. Conclusion: The percentage price variation of different brands of the same commonly used long-established oral antiepileptic drug manufactured in India is very wide. The formulation or brand of Antiepileptic drugs (AED’s should preferably not be changed since variations in bioavailability or different pharmacokinetic profiles may increase the potential for reduced effect or excessive side effects. Hence, manufacturing companies should aim to decrease the price variation while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Indian Scientific Journals: Analysis of Completeness of Information Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jignesh K Ved,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, pharmaceutical advertising is governed by ‘The Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements Act, 1954’, and ‘The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945’. These acts do not specify the ‘minimum essential information requirements’ for an dvertisement, keeping this area ill-defined. The ‘Organization ofPharmaceutical Producers of India (OPPI’, in its ‘Code of Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices’, provides a guideline for the information requirements in advertisements. Our study is intended to analyze the ‘completeness of information content’, in pharmaceutical advertisements, published in 2009-10 in Indian Scientific journals, in the context of OPPI code. Method: Indian Scientific Journals (2009-10 issues were surveyed for pharmaceutical advertisements.Advertisements were classified as ‘Full’ or ‘Reminder’ advertisements and were separately analyzed for the presence of information on ‘Brand name’; ‘Active ingredient(s’; ‘Marketer’s Name and Address’; ‘Date of Production of advertisement’; ‘Abbreviated Prescribing Information (only for Full advertisements’ and ‘Overall completeness’. Data was expressed as absolute numbers and percentage.Results: Full advertisements (n=34 demonstrated 41.2% of ‘Overall completeness’. ‘Date’ was missing in 52.9%, while ‘Marketer’s Name and Address’ in 17.6% of advertisements. ‘Active ingredient’ was mentioned in all, while ‘Abbreviated Prescribing Information’ was complete in 97.1% of Full advertisements. Reminder advertisements (n=134 demonstrated 10.4% of ‘Overall completeness’. ‘Date’ was issing in 88.1%, ‘Marketer’s Name and Address’ in 29.1% and ‘Active ingredient’ in 8.2% of Reminder advertisements.Conclusion: Low percentage of completeness, as observed in our study, indicates a lack of adherence to OPPI code and need for mandatory regulations, to ensure information completeness in

  10. Impact of various observing systems on weather analysis and forecast over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Ojha, Satya P.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the potential impact of various types of data on weather forecast over the Indian region, a set of data-denial experiments spanning the entire month of July 2012 is executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. The experiments are designed to allow the assessment of mass versus wind observations and terrestrial versus space-based instruments, to evaluate the relative importance of the classes of conventional instrument such as radiosonde, and finally to investigate the role of individual spaceborne instruments. The moist total energy norm is used for validation and forecast skill assessment. The results show that the contribution of wind observations toward error reduction is larger than mass observations in the short range (48 h) forecast. Terrestrial-based observations generally contribute more than space-based observations except for the moisture fields, where the role of the space-based instruments becomes more prevalent. Only about 50% of individual instruments are found to be beneficial in this experiment configuration, with the most important role played by radiosondes. Thereafter, Meteosat Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) (only for short range forecast) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are second and third, followed by surface observations, Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity (SAPHIR) radiances and pilot observations. Results of the additional experiments of comparative performance of SSM/I total precipitable water (TPW), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and SAPHIR radiances indicate that SSM/I is the most important instrument followed by SAPHIR and MHS for improving the quality of the forecast over the Indian region. Further, the impact of single SAPHIR instrument (onboard Megha-Tropiques) is significantly larger compared to three MHS instruments (onboard NOAA-18/19 and MetOp-A).

  11. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  12. Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of Awarding Experiential Learning Credit at Coastline Community College. Spring 1981-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, J. E.

    Since its first year of operation, Coastline Community College (CCC) has granted students credit based on military experience, licensure, occupational training, credit-by-examination, and assessment of prior learning. In spring 1982, a study was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of granting credit for experience with that of the…

  13. Failure Analysis and Prevention of Broken Spring at Distribution Valve of Wheel Loader%某款消声器消声特性仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦博; 高静轩; 田红周; 李戈操

    2012-01-01

    A certain type wheel loader witnessed abnormal broken springs at its hydraulic distribution valve, where we made a macro section analysis, checks and tests on chemical composition, through metallographic examination and SEM analysis and inspection, and analyzed 2 types of common fracture mode. The results show that, as for positive fracture type of twist fatigue fracture mode, it is caused by spring surface defects, surface decarburization, and fatigue failure with belt organization in the raw materials as resulted from the manufacture operation processes. As for combined twist fatigue fracture mode it is resulted from surface cracks before the spring's heat treatment. Besides, insufficient tempering does in some degree affect fatigue resistance of the spring itself. Finally, we put forth preventative and control measures for critical working operation in the manufacture to avoid wrong processes which could lead to defective products.%发动机排气噪声是工程机械整机噪声中重要的噪声源,消声器设计水平的提高对于提升我国工程机械整机质量有重要的意义.针对叉车中某款抗性消声器进行了声学性能和流场性能的数值模拟分析,反映了消声器内的流场和声场的情况.结果表明,数值模拟方法预测消声器的声学性能和空气动力性能是有效的,对消声器研制开发具有一定的参考价值.

  14. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  16. Phylogenetic analysis and biological characteristic tests of marine bacteria isolated from Southern Ocean (Indian sector) water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUPTA Pratibha; BALAJI Raju; PARANI M; CHANDRA T S; SHUKLA P; KUMAR Anil; BANDOPADHYAY Rajib

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-seven bacteria were isolated from Southern Ocean (Indian sector) water samples which were collected from different latitude and longitude of the ocean. All the isolates were able to grow at 4°C, 20°C, 37°C and tolerable NaCl concentration up to 13.5% (w/v). 29 out of 57 isolates were identified using 16S rDNA amplification and the sequences were submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). All the isolates were classified by using Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and found that isolates belongs to Proteobacteria and Bacteriodes. The average G+C content was 56.4%. The isolates were screened for the presence of extracellular enzymes,viz. amylase, catalase, urease, esterase, lipase and protease. The disc diffusion method is used to screen antibiotic production by the isolates against four pathogenic bacteria,viz.Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2122),Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2193), andPseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2036). Nine out of 29 were found to be antibiotic producer.

  17. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established.

  18. Characterization of some Indian Himalayan Capsicums through floral morphology and EMA-based chromosome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Timir Baran; Saha, Partha Sarathi

    2017-03-01

    The North Eastern Himalayan (NEH) regions of India are considered as one of the major repositories of the "Capsicum annuum complex" which comprises of three cultivated species namely C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. The interspecific delimitation within this large complex is ill-defined due to poorly developed crossing barriers and lack of discontinuous morphological characters. The present study elucidates the relationship among nine different cultivars of three Capsicum species on the basis of floral morphology and karyological parameters for the first time. Different floral characteristics such as margins and constrictions of calyx, type of pedicel, flower size, and color were found to have paramount importance in the species delimitation within the studied members of "C. annuum complex." The present karyomorphometric study explicitly revealed differences between the observed chromosomal data such as karyotype formulae, ordering of satellite bearing chromosome pairs and total diploid chromatin length which aid in resolving interspecific relationship among the studied cultivars of Capsicum. The present analyses unambiguously distinguished all cultivars of C. annuum from the members of C. frutescens and C. chinense and also proposed that among the five cultivars of C. annuum, Ghee lanka was comparatively distant from the other four cultivars on the basis of their karyomorphological characteristics. For the first time karyotype of hottest Indian chili is included in this paper. Comprehensive knowledge on floral morphology and karyotypes of some Himalayan Capsicums not only help to conserve genetic diversity but also help capsicum breeders for their basic and applied research.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Indian and Pakistani Nuclear Energy Development Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the traditional competition between India and Pakistan, their strategic fields developing are interdependent. Nuclear power development programs are concerned as well. Pakistan falls behind India in this branch, however the specifics of the nuclear infrastructure let the potential of the states be relatively balanced. After Nuclear Suppliers Group granted a waiver to India in 2008 and Russia, France and USA, the new participants, broke into the market, India obtained an opportunity to make a breakthrough in the national nuclear program development, thus violating a status quo in fuel cycle technologies. Such chances stimulated China to violate the NSG guidelines and non-proliferations principles to get involved in Pakistani nuclear program development. The nuclear power Indian-Pakistani competition prospects largely depend on the Chinese position. Despite the international community suspects the Pakistani officials in nuclear black market dealing and the NSG guidelines China obviously supports the Pakistani nuclear field. This may result in preventing of escalation of tensions in the region. 

  20. Population genetic analysis among five Indian population groups using six microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anu; Das, Birajalaxmi; Seshadri, M

    2003-04-01

    Genetic variation at six tetranucleotide microsatellites (HUMTHO1, HUMVWA, F13A01, D3S1359, D12S66, and D12S67) has heen determined in five endogamous ethnic population groups of India belonging to two major linguistic families. The populations analyzed were Konkanastha Brahmins and Marathas (Maharashtra state) from the Indo-Aryan linguistic family and Nairs, Ezhavas, and Muslims (Kerala state) from the Dravidian family. All six loci show high gene diversity, ranging from 0.63 +/- 0.04 to 0.84 +/- 0.02. The average GST value observed was 1.7%, indicating that the differences between the populations account for less than 2% of the diversity, while the genetic variation is high within the five population groups studied (>98%). The phylogenetic tree fails to show any clear cluster. The absence of any cluster along with low average GST is suggestive of substantial genetic similarity among the studied populations, in spite of clear geographical, linguistic, and cultural barriers. This similarity indicates either a greater gene flow between these groups or, alternatively, may reflect a recent evolution for them, considering that the Indian caste system evolved only about 3000 years ago.

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Coolant Channel and Its Internals of Indian 540 MWe PHWR Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dharmaraju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal coolant channel is one of the important parts of primary heat transport system in PHWR type of reactors. There are in all 392 channels in the core of Indian 540 MWe reactor. Each channel houses 13 natural uranium fuel bundles and shielding and sealing plugs one each on either side of the channel. The heavy water coolant flows through the coolant channel and carries the nuclear heat to outside the core for steam generation and power production in the turbo-generator. India has commissioned one 540 MWe PHWR reactor in September 2005 and another similar unit will be going into operation very shortly. For a complete dynamic study of the channel and its internals under the influence of high coolant flow, experimental and modeling studies have been carried out. A good correlation has been achieved between the results of experimental and analytical models. The operating life of a typical coolant channel typically ranges from 10 to 15 full-power years. Towards the end of its operating life, its health monitoring becomes an important activity. Vibration diagnosis plays an important role as a tool for life management of coolant. Through the study of dynamic characteristics of the coolant channel under simulated loading condition, an attempt has been made to develop a diagnostics to monitor the health of the coolant channel over its operating life. A study has been also carried out to characterize the fuel vibration under different flow condition.

  2. Empirical Analysis of Cultural Effect on Purchase Behavior of Indian Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav MISRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cultural effect in purchase of any product is important for the marketers to sustain in the competitive environment. Indian consumers are considered as non trusty consumers when considered about the cultural factors in making purchase decisions. The study emphasizes on the necessity of understanding the cultural changes as an important constraint in shopping behavior. The organizations need to analyze the cultural constraints and prepare the marketing strategies accordingly to sustain their positions in the market. The study is also conducted to find out the impact of different social institutions such as government, family and school in transforming the cultural background of consumers. The study will also analyze the influence of social group such as peers, family, and friends in making purchase decision. The study will analyze the impact of different media modes on consumers’ final decision making about the purchase of products. The study is conducted in Lucknow with sample size of 200 respondents. The reliability of questionnaire is checked using Cronbach’s Alpha, other tools used to analyze are one sample t-test and ANOVA. Classification-JEL: A23

  3. Analysis of COCH and TNFA Variants in East Indian Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma represents a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies with a complex genetic basis. It is the second-largest cause of blindness in the world that reduces vision without warning and often without symptoms. Among 3 major subtypes of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is the most common form. The focus of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the disease among Indian patients with respect to two genes, Cochlin (COCH and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA, selected based on reports of possible association with POAG. The genes were screened in patients and controls by PCR and direct sequencing. Although two novel changes (–450 C/T and –79 G/G were identified in the 5′upstream region of COCH, no causal variant could be identified in either gene. –450 C/T was detected in 3 patients and 2 controls and –79 G/C in a single patient. Further, we did not observe significant association with the promoter SNPs of TNFA that had been previously reported to be associated with POAG pathogenesis. Thus, our study suggests lack of association of both COCH and TNFA with POAG pathogenesis.

  4. Investigation and Analysis of Indian Power Grid after Regulatory Reforms & Dynamic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Indian power system is now a national grid with 156GW of grid capacity and approximately 19.5GW of captive generation. It has passed the horrible operation phase of last decade of the twentieth century. Though the growth rate of capacity is still trying to chase the growth rate of the load since very long but the operation and control of the system has became smooth. The obvious credit goes to restructuring and concurrent regulations encouraging discipline in the operation and control of the system. In the process of transformation structural as well as policy both the types of amendments played their role. A new kind of environment is created in the system through the new tariff structure referred as Availability Based Tariff and competition is created opening the way for furthergrowth of the system to initiate activities suitable to well developed power markets. This paper investigates into operation of the grid in the light of performance indices of the power systems after regulatory reforms and restructuring at the central as well as state level.

  5. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, improves glycamic control and reduces body weight in type 2 diabetes: Findings on indian patients from the pooled data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycemia (PPG. The higher carbohydrate in the Indian diets lead to greater prandial glycemic excursion, increased glucosidase, and incretin activity in the gut and may need special therapeutic strategies to tackle these glucose peaks. This is the subgroup analysis of Indian subjects who participated in the GlucoVIP study that investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of acarbose as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness analysis. After 12.5 weeks (mean, the mean change in 2-hour PPG from baseline was −74.4 mg/dl, mean HbA1c decreased by -1.0%, and mean fasting blood glucose decreased by -37.9 mg/dl. The efficacy of acarbose was rated "very good" or "good" in 91.1% of patients, and tolerability as "very good" or "good" in 88.0% of patients. The results of this observational study suggest that acarbose was effective and well tolerated in the Indian patients with T2DM.

  6. 油缸用碟簧断裂分析%Fracture Analysis on 50 CrVA Steel Dished Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家利

    2014-01-01

    50CrVA钢制油缸用碟形弹簧在服役的早期发生断裂。采用直读光谱仪、洛氏硬度计、金相显微镜、扫描电镜等对该碟形弹簧的化学成分、硬度、非金属夹杂物、表面脱碳层、显微组织和断口形貌进行了分析。结果表明,50CrVA钢碟簧断裂是疲劳断裂,裂纹源由支撑面的加工硬化表层与次表层中的夹杂物共同作用所形成。提高碟簧使用寿命的措施是改善原材料的纯净度和提高表面加工质量。%Premature fracture of 50CrVA steel dished spring used in a oil vat occurred in service.The chemical composition,hardness,non-metallic inclusions,decarburized case,microstructure and fracture morphology of the dished spring were checked by direct-reading spectrometer,Rockwell hardness tester,OM and SEM.The results show that the rupture of the 50CrVA dished spring is a fatigue fracture,and the crack initiation arises from the action of work-hardened case of the support surface in combination with inclusions in the sublayer.Service life of the dished spring may be increased by an improvement on the raw material purity and increase in working quality of the surface.

  7. Theoretical Design and Characteristics Analysis of a Quasi-Zero Stiffness Isolator Using a Disk Spring as Negative Stiffness Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshuai Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel quasi-zero stiffness (QZS isolator designed by combining a disk spring with a vertical linear spring. The static characteristics of the disk spring and the QZS isolator are investigated. The optimal combination of the configurative parameters is derived to achieve a wide displacement range around the equilibrium position in which the stiffness has a low value and changes slightly. By considering the overloaded or underloaded conditions, the dynamic equations are established for both force and displacement excitations. The frequency response curves (FRCs are obtained by using the harmonic balance method (HBM and confirmed by the numerical simulation. The stability of the steady-state solution is analyzed by applying Floquet theory. The force, absolute displacement, and acceleration transmissibility are defined to evaluate the isolation performance. Effects of the offset displacement, excitation amplitude, and damping ratio on the QZS isolator and the equivalent system (ELS are studied. The results demonstrate that the QZS isolator for overloaded or underloaded can exhibit different stiffness characteristics with changing excitation amplitude. If loaded with an appropriate mass, excited by not too large amplitude, and owned a larger damper, the QZS isolator can possess better isolation performance than its ELS in low frequency range.

  8. Characteristics and dynamic response analysis of 3-D component base isolation system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Seismic Emergency Information System Research Team, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program of the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, i.e., improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two kinds of base isolation test systems with different characteristic were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Another system which consists of multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated three-dimensional dynamic behavior and effect of base isolation against various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the design specification of the base isolation system which consists of multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs, static and dynamic characteristics, analysis model based on the characteristics, results of shaking table test and the dynamic response analysis (author)

  9. Analysis of Seasonal and Annual Change of Vegetation in the Indian Thar Desert Using Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, P.; Chkraborty, A.

    2011-09-01

    The western part of India, specifically the dry region, will play an important role in determining the Indian monsoon and even global climate patterns. Drastically change in land use pattern of the region has been observed during last few decades. In this paper, an effort was made to track the seasonal as well as annual changes of vegetation pattern in Jaisalmer district using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products. Apart from this, ground data on vegetation were also collected under vegetation carbon pool assessment programme of ISRO-IGBP. It was found that during the hot summer month of May, the area under NDVI class 0-0.1 is reduced from 98% during 2003 to 95% during 2009 with a simultaneous increase in area under NDVI class 0.1-0.2 from 2 to 5%. During the month of September, area under NDVI class 0.2-0.3 increased from almost negligible during May to 34-39% during normal or surplus rainfall year but only to 3% during a deficit year. From the ground data on vegetation biomass, it was found that Prosopis juliflora and Acacia senegal are the most abundant trees in Jaisalmer region of the desert. The sites with NDVI value ≥ 0.2 were mostly found with Prosopis juliflora tree. Among shrubs, the most abundant species was Calotropis procera and Zizyphus numularia. From this study, it has been found that MODIS NDVI products may be used to quickly assess the vegetation changes in response to rainfall as well as due to anthroprogenic interventions in desert.

  10. An in silico analysis of troponin I mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy of Indian origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Ramachandran

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM is an autosomal dominant disorder of the myocardium which is hypertrophied resulting in arrhythmias and heart failure leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD. Several sarcomeric proteins and modifier genes have been implicated in this disease. Troponin I, being a part of the Troponin complex (troponin I, troponin C, troponin T, is an important gene for sarcomeric function. Four mutations (1 novel were identified in Indian HCM cases, namely, Pro82Ser, Arg98Gln, Arg141Gln and Arg162Gln in Troponin I protein, which are in functionally significant domains. In order to analyse the effect of the mutations on protein stability and protein-protein interactions within the Troponin complex, an in silico study was carried out. The freely available X-ray crystal structure (PDB ID: 1JIE was used as the template to model the protein followed by loop generation and development of troponin complex for both the troponin I wild type and four mutants (NCBI ID: PRJNA194382. The structural study was carried out to determine the effect of mutation on the structural stability and protein-protein interactions between three subunits in the complex. These mutations, especially the arginine to glutamine substitutions were found to result in local perturbations within the troponin complex by creating/removing inter/intra molecular hydrogen bonds with troponin T and troponin C. This has led to a decrease in the protein stability and loss of important interactions between the three subunits. It could have a significant impact on the disease progression when coupled with allelic heterogeneity which was observed in the cases carrying these mutations. However, this can be further confirmed by functional studies on protein levels in the identified cases.

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  12. Anatomical observation and MRI analysis of the spring ligament%弹簧韧带的解剖观测和MRI分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻永新; 刘凯; 邵红岩; 尚如国

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the anatomical characteristics and explore the function of the spring ligament by anatomical study, and to observe morphology of the spring ligament in MRI images. Methods The spring ligament was dissected;its origin, distribution and morphological characteristics were recorded. Meanwhile, analysis of the spring ligament in different scanning planes of the MRI images were carried out. Results The spring ligament is made up of the superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament, the medioplantar oblique calcaneonavicular ligament and the inferoplantar longitudinal calcaneonavicular ligament, which originated from the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus, and attached to the superomedial aspect of the navicular bone,the bottom of the navicular tuberosity and the navicular beak, respectively. The spring ligament could be displayed clearly on MRI, which was a low signal on T1 and T2 weighted images, and it is better displayed on the sagittal and transverse planes. Conclusion Spring ligament is an important complex of ligamentaneous structures in bearing the head of talus, which has a great significance in maintaining the longitudinal arch of the foot. MR can be used as a diagnostic tool when the spring ligament is injured.%目的:通过解剖学研究了解弹簧韧带的解剖特点并探讨其功能作用,同时应用MR观察弹簧韧带,分析其在MRI上的显示情况。方法解剖并观察弹簧韧带,了解其起止、走形及形态特征等情况,测量相关数据。同时对弹簧韧带不同扫描平面的MRI进行分析研究。结果弹簧韧带起于跟骨的载距突,由上内跟舟韧带,内下斜行跟舟韧带和下跟舟韧带3部分组成,分别止于舟骨的上内侧面,舟骨粗隆下和舟骨喙突。MR可以清楚的显示弹簧韧带的各部分结构,在T1及T2加权图像上呈中低信号表现,以矢状面和横断面显示较佳。结论弹簧韧带是足底部承载距骨头的一

  13. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite observed winds over the Indian Ocean using complex EOF analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C M Kishtawal; Sujit Basu; S Karthikeyan

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of deriving vertical wind profiles from current satellite observations. With this aim, we carried out complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis of a large number of radiosonde observations of wind profiles over the Indian Ocean during the monsoon months. It has been found that the first two CEOFs explain 67% of the total variance in wind fields. While the first principal component is well correlated with the winds at 850 mb ( = 0.80), the second one is highly correlated with winds at 200 mb ( = 0.89). This analysis formed the basis of a retrieval algorithm which ensures the retrieval of vertical profiles of winds using satellite tracked cloud motion vector winds. Under the assumption that accurate measurements of wind are available at the above mentioned levels, the r.m.s. error of retrieval of each component of wind is estimated to range between 2ms-1 and 6ms-1 at different levels, which is much less than the natural variance of winds at these levels. For a better visualization of retrieval, we have provided retrieved and true wind profiles side by side for four typical synoptic conditions during the monsoon season.

  14. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  15. Rape Crime, Law and Victim’s Right an Analysis from Indian Penal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu VIJAYA KUMAR

    2010-11-01

    judicialintervention on the other. The question is not whether women have right to bodily integrity as this right is already adumbrated in almost the Articles of Indian Constitution exclusively under Art 21,which guarantees the right to life and liberty to men and women both alike. But whether it is imperative to take a decisive step toward extirpating this evil and make the contemporary and furthersociety a safe place for women. The hypothetical point here is that this crime cannot be prevented only by new enactment or enlarging the law enforcing agencies because several other factors areresponsible for increase in crime, to which legal system has to intervene.

  16. Comparison and agreement between venous and arterial gas analysis in cardiopulmonary patients in Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is routinely performed for sick patients but is fraught with complications, is painful, and is technically demanding. Objective: To ascertain agreement between the arterial and peripheral venous measurement of pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , and bicarbonate levels in sick patients with cardiopulmonary disorders in the valley of Kashmir in the Indian subcontinent, so as to use venous gas analysis instead of arterial for assessment of patients. Setting: Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir, a 650-bedded tertiary care hospital in North India located at an altitude of 1584 m. Methods: One hundred patients who required ABG analysis were admitted. Peripheral venous blood was drawn within 5 min of an ABG measurement, and the samples analyzed immediately on a point of care automated ABG analyzer. Finger pulse oximetry was used to obtain oxygen (SpO 2 saturation. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and bias (Bland Altman methods. Results: The venous measurements of pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 and bicarbonate, and the digital oxygen saturation were highly correlated with their corresponding arterial measurements. Bland Altman plots demonstrated a high degree of agreement between the two corresponding sets of measurements with clinically acceptable differences. The difference in pO 2 measurements was, however, higher (-22.34 ± 15.23 although the arterial saturation and finger oximetry revealed a good degree of agreement with clinically acceptable bias. Conclusion: Peripheral venous blood gas assessment in conjunction with finger pulse oximetry can obviate the routine use of arterial puncture in patients requiring ABG analysis.

  17. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)

  18. Shaking table test and dynamic response analysis of 3-D component base isolation system using multi-layer rubber bearings and coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fujimoto, Shigeru [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of the effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated under various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the results of the shaking table tests and dynamic response analysis. (author)

  19. 四磨头磨簧机模态分析及优化设计%Modal analysis and design optimizationon of spring end grinder with four wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金根; 季磊; 郑子军

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the vibration of spring end grinder process, the finite element numerical simulation analysis method was used to study the dynamic characteristics of the spring end grinder with four wheel. Solidworks 3D software was used to create solid model of spring end grinder,the finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench was applied to conduct modal analysis of the simplified model, then the inherent vibration mode and natural frequency of the each mode state were obtained. Structural weaknesses of the machine structure of spring end grinder were optimized and improved. The results indicate that the improvement of the dynamic characteristics through the improvement of the bed is conducive to improve the machine's lower order natural frequency. The first order natural frequency of the bed is increased by 57.2%, the first order modal natural frequency of the whole improved machine is increased by 103%, which stays away from the motor vibration frequency to prevent the occurrence of resonance.%针对磨簧机在加工过程中存在的颤动问题,采用有限元数值模拟分析方法,研究了四磨头磨簧机的动态特性.利用Solidworks三维软件对磨簧机进行了实体建模,运用有限元分析软件ANSYS Workbench对简化模型进行了模态分析,得到了各阶模态的固有振型和固有频率,并对磨簧机机床结构的薄弱环节进行了结构上的优化和改进.研究结果表明,通过对床身的改进,其动态特性的改善有利于提高整机的低阶固有频率;床身的第一阶固有频率提高了57.2%,改进后的整机第一阶模态固有频率提高了103%,并且远离电机的激振频率,能够防止加工过程中共振现象的发生.

  20. Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and four-dimensional models to derive the regional aerosol forcing resulting...

  1. Perioperative and continence outcomes of robotic radical prostatectomy in elderly Indian men (≥70 years: A sub-group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many healthy elderly Indian men seek surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer. Quite often, radical surgery is not offered to the patients over 70 years of age due to the perception of increased side-effects and complications. We have previously reported our results of robotic radical prostatectomy in a study comprising 150 Indian patients, where almost a quarter of patients were elderly. This subgroup analysis was therefore focused on evaluating perioperative and continence outcomes in elderly men (≥70 years with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between April 2010 and August 2013, 153 men had robot-assisted radical prostatectomy performed by two surgeons. Of the 150 men analyzed, 39 (26% were aged ≥70 years. All patients underwent robotic prostatectomy using a 4 arm da Vinci surgical system. Pre-operative, intraoperative and post-operative parameters were studied. Check cystogram was performed in all patients prior to catheter removal. Complications were categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Continence was defined as use of "no pad" or security liner only. All data were recorded prospectively and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: There were no significant intraoperative or perioperative complications in this group. Median blood loss during surgery was 150 mL. None of the patient required blood transfusion. There were two minor complications (5.1% within the first 30 days of surgery: Minimal anastomotic site leak (one patient requiring replacement and prolongation of Foley′s drainage by 1 week and ileus (one patient. No patient had any cardiopulmonary or vascular complications in the post-operative period. The median duration of hospital stay was 3 days. The median duration of catheterization was 7 days. No patient had problem of bladder neck stenosis in the follow-up period. At 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year of follow-up, 66.7% (n = 26, 74.3% (n = 29, 87.9% (n = 34

  2. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements isolated from the Indian tasar silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: saturniidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Dharma Prasad; J Nagaraju

    2003-06-01

    Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the database. Full length elements from A. mylitta were inactive with multiple mutations. Many conserved amino acid blocks were identified after aligning transposase sequences. Mariner signature sequence, DD(34)D was almost invariable although a few new class of elements had different signatures. A. mylitta MLEs (Anmmar) get phylogenetically classified under cecropia subfamily and cluster closely with the elements from other Bombycoidea superfamily members implying vertical transmission from a common ancestor. ITR analysis showed a conserved sequence of AGGT(2-8N)ATAAGT for forward repeat and AGGT(2-8N)ATGAAAT for reverse repeat. These results and additional work may help us to understand the dynamics of MLE distribution in A. mylitta and construction of appropriate vectors for mariner mediated transgenics.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Spring-Supported Piston in a Vibrated Liquid-Filled Housing: I. Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, J. R.; O'Hern, T. J.; Clausen, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a piston supported by a spring in a vibrated liquid-filled housing is analyzed. The liquid is viscous, and the flow passages are narrow and depend on piston position. Ordinarily, the piston motion is highly damped. However, if bellows are added to both ends of the housing, then the piston, liquid, and bellows can execute a collective motion that forces relatively little liquid through the flow passages and thus has low damping and a strong resonance. At this frequency, the motion is large, and the nonlinearity from the flow passages produces a net force on the piston that can cause it to compress its spring. This nonlinear dynamical system is analyzed using a perturbation expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations, and the perturbation results are compared to corresponding ALE Navier-Stokes simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Analysis of elastic stiffness for the leaf type holddown spring assembly with uniformly tapered thickness based on strain energy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    A formula to evaluate the elastic stiffness of the leaf type holddown spring (HDS)assembly with uniformly tapered thickness from t{sub 0} to t{sub 1} (t{sub 0} < t{sub 1}) has been analytically derived by applying the engineering beam theory and Casiliano`s theorem based on strain energies due to bending moment, shear and axial force. Comparisons on the elastic stiffnesses have been made with test results and evaluated values from the derived formula for the 14x14 and 17x17 type KOFA HDS, and it has found that most of the differences were in the range of 1-2% of the evaluated elastic stiffnesses and that the elastic stiffness of the HDS was mainly caused by bending moment because effects of shear and axial forces on the elastic stiffness were in the range of 0.09-0.16%. And in addition, it has found that the derived formula could be applicable to HDS designed by Westinghouse. Therefore, the derived formula could be applicable to evaluating the elastic stiffness of any HDS with tapered thickness only with the informations of the geometric data and material properties of leaf springs regardness of the manufacturing companies. 8 tabs., 4 figs., 22 refs. (Author) .new.

  5. Is reduced benthic flux related to the Diporeia decline? Analysis of spring blooms and whiting events in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, James M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Walsh, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Benthic monitoring by USGS off the southern shore of Lake Ontario from October 1993 to October 1995 provides a detailed view of the early stages of the decline of the native amphipod Diporeia. A loss of the 1994 and 1995 year classes of Diporeia preceded the disappearance of the native amphipod at sites near Oswego and Rochester at depths from 55 to 130 m. In succeeding years, Diporeia populations continued to decline in Lake Ontario and were nearly extirpated by 2008. Explanations for Diporeia 's decline in the Great Lakes include several hypotheses often linked to the introduction and expansion of exotic zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena sp.). We compare the timeline of the Diporeia decline in Lake Ontario with trends in two sources of organic matter to the sediments — spring diatom blooms and late summer whiting events. The 1994–95 decline of Diporeia coincided with localized dreissenid effects on phytoplankton in the nearshore and a year (April 1994 to May 1995) of decreased flux of organic carbon recorded by sediment traps moored offshore of Oswego. Later declines of profundal (> 90 m) Diporeia populations in 2003 were poorly associated with trends in spring algal blooms and late summer whiting events. Lake Ontario/Diporeia/Dreissena/remote sensing.

  6. A robust TEC depletion detector algorithm for satellite based navigation in Indian zone and depletion analysis for GAGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashora, Nirvikar

    2012-07-01

    require an immediate solution to attack this problem. Hence, an alternative approach is chosen in which TEC-depletions are ignored for GIVE estimation. This approach requires further attention to accommodate it in the processing software for a near real time solution for the concerned user in Indian zone. But, nonetheless, as a prime concern, to precluding a particular satellite-link affected by TEC depletion, a reference receiver or user requires an algorithm that can compute the TEC and detect the depletion in TEC in near real time. To answer it, a novel TEC depletion detector algorithm and software has been developed which can be used for any SBAS in India. The algorithm is initially tested for recorded data from ground based dual frequency GPS receivers of GAGAN project. Data from 18-20 stations with 30 second sampling interval was obtained for year 2004 and 2005. The algorithm has been tuned to Indian ionosphere and show a great success in detecting TEC depletions with minimum false alarm. This is because of a specific property of this algorithm that it rejects the smooth fall in TEC in post sunset ionosphere. The depletions in TEC are characterized by a sudden fall and immediate recovery in level of TEC for a given line of sight. Since our algorithm extracts only such signatures and hence minimize the false alarms it may reduce burden on operational systems. We present this algorithm in detail. Another important facet of this algorithm is about its scientific use in automatic analysis of large amount of continuous GPS data. We have analyzed the aforementioned data by a MATLAB based script and obtained significant statistical results. The temporal duration and depth of TEC depletions is obtained for all over Indian region which provide a new insight over the phenomenon called EPBs and TEC depletions.

  7. Observed & Modeled Changes in the Onset of Spring: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis by Geographic Regions of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, C.

    2012-12-01

    Phenology, the study of seasonal life cycle events in plants and animals, is a well-recognized indicator of climate change impacts on people and nature. Models, experiments, and observational studies show changes in plant and animal phenology as a function of environmental change. Current research aims to improve our understanding of changes by enhancing existing models, analyzing observations, synthesizing previous research, and comparing outputs. Local to regional climatology is a critical driver of phenological variation of organisms across scales. Because plants respond to the cumulative effects of daily weather over an extended period, timing of life cycle events are effective integrators of climate data. One specific measure, leaf emergence, is particularly important because it often shows a strong response to temperature change, and is crucial for assessment of processes related to start and duration of the growing season. Schwartz et al. (2006) developed a suite of models (the "Spring Indices") linking plant development from historical data from leafing and flowering of cloned lilac and honeysuckle with basic climatic drivers to monitor changes related to the start of the spring growing season. These models can be generated at any location that has daily max-min temperature time series. The new version of these models is called the "Extended Spring Indices," or SI-x (Schwartz et al. in press). The SI-x model output (first leaf date and first bloom date) are produced similarly to the original models (SI-o), but do not incorporate accumulated chilling hours; rather energy accumulation starts for all stations on January 1. This change extends the locations SI model output can be generated into the sub-tropics, allowing full coverage of the conterminous USA. Both SI model versions are highly correlated, with mean bias and mean absolute differences around two days or less, and a similar bias and absolute errors when compared to cloned lilac data. To

  8. Multidimensional scaling technique for analysis of magnetic storms at Indian observatories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sridharan; A M S Ramasamy

    2002-12-01

    Multidimensional scaling is a powerful technique for analysis of data. The latitudinal dependenceof geomagnetic field variation in horizontal component (H) during magnetic storms is analysed in this paper by employing this technique.

  9. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  10. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plant for the Environmental Monitoring Plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy System, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  11. Wavelet analysis of the singular spectral reconstructed time series to study the imprints of solar-ENSO-geomagnetic activity on Indian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Sunkara, Sri; Krishna Tiwari, Rama

    2016-09-01

    To study the imprints of the solar-ENSO-geomagnetic activity on the Indian subcontinent, we have applied singular spectral analysis (SSA) and wavelet analysis to the tree-ring temperature variability record from the Western Himalayas. Other data used in the present study are the solar sunspot number (SSN), geomagnetic indices (aa index), and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) for the common time period of 1876-2000. Both SSA and wavelet spectral analyses reveal the presence of 5-7-year short-term ENSO variations and the 11-year solar cycle, indicating the possible combined influences of solar-geomagnetic activities and ENSO on the Indian temperature. Another prominent signal corresponding to 33-year periodicity in the tree-ring record suggests the Sun-temperature variability link probably induced by changes in the basic state of the Earth's atmosphere. In order to complement the above findings, we performed a wavelet analysis of SSA reconstructed time series, which agrees well with our earlier results and increases the signal-to-noise ratio, thereby showing the strong influence of solar-geomagnetic activity and ENSO throughout the entire period. The solar flares are considered responsible for causing the atmospheric circulation patterns. The net effect of solar-geomagnetic processes on the temperature record might suggest counteracting influences on shorter (about 5-6-year) and longer (about 11-12-year) timescales. The present analyses suggest that the influence of solar activities on the Indian temperature variability operates in part indirectly through coupling of ENSO on multilateral timescales. The analyses, hence, provide credible evidence of teleconnections of tropical Pacific climatic variability and Indian climate ranging from inter-annual to decadal timescales and also suggest the possible role of exogenic triggering in reorganizing the global Earth-ocean-atmospheric systems.

  12. Running springs: speed and animal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Glasheen, J; McMahon, T A

    1993-12-01

    Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find that the stiffness of the leg spring (k(leg)) is nearly independent of speed in dogs, goats, horses and red kangaroos. As these animals trot or hop faster, the leg spring sweeps a greater angle during the stance phase, and the vertical excursion of the center of mass during the ground contact phase decreases. The combination of these changes to the spring system causes animals to bounce off the ground more quickly at higher speeds. Analysis of a wide size range of animals (0.1-140 kg) at equivalent speeds reveals that larger animals have stiffer leg springs (k(leg) [symbol: see text] M0.67, where M is body mass), but that the angle swept by the leg spring is nearly independent of body mass. As a result, the resonant period of vertical vibration of the spring-mass system is longer in larger animals. The length of time that the feet are in contact with the ground increases with body mass in nearly the same way as the resonant period of vertical vibration.

  13. Determination of acidic pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters and spring waters by selective elution and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Richard; Becerril-Bravo, Elías; Silva-Castro, Vanessa; Jiménez, Blanca

    2007-10-26

    Although the trend in development of analytical methods for emerging contaminants is towards reduced sample preparation and increased detector selectivity, there are still benefits from removal of matrix material during sample preparation. This paper describes a simple method for acidic pharmaceuticals and a range of potential endocrine disrupting compounds in untreated wastewaters and spring waters. It is based on separation of the two classes during elution from the extraction cartridge with final analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 3,4-D was used as the recovery standard for the acids while 4-n-nonylphenol and [2H4]estrone were used for the endocrine disrupters; mean recoveries varied between 89% and 111%. The method was also extensively validated by fortification with the target compounds. Recoveries of acids were from 68% to 97% with relative standard deviations generally less than 10% and recoveries of endocrine disrupters were 68-109% with relative standard deviations less than 20%. Detection limits varied from 0.005 to 1 ng/L in spring water, and from 0.5 to 100 ng/L in untreated wastewater. Concentrations of the analytes in the wastewater ranged from 0.018 to 22.4 microg/L. Values were comparable to reported data, although concentrations were generally relatively high, probably because of a lack of treatment. Triclosan, phthalates, estrone, 17beta-estradiol, ibuprofen, and naproxen were present in the spring water from aquifers recharged indirectly with this wastewater after its use for irrigation; concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 25.0 ng/L. The much lower concentrations compared to wastewater indicate effective removal processes on passage through the soil and subsoil.

  14. A trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of black carbon aerosols to Canadian High Arctic in winter and spring (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Huang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles accumulated in the Arctic troposphere and deposited over snow have significant effects on radiative forcing of the Arctic regional climate. Applying cluster analysis technique on 10-day backward trajectories, transport pathways affecting Alert (82.5° N, 62.5° W, Nunavut in Canada are identified in this work, along with the associated transport frequency. Based on the atmospheric transport frequency and the estimated BC emission intensity from surrounding regions, a linear regression model is constructed to investigate the inter-annual variations of BC observed at Alert in January and April, representative of winter and spring respectively, between 1990 and 2005. Strong correlations are found between BC concentrations predicted with the regression model and measured at Alert for both seasons (R2 equals 0.77 and 0.81 for winter and spring, respectively. Results imply that atmospheric transport and BC emission are the major contributors to the inter-annual variations in BC concentrations observed at Alert in the cold seasons for the 16-year period. Based on the regression model the relative contributions of regional BC emissions affecting Alert are attributed to the Eurasian sector, composed of the European Union and the former USSR, and the North American sector. Considering both seasons, the model suggests that Eurasia is the major contributor to the near-surface BC levels at the Canadian High Arctic site with an average contribution of over 85% during the 16-year period. In winter, the atmospheric transport of BC aerosols from Eurasia is found to be even more predominant with a multi-year average of 94%. The model estimates smaller contribution from the Eurasian sector in spring (70% than that in winter. It is also found that the change in Eurasian contributions depends mainly on the reduction of emission intensity, while the changes in both emission and atmospheric transport contributed to the

  15. Demonstration of anticoagulation patient self-testing feasibility at an Indian Health Service facility: A case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupbach RR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anticoagulation patient self-testing (PST represents an alternative approach to warfarin monitoring by enabling patients to use coagulometers to test their international normalized ratio (INR values. PST offers several advantages that potentially improve warfarin management. Objective: To describe implementation and associated performance of a PST demonstration program at an Indian Health Service (IHS facility. Methods: A non-consecutive case series analysis of patients from a pharmacy-managed PST demonstration program was performed at an IHS facility in Oklahoma between July 2008 and February 2009.Results: Mean time in therapeutic range (TTR for the seven patients showed a small, absolute increase during the twelve weeks of PST compared to the twelve weeks prior to PST. Four of the seven patients had an increase in TTR during the twelve week course of PST compared to their baseline TTR. Three of four patients with increased TTR in the final eight week period of PST achieved a TTR of 100%. Of the three patients who experienced a decrease in TTR after initiating self-testing, two initially presented with a TTR of 100% prior to PST and one patient had a TTR of 100% for the final eight weeks of PST. The two patients not achieving a TTR of 100% during the twelve week PST period demonstrated an increase in TTR following the first four weeks of PST. Conclusion: Although anticoagulation guidelines now emphasize patient self-management (PSM only, optimal PST remains an integral process in PSM delivery. In the patients studied, the results of this analysis suggest that PST at the IHS facility provided a convenient, alternative method for management of chronic warfarin therapy for qualified patients. More than half of the patients demonstrated improvement in TTR. Although there is a learning curve immediately following PST initiation, the mean TTR for the entire PST period increased modestly when compared to the time period prior to PST.

  16. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  17. The role of Equatorial Undercurrent in sustaining the Eastern Indian Ocean upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Shu, Yeqiang; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Xie, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    By combining volume transport and salinity analysis from 1958 to 2014, this paper investigates how the transient Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) sustains the summer-fall equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling. On seasonal time scales, the EIO upwelling is mainly supplied by the salty water from the western basin through a buffering process: The winter-spring EUC carries the salty water from the western basin eastward, induces downwelling in the EIO, and pushes portion of the salty water below the central thermocline, which subsequently upwells to the central thermocline during summer-fall and sustains the EIO upwelling. On interannual time scales, enhanced upwelling occurs during positive Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD) years. The strong summer-fall EUC associated with the +IOD supplies water for the intensified upwelling. This research provides new knowledge for basin-scale mass and property exchanges associated with the EIO upwelling, contributing to our understanding of three-dimensional ocean circulation and climate variability.

  18. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  19. Genetic analysis on three South Indian sympatric hipposiderid bats (Chiroptera, Hipposideridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagaraj, C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.

  20. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Meteorological Drought Variability in the Indian Region Using Standardized Precipitation Index

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Grid (1{\\deg} latitude x 1{\\deg} longitude) level daily rainfall data over India from June to September for the years 1951 to 2007, generated by India Meteorological Department, was analyzed to build monthly time series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Analysis of SPI was done to study the spatial and temporal patterns of drought occurrence in the country. Geographic spread of SPI derived Area under Dryness (AUD) in different years revealed the uniqueness of 2002 drought with wide spread dryness in July. Mann-Kendal trend analysis and moving average based trends performed on AUD indicated increasing trend in July. The area under moderate drought frequency has increased in the most recent decade. Ranking of years based on Drought Persistency Score (DPS) indicated that the year 1987 was the severe-most drought year in the country. The results of the study have revealed various aspects of drought climatology in India. A similar analysis with the SPI of finer spatial resolution and relating it to crop p...

  1. Mutation analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase 1 gene in Indian cases of 46,XY disorder of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanjit Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of sex is the result of cascade of molecular events that cause undifferentiated bipotential gonad to develop as a testis or an ovary. A series of genes such as SRY, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1, AR, SRD5 α, Desert hedgehog (DHH etc., have been reported to have a significant role in development of sex in the fetus and secondary sexual characteristics at the time of puberty. Recently, mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1 gene was found to be associated with 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD. Aim: The present study is focused to identify mutations in MAP3K1 gene in the cohort of 10 Indian patients with 46,XY DSD including one family with two affected sisters. These patients were already screened for SRY, SF1 and DHH gene, but no mutation was observed in any of these genes. Materials and Methods: The entire coding regions of MAP3K1 were amplified and sequenced using the gene specific primers. Results and Discussions: Sequence analysis of MAP3K1 gene has revealed four variants including one missense, two silent and one deletion mutation. The missense mutation p.D806N was observed in four patients with hypospadias. Two patients showed the presence of silent mutation p.Q1028Q present in exon 14. Another silent mutation p.T428T was observed in a patient with gonadal dysgenesis. We have also observed one deletion mutation p. 942insT present in two patients. The pathogenicity of the missense mutation p.D806N was carried out using in-silico approach. Sequence homology analysis has revealed that the aspartate at 806 was found to be well-conserved across species, indicated the importance of this residue. The score for polyphen analysis of this mutation was found to be 0.999 indicating to be pathogenic mutation. Since, p.D806N mutation was found to be important residue; it might contribute to sexual development. We have reported the presence of mutations/polymorphism in MAP3K1 gene. All the mutations were

  2. Economic analysis of delivering primary health care services through community health workers in 3 North Indian states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    Full Text Available We assessed overall annual and unit cost of delivering package of services and specific services at sub-centre level by CHWs and cost effectiveness of Government of India's policy of introducing a second auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM at the sub-centre compared to scenario of single ANM sub-centre.We undertook an economic costing of health services delivered by CHWs, from a health system perspective. Bottom-up costing method was used to collect data on resources spent in 50 randomly selected sub-centres selected from 4 districts. Mean unit cost along with its 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap method. Multiple linear regression model was used to standardize cost and assess its determinants.Annually it costs INR 1.03 million (USD 19,381, or INR 187 (USD 3.5 per capita per year, to provide a package of preventive, curative and promotive services through community health workers. Unit costs for antenatal care, postnatal care, DOTS treatment and immunization were INR 525 (USD 10 per full ANC care, INR 767 (USD 14 per PNC case registered, INR 974 (USD 18 per DOTS treatment completed and INR 97 (USD 1.8 per child immunized in routine immunization respectively. A 10% increase in human resource costs results in 6% rise in per capita cost. Similarly, 10% increment in the ANC case registered per provider through-put results in a decline in unit cost ranging from 2% in the event of current capacity utilization to 3% reduction in case of full capacity utilization. Incremental cost of introducing 2nd ANM at sub-centre level per unit percent increase ANC coverage was INR 23,058 (USD 432.Our estimates would be useful in undertaking full economic evaluations or equity analysis of CHW programs. Government of India's policy of hiring 2nd ANM at sub-centre level is very cost effective from Indian health system perspective.

  3. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CRYGA and CRYGB genes in control population of western Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur Suman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Polymorphisms in γ-crystallins ( CRYG can serve as markers for lens differentiation and eye disorders leading to cataract. Several investigators have reported the presence of sequence variations within crystallin genes, with or without apparent effects on the function of the proteins both in mice and humans. Delineation of these polymorphic sites may explain the differences observed in the susceptibility to cataract observed among various ethnic groups. An easier Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP-based method has been used to detect the frequency of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CRYGA / CRYGB genes in control subjects of western Indian origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 137 healthy volunteers from western India were studied. Examination was performed to exclude volunteers with any ocular defects. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP based method was developed for genotyping of G198A (Intron A, T196C (Exon 3 of CRYGA and T47C (Promoter, G449T (Exon 2 of CRYGB genes. Results: The exonic SNPs in CRYGA and CRYGB were found to have an allele frequency 0.03 and 1.00 for ancestral allele respectively, while frequency of non-coding SNP in CRYGA was 0.72. Allele frequency of T90C of CRYGB varied significantly ( P = 0.02 among different age groups. An in-silico analysis reveals that this sequence variation in CRYGB promoter impacts the binding of two transcription factors, ACE2 (Member of CLB2 cluster and Progesterone Receptor (PR which may impact the expression of CRYGB gene. Conclusions: This study establishes baseline frequency data for four SNPs in CRYGA and CRYGB genes for future case control studies on the role of these SNPs in the genetic basis of cataract.

  4. Morphometric analysis of diameter and relationship of vertebral artery with respect to transverse foramen in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the location, origin, size and relationship of the vertebral artery and the transverse foramina in the lower cervical spine by computed tomographic angiography (CTA measurements in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of multi-detector CT (MDCT cerebral angiography scans was done between June 2011 and February 2014. A total of 120 patients were evaluated. The diameter of the vertebral artery (AL and the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and the medial (M, lateral (L, anterior (A, and posterior (P borders of transverse foramen were studied. In addition, the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and pedicle (h was also analyzed. Statistical Analysis: The means and their standard deviations (SD were calculated in both the sexes. The t-tests were performed to look for significant sexual difference. Results: The largest vertebral artery diameter (AL was at level C7 on the right side (3.5 ± 0.8 and at the level of C5 on the left side (3.7 ± 0.4. Statistically significant difference between males and females were seen at levels C4, C5, and C7. The diameter of the vertebral artery was smaller in females than males. The L value was greater than other parameters (M, A, P at the same level in all the measurements. The h value was greatest at C6 level and shortest at C5. Conclusion: CTA is necessary before pedicle screw fixation due to variation in measurements at all levels. The highest potential risk of vertebral artery injury during cervical pedicle screw implantation may be at C5, then at C4, and the safest is at C7.

  5. Comparative sequence analysis of double stranded RNA binding protein encoding gene of parapoxviruses from Indian camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagarajan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The dsRNA binding protein (RBP encoding gene of parapoxviruses (PPVs from the Dromedary camels, inhabitating different geographical region of Rajasthan, India were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using the primers of pseudocowpoxvirus (PCPV from Finnish reindeer and cloned into pGEM-T for sequence analysis. Analysis of RBP encoding gene revealed that PPV DNA from Bikaner shared 98.3% and 76.6% sequence identity at the amino acid level, with Pali and Udaipur PPV DNA, respectively. Reference strains of Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV and PCPV (reindeer PCPV and human PCPV shared 52.8% and 86.9% amino acid identity with RBP gene of camel PPVs from Bikaner, respectively. But different strains of orf virus (ORFV from different geographical areas of the world shared 69.5–71.7% amino acid identity with RBP gene of camel PPVs from Bikaner. These findings indicate that the camel PPVs described are closely related to bovine PPV (PCPV in comparison to caprine and ovine PPV (ORFV.

  6. INTERNET BANKING: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF SELECTED INDIAN PUBLIC AND PRIV ATE SECTOR BANKS’ ONLINE PORTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinderpal Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in technology has played an import ant role in the distribution strategy of commercial banks. Banks distribute their products and services not only through a sole channel but instead through a variety of channels such as internet banking, automated teller machines, mobile banking, phone banking, TV baking etc. Internet banking has attracted the considerable amount of interest of researchers in the recent times. Previously research studies had concentrat ed on the perception about online service quality, adoption of internet banking, impact of information technology in banking, etc. based on customers’ opinion. However, on the other side, in depth analysis of bank’s online portal without approaching the customer s may also provide meaningful insight about the online portals especially when compar ed with other banks’ online portals. The present study aims to compare the pre-login and after login features of selected banks’ online portals. For study purpose, two leading banks, one each from public and private sector were selected. A content analysis technique was used to study the listed features of selected websites. Study found that selected banks’ online portals differ on various features such as accounts information, fund transfer, online requests and general information. In the end, study suggested to include the good feature of other online portal which would help them to make their sites more secure, informative and user friendly.

  7. Study of some Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants for the essential trace elemental contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.; Andhele, M.L. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Mumbai, Santacruz, Mumbai (India); Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Radiochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2009-07-01

    Elemental analysis of some medicinal plants used in the Indian Ayurvedic system was performed by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plants samples collected in summer, winter and rainy seasons was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Anomalous behaviors of Wyrtki Jets in the equatorial Indian Ocean during 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yongliang; Liu, Lin; Han, Guoqing; Liu, Hongwei; Yu, Weidong; Yang, Guang; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Yanliang; Zahid; Waheed, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    In-situ measurement of the upper ocean velocity discloses significant abnormal behaviors of two Wyrtki Jets (WJs) respectively in boreal spring and fall, over the tropical Indian Ocean in 2013. The two WJs both occurred within upper 130 m depth and persisted more than one month. The exceptional spring jet in May was unusually stronger than its counterpart in fall, which is clearly against the previous understanding. Furthermore, the fall WJ in 2013 unexpectedly peaked in December, one month later than its climatology. Data analysis and numerical experiments illustrate that the anomalous changes in the equatorial zonal wind, associated with the strong intra-seasonal oscillation events, are most likely the primary reason for such anomalous WJs activities. PMID:27436723

  9. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  10. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  11. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  12. Parametric sensitivity analysis for techno-economic parameters in Indian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K. [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu and Kashmir 182 320 (India)

    2011-03-15

    Sensitivity analysis is a technique that evaluates the model response to changes in input assumptions. Due to uncertain prices of primary fuels in the world market, Government regulations for sustainability and various other technical parameters there is a need to analyze the techno-economic parameters which play an important role in policy formulations. This paper examines the variations in technical as well as economic parameters that can mostly affect the energy policy of India. MARKAL energy simulation model has been used to analyze the uncertainty in all techno-economic parameters. Various ranges of input parameters are adopted from previous studies. The results show that at lower discount rate coal is the least preferred technology and correspondingly carbon emission reduction. With increased gas and nuclear fuel prices they disappear from the allocations of energy mix. (author)

  13. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  14. Analysis of the change of polyamine during the cold treatment in spring radish young cotyledons and hypocotyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C.; Park, J.W.; Cho, B.H. [University of Suwon, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The concentration of polyamine and the relationship between the concentration of PA and cold resistance were analysed during the cold stress in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of young spring radishes. The concentration of PUT was increased during the cold stress in the cotyledons and the concentration of PUT and SPD was changed significantly all the stress time. From the results, we suggested that PUT and SPD were synthesized against cold stress or separated from the bound PA during the cold stress. But, the concentration of SPM was not significantly changed during the cold stress. Only SPD existed in the control hypocotyls. The concentration of SPD was increased during the cold stress, but was decreased dramatically during continuously cold stress. The reactivity against stress of hypocotyls was generally more sensitive during the cold treatment than that of the cotyledons because of the lower concentration of PA in the hypocotyls. PUT and SPD were responsible for the resistance of cold stress in the cotyledons and PA did not play an important role on the resistance of cold stress in the hypocotyls. In this study we suggest that PUT and SPD were responsible for the increase of the resistance against the cold stress. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Dimensional analysis of various rugae patterns in north Indian population subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rugae patterns are significant markers for analyzing anteroposterior changes in adolescence, and forensic investigations. Aim: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the gender-wise predisposition of rugae patterns and to analyze anteroposterior alterations along with any developmental changes in palatal depth. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-treatment study cast models were obtained from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, M.M. CDSR, Mullana. Parameters employed were: Division of medial palatal region into "a": Distance between incisive papilla length and anterior limit of the anteriormost rugae; "b": Distance between incisive papilla and most posterior rugae limits; measurement of Lateral rugae dimensions and palatal depth. Statistical analysis: Mean ± S.D. values were obtained and ′P′ values calculated. Results: Comparison of "a" and "b" showed a significant difference in the P values between the age-groups 12-13 years and >14 years. Rugae patterns with separate origins showed a predisposition for female gender. Conclusion: A significant change in the anteroposterior medial rugae dimensions was seen in adolescent age groups alongside no variation in palate depth. Hence, it can be concluded that differential growth potential is present in the premaxilla and can cause shift in medial palatal dimensions without altering the rugae patterns and palatal depth.

  16. Analysis of chemical composition and bioactive property evaluation of Indian propolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Thirugnanasampandan; Sayana Beena Raveendran; R Jayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the bioactive potential of hydroalocoholic extract of propolis. Methods: Ethanol extract of propolis was analyzed by GC-MS, HPTLC and HPLC methods and in vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and cytotoxicity assay were performed. Results: GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids, alcohols, and quercetin. Quercetin was identified and quantified by HPTLC and HPLC methods. Dose dependent DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of propolis was calculated as 16.20 and 34.33 μg/mL respectively. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was significant and the IC50 value was calculated as 55.56μg/mL. Anticholinesterase activity was less observed. The cytotoxic activity against both breast (MCF-7) and lung cancer (A543) cell lines were significant and the IC50 value was calculated as 10 and 13 μg/mL respectively. Conclusions:These findings showed that bioactive compounds present in propolis will alleviate many diseases and can be used for better human health.

  17. Analysis of ancient Indian silver punch-marked coins by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash.rautray@gmail.com [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India); Nayak, Suman S. [Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 201 North Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2302 (United States); Tripathy, Bipin B. [Department of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Das, Saubhagyalaxmi [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India); Das, Manas R. [Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technical education and Research, SOA University, Jagmohan Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Das, Satya R. [Department of Computer Science, Institute of Technical education and Research, SOA University, Jagmohan Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Chattopadhyay, Pranab K. [Centre for Archaeological Studies and Training, Eastern India, 4 Camac Street (1st Floor), Kolkata 700016 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Seven silver punch-marked coins were analysed using external particle induced X-ray emission technique. The main group of elements like Ag, Cu, Au, Pb and Fe were estimated along with a number of trace/minor elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Rb in the analysed silver coins. Gold was found in all the coins and varied between 0.7% and 6.2% indicating the better economic condition of that civilisation. - Highlights: > The silver punch-marked coins, in the current study, were in use in India between 6th century BC to 6th century AD and have been analysed by in-air PIXE. > These sets of coins have immense archaeological importance because of their very rare availability. > These coins are distinguished from other coins because of the presence of gold as major element. > While the British period coins were fabricated using modern technologies, the punch-marked coins were shaped manually with developed metal technology. > The analysis of punch-marked coins using external PIXE beam has been done for the first time, which is unique of its kind.

  18. A retrospective analysis of the first Indian experience on Artisan phakic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Sirisha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, predictability and stability of implanting a polymethylmethacrylate phakic intraocular lens (PIOL in high myopia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the data of patients who underwent Artisan phakic IOL implantation between 2002 and 2003 with a follow-up of at least 24 months. Results: An Artisan myopia lens was implanted in 60 eyes of 36 patients with preoperative myopia ranging from -5.0 to -24.0 D. Mean patient age was 22.6 years. Mean spherical equivalent of manifest refraction stabilized by the first postoperative week. At three months follow-up, 54 eyes (90% had a postoperative refraction within ± 1D emmetropia and 45 eyes (75% had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Seven eyes (11.6% had loss of one Snellen line and none had loss of two Snellen lines or more at three months. The mean endothelial cell loss was 3.8% at three months, 5.2% at six months, 5.25% at 12 months and 6.38% at two years, which was not significant. Postoperative complications included anterior chamber reaction in two eyes (3.3%, rise in intraocular pressure in six eyes (10% and dislocation of PIOL in two eyes (3.3%. Conclusion: Implantation of Artisan myopia lens to correct high myopia resulted in a stable and fairly predictable refractive outcome with few complications. Significant endothelial damage was not detected in two years of follow-up.

  19. Sequence analysis and genetic diversity of five new Indian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Gautam, K K; Raj, S K

    2015-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus since it causes severe losses to many economically important crops worldwide. Five new isolates of CMV were isolated from naturally infected Hippeastrum hybridum, Dahlia pinnata, Hemerocallis fulva, Acorus calamus and Typhonium trilobatum plants, all exhibiting severe leaf mosaic symptoms. For molecular identification and sequence analyses, the complete coat protein (CP) gene of these isolates was amplified by RT-PCR. The resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced and isolates were designated as HH (KP698590), DP (JF682239), HF (KP698589), AC (KP698588) and TT (JX570732). For study of genetic diversity among these isolates, the sequence data were analysed by BLASTn, multiple alignment and generating phylogenetic trees along with the respective sequences of other CMV isolates available in GenBank Database were done. The isolates under study showed 82-99% sequence diversity among them at nucleotide and amino acid levels; however they showed close relationships with CMV isolates of subgroup IB. In alignment analysis of amino acid sequences of HH and AC isolates, we have found fifteen and twelve unique substitutions, compared to HF, DP and TT isolates, suggesting the cause of high genetic diversity.

  20. Sensory characterization of doda burfi (Indian milk cake) using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rekha; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Traditional sweetmeats of various countries hold a great and promising scope in their improvement and in order to tap the potential of the same, several companies and co-operative federations have started their organized production. Doda burfi, a heat desiccated and popular sweetmeat of northern India, is one of the regional specific, unfamiliarized products of India. The typical sweetmeat is characterized by caramelized and nutty flavour and granular texture. The purpose of this study was to determine the close relationship among various sensory attributes of the product collected from renowned manufacturers located in four different cities and to characterize an overall acceptable product. Individuals from academia participated in a round table discussion to generate descriptive terms related to colour and appearance, flavour and texture. Prior to sensory evaluation, sensory panel was trained and briefed about the terminology used to judge the product involving a descriptive intensity scale of 100 points for describing major sensory attributes. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and principal component analysis. Correlation table indicated a good degree of positive association between the attributes such as glossy appearance, dark colour, caramelized and nutty flavour and cohesive and chewy texture with the overall acceptability of the product.

  1. Becker muscular dystrophy in Indian patients: Analysis of dystrophin gene deletion patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastur Rashna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene with variable phenotypes. Becker muscular dystrophy patients have low levels of nearly full-length dystrophin and carry in-frame mutations, which allow partial functioning of the protein. Aim: To study the deletion patterns of BMD and to correlate the same with reading frame rule and different phenotypes. Setting: A tertiary care teaching hospital. Design: This is a prospective hospital-based study. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two exons spanning different "hot spot" regions using Multiplex PCR techniques were studied in 347 patients. Two hundred and twenty-two showed deletions in one or more of the 32 exons. Out of these, 46 diagnosed as BMD patients were analyzed. Results: Forty-six BMD patients showed deletions in both regions of the dystrophin gene. Out of these 89.1% (41/46 were in-frame deletions. Deletions starting with Exon 45 were found in 76.1% (35/46 of the cases. Mutations in the majority of cases i.e. 39/46 (84.8% were seen in 3′ downstream region (Exon 45-55, distal rod domain. Few, i.e. 5/46 (10.8% showed deletions in 5′ upstream region (Exons 3-20, N-terminus and proximal rod domain of the gene, while in 2/46 (4.4% large mutations (>40 bp spanning both regions (Exons 3-55 were detected. Conclusion: This significant gene deletion analysis has been carried out for BMD patients particularly from Western India using 32 exons.

  2. A trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of black carbon aerosols to Canadian high Arctic in winter and spring (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles accumulated in the Arctic troposphere and deposited on snow have been calculated to have significant effects on radiative forcing of the Arctic regional climate. Applying cluster analysis technique on 10-day backward trajectories, seven distinct transport pathways (or clusters affecting Alert (82.5° N, 62.5° W, Nunavut in Canada are identified in this work. Transport frequency associated with each pathway is obtained as the fraction of trajectories in that cluster. Based on atmospheric transport frequency and BC surface flux from surrounding regions (i.e. North America, Europe, and former USSR, a linear regression model is constructed to investigate the inter-annual variations of BC observed at Alert in January and April, representative of winter and spring respectively, between 1990 and 2005. Strong correlations are found between BC concentrations predicted with the regression model and measurements at Alert for both seasons (R2 equals 0.77 and 0.81 for winter and spring, respectively. Results imply that atmospheric transport and BC emission are the major contributors to the inter-annual variations in BC concentrations observed at Alert in the cold seasons for the 16-year period. Other factors, such as deposition, could also contribute to the variability in BC concentrations but were not considered in this analysis. Based on the regression model the relative contributions of regional BC emissions affecting Alert are attributed to the Eurasian sector, composed of the European Union and the former USSR, and the North American sector. Considering both seasons, the model suggests that former USSR is the major contributor to the near-surface BC levels at the Canadian high Arctic site with an average contribution of about 67% during the 16-year period, followed by European Union (18% and North America (15%. In winter, the atmospheric transport of BC aerosols from Eurasia is found to be even more

  3. Wavelet analysis of the singular spectral reconstructed time series to study the imprints of Solar–ENSO–Geomagnetic activity on Indian climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sri Lakshmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the imprints of solar–ENSO–geomagnetic activity on the Indian Subcontinent, we have applied the Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA and wavelet analysis to the tree ring temperature variability record from the western Himalayas. The data used in the present study are the Solar Sunspot Number (SSN, Geomagnetic Indices (aa Index, Southern Oscillation Index (SOI and tree ring temperature record from western Himalayas (WH, for the period of 1876–2000. The SSA and wavelet spectra reveal the presence of 5 years short term ENSO variations to 11 year solar cycle indicating the influence of both the solar–geomagnetic and ENSO imprints in the tree ring data. The presence of 33-year cycle periodicity suggests the Sun-temperature variability probably involving the induced changes in the basic state of the atmosphere. Our wavelet analysis for the SSA reconstructed time series agrees with our previous results and also enhance the amplitude of the signals by removing the noise and showing a strong influence of solar–geomagnetic and ENSO patterns throughout the record. The solar flares are considered to be responsible for cause in the circulation patterns in the atmosphere. The net effect of solar–geomagnetic processes on temperature record thus appears to be the result of counteracting influences on shorter (about 5–6 years and longer (about 11–12 years time scales. The present analysis thus suggests that the influence of solar processes on Indian temperature variability operates in part indirectly through ENSO, but on more than one time scale. The analyses hence provides credible evidence for teleconnections of tropical pacific climatic variability with Indian climate ranging from interannual-decadal time scales and also demonstrate the possible role of exogenic triggering in reorganizing the global earth–ocean–atmospheric systems.

  4. Assessing the Primary Schools--A Multi-Dimensional Approach: A School Level Analysis Based on Indian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Atanu; Pal, Naibedya Prasun

    2012-01-01

    Primary education is essential for the economic development in any country. Most studies give more emphasis to the final output (such as literacy, enrolment etc.) rather than the delivery of the entire primary education system. In this paper, we study the school level data from an Indian district, collected under the official DISE statistics. We…

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of Cymbidium mosaic virus Indian isolate: further evidence for natural recombination among potexviruses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ang Rinzing Sherpa; Vipin Hallan; Promila Pathak; Aijaz Asghar Zaidi

    2007-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Indian strain of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) was determined and compared with other potexviruses. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), triple gene block protein and coat protein (CP) amino acid sequences revealed that CymMV is closely related to the Narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), Scallion virus X (SVX), Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) and Potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV). Different sets of primers were used for the amplification of different regions of the genome through RT-PCR and the amplified genes were cloned in a suitable vector. The full genome of the Indian isolate of CymMV from Phaius tankervilliae shares 96–97% similarity with isolates reported from other countries. It was found that the CP gene of CymMV shares a high similarity with each other and other potexviruses. One of the Indian isolates seems to be a recombinant formed by the intermolecular recombination of two other CymMV isolates. The phylogenetic analyses, Recombination Detection Program (RDP2) analyses and sequence alignment survey provided evidence for the occurrence of a recombination between an Indian isolate (AM055720) as the major parent, and a Korean type-2 isolate (AF016914) as the minor parent. Recombination was also observed between a Singapore isolate (U62963) as the major parent, and a Taiwan CymMV (AY571289) as the minor parent.

  6. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Ha [Maxoft Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Lok [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses.

  7. Rigid-Flexible Dynamical Analysis of a Half Plank Spring Mould%半板簧振动装置的刚柔动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广红; 杜风娇; 刘建刚

    2013-01-01

    In the basing of the rigid body dynamics analysis of a half plank spring mould,rigid-flexible dynamical model of the vibrator was established considering the flexibility of spring by using the Lagrange method.Then it is solved by using MATLAB,and the kinematic character of every rigid body is obtained.After establishing 3D-model,it have done dynamics analysis by using ADAMS,so the kinematic character of every rigid body is obtained by using this method in contrast with the above result,the both result arpproached,so the correctness of the rigid-flexible dynamical model was verifled.%在半板簧振动装置的刚体动力学分析的基础上,考虑板簧的柔性,利用拉格朗日方法,建立了该振动装置的刚柔动力学模型,然后应用MATLAB软件进行编程求解,利用ode45命令,输入相应的初始量就可以得到各刚体构件的运动学特性;然后再应用ADAMS软件对该振动装置进行三维实体建模,经过动力学分析后,可以得到的各构件的运动学特性和动力学特性.最后将两种方法得到的结果进行对比,发现两者结果很接近,同时从另一个角度上验证了利用该方法建立的半板簧振动装置的刚柔动力学模型的正确性.

  8. The Arab Spring in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Elsa Annaklara; Hansen, Ditte Ingemann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains analysis and discussion of several social movements in Jordan. The uprising in Jordan and demands for more democratization are inspired by the Arab Spring observed in the Middle East. The most highlighted Jordanian social movements being the religious Muslim Brotherhood, the radical Salafi Movement and the newly proclaimed Popular Mobilization. Questions concerning the identification of them, their goals and ways of mobilizing and the hindrances for these movements to mo...

  9. Metagenomics of an alkaline hot spring in Galicia (Spain: microbial diversity analysis and screening for novel lipolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla eLópez-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A fosmid library was constructed with the metagenomic DNA from the water of the Lobios hot spring (76°C, pH=8.2 located in Ourense (Spain. Metagenomic sequencing of the fosmid library allowed the assembly of 9,722 contigs ranging in size from 500 to 56,677 bp and spanning approximately 18 Mbp. 23,207 ORFs (Open Reading Frames were predicted from the assembly. Biodiversity was explored by taxonomic classification and it revealed that bacteria were predominant, while the archaea were less abundant. The 6 most abundant bacterial phyla were Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Aquificae and Chloroflexi. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Thaumarchaeota was predominant with the dominant species Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum. Functional classification revealed the genes associated to one-carbon metabolism as the most abundant. Both taxonomic and functional classifications showed a mixture of different microbial metabolic patterns: aerobic and anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Remarkably, the presence of genes encoding enzymes with potential biotechnological interest, such as xylanases, galactosidases, proteases and lipases, was also revealed in the metagenomic library.Functional screening of this library was subsequently done looking for genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Six genes conferring lipolytic activity were identified and one was cloned and characterized. This gene was named LOB4Est and it was expressed in a yeast mesophilic host. LOB4Est codes for a novel esterase of family VIII, with sequence similarity to β-lactamases, but with unusual wide substrate specificity. When the enzyme was purified from the mesophilic host it showed half-life of 1 h and 43 minutes at 50°C, and maximal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5 with p-nitrophenyl-laurate as substrate. Interestingly, the enzyme retained more than 80% of maximal activity in a broad range of pH from 6.5-8.

  10. Metagenomics of an Alkaline Hot Spring in Galicia (Spain): Microbial Diversity Analysis and Screening for Novel Lipolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Olalla; Knapik, Kamila; Cerdán, Maria-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A fosmid library was constructed with the metagenomic DNA from the water of the Lobios hot spring (76°C, pH = 8.2) located in Ourense (Spain). Metagenomic sequencing of the fosmid library allowed the assembly of 9722 contigs ranging in size from 500 to 56,677 bp and spanning ~18 Mbp. 23,207 ORFs (Open Reading Frames) were predicted from the assembly. Biodiversity was explored by taxonomic classification and it revealed that bacteria were predominant, while the archaea were less abundant. The six most abundant bacterial phyla were Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Aquificae, and Chloroflexi. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Thaumarchaeota was predominant with the dominant species “Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum.” Functional classification revealed the genes associated to one-carbon metabolism as the most abundant. Both taxonomic and functional classifications showed a mixture of different microbial metabolic patterns: aerobic and anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Remarkably, the presence of genes encoding enzymes with potential biotechnological interest, such as xylanases, galactosidases, proteases, and lipases, was also revealed in the metagenomic library. Functional screening of this library was subsequently done looking for genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Six genes conferring lipolytic activity were identified and one was cloned and characterized. This gene was named LOB4Est and it was expressed in a yeast mesophilic host. LOB4Est codes for a novel esterase of family VIII, with sequence similarity to β-lactamases, but with unusual wide substrate specificity. When the enzyme was purified from the mesophilic host it showed half-life of 1 h and 43 min at 50°C, and maximal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5 with p-nitrophenyl-laurate as substrate. Interestingly, the enzyme retained more than 80% of maximal activity in a broad range of pH from 6.5 to 8. PMID:26635759

  11. Quantitative Analysis of the Distribution of cis-Eicosenoic Acid Positional Isomers in Marine Fishes from the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarath, Samanthika; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Akihiko; Beppu, Fumiaki; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Devadawson, Chandravathany; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of cis-eicosenoic acid (c-20:1) positional isomers in fishes from the Indian Ocean and compared to those from the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Lipids were extracted from the edible part of the fish and then methylated. The eicosenoic acid methyl ester fraction was separated from total fatty acid methyl esters by reversed-phase HPLC and quantitatively analyzed using a GC-FID fitted with the SLB-IL111 highly polar GC column. c14-20:1 was used as an internal standard. The results indicated that the highest levels of c-20:1 positional isomers were found in fishes from the Pacific Ocean (saury, 166.95±12.4 mg/g of oil), followed by the Atlantic Ocean (capelin, 162.7±3.5 mg/g of oil), and lastly in fishes from the Indian Ocean (goatfish, 34.39 mg/g of oil). With only a few exceptions, the most abundant 20:1 positional isomer found in fishes of the Indian and Atlantic Ocean was the c11-20:1 isomer (>50%) followed by the c13-20:1 isomer (<25%). Unusually, the c7-20:1 isomer was predominantly found in a few fishes such as the tooth ponyfish, longface emperor, and commerson's sole. The c9, c5, and c15-20:1 isomers were the least occurring in fishes from the Indian and Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, the c9-20:1 isomer was the principal isomer identified in fishes from the Pacific Ocean. The results revealed that the content and distribution of c-20:1 positional isomers varied among fishes in different oceans. The data presented in the current study are the first to report on the distribution of c-20:1 positional isomers in fishes from the Indian Ocean.

  12. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  13. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  14. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  15. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  16. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  17. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  18. 新疆春小麦品种苗期耐盐性分析%Analysis on Salt Stress of Spring Wheat Bred in Xinjiang during Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士磊; 霍鹏; 李卫华; 石培春; 魏凌基

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究新疆20世纪80年代至今自主选育的新春系列春小麦品种苗期耐盐性差异,筛选苗期耐盐性较好的品种,为新疆耐盐春小麦品种的选育提供参考.[方法]对新疆自育的31个春小麦品种分别采用0.15 mol/L的Na2 SO4的单盐和0.1 mol/L NaCl +0.05 mol/L Na2SO4复合盐进行胁迫处理,通过测量发芽率、苗高、苗鲜重、主根长、根数和发芽势,计算出相对耐盐系数和隶属函数综合值,并用SPSS分析软件进行聚类分析.[结果]通过比较分析各个品种苗期相对耐盐系数、隶属函数综合值以及隶属函数综合值总和,筛选出相对耐盐性较好的品种新春26号、新春22号、新春13号和新春16号,这些品种在单盐和复合盐胁迫下都具有较高的隶属函数综合值,且隶属函数综合值总和均较高.通过隶属函数值聚类分析,将新疆自育春小麦品种划分为耐盐性较好、中等和较差的三种类型,其中苗期耐盐性较好的材料有13个,占新疆自育品种数的42%,而耐盐性较差的品种有10个,占新疆自育品种数的32%.[结论]新疆自育春小麦品种多数在苗期具有良好的耐盐性.%[Objective]The study aims at the work of breeding better variety of spring wheat with salt tolerance in Xinjiang and provide reference for such work through the analysis of the differences of salt stress of a lots of spring wheat during germination bred in Xinjiang since the early 1980s. [Method]31 spring wheat cultivars bred in Xinjiang were treated respectively with simple salt with 0. 15 mol/L Na2SO4 and mixed salt with 0. 1 mol/L NaCl +0. 05 mol/L Na2SO4. The differences about spring wheat varieties in germination energy, plant height, seeding wet weight, main root length, root number and germination percentage, and the coefficient of relative salt - tolerance and the sum of membership functions with different salt were studied, then a cluster analysis for them was done with the SPSS

  19. An Expansion Strategy for Hotel Quickly into the Indian Market: an Analysis of relevant Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzmann, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an international expansion strategy for the start-up company Hotel Quickly into the Indian market. The research was conducted by a combination of qualitative research methods, such as semi-structured in depth interviews with relevant industry representatives. Desk research was gathered from empirical studies and academic literature, such as research journals, books and published industry reports. The research indicated significant market potential fo...

  20. Indian monsoon variability in relation to Regional Pressure Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Dugam; S B Kakade

    2003-12-01

    In this paper Regional Pressure Index (RPI) over the Indian region (20°N-40°N and 70°E-85°E) has been constructed for 101 years (1899-1999) on a monthly scale. The relationship of these indices was carried out with the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (June-September) (ISMR) over the various homogeneous regions, for all the time scales. From the analysis it has been seen that RPI in the month of May is significantly associated with ISMR over various regions on all the scales. The relationship is statistically significant at 1% level. The study reveals that RPI in the month of May and January will be a new precursor for the long range forecasting of ISMR on the smaller spatial scale. On the decadal and climatological scale, winter and spring time RPI show a significant inverse relationship with the rainfall over the regions Peninsular India (PI) and North West India (NWI), while the association is direct with Central North East India (CNEI) and North East India (NEI). The relationship is significant at 0.1 and 1% level respectively.

  1. Fabrication and experimentation of FRP helical spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanthappa, J.; Shiva Shankar, G. S.; Amith, B. M.; Gagan, M.

    2016-09-01

    In present scenario, the automobile industry sector is showing increased interest in reducing the unsprung weight of the automobile & hence increasing the fuel Efficiency. One of the feasible sub systems of a vehicle where weight reduction may be attempted is vehicle- suspension system. Usage of composite material is a proven way to lower the component weight without any compromise in strength. The composite materials are having high specific strength, more elastic strain energy storage capacity in comparison with those of steel. Therefore, helical coil spring made of steel is replaceable by composite cylindrical helical coil spring. This research aims at preparing a re-usable mandrel (mould) of Mild steel, developing a setup for fabrication, fabrication of FRP helical spring using continuous glass fibers and Epoxy Resin (Polymer). Experimentation has been conducted on fabricated FRP helical spring to determine its strength parameters & for failure analysis. It is found that spring stiffness (K) of Glass/Epoxy helical-spring is greater than steel-coil spring with reduced weight.

  2. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  3. 春节效应对布鲁杆菌病监测分析影响的探讨%The thinking of the affect of Brucellosis surveillance analysis of spring festival effect from a epidemic situation briefing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓花; 肖宛凝; 李晔

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the reasons of national Brucellosis epidemic situation year on year increase in Feb 2012 year, to bring up and analyzing the effect of Brucellosis surveillance analysis of spring festival effect. Methods To describe surveillance data of national Brucellosis epidemic situation by epidemiological method in Feb 2012 year, to analyzing spring festival effect by chi - square test. Results Year on year analysis, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival (x2 =9183. 16, P < 0.01 Jin national Brucellosis from 2008 to 2012;link relative ration analysis, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival { x2 = 59. 88, P < 0. 01) in national Brucellosis in Jan from 2008 to 2012, there are the statistical difference between the average incidence of the months including spring festival and the average incidence of the months non - including spring festival(x2 =959. 7, P <0. 01) in national Brucellosis in Feb from 2008 to 2012. Conclusions The reasons of national Brucellosis epidemic situation year on year increase in Feb 2012 year include the spring festival effect and the leap year and the increasing of Brucellosis epidemic situation of several provinces. Reported incidence ratio of Brucellosis in the months that include spring festival year on year decline caused of spring festival effect. To use the methods of adjusted ARIMA model\\move average could reduce the spring festival effect among Brucellosis surveillance analysis.%目的 分析2012年2月全国布鲁杆菌病疫情同比上升原因,提出并分析春节效应对监测分析的影响.方法 对2012年2月全国布鲁杆菌病疫情监测资料进行三间分布的流行病学描述,对春节效应分析采用卡方检验.结果 2008

  4. AN ANALYSIS ON LARGE-SCALE AIR-SEA INTERACTIVE LINKAGES BETWEEN THE TROPICAL INDIAN OCEAN AND THE PACIFIC OCEAN DURING ENSO EVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Bei-sheng; LIU Hai-tao; CHOU Ji-fan

    2010-01-01

    By utilizing a 3-D atmospheric circulation resolving method, the authors studied the air-sea interactive linkages between the tropical Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean in 1979-2008 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Their findings showed that evident 3-D gear-coupling characteristics existed in the 1979-2008 ENSO events. Their resolving analyses also suggested that the general circulation showed stronger and wider sinking motions over the eastern Indian Ocean-western Pacific during the mature phase of 1979-2008 ENSO events, compared with the vertical velocities from the U.S. National Centers for Enviornmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data. With their 3-D analysis method, the vertical velocity was resolved by two components, i.e. zonal and meridional components. It was found that the zonal component of the vertical velocities showed a strong sinking motion while the meridional components showed an upward motion during the prevailing phases of the ENSO events,In the tropics, the zonal component of the vertical velocities was found greater than the meridional component, reflecting the dominant characteristics of the vertical velocity, and the overall outcomes showed a strong sinking motion, although the two components also partially offset each other in the processes. Compared with the vertical velocities from NCEP reanalysis, the vertical motions calculated with the 3-D resolving analysis method demonstrate some advantages.

  5. Computed tomography-based morphometric analysis of cervical pedicles in Indian population: A pilot study to assess feasibility of transpedicular screw fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Patwardhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical transpedicular screw fixation is safe and is probably going to be the gold standard for cervical spine fixation. However, cervical transpedicular screw use in the Asian population can be limited as the transverse diameter in this group of patients may not be adequate to accommodate the 3.5-mm pedicular screw thus injuring the vital structures located in the close proximity of the pedicles. Thus lateral mass fixation remains the mainstay of treatment. The present study evaluated the transverse cervical pedicle diameter of C2-C7 vertebrae in a pilot study in 27 Indian subjects using computed tomography (CT imaging and evaluated the feasibility of transpedicular screw fixation in them. Aims: To evaluate the feasibility of transpedicular screw fixation in the Indian population. Settings and Design: The cervical pedicle diameter size differs between the Asian and non-Asian population. The authors studied the transverse pedicle diameter of the C2-C7 of the cervical spine in the Indian population using CT measurements. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care centre for a period of four months from October 2010 to December 2010. Material and Methods: Measurements of cervical pedicles in the subjects were performed on the CT workstation from the CT images taken at 2.5-mm interval. The transverse pedicle diameter was defined as the outermost diameter of the pedicle, taken perpendicular to the axis of the pedicle at the narrowest point and measured in millimeters±0.1 mm. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics was used to represent percentage of transverse diameter of cervical pedicles less than 5 mm in male and female subjects at C2-C7 levels. Since there is no previous study done in India, we initiated the study with sample size of 27 as a pilot study. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: The mean transverse diameters of the cervical pedicles of C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7 in

  6. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  7. Molecular analysis of spring viraemia of carp virus in China: a fatal aquatic viral disease that might spread in East Asian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian Zhi; Zhang, Li Feng; Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

    2009-07-22

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in

  8. Molecular analysis of spring viraemia of carp virus in China: a fatal aquatic viral disease that might spread in East Asian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Spring viraemia of carp (SVC is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV. To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main

  9. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  10. Safety and efficacy of initial combination of linagliptin and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: A subgroup analysis of Indian patients from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objectives: The number of people with diabetes is increasing exponentially in India. Owing to a unique "Asian Indian Phenotype," Indians develop diabetes a decade earlier and have an earlier onset of complications than Western populations. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate more effective treatment strategies at an earlier stage of disease progression, such as initial combination therapy, in Indian patients. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of initial combination therapy with linagliptin plus metformin in comparison to linagliptin or metformin monotherapy in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This is a subgroup analysis of Indian patients who participated in a Phase III, 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial. Overall, 249 Indian patients were randomized to one of six treatment arms (Two free combination therapy arms: Linagliptin 2.5 mg twice daily [bid] + either low [500 mg, n = 36] or high [1000 mg, n = 44] dose metformin bid and four monotherapy arms: Linagliptin 5 mg once daily [qd, n = 40], metformin 500 mg [n = 49] or 1000 mg bid [n = 45], or placebo [n = 23]. Results: The placebo-corrected mean change in glycated hemoglobin from baseline (8.9% to week 24 was −1.83% for linagliptin + metformin 1000 mg bid; −1.46% for linagliptin + metformin 500 mg bid; −1.30% for metformin 1000 mg bid; −1.00% for metformin 500 mg bid; and −0.77% for linagliptin 5 mg qd. None of the patients in the combination therapy arms had hypoglycemia, whereas there was one event in the metformin 1000 mg bid arm. Rates of adverse event were similar across various treatments. Conclusions: In this subgroup analysis of Indian patients, initial combination therapy with linagliptin + metformin was more efficacious in improving glycemic control than the monotherapy arms, with a comparable tolerability profile. The results were comparable to the overall population.

  11. Spring-back deformation in tube bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-xin E; Hua-hui He; Xiao-yi Liu; Ru-xin Ning

    2009-01-01

    The spring-back of a bending metal tube was studied through extensive experiments and finite element method (FEM) analysis. An approximate equation for the spring-back angle of bending was deduced. It is noted that the mechanical properties of the material (in a tubular form) are quite different from those found in the standard tensile tests (when the materials are in bar forms). This is one of the major reasons that result in the discrepancies in the outcomes of experimental study, FEM calculations, and spring-back analysis. It is therefore of crucial importance to study the mechanical properties of the materials in their tubular forms. The experiments and FEM simulations prove that the spring-back angle is significantly affected by the mechanical properties of the materials. The angle decreases accordingly with plastic modulus, but changes inversely with the hardening index and elastic modulus. The spring-back angle is also affected by the conditions of tube deformation: it increases accordingly with the relative bending radius but changes inversely with the relative wall thickness. In addition, the spring-back angle increases nonlinearly with the bending an-gle.

  12. Hospitalization for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus among Indian-born persons: a small area analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Kamran

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to describe the risk of hospitalization from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes among persons born in India, all foreign-born persons, and U.S.-born persons residing in New York City. Methods We examined billing records of 1,083,817 persons hospitalized in New York City during the year 2000. The zip code of each patient's residence was linked to corresponding data from the 2000 U.S. Census to obtain covariates not present in the billing records. Using logistic models, we evaluated the risk of hospitalization for heart disease, stroke and diabetes by country of origin. Results After controlling for covariates, Indian-born persons are at similar risk of hospitalization for heart disease (RR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.02, 1.03, stroke (RR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval, 0.99, 1.01, and diabetes mellitus (RR = 0.96 95% confidence interval 0.94, 0.97 as native-born persons. However, Indian-born persons are more likely to be hospitalized for these diseases than other foreign-born persons. For instance, the risk of hospitalization for heart disease among foreign-born persons is 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.67, 0.72 and the risk of hospitalization for diabetes is 0.39 (95% confidence interval 0.37, 0.42 relative to native-born persons. Conclusions South Asians have considerably lower rates of hospitalization in New York than reported in countries with national health systems. Access may play a role. Clinicians working in immigrant settings should nonetheless maintain a higher vigilance for these conditions among Indian-born persons than among other foreign-born populations.

  13. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  14. Dynamic simulation on rubber spring supporting equipment of vibrating screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rong-hua; PENG Chen-yu

    2011-01-01

    By ANSYS, dynamic simulation analysis of rubber spring supporting equipment used in vibrating screen was made. The modal frequency, mode, and harmonic displacement under working frequency were obtained. Variation of rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance was discussed first, which is under the condition of existing spring stiffness difference and exciting force bias. Also, the quantitative calculation formulas were given. The results indicate that the performance of vibrating screen is closely related with rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance. Differences of springs' stiffness coefficients reduce the modal frequency reduced, decrease the dynamic stiffness, and increase vibration displacement. Exciting force bias induces a larger lateral displacement. When rubber springs' stiffness coefficients exist, differences and lateral force accounts for 5% in total exciting force; rubber spring supporting equipment's side swing is larger than 1 mm, exceeding the side swing limit.

  15. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  16. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  17. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  18. What's Behind Spring Festival?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  19. Review of Indian education system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Dnyandeo Dattatray; Falch, Morten; Tated, Rajendra G

    2015-01-01

    In today's world of globalization, Indian education system is to be upgraded. The paper focus on the recent literature available related to teaching learning approach. The attempt is to analysis the admission condition in technical institutes due to growth in intake of seats. The fish bone diagram...... technique is suggested to analysis the root cause of failure, considering student as one of the stakeholders related to education system....

  20. Factors associated with body mass index among slum dwelling women in India: an analysis of the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maya Laxmi; Deonandan, Raywat

    2017-01-01

    Background Urbanization is increasing around the world, and in India, this trend has translated into an increase in the size of slum dwellings whose environments are suspected of being associated with poor health outcomes, particularly those relating to women’s nutritional status. With this study, we sought to determine the factors associated with Indian women’s body mass index (BMI) in slum environments, with special attention paid to women with tribal status. Methods A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on data from the Indian National Family Health Survey (2005–2006), modeling demographic and behavioral factors suspected of being associated with BMI, with additional focus on the measures of social class, specifically caste and tribal status. Results Increasing BMI is significantly and positively associated with frequency of watching television, having diabetes, age, wealth index, and residency status in the areas of New Delhi, Andhra Pradesh, or Tamil Nadu. Conclusion Although belonging to a scheduled tribe was not associated with changes in BMI, unadjusted rates suggest that tribal status may be worthy of deeper investigation. Among slum dwellers, there is a double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition. Therefore, a diverse set of interventions may be required to improve the health outcomes of these women. PMID:28223838

  1. The role of the Indian monsoon onset in the West African monsoon onset: observations and AGCM nudged simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil [LATMOS/IPSL, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris cedex 05 (France); Janicot, Serge [LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Bastin, Sophie [LATMOS/IPSL, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Roca, Remy [LMD/IPSL, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Mohino, Elsa [LOCEAN/IPSL, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    In spring the inland penetration of the West African Monsoon (WAM) is weak and the associated rainband is located over the Guinean coast. Then within a few days deep convection weakens considerably and the rainband reappears about 20 days after over the Sahel, where it remains until late September signalling the summer rainy season. Over the period 1989-2008 a teleconnection induced by the Indian monsoon onset is shown to have a significant impact on the WAM onset, by performing composite analyses on both observational data sets and atmospheric general circulation model simulations ensembles where the model is nudged to observations over the Indian monsoon sector. The initiation of convective activity over the Indian subcontinent north of 15 N at the time of the Indian monsoon onset results in a westward propagating Rossby wave establishing over North Africa 7-15 days after. A back-trajectory analysis shows that during this period, dry air originating from the westerly subtropical jet entrance is driven to subside and move southward over West Africa inhibiting convection there. At the same time the low-level pressure field over West Africa reinforces the moisture transport inland. After the passage of the wave, the dry air intrusions weaken drastically. Hence 20 days after the Indian monsoon onset, convection is released over the Sahel where thermodynamic conditions are more favourable. This scenario is very similar in the observations and in the nudged simulations, meaning that the Indian monsoon onset is instrumental in the WAM onset and its predictability at intraseasonal scale. (orig.)

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

    2007-07-16

    Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China.

  3. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  4. Analysis on Climatic Feasibility of Continued-Spring Silkworm in Xiushui County%修水县续春蚕气候可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣东红; 章祖武

    2012-01-01

    分析续春蚕对环境条件的要求,对比夏蚕期、续春蚕期的气象要素,指出续春蚕期气象条件更适宜蚕生长,可在修水县地势高的地区进行续春蚕养殖。%The requirements of environmental condition for continued-spring silkworm was analyzed.Compared meteorological element of summer silkworm growth period and continued-spring silkworm growth period, it pointed that environmental condition of continued-spring silkworm growth period was more appropriate to the growth of silkworm.Therefore, continued-spring silkworm could be cultured in the terrain-high area of Xiushui County.

  5. Safety analysis of railway vehicle in leakage process of air spring%车辆系统空气弹簧失气安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高浩; 罗仁; 池茂儒; 戴焕云

    2012-01-01

    The leakage model of air spring with stiffness decay characteristics and the nonlinear stick-slip contact model were established. The dynamic process in loss of gas and the state of emergency after loss of gas were simulated by combining the two models with vehicle system dynamics. The stability of vehicle system with air spring failure was analyzed. The impact of air spring's sudden leakage on the dynamics performance of vehicle was simulated. The running safeties of vehicle under different times of loss of gas, different speeds and curve negotiation conditions were studied. Analysis result shows that the critical speed of vehicle system with air spring failure significantly decreases from 623 km ·h^-1 to 351 km ·h^-1. Because of air spring's sudden leakage, wheel-rail vertical force decreases and reduction rate of wheel load increases. The shorter the leakage process is, the greater reduction rate of wheel load is. It reaches 0. 651 when the leakage time is 0.2 s. The influence of speed on reduction rate of wheel load and wheelrail force is not obvious when vehicle speed is less than 300 km ·h^-1. But, when it is greater than 300 km ·h^-1 , reduction rate of wheel load increases rapidly with speed increase. Leakage occuring on circular curve is most dangerous when vehicle runs, and the maximum of reduction rate of wheel load is 0. 652. 2 tabs, 12 figs, 15 refs.%建立了具有刚度衰变特性的空气弹簧失气模型和非线性粘滑接触模型,结合车辆系统动力学,模拟空气弹簧失气动态过程与失气后的应急状态,分析了空气弹簧失气后车辆系统的稳定性与空气弹簧突然失气对车辆动力学性能的影响,研究了不同失气过程时长、运行速度与曲线通过工况下空气弹簧失气车辆的安全性。计算结果表明:空气弹簧失气后车辆临界速度由623km.h-1大幅降低为351km.h-1。空气弹簧突然失气导致轮轨垂向力减小,轮重减载率增大,且失气过程越短,

  6. PCR detection and analysis of the free-living amoeba Naegleria in hot springs in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kathy B; Fagg, Jennifer A; Ferris, Michael J; Henson, Joan M

    2003-10-01

    Free-living thermotolerant amoebae pose a significant health risk to people who soak and swim in habitats suitable for their growth, such as hot springs. In this survey of 23 different hot springs in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, we used PCR with primer sets specific for Naegleria to detect three sequence types that represent species not previously described, as well as a fourth sequence type identified as the pathogen Naegleria fowleri.

  7. Secondary structure analysis of ITS2 in the rDNA of three Indian paramphistomid species found in local livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylla, Jollin A; Ghatani, Sudeep; Chatterjee, Anupam; Tandon, Veena

    2011-04-01

    Of paramphistomid trematodes, three species viz., Homalogaster paloniae, Calicophoron calicophorum and Orthocoelium streptocoelium are commonly prevalent in bovine hosts in Northeast India. The aim of the present study was to genetically characterise these species using rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) so as to supplement the morphological criteria substantiated by molecular findings. The annotated ITS2 region from H. paloniae, C. calicophorum and O. streptocoelium were found to be 289 bp, 288 bp and 288 bp long, respectively. On comparison, the Indian isolates of the three species were observed to have a maximum identity of 99% with each of their respective counterparts from Japan. The secondary structure models were inferred using minimum free energy modelling algorithms. The paramphistomes displayed the typical four helix ITS2 secondary structure and differed from each other due to minor nucleotide differences. The consensus ITS2 secondary structure model revealed the presence of conservative motifs GACGAGGGUG and GCGGUAGAGUC in helix III. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese and Indian paramphistomes with significant bootstrap values.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually decreased at seven dpi. The early induction of TRI genes indicates that presence of high levels of TRI gene transcripts at early stages is important to initiate the biosynthetic pathway of DON and NIV. Comparison of gene expression among the three chemotypes showed that relative expression of TRI genes was higher in 3-ADON producing strains compared with 15-ADON and NIV strains. Comparatively higher levels of gene expression may contribute to the higher levels of DON produced by 3-ADON strains in infected grains. PMID:27550207

  9. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  10. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  11. Simulation Analysis of the Effect of Spring Stiffness on the Roll Crusher Performance%弹簧刚度对辊式破碎机使用性能影响的仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群松; 唐前鹏

    2012-01-01

    Spring safety device as the roll crusher's key component, the value of spring stiffness has a very important impact on the performance of the whole device, when the spring-loaded is too large, the wear is intensified and the power consumption is increased; while small spring force will increase the number of articles whose dimeter are bigger than the averige value. Aiming at this problem, the relationship between different stiffness of spring and the vibration of angular velocity of the moving roll and its moving distance were studied through simulation analysis based on the ADAMS softwear by setting five different spring stiffness. To simulate the working condition of the crusher, random signal was applied. The simulation results show that the relationship between stiffness of spring and the vibration of angular velocity are no trend of monotonic increasing or decreasing, while the moving distance of the roll decreses with the increasing of the stiffness. This paper provides a new method to select and optimize the stiffness of spring safety device in roll crusher.%辊式破碎机中弹簧保险装置的弹簧刚度的大小对破碎机的使用性能具有重要影响,过大的弹簧力会促使辊子磨损加快和功率消耗增大,过小的弹簧力将使破碎产物的超粒增多。针对该问题,利用ADAMS仿真软件,采用随机载荷模拟破碎机的实际工况,设置了5种不同的弹簧刚度,通过仿真分析研究了弹簧刚度与动辊角速度波动及移动距离的关系。仿真结果表明:动辊角速度波动程度与弹簧刚度不呈单调递增或递减的关系,动辊的移动距离随着弹簧刚度的增大而减小。为辊式破碎机弹簧保险装置弹簧刚度的选择与优化提供了一种新的方法。

  12. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  13. Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in

  14. Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon in Recent Decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bingyi

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of 43 years of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data and station observations reveals the connections between tropospheric temperature variations and the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon circulation. The Indian summer monsoon variation is strongly linked to tropospheric temperature over East Asia, showing significant positive correlations of mean tropospheric temperature with all-Indian summer rainfall and the monsoon circulation intensity. The result shows that Indian summer monsoon circulation underwent two weakening processes in recent decades. The first occurred in circa the mid-1960s, and the other occurred in circa the late 1970s. The finding indicates that the mean tropospheric temperature may play a crucial role in the weakening of the Indian summer monsoon intensity via changing land-sea thermal contrast. The role of the tropospheric temperature contrast between East Asia and the tropical area from the eastern Indian Ocean to the tropical western Pacific is to weaken the Indian summer monsoon circulation.

  15. Changes in satellite-derived spring vegetation green-up date and its linkage to climate in China from 1982 to 2010: a multimethod analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Nan; Wang, Tao; Nan, Huijuan; Ma, Yuecun; Wang, Xuhui; Myneni, Ranga B; Piao, Shilong

    2013-03-01

    The change in spring phenology is recognized to exert a major influence on carbon balance dynamics in temperate ecosystems. Over the past several decades, several studies focused on shifts in spring phenology; however, large uncertainties still exist, and one understudied source could be the method implemented in retrieving satellite-derived spring phenology. To account for this potential uncertainty, we conducted a multimethod investigation to quantify changes in vegetation green-up date from 1982 to 2010 over temperate China, and to characterize climatic controls on spring phenology. Over temperate China, the five methods estimated that the vegetation green-up onset date advanced, on average, at a rate of 1.3 ± 0.6 days per decade (ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 days per decade) over the last 29 years. Moreover, the sign of the trends in vegetation green-up date derived from the five methods were broadly consistent spatially and for different vegetation types, but with large differences in the magnitude of the trend. The large intermethod variance was notably observed in arid and semiarid vegetation types. Our results also showed that change in vegetation green-up date is more closely correlated with temperature than with precipitation. However, the temperature sensitivity of spring vegetation green-up date became higher as precipitation increased, implying that precipitation is an important regulator of the response of vegetation spring phenology to change in temperature. This intricate linkage between spring phenology and precipitation must be taken into account in current phenological models which are mostly driven by temperature.

  16. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  17. An analysis of the impact of SST drift in the ECMWF system 3 on simulation of the Indian summer climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shailendra; Kucharski, Fred; Molteni, Franco

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the impact of the SST drifts in the ECMWF system 3 forecasting system on the simulated monsoon climatology is investigated. It is shown that hindcasts initialized in February show paradoxically better climatological rainfall in the early monsoon season compared to the hindcasts initialized in the May. The differences in rainfall and SST evolution in the two hindcast sets point to the SST differences as the crucial factor that improves the February initialized hindcasts. Further experiments with the atmospheric component of the ECMWF system 3 forecasting system confirm this by showing similar rainfall biases in the early monsoon season as the hindcasts initialized in the May. This study points to the potential beneficial impacts of reducing systematic biases in the atmospheric components forecasting systems, and of an anomaly initialization technique to improve Indian Monsoon forecasts.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of in situ gasification-chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC) of Indian coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P V; Menon, Kavitha G; Prakash, K S; Prudhvi, S; Anudeep, A

    2016-10-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an inherent CO2 capture technology. It is gaining much interest in recent years mainly because of its potential in addressing climate change problems associated with CO2 emissions from power plants. A typical chemical looping combustion unit consists of two reactors-fuel reactor, where oxidation of fuel occurs with the help of oxygen available in the form of metal oxides and, air reactor, where the reduced metal oxides are regenerated by the inflow of air. These oxides are then sent back to the fuel reactor and the cycle continues. The product gas from the fuel reactor contains a concentrated stream of CO2 which can be readily stored in various forms or used for any other applications. This unique feature of inherent CO2 capture makes the technology more promising to combat the global climate changes. Various types of CLC units have been discussed in literature depending on the type of fuel burnt. For solid fuel combustion three main varieties of CLC units exist namely: syngas CLC, in situ gasification-CLC (iG-CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU). In this paper, theoretical studies on the iG-CLC unit burning Indian coal are presented. Gibbs free energy minimization technique is employed to determine the composition of flue gas and oxygen carrier of an iG-CLC unit using Fe2O3, CuO, and mixed carrier-Fe2O3 and CuO as oxygen carriers. The effect of temperature, suitability of oxygen carriers, and oxygen carrier circulation rate on the performance of a CLC unit for Indian coal are studied and presented. These results are analyzed in order to foresee the operating conditions at which economic and smooth operation of the unit is expected.

  19. Understanding Dry Bias in the Simulations of Indian Monsoon by CFSv2 Through Analysis of Moisture Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheer, Sahana; Pathak, Amey; Mathew, Roxy; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-04-01

    Simulations of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with its seasonal and subseasonal characteristics is highly crucial for predictions/ projections towards sustainable agricultural planning and water resources management. The Climate forecast system version 2 (CFSv2), the state of the art coupled climate model developed by National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), is evaluated here for the simulations of ISM. Even though CFSv2 is a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-land model with advanced physics, increased resolution and refined initialization, its ISM simulations/ predictions/ projections, in terms of seasonal mean and variability are not satisfactory. Numerous works have been done for verifying the CFSv2 forecasts in terms of the seasonal mean, its mean and variability, active and break spells, and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-monsoon interactions. Underestimation of JJAS precipitation over the Indian land mass is one of the major drawbacks of CFSv2. ISM gets the moisture required to maintain the precipitation from different oceanic and land sources. In this work, we find the fraction of moisture supplied by different sources in the CFSv2 simulations and the findings are compared with observed fractions. We also investigate the possible variations in the moisture contributions from these different sources. We suspect that the deviation in the relative moisture contribution from different sources to various sinks over the monsoon region has resulted in the observed dry bias. We also find that over the Arabian Sea region, which is the key moisture source of ISM, there is a premature built up of specific humidity during the month of May and a decline during the later months of JJAS. This is also one of the reasons for the underestimation of JJAS mean precipitation.

  20. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  1. Theoretical Study and Stress Analysis of Suspension Spring of Automobile%汽车悬架弹簧应力分析与理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小辉; 许明恒; 张筱辰; 王思明

    2011-01-01

    通过传统力学分析、轴线应力分析和等效表面应力分析3种方法,研究了不同类型汽车悬架弹簧的应力分布规律,计算理论以及部分类型弹簧的点应变曲线,给出了不同类型的汽车悬架弹簧相应的应力算法,为汽车悬架弹簧的设计提供了新的应力分析方法和判断准则。%Fatigue damage often occurs in the suspension spring of an automobile,which has a shorter life than required.Our theoretical study shows that the direct causes are surface stress concentration and the mis-adjustment of alternative load and strength.Through analyzing the stress,axis force and equivalent surface stress of the suspension spring,we learn how the main stress and shear stress of different types of spring are distributed under different alternative loads,thus obtaining their calculation methods.The test data and simulation results show:(1) the location of maximum stress and minimum stress of the spring under the alternative load;(2) the relationship between the structure of the spring and its materials selection.

  2. An Analysis on Tourism Development of Xin’an Spring in Shanxi%山西辛安泉域旅游开发分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官慧军

    2014-01-01

    Karst water resources are widely distributed in Shanxi province. Xin’an Spring is the second larg-est karst spring among them, which has good natural ecological environment and favorable spring resources. There are varieties of natural and humanistic tourism resources, but there exist many problems such as groundwater recession in the Xin’an Spring. It is necessary to optimize the environment of tourism develop-ment and establish the concept of harmonious development between human and water, aiming to form virtu-ous circle of development and protection and promote sustainable development of tourism in Xin’an Spring.%山西省岩溶水资源分布很广,辛安泉是山西省第二大岩溶泉,有良好的天然生态环境和泉水资源优势,泉域内有多种自然和人文旅游资源,但是也存在地下水位下降等问题。优化旅游发展环境,树立人水和谐发展的观念,形成开发和保护良性循环,从而促进辛安泉域旅游的可持续发展。

  3. Ethnicity and Ethnic Perception of Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The discourse of ethnicity, race dominance and Islamization has dominated Malaysian politics since 1957, after several centuries of colonial rule. Although the country has achieved admirable socio-economic progress, the ethnic Indians situation has somewhat remained backward compared to the Malay and Chinese communities. The objective of this article is to examine how ethnic Indians recognize their ethnic identity based on self perception of ethnic status and social upliftment and self assessment of the values of globalization that affect their thinking and opinions. Approach: The study employs a qualitative analysis of the data derived through open and close-ended questions posted on several social media forums (face book twitter and emails frequented by ethnic Indians. Results: The findings reveal that there was increased dissatisfaction among ethnic Indians regarding the status of their ethnicity and aspects of their social upliftment within the Malaysian polity. The analysis on how they perceive the values of globalization shows increased appreciation of values such as human rights, cultural rights, human security, freedom and right for social upliftment, but at the same time the analysis illustrates high level of discontentment on the actual achievements of these values. Conclusion: Therefore this study concludes that the recent socioeconomic and value changes have influenced how ethnic Indian perceives their ethnicity in the context of a multiethnic mix. Future studies into Indian ethnicity may explore aspects such as the changing ethnic worldviews, affects of human mobility and social ethnic conflicts.

  4. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  5. Evaluation of energy expenditure in adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream in the Columbia River Basin: an assessment based on sequential proximate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.

  6. Large Deformation Analysis and Synthesis of Elastic Closed-loop Mechanism Made of a Certain Spring Wire Described by Free Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IWATSUKI Nobuyuki; KOSAKI Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Recently novel mechanisms with compact size and without many mechanical elements such as bearing are strongly required for medical devices such as surgical operation devices. This paper describes analysis and synthesis of elastic link mechanisms of a single spring beam which can be manufactured by NC coiling machines. These mechanisms are expected as disposable micro forceps. Smooth Curvature Model(SCM) with 3rd order Legendre polynomial curvature functions is applied to calculate large deformation of a curved cantilever beam by taking account of the balance between external and internal elastic forces and moments. SCM is then extended to analyze large deformation of a closed-loop curved elastic beam which is composed of multiple free curved beams. A closed-loop elastic link is divided into two free curved cantilever beams each of which is assumed as serially connected free curved cantilever beams described with SCM. The sets of coefficients of Legendre polynomials of SCM in all free curved cantilever beams are determined by taking account of the force and moment balance at connecting point where external input force is applied. The sets of coefficients of Legendre polynomials of a nonleaded closed-loop elastic link are optimized to design a link mechanism which can generate specified output motion due to input force applied at the assumed dividing point. For example, two planar micro grippers with a single pulling input force are analyzed and designed. The elastic deformation analyzed with proposed method agrees very well with that calculated with FEM. The designed micro gripper can generate the desired pinching motion. The proposed method can contribute to design compact and simple elastic mechanisms without high calculation costs.

  7. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla López-López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats.

  8. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  9. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  10. Chemistry Characteristics and Formation Analysis of Hot Spring on Yuejinggiao of Lu River%怒江跃进桥温泉水化学特征及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈丽丽; 徐世光; 杨秀梅; 禚传塬

    2011-01-01

    跃进桥温泉为上升泉群,其热水化学类型为HCO-Ca型.根据8D、δO稳定同位素分析温泉水源为大气降水;δO稳定同位素确定其补给高程为2 050 m;H放射性同位素确定温泉水的年龄为(10~20)a.跃进桥温泉的热源来自区域高热流背景,称嘎断裂、F1断裂起到导热导水作用,其成因模式为大气降水补给的断裂渗入循环型中、低温地热系统.%Yuejingqiao hot spring is Rise Springs. The hot water chemical type is HCO3--Ca2+ . According to analysis of the stable isotope δD, δ18O,source of the hot spring water is mospheric water;δ18O stable isotopes determine that the supply elevation is 2 050 m. The 3H radioactive isotope recognizes the age of hot springs water as ( 10~ 20) years. The heat of the springs comes from the area of high heat flux background,Chengka and F1 faults play the role of thermal and water conductivity. The formatiion model is low-temperature geothermal systems which the atmosphere water recharge and infiltration circular by fault.

  11. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522 and confirmed fertile (N = 315 individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2. The frequency of mutant (T allele (p = 0.0025 and genotypes (CT+TT (p = 0.0187 was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000, 1.310 (p = 0.000, respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  12. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  13. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  14. Results of test drilling and hydrologic monitoring in the Indian Bathtub area, Owyhee County, southwestern Idaho, January 1989 through September 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Jones, M.L.; Parliman, D.J.; Tungate, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents data collected during the period January 1989 through September 1990 from eight test holes and selected thermal-water wells and springs in the Indian Bathtub area, southwestern Idaho. The data include completion, lithologic, and gamma logs for eight test holes, hydrographs of water levels in the test holes and ten other wells, hydrographs of discharges at four springs, and chemical and isotopic analyses of water from six of the test holes. These data were collected as part of a continuing study to determine the cause or causes of decreased discharge at Indian Bathtub Spring and other thermal springs along Hot Creek.

  15. Analysis of ozone and nitric acid in spring and summer Arctic pollution using aircraft, ground-based, satellite observations and MOZART-4 model: source attribution and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wespes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze tropospheric O3 together with HNO3 during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport program, combining observations and model results. Aircraft observations from the NASA ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites and NOAA ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate campaigns during spring and summer of 2008 are used together with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 to assist in the interpretation of the observations in terms of the source attribution and transport of O3 and HNO3 into the Arctic (north of 60° N. The MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well (within 15%, but some discrepancies in the model are identified and discussed. The observed correlation of O3 with HNO3 is exploited to evaluate the MOZART-4 model performance for different air mass types (fresh plumes, free troposphere and stratospheric-contaminated air masses.

    Based on model simulations of O3 and HNO3 tagged by source type and region, we find that the anthropogenic pollution from the Northern Hemisphere is the dominant source of O3 and HNO3 in the Arctic at pressures greater than 400 hPa, and that the stratospheric influence is the principal contribution at pressures less 400 hPa. During the summer, intense Russian fire emissions contribute some amount to the tropospheric columns of both gases over the American sector of the Arctic. North American fire emissions (California and Canada also show an important impact on tropospheric ozone in the Arctic boundary layer.

    Additional analysis of tropospheric O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR and from the IASI satellite sounder made

  16. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of agronomic traits in Indian Mucuna pruriens using an intraspecific F2 population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Mahesh; M. Leelambika; Md Jaheer; A. M. Anithakumari; N. Sathyanarayana

    2016-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-recognized agricultural and horticultural crop with important medicinal use. However, antinutritional factors in seed and adverse morphological characters have negatively affected its cultivation. To elucidate the genetic control of agronomic traits, an intraspecific genetic linkage map of Indian M. pruriens has been developed based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers using 200 F2 progenies derived from a cross between wild and cultivated genotypes. The resulting linkage map comprised 129 AFLP markers dispersed over 13 linkage groups spanning a total distance of 618.88 cM with an average marker interval of 4.79 cM. For the first time, three QTLs explaining about 6.05–14.77% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three quantitative (seed) traits and, eight QTLs explaining about 25.96% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three qualitative traits have been detected on four linkage groups. The map presented here will pave a way for mapping of genes/QTLs for the important agronomic and horticultural traits contrasting between the parents used in this study.

  17. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  18. Characterization, purification and phylogenetic analysis of a cytolysin from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica of the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karthikayalu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that sea anemones comprise a rich source of cytolytic toxins. The present study reports the isolation and characterization of a cytolysin obtained from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica collected in the Andaman Islands of the Indian Ocean. The crude extract was screened for hemolytic activity by a blood agar plate method and a 6-mm zone of clearance was observed after incubation. The hemolytic property of the crude extract, tested by the microtiter plate method, revealed positive results at concentrations as low as 120 ng/mL. Furthermore, it was favored by alkaline pH and was stable up to 60°C. On the other hand, the hemolytic effect was abolished by the addition of human serum. Purification steps involved ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent desalting by dialysis, followed by anion- and cation-exchange chromatographies. The purified fractions displayed the presence of a 19-kDa cytolysin when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The conserved region of the cytolysin (with 303 bp was amplified by RT-PCR and was sequenced. The sequence showed maximum homology (97% with the already reported cytolysins from other sea anemone species.

  19. [In Situ Analysis of Element Geochemistry in Submarine Basalt in Hydrothermal Areas from Ultraslow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Sun, Xiao-ming; Xu, Li; Liang, Ye-heng; Wu, Zhong-wei; Fu, Yu; Huang, Yi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we analyze element geochemistry of submarine basalt in situ, which is sampled in hydrothermal areas from ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge, including the fresh basalt rocks (B19-9, B15-13) and altered basalt (B5-2). And we can confirm that altered mineral in B5-2 is celadonite by microscope and Raman Spectrum. Furthermore, amygdaloidal celadonites are analyzed by electron microprobe (EPMA) and EDS-line scanning. The results show that K-contents decrease and Na-contents increase from the core to the edge in these altered minerals, indicating the transition from celadonite to saponite. Celadonite is an altered minerals, forming in low temperature (< 50 degrees C) and oxidizing condition, while saponite form in low water/rock and more reducing condition. As a result, the transition from celadonite to saponite suggests environment change from oxidizing to reducing condition. Using the result of EPMA as internal standard, we can analyze rare earth elements (REE) in altered mineral in situ. Most of result show positive Eu anomaly (Δ(Eu)), indicating hydrothermal fluid transform from oxidizing to reducing, and reducing fluid rework on the early altered minerals. Comparison with REE in matrix feldspar both in altered and unaltered zoning, we find that reducing fluid can leach REE from the matrix feldspar, leading to lower total REE concentrations and positive Eu anomaly. So leaching process play an important role in hydrothermal system.

  20. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  1. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  2. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  3. Discourse Analysis of the Political Speeches of the Ousted Arab Presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution Using Halliday and Hasan's Framework of Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majali, Wala'

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the salient linguistic features of the political speeches of the ousted Arab presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution. The sample of the study is composed of seven political speeches delivered by the ousted Arab presidents during the period from December 2010 to December 2012. Three speeches were delivered by…

  4. Genotyping and meta-analysis of KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism in South Indian Coronary Artery Disease patients: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durairajpandian Vishnuprabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The KIF6 719Arg allele is an interesting genomic variant widely screened in various populations and is reported to be associated with the risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD and statin treatment outcome. Recent population based clinical studies and large-scale meta-analyses pondered over the role of 719Arg variant in CAD risk and treatment response. We screened the KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455 in south Indian CAD patients in a case–control approach. A total of 1042 samples (510 CAD patients and 532 controls were screened for the KIF6 Trp719Arg SNP by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay, followed by meta-analysis of the genotype data of non-Europeans reports. The 719Arg risk genotype (GG was observed in 29.6% of CAD cases and in 30.1% of controls with an odds ratio (OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 0.76–1.50, p value = 0.709. No significant difference in the genotype frequency was observed between CAD and controls in both dominant model (AG + GG vs AA and allelic model (719Arg vs 719Trp with an OR of 1.11 (p = 0.491 and 1.03 (p = 0.767, respectively. The covariate analysis indicated that smoking & alcohol consumption increased the risk for MI among CAD patients. Meta-analysis showed that the KIF6 719Arg allele is not associated with CAD risk in both fixed effect (p = 0.515, OR = 1.023, 95% CI = 0.956–1.094 and random effect (p = 0.547, OR = 1.022, 95% CI = 0.953–1.096. The symmetrical shape of the Egger's funnel plots revealed that there is no publication bias. These results suggest that there is no association of KIF6 719Arg allele with CAD risk in South Indian population and the meta-analysis confirms the same among non-European population.

  5. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  6. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  7. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn

    2015-01-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7...

  8. 艾维尔沟上游泉水沟泉水成因类型分析%Analysis of Genetic Types of Spring Ditch Upstream of the Aiweier Ditch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦新

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,analysis and diagnosis the hydrological and geological condition of the spring ditch that is near the upstream of the Aiweier Ditch in Turpan City,Xinjiang.Demonstrated Aiweier Quanshuigou ditch′s upper spring is from the river underflow.Provide a scientific basis of the domestic water supply in Nanshan mine district.%对新疆吐鲁番市艾维尔沟上游泉水沟附近水文地质条件的分析和判断,论证了艾维尔沟上游泉水沟泉水来自于河床潜流,为解决南山矿区生活用水提出了科学的依椐。

  9. Observations of the northern seasonal polar cap on Mars II: HiRISE photometric analysis of evolution of northern polar dunes in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Pommerol, Antoine; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Hansen, Candice J.; Thomas, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    We present an overview of our analyses of HiRISE observations of spring evolution of selected dune areas of the north polar erg. The north polar erg is covered annually by seasonal volatile ice layer, a mixture of CO2 and H2O with mineral dust contamination. In spring, this layer sublimes creating visually enigmatic phenomena, e.g. dark and bright fan-shaped deposits, dark-bright-dark bandings, dark down-slope streaks, and seasonal polygonal cracks. Similar phenomena in southern polar areas are believed to be related to the specific process of solid-state greenhouse effect. In the north, it is currently unclear if the solid-state greenhouse effect is able to explain all the observed phenomena especially because the increased influence of H2O on the time scales of this process has not yet been quantified. HiRISE observations of our selected locations show that the ground exhibits a temporal behaviour similar to the one observed in the southern polar areas: a brightening phase starting close to the spring equinox with a subsequent darkening towards summer solstice. The resolution of HiRISE enabled us to study dunes and substrate individually and even distinguish between different developments on windward and slip face sides of single dunes. Differences in the seasonal evolution between steep slip faces and flatter substrate and windward sides of dunes have been identified and compared to CRISM data of CO2 and H2O distributions on dunes. We also observe small scale dark blotches that appear in early observations and tend to sustain a low reflectivity throughout the spring. These blotches can be regarded as the analogue of dark fan deposits in southern polar areas, leading us to the conclusion that both martian polar areas follow similar spring evolutions.

  10. Sea surface height anomaly and upper ocean temperature over the Indian Ocean during contrasting monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Anitha; Mitra, A. K.; Mahapatra, D. K.; Momin, I. M.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Basu, Swati

    2016-09-01

    Recent research emphasizes the importance of the oceanic feedback to monsoon rainfall over the Asian landmass. In this study, we investigate the differences in the sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and upper ocean temperature over the tropical Indian Ocean during multiple strong and weak monsoons. Analysis of satellite derived SSHA, sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean reanalysis data reveals that patterns of SSHA, SST, ocean temperature, upper ocean heat content (UOHC) and propagations of Kelvin and Rossby waves differ during strong and weak monsoon years. During strong monsoons positive SSH, SST and UOHC anomalies develop over large parts of north Indian Ocean whereas during weak monsoons much of the north Indian Ocean is covered with negative anomalies. These patterns can be used as a standard tool for evaluating the performance of coupled and ocean models in simulating & forecasting strong and weak monsoons. The rainfall over central India is found to be significantly correlated with SSHA over the regions (Arabian Sea and West central Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal) where SSHA is positively large during strong monsoons. The SST-SSHA correlation is also very strong over the same area. The study reveals that much convection takes place over these regions during strong monsoons. In contrast during weak monsoons, convection takes place over eastern equatorial region. These changes in SST are largely influenced by oceanic Kelvin and Rossby waves. The Rossby waves initiated in spring at the eastern boundary propagate sub-surface heat content in the ocean influencing SST in summer. The SST anomalies modulate the Hadley circulation and the moisture transport thereby contributing to rainfall over central India. Therefore oceanic Kelvin and Rossby waves influence the rainfall over central India.

  11. Bathymetric distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda, Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    Based on the analysis of 204 zooplankton samples from the stratified depths in the Indian Ocean collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE), the distribution of the genus Pleuromamma indica, P. gracilis, P. piseki, P...

  12. Magnetic Spring Device

    CERN Document Server

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  13. Identifying Oil Exploration Leads using Intergrated Remote Sensing and Seismic Data Analysis, Lake Sakakawea, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, Willistion Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves; Randal L. Billingsley

    2004-02-26

    The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, inhabited by the Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa Tribes (now united to form the Three Affiliated Tribes) covers a total area of 1530 mi{sup 2} (980,000 acres). The Reservation is located approximately 15 miles east of the depocenter of the Williston basin, and to the southeast of a major structural feature and petroleum producing province, the Nesson anticline. Several published studies document the widespread existence of mature source rocks, favorable reservoir/caprock combinations, and production throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas indicating high potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. This technical assessment was performed to better define the oil exploration opportunity, and stimulate exploration and development activities for the benefit of the Tribes. The need for this assessment is underscored by the fact that, despite its considerable potential, there is currently no meaningful production on the Reservation, and only 2% of it is currently leased. Of particular interest (and the focus of this study) is the area under the Lake Sakakawea (formed as result of the Garrison Dam). This 'reservoir taking' area, which has never been drilled, encompasses an area of 150,000 acres, and represents the largest contiguous acreage block under control of the Tribes. Furthermore, these lands are Tribal (non-allotted), hence leasing requirements are relatively simple. The opportunity for exploration success insofar as identifying potential leads under the lake is high. According to the Bureau of Land Management, there have been 591 tests for oil and gas on or immediately adjacent to the Reservation, resulting in a total of 392 producing wells and 179 plugged and abandoned wells, for a success ratio of 69%. Based on statistical probability alone, the opportunity for success is high.

  14. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra Prasanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P P Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.

  15. The American Indian Development Bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  16. Carbamazepine breakthrough as indicator for specific vulnerability of karst springs: application on the Jeita spring, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Geyer, T.; Noedler, K.; Sauter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine is considered an effective wastewater marker. The varying concentration of this drug was analyzed in a mature karst spring following a precipitation event. The results show that carbamazepine is an indicator of wastewater entering the system through a fast flow pathway, leading to an increase of the drug concentrations in spring water shortly after a strong rainfall event. The analysis of the breakthrough curve of carbamazepine along with the electrical conductivity signal and major ions chemograph allowed the development of a conceptual model for precipitation event-based flow and transport in the investigated karst system. Furthermore the amount of newly recharged water and the mass of carbamazepine reaching the aquifer system during the event could be estimated using a simple mixing approach. The distance between the karst spring and the potential carbamazepine source was estimated by the combination of results from artificial tracer tests and the carbamazepine breakthrough curve. The assessment of spring responses to precipitation event using persistent drugs like carbamazepine helps assess the effect of waste water contamination at a spring and gives therefore insights to the specific vulnerability of a karst spring.

  17. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  18. 基于有限元的弹簧试验机偏心轮模态分析%Modal analysis of eccentric wheel for spring testing machine based on FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晖; 黄美发; 黄锦旗; 张旭蓝

    2011-01-01

    The spring,which, is applied widely in modern industry,plays an important part in reliability and riding comfort of industrial product.It is known that the working condition in modern construction machinery is severe therefore, the cylindrical helical spring applied in the machinery is under the severe condition, which have to be tested on spring testing machine for fatigue test.The eccentric wheel is one of critical component of spring testing machine, which may impact the overall performance of the tester.In this case,the modal analysis of eccentric wheel should be carried out.According to the actual requirement of operation,a 3D model is established and modal analysis is done by applying Finite Element Analysis(FEA) and modal for various modes is obtained,which result is valuable for the design of both eccentric wheel and the spring testing machine.%弹簧广泛应用于现代工业中,对工业产品的可靠性和舒适性都具有重要作用.现代工程机械工况比较恶劣,因此其所用圆柱螺旋弹簧使用环境较为苛刻,必须采用弹簧试验机对其进行疲劳试验.偏心轮是弹簧试验机中的重要零件之一,影响试验机的整体性能.因此需要对偏心轮进行模态分析.根据实际使用要求,建立偏心轮三维模型,并导入有限元软件,进行模态分析.通过有限元分析软件,分析得到偏心轮的各阶模态.该结果对于偏心轮设计以及弹簧试验机的设计都具有重要参考价值.

  19. Evaluation of soil moisture data products over Indian region and analysis of spatio-temporal characteristics with respect to monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Karipot, Anandakumar; Ranalkar, Manish; Prabhakaran, Thara

    2016-11-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is an essential climate variable of greater relevance in the monsoon scenario, hence validation and understanding of its spatio-temporal variability over the Indian region is of high significance. In the present study, five SM products are evaluated against in situ SM measurements conducted by India Meteorological Department and the selected data product is used for spatio-temporal characterization of SM in relation to monsoon rainfall. The data products evaluated are: European Space Agency's merged satellite SM, Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Land SM, ECMWF's ERA interim SM, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis SM, and Global Land Data Assimilation System Noah Land Surface Model SM. Comparisons show that seasonal SM patterns in all products generally follow the characteristics of rainfall, even though there are certain differences in details. The statistical estimates indicate fairly good agreement between in situ and the five products, with some variations among them and over the homogeneous rainfall regions. On comparison, MERRA SM is found appropriate for further analyses on spatio-temporal characteristics, which are then carried out with the 20 year (1993-2012) SM data. Stability analyses revealed SM patterns indicative of relative SM variability as well as persistence. The spatial stability analysis depicts dry and wet patterns and their seasonal variations over different geographical locations in relation to all India spatial average. Large temporal variations are found over central, western and northern Indian regions caused by large intraseasonal variability in rainfall. In brief, intraseasonal and interannual soil moisture variations broadly follow the rainfall pattern, with long-term influences attributed to SM memory effects. The soil moisture persistence and dominant scales of variability are explored with autocorrelation and wavelet transform techniques. Seasonal persistence is large over

  20. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Pipe Flanged Jiont with Belleville Spring in Delayed Coking Unit%延迟焦化装置中带碟簧的管法兰接头三维数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董智; 仇性启; 赵宗彬

    2011-01-01

    FEA was used to analyze the force and deformation of coke tower and the pipe in delayed coking unit. Three - dimensional numerical analysis for the pipe flanged joint with belleville spring was carried on to investigate belleville spring's effects on gasket stress under the elevated temperature condition of coking stage. The results of the simulation show that coke tower produces thermal expansion, so induces the bend deformation of pipeline in the coking stage. High temperature's effects on them are more obvious than the pressure's. Proper use of belleville spring is more favourable for maintaining the working stress of gasket of the pipe flanged joint under the condition of elevated temperature.%应用有限元法分析延迟焦化装置中焦炭塔和管道的受力和变形,并针对生焦高温工况,对带有碟形弹簧的管法兰接头进行三维数值模拟,分析碟形弹簧对垫片应力的影响.模拟结果表明,生焦时焦炭塔受高温膨胀,导致管道弯曲变形,而内压对此影响相对要小很多;高温下选用适当的碟形弹簧,有利于维持管法兰接头的垫片工作应力.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PREPLANT TREATING OF SEEDS WITH INDUSTRIAL ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY (EMF PF 50 HZ ON THE GERMINATION ENERGY OF MIDRIPENING SPRING BARLEY SEEDS OF THE VARIETIES OF VAKULA, VIKONT, RATNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of physical factors for preplant stimulation of seeds increases vigor, germination and improves the yield of agricultural products. One of the effective ways to improve seed grain quality is to impact on the seeds using physical factors, in particular, an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50 Hz (EMF of IF of 50 Hz. We studied the impact of EMF of IF of 50 Hz on the energy germination of mid-ripening spring barley seeds of promising varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik. Carrying out the experimental studies we used a laboratory setup with annular pole points of rectangular cross section. Our disperse analysis resulted in data on germinative energy of seeds of spring barley varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik, which showed that while treating seeds of spring barley by an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50Hz, we obtained the best values of germinative energy of seeds of Variety Vikont with a mode of processing being equal to W = 16%, T = 2 c, L = 0,03 m

  2. Failure analysis for fatigue fracture of tractor clutch belleville spring%拖拉机离合器碟形弹簧疲劳断裂失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正峰; 李盖华; 夏建新

    2014-01-01

    通过对拖拉机碟形弹簧的化学成分、热处理和表面机械强化工艺、硬度、金相分析及强化疲劳试验,发现弹簧脱碳层、硬度和表面机械强化工艺不足是产生弹簧疲劳断裂的主要原因。通过对脱碳层、硬度的控制及挤压圆角、抛丸等表面机械强化工艺的改善,产品性能满足了使用要求。%Based on chemical composition, heat treatment and surface strengthening technology, hardness, metallographic analysis of the tractor belleville spring, combined with the intensifying fatigue test, it was found that the decarburization layer of materials, hardness of belleville spring and insufficient of strengthening technology were the principal causes of fatigue fracture.By the control of the material decarburization layer, the hardness of belleville spring and surface strengthening technology improvement such as rounded corners extrusion and surface shot peening, the product performance can meet the use requirement.

  3. Several Moments of the Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2003-01-01

    Spring has finally fallen on Cambridge. After a long, wet and dark winter, sky finally brightens up. The first messenger of spring is the daffodil (水仙花). English daffodils are slightly different from the Chinese ones that we are all familiar with. First of all, they bloom in spring, not in winter as the Chinese daffodils do. Second, they do not grow in water, but on the ground, though they

  4. Derivation of the reduced reaction mechanisms of ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring by using concentration sensitivity analysis and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Le; Wang, Chenggang; Mao, Mao; Grosshans, Holger; Cao, Nianwen

    2016-12-01

    The ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the springtime Arctic have been investigated since the 1980s. It is found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with an auto-catalytic reaction cycle, which involves mostly the bromine-containing compounds. Moreover, bromide stored in various substrates in the Arctic such as the underlying surface covered by ice and snow can be also activated by the absorbed HOBr. Subsequently, this leads to an explosive increase of the bromine amount in the troposphere, which is called the "bromine explosion mechanism". In the present study, a reaction scheme representing the chemistry of ozone depletion and halogen release is processed with two different mechanism reduction approaches, namely, the concentration sensitivity analysis and the principal component analysis. In the concentration sensitivity analysis, the interdependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species on the rate of each reaction in the ODE mechanism is identified. Furthermore, the most influential reactions in different time periods of ODEs are also revealed. By removing 11 reactions with the maximum absolute values of sensitivities lower than 10 %, a reduced reaction mechanism of ODEs is derived. The onsets of each time period of ODEs in simulations using the original reaction mechanism and the reduced reaction mechanism are identical while the maximum deviation of the mixing ratio of principal bromine species between different mechanisms is found to be less than 1 %. By performing the principal component analysis on an array of the sensitivity matrices, the dependence of a particular species concentration on a combination of the reaction rates in the mechanism is revealed. Redundant reactions are indicated by principal components corresponding to small eigenvalues and insignificant elements in principal components with large eigenvalues. Through this investigation, aside from the 11 reactions identified as unimportant in the concentration

  5. Analysis of elastic stiffness for the leaf type holddown spring assembly with uniformly tapered thickness considering the point of taper runout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    In the case that the point of taper runout is outside the bent region of spring base, a formula to evaluate the elastic stiffness of the leaf type holddown spring (HDS) assembly with uniformly tapered thickness from t{sub 0} to t{sub 1} (t{sub 0}>t{sub 1}) has been analytically derived by applying the engineering beam theory and Casiliano`s theorem based on strain energy. It has found that taper runouts for the 14x14 and 17x17 type KOFA HDS were up to 2.2 mm and effects on their elastic stiffnesses were about 3.70%, and that the elastic stiffness of the HDS was mainly caused by bending moment. And in addition, for the HDS designed/manufactured from Westinghouse, elastic stiffnesses from the derived formula were in good agreement with those from the Westinghouse`s empirical formula. Therefore, the derived formula could be applicable to evaluating the elastic stiffness of any HDS with tapered thickness only with the informations of the geometric data and material properties of leaf springs regardness of the manufacturing companies. 11 tabs., 4 figs., 25 refs. (Author) .new.

  6. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  7. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  8. Analysis of Spring Buffer Influence on a Gun’s RF and Recoil%弹簧缓冲器对某机枪射频和后坐力的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺大为; 李忠新

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of cushion holder for light remote weapon station, established the virtual prototype model of a general purpose machine gun and the spring buffer by using three-dimensional drawing software Pro/E and dynamic simulation software ADAMS, through the simulation under different conditions of the model, analysis the impact of the spring buffer for gun fire, include the influence of RF and the force transfer to frame seat, results showed that:when fire three round with spring buffer the RF between every two round is decreases and the RF between first round and second round is different from the RF between second round and third round. The analysis showed that: the spring buffer can reduce the weapon RF and the recoil peak transmitted to frame seat. Spring buffer can significantly reduce the recoil peak transmitted to frame seat by 88.3%when firing.%为研究缓冲架座对轻型遥控武器站的影响,建立一种某机枪和连接机枪与枪架的弹簧缓冲器的虚拟样机模型。利用三维作图软件 Pro/E和动力学仿真软件 ADAMS建立虚拟样机模型,通过进行不同条件下模型的仿真,分析了缓冲器对机枪射击时射频的影响和对传递至枪架后坐力大小的影响。结果表明:弹簧缓冲器会降低武器射频同时明显减小传递至枪架的后坐力,有缓冲器时机枪三连发射击每两发间的射频减小,且射击时传递至枪架的后坐力峰值较无缓冲器时减小88.3%。

  9. 矩形截面非圆柱螺旋弹簧的模态分析%Modal analysis of non-cylindrical helical springs with rectangular cross-section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝颖; 虞爱民

    2012-01-01

    对矩形截面非圆柱(锥形、桶形、双曲形)螺旋弹簧的自由振动问题进行了研究.在弹簧的运动微分方程中,首次考虑了簧丝截面的翘曲变形对固有频率的影响.采用改进的Riccati传递矩阵法对包括14个自由度的一阶变系数常微分方程组进行了求解.为了证明理论的有效性,对两端固支矩形截面非圆柱螺旋弹簧的固有频率进行了求解,同时给出了各种参数变化对两端固支矩形截面锥形弹簧固有频率的影响.计算表明,翘曲变形对矩形截面非圆柱螺旋弹簧的固有频率有着重大的影响,在自由振动分析中必须加以考虑.%Free vibration analysis of non-cylindrical (conical, barrel, and hyperboloidal types) helical springs with rectangular cross-section is performed. The effects of the warping deformation of wire cross-section on the natural frequencies are first studied in the differential equations of motion for the springs. Improved Riccati transfer matrix method is introduced to solve the first order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients, which consist of 14 degrees of freedom. The natural frequencies of non-cylindrical helical springs with rectangular cross-section and clatnped-clamped boundary condition are calculated to validate the proposed method, and the effects of various parameters on the natural frequencies of the clamped-clamped conical springs with rectangular cross-section are also investigated. Calculations show that the warping effect upon the natural frequencies is prominent, which should be considered in the free vibration analysis of the springs.

  10. Indian Cosmological Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

  11. Seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik M.; de Ruijter, Will P. M.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2016-04-01

    The South Indian tropical gyre receives and redistributes water masses from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), a source of Pacific Ocean water which represents the only low-latitude connector between the world oceans and, therefore, a key component in the global ocean circulation and climate system. We investigate the seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre and its associated open-ocean upwelling system, known as the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR), based on satellite altimeter data (AVISO) and global atlases of temperature and salinity (CARS09), wind stress (SCOW) and wind-driven circulation. Two novel large-scale features governing the upper geostrophic circulation of the South Indian tropical gyre are revealed. First, the seasonal shrinkage of the ocean gyre. This occurs when the South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC) recirculates before arrival to Sumatra from winter to spring, in apparent synchronization with the annual cycle of the ITF. Second, the open-ocean upwelling is found to vary following seasonality of the overlying geostrophic ocean gyre, a relationship that has not been previously shown for this region. An analysis of major forcing mechanisms suggests that the thermocline ridge results from the constructive interaction of basin-scale wind stress curl, local-scale wind stress forcing and remote forcing driven by Rossby waves of different periodicity: semiannual in the west, under the strong influence of monsoonal winds; and, annual in the east, where the southeasterlies prevail. One exception occurs during winter, when the well-known westward intensification of the upwelling core, the Seychelles Dome, is shown to be largely a response of the wind-driven circulation. Broadly speaking, the seasonal shrinkage of the ocean gyre (and the SCTR) is the one feature that differs most when the geostrophic circulation is compared to the wind-driven Sverdrup circulation. From late autumn to spring, the eastward SECC recirculates early in

  12. Subsurface Analysis of the Mesaverde Group on and near the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico-its implication on Sites of Oil and Gas Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, Jennie

    2001-08-21

    The purpose of the phase 2 Mesaverde study part of the Department of Energy funded project ''Analysis of oil-bearing Cretaceous Sandstone Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico'' was to define the facies of the oil-producing units within the subsurface units of the Mesaverde Group and integrate these results with outcrop studies that defined the depositional environments of these facies within a sequence stratigraphic context. The focus of this report will center on (1) integration of subsurface correlations with outcrop correlations of components of the Mesaverde, (2) application of the sequence stratigraphic model determined in the phase one study to these correlations, (3) determination of the facies distribution of the Mesaverde Group and their relationship to sites of oil and gas accumulation, (4) evaluation of the thermal maturity and potential source rocks for oil and gas in the Mesaverde Group, and (5) evaluation of the structural features on the Reservation as they may control sites of oil accumulation.

  13. The influence of accuracy, grid size, and interpolation method on the hydrological analysis of LiDAR derived dems: Seneca Nation of Indians, Irving NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Brian W.

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide accurate, high resolution digital surfaces for precise topographic analysis. The following study investigates the accuracy of LiDAR derived DEMs by calculating the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of multiple interpolation methods with grid cells ranging from 0.5 to 10-meters. A raster cell with smaller dimensions will drastically increase the amount of detail represented in the DEM by increasing the number of elevation values across the study area. Increased horizontal resolutions have raised the accuracy of the interpolated surfaces and the contours generated from the digitized landscapes. As the raster grid cells decrease in size, the level of detail of hydrological processes will significantly improve compared to coarser resolutions including the publicly available National Elevation Datasets (NEDs). Utilizing a LiDAR derived DEM with the lowest RMSE as the 'ground truth', watershed boundaries were delineated for a sub-basin of the Clear Creek Watershed within the territory of the Seneca Nation of Indians located in Southern Erie County, NY. An investigation of the watershed area and boundary location revealed considerable differences comparing the results of applying different interpretation methods on DEM datasets of different horizontal resolutions. Stream networks coupled with watersheds were used to calculate peak flow values for the 10-meter NEDs and LiDAR derived DEMs.

  14. GC-MS ANALYSIS AND ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF MENTHA PIPERITA L. FROM KULLU-A NORTH INDIAN REGION OF HIGHER ALTITUDE HIMALAYAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHARMA VIVEK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint has been done for the first time from study area of Northern Indian region of Kullu (1362m district of Himachal Pradesh. The extraction yield for the essential oil of M. piperita L. was 0.42% for sample M-7. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS, the components of oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The major constituents reported from essential oils of M. piperita were: L-Menthone (28.66%; Menthol (9.94%; Piperitone oxide (16.0%; Eucalyptol (7.03%; L-Menthone (3.13%; Isoneomenthol (2.93%; á-Phellandrene (3.21%; ä-3-Carene (3.27%; dl-Limonene (2.53%; á-Pinene (2.02%, etc. Furthermore, anti-microbial activity of oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The anti-microbial test results showed that the oil had a potential anti-microbial activity against all seven Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains such as: Pseudomonas fluorescence, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acenetobactor calcoaceticus. Essential oil showed maximum zone of inhibition and minimal inhibition concentration against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-2451 and Pseudomonas fluorescence (MTCC-664 bacterial strains.

  15. Crystal structure analysis of a hexatungstate by a high-energy X-ray diffraction experiment using an imaging plate Weissenberg camera at the BL04B2 beamline of SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Tomoji; Honma, Noritaka [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kusaka, Katsuhiro [Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    An imaging plate Weissenberg camera was installed in the BL04B2 beamline of SPring-8 aiming at automated crystal structure determinations of small molecules. Since this beamline is designed to provide X-rays with the energies higher than 37 keV ({lambda}<0.33 A), this camera is advantageous in crystal structure analyses of heavily X-ray absorbing materials. The title crystal structure analysis led to precise positional parameters and well-behaved displacement parameters not only for heavy atoms but also for light atoms. (author)

  16. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  17. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  18. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  19. The Motion Of A Spring Released From Uniform Circular Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Dooling, Thomas; Carnaghi, Matthew; Titus, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A weak spring is connected at one end to a rotor turning at constant angular velocity. The spring extends to a stretched length as determined by the spring mass, rest length, spring constant, rotor radius and rotor angular velocity. When released from the rotor, the inner end of the spring pulls away as expected, causing a wave to travel down the spring as it collapses. During this time interval, the outer end of the spring continues to move along its original circular path in uniform circular motion, as if the spring were still connected to the rotor. This is analogous to the effect of a hanging Slinky released from rest whose bottom end remains at a fixed position above the ground until a wave from the top of the Slinky reaches the bottom of the Slinky. Values from a numerical model and measurements from video analysis show that upon release the inner end travels along a circle of similar radius as the outer end. The effect appears as a series of alternating semi-circles. In addition, the simulation and dat...

  20. The link between Tibetan Plateau monsoon and Indian summer precipitation: a linear diagnostic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Sielmann, Frank; Zhu, Xiuhua; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhi, Xiefei; Peng, Ting; Wang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    The thermal forcing of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is analyzed to investigate the formation and variability of Tibetan Plateau Summer Monsoon (TPSM), which affects the climates of the surrounding regions, in particular the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. Dynamic composites and statistical analyses indicate that the Indian summer monsoon precipitation is less/greater than normal during the strong/weak TPSM. Strong (weak) TPSM is associated with an anomalous near surface cyclone (anticyclone) over the western part of the Tibetan Plateau, enhancing (reducing) the westerly flow along its southern flank, suppressing (favoring) the meridional flow of warm and moist air from the Indian ocean and thus cutting (providing) moisture supply for the northern part of India and its monsoonal rainfall. These results are complemented by a dynamic and thermodynamic analysis: (i) A linear thermal vorticity forcing primarily describes the influence of the asymmetric heating of TP generating an anomalous stationary wave flux. Composite analysis of anomalous stationary wave flux activity (after Plumb in J Atmos Sci 42:217-229, 1985) strongly indicate that non-orographic effects (diabatic heating and/or interaction with transient eddies) of the Tibetan Plateau contribute to the generation of an anomalous cyclone (anti-cyclone) over the western TP. (ii) Anomalous TPSM generation shows that strong TPSM years are related to the positive surface sensible heating anomalies over the eastern TP favoring the strong diabatic heating in summer. While negative TPSM years are associated with the atmospheric circulation anomalies during the preceding spring, enhancing northerly dry-cold air intrusions into TP, which may weaken the condensational heat release in the middle and upper troposphere, leading to a weaker than normal summer monsoon over the TP in summer.

  1. Sequence analysis and identification of new variations in the coding sequence of melatonin receptor gene (MTNR1A of Indian Chokla sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Saxena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptor 1A gene is the prime receptor mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level for control of seasonal reproduction in sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the polymorphism pattern of coding sequence of MTNR1A gene in Chokla sheep, a breed of Indian arid tract and to identify new variations in relation to its aseasonal status. Genomic DNAs of 101 Chokla sheep were collected and an 824 bp coding sequence of Exon II was amplified. RFLP was performed with enzyme RsaI and MnlI to assess the presence of polymorphism at position C606T and G612A, respectively. Genotyping revealed significantly higher frequency of M and R alleles than m and r alleles. RR and MM were found to be dominantly present in the group of studied population. Cloning and sequencing of Exon II followed by mutation/polymorphism analysis revealed ten mutations of which three were non-synonymous mutations (G706A, C893A, G931C. G706A leads to substitution of valine by isoleucine Val125I (U14109 in the fifth transmembrane domain. C893A leads to substitution of alanine by aspartic acid in the third extracellular loop. G931C mutation brings about substitution of amino acid alanine by proline in the seventh transmembrane helix, can affect the conformational stability of the molecule. Polyphen-2 analysis revealed that the polymorphism at position 931 is potentially damaging while the mutations at positions 706 and 893 were benign. It is concluded that G931C mutation of MTNR 1A gene, may explain, in part, the importance of melatonin structure integrity in influencing seasonality in sheep.

  2. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  3. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  4. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey : a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, SS; Dias, JG; Willekens, FJ

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National Fami

  5. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey: a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.; Dias, J.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National Fami

  6. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  7. Cloning and sequence analysis of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ from Indian Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, G; Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Ghorui, S K; Pathak, K M L; Singh, R K; Patil, N V

    2012-06-01

    The cDNAs of three cytokines, viz., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ from Dromedary camels were amplified by PCR using Bactrian camel sequences and subsequently cloned for sequence analysis. Relationship based on amino acid sequences revealed that Dromedary camel IL-2 shared 99.5% and 99.3% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with Bactrian camel IL-2. In the case of IL-4, the identity of Dromedary camel was 99.7% and 99.2% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively with that of Bactrian camel. The Dromedary camel IFN-γ shared 100% identity both at nucleotide and amino acid levels with Bactrian camel IFN-γ. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences indicated the close relationship in these cytokine genes between the Dromedary camel and other camelids.

  8. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  9. Indian Development vs Sino-Indian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A deep, lasting, great friendship can be traced back to over two millennia ago between two close neighbors, the initiators of the world-famous Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence with its 50th anniversary just commemorated this year. Historically, China benefited much from learning the brilliant Indian culture. Today, the two major Asian countries are learning from each other in their rapid economic growth. The rise of China and India, closer ties between the two, will definitely exert a significant impact on the Asia-Pacific region and the broader world in the days ahead.

  10. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Sharon Davidson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

  11. Economic development and foreign direct investment: How to create sustainable development an analysis of the potential for sustainable development on the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homlong Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing critically on the effects of the conditions for foreign direct investment on sustainable growth in the recipient country, this paper analyzes the potential for investments in environmental innovations in India. The definition of sustainability applied in this paper incorporates economic development and investment which promotes environmentally and socially friendly production and innovation. As the Indian economy experienced strong growth in GDP in recent years, but is still lagging behind in providing the basic needs of clean water, clean air and proper waste management for households and companies, the necessity for sustainable development exists. From a methodological point of view this paper uses macroeconomic data to evaluate quantitatively the potentials and needs of Indian states. This results in a state ranking showing the potential for sustainable development in selected Indian states, based on economic and environmental indicators.

  12. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Mehta, Naveen K.; Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2014-01-01

    In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them...

  13. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W; Smale, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ(13)C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ(13)C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range.

  14. Identification of mycobacterial species by PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene—an Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajoy Kumar; Kumar, Gavish; Arora, Jyoti; Singh, Paras; Arora, Vijay Kumar; Myneedu, Vithal Prasad; Sarin, Rohit

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) often cause pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. Species identification of NTM determines the line of treatment and management of the disease. The routine diagnostic methods, i.e., smear microscopy and biochemical identification, of nontuberculous mycobacteria are tedious and time consuming and not all laboratories can perform these tests on a routine basis. A PCR targeting the hsp65 gene was implemented using standard strains and was applied to 109 clinical isolates. The PCR-amplified product was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis using BstEII and HaeIII. The results obtained were compared with that of biochemical tests. Of 109 NTM, 107 were identified to species level. PCR plus restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) identified 12 types of NTM. Common species identified were Mycobacterium chelonae (32), a rapid growing NTM, and Mycobacterium avium complex (21), among the slow growing NTM. PRA and biochemical identification showed 95.32% (102/107) concordant results. PRA is fast, cheap, and accurate for identification of potentially pathogenic NTM.

  15. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  16. A Numerical/Experimental Study of Nitinol Actuator Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auricchio, Ferdinando; Scalet, Giulia; Urbano, Marco

    2014-07-01

    This study deals with the numerical modeling, simulation and experimental analysis of shape-memory alloy (SMA) helicoidal springs. An experimental campaign is conducted on both SMA straight wires and helicoidal springs that experienced the same annealing process. Then, we use such experimental results to investigate three phenomenological constitutive models able to represent SMA macroscopic behavior. In particular, after the identification of all the material parameters from experimental results on SMA wires, we inspect the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMA helicoidal springs by comparing numerical predictions to experimental data. Finally, we discuss models capabilities and some aspects characterizing SMA material behavior.

  17. 央视春晚植入式广告营销新探%New Analysis of the Placement Marketing Strategy in CCTV Spring Festival Cala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中望; 裴囡囡; 周小红

    2012-01-01

    At present, product placement in China is immature, which leads to the problems of stiff effects, low correlation with programs and lack of systematic planning in CCTV Spring Festival Gala, but simple canceling is not a good way. In the environment of new economy, new media and new audience, the operation and management of product placement in CCTV Spring Festival Gala need innovation. More attention should be paid to the content, the reality and professional planning. More emphasis should he given to the deep correlation between products and programs to develop new implantable methods, to promote effect evaluation and propose all-around integrated marketing, which is beneficial for achieving a win-win situation for enterprises, media and the public.%目前我国植入式广告的不成熟,导致央视春晚植入式广告存在植入生硬、与节目关联度偏低、缺乏系统规划等方面的不足。简单取消做法并不可取。在新的经济、媒介、受众环境下,央视春晚植入式广告的运作与管理亟待创新。坚持内容至上,以真实为生命,重视专业策划,注重产品与节目的深度契合,开发新型植入方式,开展效果评估,倡导全方位的整合营销,有利于实现企业、媒体、公众三方的共赢。

  18. Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Offers a "definition" of Zitkala Sa as an Indian teacher who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged and countered educational norms that silenced Indian voices and erased Indian culture. Examines her autobiographical essays, "Impressions of an Indian Childhood,""The School Days of an Indian Girl," and "An Indian Teacher among Indians," in…

  19. Exploration of Csp genes from temperate and glacier soils of the Indian Himalayas and in silico analysis of encoding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Prema K; Soni, Ravindra; Khan, Mahejibin; Marla, Soma S; Goel, Reeta

    2009-04-01

    The metagenomic Csp library was constructed from the temperate and glacier soils of central Himalaya, India followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The library was further screened for low-temperature adaptation, and the positive recombinants were sorted out by determining changes in the melting temperature (Tm). A homology search of cloned sequence showed their identity with the Csp genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5, and Shewanella spp MR-4. Amino acid sequence analysis annotated the presence of conserved aromatic and basic amino acids as well as RNA binding motifs from the cold shock domain. Furthermore, a PROSITE scan showed a moderate identity of less than 60% with the known cold shock-inducible proteins (ribosomal proteins, rbfA, DEAD-box helicases), cold acclimation protein, and temperature-induced protein (SRP1/TIP1). This study highlighted the prevalence of Csp genes from cold Himalayan environments that can be explored for tailor-made crop constructions in future.

  20. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  1. Characterization of Aeromonas strains isolated from Indian foods using rpoD gene sequencing and whole cell protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2013-04-01

    Aeromonas are responsible for causing gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Twenty-two Aeromonas strains isolated from different food sources were re-identified up to species level using rpoD gene sequence analysis. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were insufficient to identify Aeromonas till species level. However, incorporation of additional biochemical tests lead to correct identification of 95.5 % strains up to species level. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was useful to identify Aeromonas isolates at the genus level only. Sequences of the rpoD gene showed greater discriminatory power than 16S rRNA gene and provided conclusive discrimination of the strains for which the phenotypic species identification was uncertain. All these 22 strains were accurately identified up to species level by rpoD gene as A. salmonicida (6), A. veronii bv. veronii (4), A. caviae (3), A. hydrophila (2), A. veronii bv. sobria (2), A. jandaei (1), A. trota (1), A. sobria (1), A. allosaccharophila (1) and A. bivalvium (1). All these strains were also characterized using whole cell protein (WCP) analysis by gradient SDS-PAGE and showed different whole cell protein (WCP) profile [22-28 polypeptide bands (~10 to >97 kDa)], indicating high genetic diversity. The present work emphasizes the use of molecular methods such as rpoD gene sequencing along with comprehensive biochemical tests for the rapid and accurate identification of Aeromonas isolates till species level. The WCP profile can be subsequently used to characterize Aeromonas isolates below species level.

  2. The once and future pulse of Indian monsoonal climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K.K.; Patwardhan, S.K.; Goswami, B.N. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Kamala, K. [Universiti Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN-IPSL, Paris (France); Rajagopalan, Balaji [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoerling, Martin P.; Eischeid, Jon K. [NOAA/ESRL/PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Srinivasan, G. [RIMES, Pathunthani (Thailand); Nemani, Ramakrishna [NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    We present a comprehensive assessment of the present and expected future pulse of the Indian monsoon climate based on observational and global climate model projections. The analysis supports the view that seasonal Indian monsoon rains in the latter half of the 21th century may not be materially different in abundance to that experienced today although their intensity and duration of wet and dry spells may change appreciably. Such an assessment comes with considerable uncertainty. With regard to temperature, however, we find that the Indian temperatures during the late 21st Century will very likely exceed the highest values experienced in the 130-year instrumental record of Indian data. This assessment comes with higher confidence than for rainfall because of the large spatial scale driving the thermal response of climate to greenhouse gas forcing. We also find that monsoon climate changes, especially temperature, could heighten human and crop mortality posing a socio-economic threat to the Indian subcontinent. (orig.)

  3. Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: differentiation of subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukuttannair R. Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98% inter-population, and 23% to 58% intra-population polymorphism. Nei's genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R² = 0.71 and geographic distance (R² = 0.78. On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei's gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R² = 0.63. Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D'2IS exceeded D'2ST, showed significant contribution of random genetic drift to the increase in variance of disequilibrium in subpopulations. In the Lakhimpur population, the peripheral part was separated from the core by a genetic distance of 0.260. Patchy habitats promoted low genetic variability, high linkage disequilibrium and colonization by new subpopulations. Increased gene flow and habitat-area expansion are required to maintain higher genetic variability and conservation of the original S. c. ricini gene pool.

  4. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  5. Indians of the Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

  6. Caregiving in Indian Country

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  7. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  8. Bio-medical waste management: situational analysis & predictors of performances in 25 districts across 20 Indian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INCLEN Program Evaluation Network (IPEN study group, New Delhi, India

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: A legislative framework for bio-medical waste management (BMWM was established in the country more than a decade ago. Though some studies have identified gaps at local levels, no systematic effort was done to collect data from different parts of the country. The objective of this nationwide study was to document existing resources, infrastructure and practices related to BMWM across the study districts. Methods: The study was conducted in 25 districts spread over 20 States of India including urban and rural areas. Primary (n=388, secondary (n=25 and tertiary care (n=24 health facilities from public (n=238 and private (n=199 sector were assessed and scored for the state of BMWM through 9 items representing system capacity, availability of resources and processes in place. Health facilities were assigned into one of the three categories (Red, Yellow and Green based on the cumulative median scores. Results: Around 82 per cent of primary, 60 per cent of secondary and 54 per cent of tertiary care health facilities were in the ′RED′ category. Multivariate analysis indicated that charts at the point of waste generation, availability of designated person, appropriate containers and bags, availability of functional needle destroyers, availability of personal protective gears, segregation of waste at point of generation and log book maintenance were independently (OR-between 1.2-1.55; P <0.03 or less associated with better BMWM system in the health facilities. This was true for both rural-urban and public or private health facilities. Interpretation & conclusions: The study highlighted the urgent need for greater commitments at policy and programme levels for capacity building, and resource investments in BMWM.

  9. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2005-04-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower

  10. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2005-04-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower

  11. Flake tools stratified below paleo-Indian artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, M J; Rowlett, R M; Garrison, E G; Dort, W; Bryant, V M; Johannsen, C J

    1978-06-16

    In northwest Missouri, Lithic stage flake tools struck from prepared cores have been excavated underlying a Paleo-Indian fluted point assemblage. These assemblages were in two different loesses of the last glaciation. Thermoluminescent analysis of stone tools dates the Paleo-Indian occupations at 8690 +/- 1000 B.C. and 12,855 +/- 1500 B.C.; the Lithic stage occupations must be older than 13,000 B.C. on the basis of geologic correlation, lithic analysis, and cultural stratigraphy.

  12. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of rotavirus VP7-encoding gene from humans and animals of Northeast India: a relative study of Indian and global isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, P; Barman, N N; Sharma, I

    2015-09-01

    A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed to examine the genetic relationship between 67 (29 Indian, 38 global) rotavirus isolates of human, bovine and porcine neonates. The assay involved direct digestion of RT-PCR amplified VP7 cDNAs with three restriction enzymes (VspI, HaeIII, NlaIV) independently. Forty-eight RFLP patterns were identified for all 67 strains, and of these 20 patterns were associated with Indian isolates. A correlation between the restriction patterns and G type was apparent through deduction of enzyme restriction sites from known sequences. Major G serotypes (G1, G2, G6, G8) with a few mixed types could be differentiated where there was a positive assortment of intrinsic serotypes from multiple host origin, and certain single or combined enzyme profiles were highly dominant in the population. Significant genetic variations were established between global and Indian isolates and none of the RFLP patterns were shared between them. These data suggest that the Indian wild-type rotavirus population is distinguishable based on the VP7 gene, and co-circulation of distinct strains in different hosts is foremost, indicating the possible likelihood of inter-species transmission.

  13. Spring distributions and relationships with land cover and hydrogeologic strata in a karst landscape in Winona County, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.A.; Vondracek, B.

    2010-01-01

    Karst aquifers are important groundwater resources, but are vulnerable to contamination due to relatively rapid subsurface transport. Springs, points where the landscape and water table intersect and cold groundwater discharges, link aquifer systems with land surfaces and water bodies. As such, in many regions, they are critical to the viability of lakes, streams and cold-water fish communities. An understanding of where springs are located is important to watershed, fishery and environmental management efforts in karst regions. To better understand spatial distribution of springs and as a potential method for identifying variables that characterize locations of springs for improved land and watershed management, a nearest-neighbor analysis and a discriminant function analysis (DFA) of springs were conducted in Winona County, Minnesota USA, a karst landscape. Nearestneighbor analysis examined the spatial spring distribution. Twenty-two variables describing the locations of springs were analyzed to ascertain their ability to discriminate correct aquifer unit or bedrock unit classification for each spring. Springs were clumped with the highest densities in the lowest elevations. Springs were correctly assigned to aquifer units and bedrock units with eight and 11 landscape variables, respectively. Forest land cover was the only land cover type contributing to spring discrimination. Consideration of upland human activities, particularly in forested areas, on spring discharge along with a better understanding of characteristics describing spring locations could lead to better management activities that locate and protect springs and their important contributions to regional ecohydrology. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. An analysis of fast photochemistry over high northern latitudes during spring and summer using in-situ observations from ARCTAS and TOPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Olson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of chemical constituents and meteorological quantities obtained during the two Arctic phases of the airborne campaign ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites are analyzed using an observationally constrained steady state box model. Measurements of OH and HO2 from the Penn State ATHOS instrument are compared to model predictions. Forty percent of OH measurements below 2 km are at the limit of detection during the spring phase (ARCTAS-A. While the median observed-to-calculated ratio is near one, both the scatter of observations and the model uncertainty for OH are at the magnitude of ambient values. During the summer phase (ARCTAS-B, model predictions of OH are biased low relative to observations and demonstrate a high sensitivity to the level of uncertainty in NO observations. Predictions of HO2 using observed CH2O and H2O2 as model constraints are up to a factor of two larger than observed. A temperature-dependent terminal loss rate of HO2 to aerosol recently proposed in the literature is shown to be insufficient to reconcile these differences. A comparison of ARCTAS-A to the high latitude springtime portion of the 2000 TOPSE campaign (Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox shows similar meteorological and chemical environments with the exception of peroxides; observations of H2O2 during ARCTAS-A were 2.5 to 3 times larger than those during TOPSE. The cause of this difference in peroxides remains unresolved and has important implications for the Arctic HOx budget. Unconstrained model predictions for both phases indicate photochemistry alone is unable to simultaneously sustain observed levels of CH2O and H2O2; however when the model is constrained with observed CH2O, H2O2 predictions from a range of

  15. An analysis of fast photochemistry over high northern latitudes during spring and summer using in-situ observations from ARCTAS and TOPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Olson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations of chemical constituents and meteorological quantities obtained during the two Arctic phases of the airborne campaign ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites are analyzed using an observationally constrained steady state box model. Measurements of OH and HO2 from the Penn State ATHOS instrument are compared to model predictions. Forty percent of OH measurements below 2 km are at the limit of detection during the spring phase (ARCTAS-A. While the median observed-to-calculated ratio is near one, both the scatter of observations and the model uncertainty for OH are at the magnitude of ambient values. During the summer phase (ARCTAS-B, model predictions of OH are biased low relative to observations and demonstrate a high sensitivity to the level of uncertainty in NO observations. Predictions of HO2 using observed CH2O and H2O2 as model constraints are up to a factor of two larger than observed. A temperature-dependent terminal loss rate of HO2 to aerosol recently proposed in the literature is shown to be insufficient to reconcile these differences. A comparison of ARCTAS-A to the high latitude springtime portion of the 2000 TOPSE campaign (Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox shows similar meteorological and chemical environments with the exception of peroxides; observations of H2O2 during ARCTAS-A were 2.5 to 3 times larger than those during TOPSE. The cause of this difference in peroxides remains unresolved and has important implications for the Arctic HOx budget. Unconstrained model predictions for both phases indicate photochemistry alone is unable to simultaneously sustain observed levels of CH2O and H2O2; however when the model is constrained with observed CH2O, H2O2 predictions from a range of

  16. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... Soda Springs in Caribou County, Idaho. The new 115-kV single-circuit BPA transmission line would...

  17. Development of Hot Spring Tourism in Dandong:a SWOT-based Analysis%丹东温泉旅游开发的SWOT分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱华

    2011-01-01

    Recently,hot spring tourism has thrived in sequence of various types of tourism such as natural scenery,large amusement park,holiday resort,theme park and city sightseeing.Dandong has a favorable regional location,rich tourist resource and convenient comm%近年来,温泉旅游已经成为继山水风光、大型游乐场、度假村、主题公园、城市观光后我国又一新兴的旅游主题。丹东有着良好的区位优势,丰富的旅游资源和便捷的交通网络,但是目前最吸引外地游客的旅游产品还是观光旅游产品,而很少有真正留得住游客的休闲度假旅游产品,丹东温泉旅游的发展就可以很好地弥补这一缺陷。笔者采用SWOT分析方法,对丹东温泉旅游开发的优势、劣势、机遇和威胁进行了客观分析,并提出开发的相应对策,为丹东旅游业的发展做出贡献。

  18. Structure, variation and expression analysis of glutenin gene promoters from Triticum aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring shows the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 is key regulatory sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ying; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin

    2013-09-25

    In this study, ten glutenin gene promoters were isolated from model wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) using a genomic PCR strategy with gene-specific primers. Six belonged to high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoters, and four to low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS). Sequence lengths varied from 1361 to 2,554 bp. We show that the glutenin gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse sequences in this study, with HMW-GS and LMW-GS gene promoters characterized by distinct conserved motif combinations. Our findings show that HMW-GS promoters contain more functional motifs in the distal region of the glutenin gene promoter (> -700 bp) compared with LMW-GS. The y-type HMW-GS gene promoters possess unique motifs including RY repeat and as-2 box compared to the x-type. We also identified important motifs in the distal region of HMW-GS gene promoters including the 5'-UTR Py-rich stretch motif and the as-2 box motif. We found that cis-acting elements in the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 enhanced the expression of HMW-GS gene 1Bx7. Taken together, these data support efforts in designing molecular breeding strategies aiming to improve wheat quality. Our results offer insight into the regulatory mechanisms of glutenin gene expression.

  19. Analysis of pest control measures to spring forestry seedling%分析林业苗木春季病虫害防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显忠

    2016-01-01

    Our country is a populous country, less floor space per capita has been the primary problem that restricts China's economic development. Forestry as an important pillar industry of our national economic development has occupied an important position in the national economy, only good forestry resource management and good forestry ecological balance can better promote the steady growth of China's economy. This study briefly analyzed and discussed the spring seedling pest control issues, and put forward relevant countermeasures.%我国是一个人口众多的国家,人均占地面积少一直是制约我国经济发展的首要问题。而林业作为我国国民经济发展的重要支柱型产业,一直在国民经济中占有重要地位,只有做好林业资源管理工作,维持良好的林业生态平衡,才能更好地推动我国经济的稳步增长。对春季苗木病虫害防治问题进行简要分析和论述,并提出了相关的应对策略。

  20. Geospatial data sharing, online spatial analysis and processing of Indian Biodiversity data in Internet GIS domain - A case study for raster based online geo-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, H.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Roy, A.; Joshi, D.; Singh, H.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    National Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level, a project jointly sponsored by Department of Biotechnology and Department of Space, was implemented to identify and map the potential biodiversity rich areas in India. This project has generated spatial information at three levels viz. Satellite based primary information (Vegetation Type map, spatial locations of road & village, Fire occurrence); geospatially derived or modelled information (Disturbance Index, Fragmentation, Biological Richness) and geospatially referenced field samples plots. The study provides information of high disturbance and high biological richness areas suggesting future management strategies and formulating action plans. The study has generated for the first time baseline database in India which will be a valuable input towards climate change study in the Indian Subcontinent. The spatial data generated during the study is organized as central data repository in Geo-RDBMS environment using PostgreSQL and POSTGIS. The raster and vector data is published as OGC WMS and WFS standard for development of web base geoinformation system using Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The WMS and WFS based system allows geo-visualization, online query and map outputs generation based on user request and response. This is a typical mashup architecture based geo-information system which allows access to remote web services like ISRO Bhuvan, Openstreet map, Google map etc., with overlay on Biodiversity data for effective study on Bio-resources. The spatial queries and analysis with vector data is achieved through SQL queries on POSTGIS and WFS-T operations. But the most important challenge is to develop a system for online raster based geo-spatial analysis and processing based on user defined Area of Interest (AOI) for large raster data sets. The map data of this study contains approximately 20 GB of size for each data layer which are five in number. An attempt has been to develop system using