WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis increases power

  1. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, Brian; Boer, de Wouter W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. Fi

  2. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. First an overview is given of the amount and type of power production in the Netherlands, followed by a review of the control requirements. Next models are described, including a simplified model for the UCTE power system. The model was tested against frequency and power measurements after failure of a 558 MW production unit in the Netherlands. Agreement between measurements and model predictions proved to be good. The model was subsequently used to analyze the primary and secondary control requirements and the impact of an increase in decentralized power production on the fault restoration capabilities of the power system. Since the latter production units are not actively participating in primary and secondary control, fault restoration takes longer and becomes unacceptable when only 35% of the power producing units participate in secondary control. Finally, the model was used to study the impact of deregulation, especially the effect of 'block scheduling', on additional control actions of the secondary control. (Author)

  3. Economic Analysis of Cikaso Mini Hydro Power Plant as a CDM Project for Increasing IRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irhan Febijanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy fueled power generations are few developed by private sector in Indonesia. High-cost investment and low electricity selling price to PT PLN as a single buyer is main barriers for private sector to involve in the development of renewable energy fueled power generations. In this project, the economic feasibility of Mini Hydro Power Plant of Cikaso with capacity of 5.3 MW, located at Sukabumi Regency, West Java province was assessed. This project utilized revenue generated from carbon market to increase the economic feasibility. Procedure to register the project to United Nation for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC as a Clean Development Mechanism project was explained in detail. Approved Consolidation Methodology (ACM 0002 Version 12.3.0 was used to calculate grid emission factor in Jawa-Bali-Madura the grid electricity system. It was calculated that the grid emission factor is 0.833 (t-CO2/MWh, and the carbon emission reduction generated for this project is 21,982 ton/year. From the analysis result, it can be proven that the additional revenue from carbon credit could increase the project IRR from 10.28% to 13.52%.

  4. GeneMarker® Genotyping Software: Tools to Increase the Statistical Power of DNA Fragment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulce, D.; Li, X.; Snyder-Leiby, T.; Johathan Liu, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    The discriminatory power of post-genotyping analyses, such as kinship or clustering analysis, is dependent on the amount of genetic information obtained from the DNA fragment/genotyping analysis. The number of microsatellite loci amplified in one multiplex is limited by the number of dyes and overlapping loci boundaries; requiring researchers to amplify replicate samples with 2 or more multiplexes in order to obtain a genotype for 12–15 loci. AFLP is another method that is limited by the number of dyes, often requiring multiple amplifications of replicate samples to obtain more complete results. Traditionally, researchers export the genotyping results into a spread sheet, manually combine the results for each individual and then import into a third software package for post-genotyping analysis. GeneMarker is highly accurate, user-friendly genotyping software that allows all of these steps to be done in one software package, avoiding potential errors from data transfer to different programs and decreasing the amount of time needed to process the results. The Merge Project tool automatically combines the results from replicate samples processed with different primer sets. Replicate animal (diploid) DNA samples were amplified with three different multiplexes, each multiplex provided information on 4–6 loci. The kinship analysis using the merged results provided a 1017 increase in statistical power with a range of 108 when 5 loci were used versus 1025 when 15 loci were used to determine potential relationship levels with identity by descent calculations. These same sample sets were used in clustering analysis to diagram dendrograms. The dendrogram based on a single multiplex resulted in three branches at a given Euclidian distance. In comparison, the dendrogram that was constructed using the merged results had eight branches at the same Euclidian distance.

  5. Integrated system analysis method to increase performance in operation of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to develop more reliable power systems needs several iterative studies. These studies are rather complex and imply specific methods of analysis. To assess system evaluation based on some adequate techniques, specific models that could be deterministic and probabilistic should be developed. A complete modelling means to use both deterministic and probabilistic approach and models processing methods as well. The model developed for a nuclear facility, implies events modelling associated to the structures, systems and components (SSCs). The modelling and model processing studies assumes specific tasks that are familiar to safety evaluation analysts. Computer codes are today used in solving several tasks related to systems' analyses. The paper presents the specific methods of an integrating approach and use deterministic and probabilistic methods, in order to analyze and improve the operation of power systems. Also, in the paper are given the applications of probabilistic and deterministic modelling to perform on-line and off-line monitoring of the analysed system concerning the processes, reliability, unavailability, safety or risks. (authors)

  6. Increase of power plant efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of power plant efficiency has always been the aim of power plant manufacturers and operators. Today, after the re-orientation of the worldwide market situation, it is necessary to newly assess the power plant efficiency in the field of competition and environment. The average efficiency of power plants presently ranges worldwide at about 30%, yet the status of available technology in the year 2000 permits efficiencies between 45 an 58% depending on the fuels used. VGB PowerTech has been monitoring the technical development of power generation for 80 years up to now. From our point of view, power plant technology still has a great development potential at its disposal. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of liquid relief valves opening demand during pressure increase abnormal scenarios at Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hypothetical scenarios have been analyzed where, after an initiating event, Embalse nuclear power plant primary heat transport system could undergo a pressure increase. These abnormal events are a loss of feedwater to the steam generators and a loss of Class IV power supply with Class III restoration. This analysis focuses on primary system liquid relief valves action, specially on their opening demand. Calculation results show that even when these valves are expected to open during the transient, primary system maximum allowable pressure would not be exceeded if they failed to open. System response was also studied in case that one of these relief valves did not close once primary system pressure decreases. For the scenario of loss of feedwater to steam generators, if the degasser-condenser could not be bottled-up, Emergency Cooling Injection conditions would be reached due to a continuos loss of coolant. In case of loss of Class IV -and assuming degasser-condenser bottling-up as service water would not be available- it was observed that primary system should remain pressurized, and with core cooled by thermo siphoning mechanism. (author)

  8. Analysis of current state of transformer equipment, its role and place in affording safety, increasing power- and ecological effectiveness operation of units of nuclear power stations of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of technical state, life service and reliability of modern transformer equipment of power generating units of nuclear power stations (NPS) was conducted. Cause-and-effect factors of pre-emergency and emergency faults of transformers have been analyzed. Technical offers aimed at improvement of efficiency and reliability parameters of transformer equipment operation on NPS units were developed.

  9. Social Power Increases Implicit Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Guinote, Ana; Willis, Guillermo B.; Martellotta, Cristiana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The effects of power on implicit and explicit attitudes towards racial groups were examined. In Study 1, participants who had power showed a stronger facilitation of positive words after exposure to White faces, and negative words after exposure to Black faces, compared to participants who did not have power. In Study 2, powerful participants, compared to controls and powerless participants, showed more positive affective responses to Chinese pictographs that followed Whit...

  10. Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved within the project of national task 'Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness' are presented in the document. The project was aimed to extend and deepen activities relating to safety increase of nuclear power units WWER-440 which play significant part in electricity production in the Slovak Republic. The application of advanced foreign calculating programs and calculation of radionuclide spreading in environment and techniques will influence the increase of extent, quality and international acceptance of safety analysis of nuclear power plant blocks WWER-440 and the risk valuation from operating nuclear power plants. Methodic resources for coping in emergency situation in nuclear energetics will be used for support in decision making in real time during radiation emergency on nuclear plant, region and state level. A long-term strategy in dealing with burnt fuel and radioactive substance formatting during nuclear power plant liquidation particularly with waste which is un acceptable in regional dump, has developed into a theoretical and practical preparation of solvable group for operating the converting centre Bohunice and in inactivating the nuclear power plant A-1. The diagnostic activities in nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic have been elaborated into a project of norm documents in accordance with international norms for diagnostic systems. Presentation of new technologies and materials for repairs and reconstructions of components and nuclear power plant knots qualify increase in their reliability, safety and life. New objective methods and criterions for valuation and monitoring of the residual life and safety of fixed nuclear power plants. Results of problem solving linked with connecting the blocks of nuclear power plants to frequency regulation in electric network in the Slovak Republic are also presented in the document

  11. Power production increasingly more profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2005 economic results for Norwegian power companies are the best recorded, since the magazine 'Energi' started monitoring the economic developments of this industry in 1992. The background for the economic growth is the coinciding high level of production and high spot market price

  12. RETRAN safety analysis to increase the over-pressure safety margin for OPR1000 nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear and Energy Engineering Dept.

    2016-02-15

    A need to enlarge the pressurizer set point tolerances is desirable to prevent unnecessary tests. The increase of test tolerances needs verification by safety analyses. Existing safety analysis method are too conservative to accommodate the expanded tolerance. To overcome this insufficient margin, two approaches are taken: First one is to increase valve discharge flow rate, reactor coolant pump coast down delay time and trip delay time retaining the analysis code, CESEC. The second one is changing a computer code to a realistic code such as RETRAN.

  13. RETRAN safety analysis to increase the over-pressure safety margin for OPR1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A need to enlarge the pressurizer set point tolerances is desirable to prevent unnecessary tests. The increase of test tolerances needs verification by safety analyses. Existing safety analysis method are too conservative to accommodate the expanded tolerance. To overcome this insufficient margin, two approaches are taken: First one is to increase valve discharge flow rate, reactor coolant pump coast down delay time and trip delay time retaining the analysis code, CESEC. The second one is changing a computer code to a realistic code such as RETRAN.

  14. Combining evidence of selection with association analysis increases power to detect regions influencing complex traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzenbacher Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitchhiking mapping and association studies are two popular approaches to map genotypes to phenotypes. In this study we combine both approaches to complement their specific strengths and weaknesses, resulting in a method with higher statistical power and fewer false positive signals. We applied our approach to dairy cattle as they underwent extremely successful selection for milk production traits and since an excellent phenotypic record is available. We performed whole genome association tests with a new mixed model approach to account for stratification, which we validated via Monte Carlo simulations. Selection signatures were inferred with the integrated haplotype score and a locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score that works with a folded frequency spectrum and provides a formal test of signifance to identify selection signatures. Results About 1,600 out of 34,851 SNPs showed signatures of selection and the locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score showed overall good accordance with the whole genome association study. Each approach provides distinct information about the genomic regions that influence complex traits. Combining whole genome association with hitchhiking mapping yielded two significant loci for the trait protein yield. These regions agree well with previous results from other selection signature scans and whole genome association studies in cattle. Conclusion We show that the combination of whole genome association and selection signature mapping based on the same SNPs increases the power to detect loci influencing complex traits. The locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score provides a formal test of significance in selection signature mapping. Importantly it does not rely on knowledge of ancestral and derived allele states.

  15. Alternative analysis to increase the power in combined-cycle power plants; Analisis de alternativas para el incremento de potencia en plantas termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Cruz, Hector; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Gerencia de Procesos Termicos, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: hpacheco@iie.org.mx; aarriola@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The electricity industry traditionally had two thermodynamic cycles for power generation: conventional steam turbine (Rankine cycle) used to supply a base load during the day, and gas turbines (Brayton cycle), for its speed response, normally used to cover peak loads. However, to provide variable peak loads, the gas turbine, as a volumetric machine is affected by the change in air density by changing the combustion temperature. This paper shows the scheme of integration of both systems, that it's known as combined cycle and the different options that would have these power plants, to maintain or increase their power in variable ambient conditions. It analyzes different options, such as: 1. Supplementary fire in the stove. 2. Air cooling intake in the gas turbine (evaporation system or mechanical system). 3. Steam injection in the combustion chamber. [Spanish] La industria electrica tradicionalmente a contado con dos ciclos termodinamicos para generacion electrica: las turbinas convencionales de vapor (ciclo de Rankine) se utilizan para suministrar una carga base durante el dia, y las turbinas de gas (ciclo de Brayton), por su rapidez de respuesta, se utilizan normalmente para cubrir las cargas pico. Sin embargo, para suministrar las cargas variables pico, la turbina a gas, por ser una maquina volumetrica, se ve afectada por el cambio de la densidad del aire de combustion al cambiar la temperatura ambiente. En este trabajo se muestra el esquema de integracion de ambos sistemas, en lo que se conoce como ciclo combinado y las diferentes opciones que tendrian estas plantas de generacion electrica para mantener o incrementar su potencia en condiciones ambiente variable. Para ello se analizan diferentes opciones, tales como: 1.- Combustion suplementaria en el recuperador de calor. 2.- Enfriamiento del aire de admision a la turbina de gas (mediante un sistema de evaporacion o mediante un sistema mecanico). 3.- Inyeccion de vapor a la camara de combustion. Palabras

  16. Licensing process for the power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing process for the power increase of a nuclear power station is presented, this includes the description of the effective normative framework, the attributions of the one Mexican regulator organism in nuclear matter, the definition and importance of the power level of a nuclear reactor for the safety studies. Also, the types of power increase according to its magnitude, and the regulator process that it includes the scope and the detail of the required information that it should be evaluated by the one regulator organism are discussed. Finally it offers a summary of the experience that one has in Mexico for this type of processes. (Author)

  17. NEPAL AND INDIA MAY INCREASE POWER TRADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nepal and India may increase the quantity of power exchanged between the two nations to meet shortages in bordering areas. Technical paneles from the two countries have recommended that the power exchange be raised from 50MW to 150MW, according to Bholanath Chalise, chief of the state-run Nepal Electricity Authority(NEA).

  18. Power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, PSR

    2007-01-01

    Power system analysis is a pre-requisite course for electrical engineering students. This book introduces concepts of a power system, network model faults and analysis and the primitive network stability. It also deals with graph theory relevant to various incidence matrices, building of network matrices and power flow studies. It further discusses with short circuit analysis, unbalanced fault analysis and power system stability problems, such as, steady state stability, transient stability and dynamic stability. Salient Features: Number of worked examples are followed after explaining theory

  19. Wind Power Ramping Product for Increasing Power System Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2016-05-05

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, system operators are concerned about a potential lack of system flexibility and ramping capacity in real-time dispatch stages. In this paper, a modified dispatch formulation is proposed considering the wind power ramping product (WPRP). A swinging door algorithm (SDA) and dynamic programming are combined and used to detect WPRPs in the next scheduling periods. The detected WPRPs are included in the unit commitment (UC) formulation considering ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. The modified formulation is solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulations on a modified PJM 5-bus System show the effectiveness of the model considering WPRP, which not only reduces the production cost but also does not affect the generation schedules of thermal units.

  20. Combined analysis of data from two granddaughter designs: A simple strategy for QTL confirmation and increasing experimental power in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blümel Jürgen

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A joint analysis of five paternal half-sib Holstein families that were part of two different granddaughter designs (ADR- or Inra-design was carried out for five milk production traits and somatic cell score in order to conduct a QTL confirmation study and to increase the experimental power. Data were exchanged in a coded and standardised form. The combined data set (JOINT-design consisted of on average 231 sires per grandsire. Genetic maps were calculated for 133 markers distributed over nine chromosomes. QTL analyses were performed separately for each design and each trait. The results revealed QTL for milk production on chromosome 14, for milk yield on chromosome 5, and for fat content on chromosome 19 in both the ADR- and the Inra-design (confirmed within this study. Some QTL could only be mapped in either the ADR- or in the Inra-design (not confirmed within this study. Additional QTL previously undetected in the single designs were mapped in the JOINT-design for fat yield (chromosome 19 and 26, protein yield (chromosome 26, protein content (chromosome 5, and somatic cell score (chromosome 2 and 19 with genomewide significance. This study demonstrated the potential benefits of a combined analysis of data from different granddaughter designs.

  1. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  2. Nuclear power regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author)

  3. Structural Power: The limits of neorealist power analysis

    OpenAIRE

    GUZZINI, Stefano

    1993-01-01

    (The article is an earlier version of Chapters 5 and 6 of the author's EUI PhD Thesis, 1994.) http://hdl.handle.net/1814/5139 Realism explains the ruling of the international system through the underlying distribution of power among states. Increasingly, analysts have found this power analysis inadequate, and they have developed new concepts, most prominently structural power. The usage of structural power actually entails three different meanings, namely indirect institutional power, ...

  4. Development of two-phase flow analysis system for increasing thermal efficiency of power plant. (1) 3D analysis for evaluating the thermal-hydraulic behavior in secondary side of the steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For upgrades of nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor, it is one of the effective mean to improve the steam generator (SG) secondary flow. To evaluate thermal-fluid dynamics in secondary system of SG, boiling two-phase phenomenon is needed to analyze. In this study, new numerical analysis system is developing for PWR secondary system including SG and turbine system. Firstly three dimensional two-phase flow analysis model of SG secondary-side is developed with two-fluid model, and we confirm that our model can estimate steam pressure of feeding type SG. Secondary present model is applied to preheat type SG and evaluate the effect of increasing of steam pressure in secondary-side. From this result, we succeeded in predicting the steam pressure increase with improving the method of feedwater supply. (author)

  5. Increased nuclear safety and reliability through power beaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space satellites and platforms currently include self-contained power systems to supply the energy necessary to accomplish mission objectives. With power beaming, the power system is separate from the satellite and the two are connected by an energy beam. This approach is analogous to earth-based central station power generation and distribution over transmission lines to various customers. In space, power is produced by power satellites (central power generating stations) and transmitted via energy beams to individual users. Power beaming has the ability to provide an order of magnitude increase in power availability over solar-based power systems with less mass on orbit. The technologies needed for power beaming are being developed today under existing programs directed by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the US Department of Energy. A space power architecture based on power beaming would greatly increase the safety and reliability of employing nuclear power in space

  6. Valka to increase biofuel power capacity

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia omandas enamusosaluse Valka soojusettevõttes Host Energo. Eesti Energiale kuulub nüüd 90% ettevõttest ja linnale 10%. Ettevõte uus nimi on Enefit Heat&Power Valka ja viimane rajab aastaks 2012 Valka uue biokütusel koostootmisjaama

  7. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  8. Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Li; Qian Lewei; Woodruff Stephen; Cartes David

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics ...

  9. Power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Narenkumarsanjiv

    2010-01-01

    This book has been written for B. Tech/B.Sc (Engg.)/B.E. students. It consists of seven chapters in all, covering the complete topics systematically and exhaustively. The book is designed as a complete course text of 'Power System Analysis' for undergraduate students of electrical engineering in accordance with the syllabi of Delhi Technological University, Indraprastha University, and Other India Universities/Institutions. This book is to meet the needs of Third Year (6th Semester) students of B.Tech. (Electrical Engineering and Electrical & Electronics Engineering) studying in Engineering co

  10. Experience in increasing power at Grohnde nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steps to improve performance were taken at Grohnde nuclear power station in the years 1986-1990. These are described, together with details of operation since. Also covered are the main factors in calculating plant data as part of monitoring performance. 4 tabs

  11. Increasing power supply from land to offshore installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report analyses how increasing the amount of power supplied from land to the offshore petroleum installations will affect the emissions of carbon dioxide from power production on land. At first, such power transmission will increase the emission of carbon dioxide from the existing power stations outside Norway. Since the price of the power also increases, the growth in consumption will be dampened. This means that the total emission will not increase as much as it would if the power supply to the offshore platforms had been based solely on the production in the existing coal power works. If in the long term new conventional gas power works can be built commercially, then increased power transmission to the offshore installations will cause the emissions from Norwegian onshore power production to increase. If conventional gas power plants are not granted concession, then the effect will be increased production in existing plants in other countries and reduced growth in consumption. The net increase in consumption implies increased emission of carbon dioxide from production in coal, oil or gas power stations in Denmark, Finland, Germany or Poland

  12. Increasing the power of the high temperature reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To alleviate the economic problems of the modular pebble bed high temperature reactor, its design was modified in such a way that the power output was increased from 200 to 350 MWth. The core geometry was changed from cylindrical to annular, and the pressure vessel diameter was increased to 6.7 m. Control rods are placed in both the outer reflector and the graphite central column. In a safety analysis, loss of heat sink, loss of coolant and water ingress accident were examined. Reactor shutdown and decay heat removal take place passively, and the maximum fuel temperature stays theoretically below 1600 C, implying full retention of the fission products in the fuel elements. The central column has a diminishing effect on the positive reactivity effect of water ingress. A cost analysis shows that the specific investment costs of a four-module plant would decrease by 26% and the electricity generating costs would reduce by 19%. ((orig.))

  13. About the operation efficiency increase of high-power shunt reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Жорняк, Людмила Борисовна; Осинская, Валентина Ивановна; Пальцун, Андрей Сергеевич

    2014-01-01

    Ways to increase the voltage quality in energy-intensive customers’ networks are investigated. Presence of the reactive power in transmission networks decreases essentially quality of electric energy input that results in power losses, voltage subsidences and drops in power transmission lines, enforced increase of power transformers’ power and cable sections in such networks. An engineering solution to decrease additional losses of a shunt reactor is proposed, analysis of different types of w...

  14. Investigating power control in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaris, Ioannis D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Electric Energy Systems Lab.; Hansen, Anca D.; Sorensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.; Hatziargyriou, Nikos D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Electric Energy Systems Lab.; Public Power Corporation S.A., Athens (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Increasing levels of wind penetration in autonomous power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Special features of non-interconnected power systems make security issues rather critical, as the operation of large wind farms like conventional power plants is becoming a necessity. This paper includes the study case of Rhodos island, in Greece, where rapidly increasing wind penetration has started to impose serious security issues for the immediate future. The scenarios studied here correspond to reference year of study 2012 and include wind farms with three different wind turbine technologies - namely Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and Active Stall Induction Generator (ASIG) based wind turbines. Aggregated models of the wind farms are being used and results for different load cases are being analyzed and discussed. The ability of wind farms to assist in some of the power system control services traditionally carried out by conventional synchronous generation is being investigated and discussed. The power grid of the island, including speed governors and automatic voltage regulators, is simulated in the dedicated power system simulation program Power Factory from DIgSILENT. (orig.)

  15. Prospects of increasing the power of a two-circuit geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of analysis of the thermodynamical cycle of the geothermal NPPs secondary circuit with various versions of the geothermal circulation system are presented. It is shown, that the technological scheme with horizontal well is the optimal one. The conclusion is made that by further assimilation of thermal power with application of the experience, accumulated by petroleum specialist, it is necessary to built up geothermal circulation systems with horizontal wells. This will sharply increase the indices of the geothermal branch, its efficiency and competivity as compared to the traditional power engineering

  16. Increasing the output of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some issues related to the increased power output of PNPP are discussed. The circumstances are presented that make possible higher performance of existing reactors. The programs and plants for increased performance of the PNPP are described. (R.P.)

  17. Power and death: Mortality salience increases power seeking while feeling powerful reduces death anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmi, Peter; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    According to Terror Management Theory, people respond to reminders of mortality by seeking psychological security and bolstering their self-esteem. Because previous research suggests that having power can provide individuals a sense of security and self-worth, we hypothesize that mortality salience leads to an increased motivation to acquire power, especially among men. Study 1 found that men (but not women) who wrote about their death reported more interest in acquiring power. Study 2A and Study 2B demonstrated that when primed with reminders of death, men (but not women) reported behaving more dominantly during the subsequent week, while both men and women reported behaving more prosocially during that week. Thus, mortality salience prompts people to respond in ways that help them manage their death anxiety but in ways consistent with normative gender expectations. Furthermore, Studies 3-5 showed that feeling powerful reduces anxiety when mortality is salient. Specifically, we found that when primed to feel more powerful, both men and women experienced less mortality anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26867106

  18. Advanced Power System Analysis Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    As a continuing effort to assist in the design and characterization of space power systems, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power and Propulsion Office developed a powerful computerized analysis tool called System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE). This year, SPACE was used extensively in analyzing detailed operational timelines for the International Space Station (ISS) program. SPACE was developed to analyze the performance of space-based photovoltaic power systems such as that being developed for the ISS. It is a highly integrated tool that combines numerous factors in a single analysis, providing a comprehensive assessment of the power system's capability. Factors particularly critical to the ISS include the orientation of the solar arrays toward the Sun and the shadowing of the arrays by other portions of the station.

  19. Analysis of the maximal possible grid relief from PV-peak-power impacts by using storage systems for increased self-consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Presentation of a MATLAB battery storage model. • Development of a controlled persistence forecast management strategy. • Perfect forecast in comparison to an easy feasible persistence forecast. • More grid relief with forecast than with strategies to maximize self-consumption. - Abstract: For future energy supply systems the effects and benefits of battery storage systems in households with photovoltaic (PV) generators and the effects on distribution and transmission grids need to be identified and analyzed. The development of grid relieving management strategies for the storage system in due consideration of self-consumption is a necessary step forward in order to analyze the potential of private home battery storage systems to reduce stress on the power supply system. A MATLAB-based model of a lithium-ion storage system has been developed. The model is applicable for a wide range of PV generator sizes, different battery storage systems and diverse management strategies. In order to identify the potential of grid relieving forecast strategies, without discharging the storage into the grid, a management strategy based on persistence forecasts of solar radiation and household load demand has been implemented and analyzed. To minimize forecast uncertainties a proportional plus integral controller has been developed. The persistence forecast management strategy is applicable in real-life PV-battery-systems and due to the simple forecast it is easy to equip existing systems with such a management system with only low effort. As a result it will be shown that a storage system management based on forecasts has a significantly higher potential to relieve the grid than a system that only maximizes self-consumption as it is usually used nowadays. Besides, such a management strategy is able to unload the grid more than a static power reduction to 70% of the nominal power rating according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). At the

  20. RF Power Amplifier Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lokay; K. Pelikan

    1993-01-01

    The special program is presented for the demonstration of RF power transistor amplifiers for the purposes of the high-school education in courses of radio transmitters. The program is written in Turbo Pascal 6. 0 and enables to study the waveforms in selected points of the amplifier and to draw the trajectories of the working point in a plot of output transistor characteristics.

  1. Increased Power for the Analysis of Label-free LC-MS/MS Proteomics Data by Combining Spectral Counts and Peptide Peak Attributes*

    OpenAIRE

    Dicker, Lee; Lin, Xihong; Ivanov, Alexander R.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics provides a wealth of information about proteins present in biological samples. In bottom-up LC-MS/MS-based proteomics, proteins are enzymatically digested into peptides prior to query by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the information directly available from the LC-MS/MS data is at the peptide level. If a protein-level analysis is desired, the peptide-level information must be rolled up into protein-level information. We propose a pri...

  2. RF Power Amplifier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lokay

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The special program is presented for the demonstration of RF power transistor amplifiers for the purposes of the high-school education in courses of radio transmitters. The program is written in Turbo Pascal 6. 0 and enables to study the waveforms in selected points of the amplifier and to draw the trajectories of the working point in a plot of output transistor characteristics.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Power Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchenko E.V.; Ivleva D. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for predicting the reliability indices based on the numerical analysis of nonuniform temperature fields of power transformer is reported. The failure rates of a power transformer in a real thermal mode of device under natural convection were compared with statistical data.. The necessity of unsteady temperature field consideration was shown to enchance the reliability prediction

  4. Empirical analysis of buyer power

    OpenAIRE

    Beckert, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive econometric framework for the empirical analysis of buyer power. It encompasses the two main features of pricing schemes in business-to-business relationships: nonlinear price schedules and bargaining over rents. Disentangling them is critical to the empirical identification of buyer power. Testable predictions from the theoretical analysis are delineated, and a pragmatic empirical methodology is presented. It is readily implementable on the basis of transa...

  5. Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4–6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as γ band and an increase of the α power in a ...

  6. Green certificates will lead to increased electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of green certificates will lead to increased electricity production from renewable energy sources and less risk of price crises. For the time being, a common market for green certificates will be established with Sweden from January 1, 2006. It is possible to realise a ''compulsory total quota'' of 20 TWh by 2016. Green certificates will imply a premium on the electricity bill. However, the quota system will imply increased power generation, which in turn tends to lower the price. Norway should in principle follow Sweden's definition of renewable energy: all new hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, wave and tidal power, biomass energy, and energy recovery. The certificate regime will apply to new investments in renewable power production. However, it would be natural to include the established renewable power production that is currently receiving support. Some critics fear that the consumers rather than the authorities will subsidize the production of green power. The point is being made that central EU countries may save great sums by investing in renewable energy in Norway

  7. Increasing Wind Power Penetration in Autonomous Power Systems through No-Flow Operation of Pelton Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Platero, Carlos Antonio; Nicolet, Christophe; Sánchez José, A.; Kawkabani, Basile

    2014-01-01

    The integration of wind power in power systems results in a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, it has a positive environmental impact. However, the operation of these power systems becomes increasingly complex, owing mainly to random behaviour of the wind.

  8. Does green consumerism increase the acceptance of wind power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss what might be termed an action-based learning approach to promoting important pro-environmental actions, such as support for or acceptance of environmental policy. Such an approach involves promoting simple and easy behaviours as entry points for more radical steps towards sustainability, referred to as “catalytic” or “wedge” behaviours. Despite the obvious need for innovative approaches to promote important pro-environmental behaviour, and sound theoretical backing for such concepts, there is a lack of research testing the key propositions of this approach. In a survey study based on a random sample of residents of the state of Maine, USA, we find that both everyday “green” behaviour and the acceptance of an expansion of wind power are rooted in environmental concern and that everyday “green” behaviour gives a significant contribution to predicting acceptance of wind power when controlling for environmental concern. Hence, the promotion of everyday “green” behaviours may prepare the grounds for increasing acceptance of more far-reaching changes in the population, such as an expansion of wind power. - Highlights: ► Acceptance of wind power increases with environmental concern. ► So does everyday “green” consumerism. ► Green consumerism further increases acceptance of wind power. ► The effect of environmental concern on acceptance is partly mediated through green consumerism. ► Participants in the study are a random sample of residents of Maine, USA.

  9. Configuration for sudden power increase in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a sudden increase of the power of a steam turbine without impairing feedwater supply to the boiler, the patent proposes to install another heat transfer element, separately heated, in the feedwater circuit. This heat transfer element starts operation when the flow of extraction steam to the feedwater heaters is cut off. The configuration is described in detail. (HP)

  10. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  11. Increased power density from a spiral wound microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Boyang; Hu, Dawei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Kun; Liu, Hong

    2013-03-15

    Using Microbial fuel cell (MFC) to convert organic and inorganic matter into electricity is of great interest for powering portable devices, which is now still limited by the output of MFC. In this study, a spiral wound MFC (SWMFC) with relatively large volume normalized surface area of separator (4.2 cm(2)/ml) was fabricated to enhance power generation. Compared with double-membrane MFC (DMMFC) and conventional double chamber MFC (DCMFC), the power density of SWMFC increased by 42% and 99% resulted from its lower internal resistance. Besides larger separator area, the better performance of SWMFC benefited from its structure sandwiching the cathodes between two separators. This point was proved again by a comparison of another DCMFC and a triple chamber MFC (TCMFC) as well as a simulation using finite element method. Moreover, the feature of SWMFC was more convenient and compact to scale up. Therefore, SWMFC provides a promising configuration for high power output as a portable power source. PMID:23116542

  12. Aspects on Dynamic Power Flow Controllers and Related Devices for Increased Flexibility in Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Nicklas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies different aspects of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices which are used to improve the power transfer capability and increase the controllability in electric power systems. In the thesis, different aspects on the usage and control of Dynamic Power Flow Controllers (DPFC) and related FACTS devices are studied. The DPFC is a combination of a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and a Thyristor Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC)/Thyristor Switched Series Reactor (TSSR)....

  13. Optical Gravitational Wave Antenna with Increased Power Handling Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Matsko, Andrey B; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Vyatchanin, Sergey P

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental sensitivity of an optical interferometric gravitational wave detector increases with increase of the optical power which, in turn, limited because of the opto-mechanical parametric instabilities of the interferometer. We propose to optimize geometrical shape of the mirrors of the detector to reduce the diffraction-limited finesse of unessential optical modes of the interferometer resulting in increase of the threshold of the opto-mechanical instabilities and subsequent increase of the measurement sensitivity. Utilizing parameters of the LIGO interferometer we found that the proposed technique allows constructing a Fabry-Perot interferometer with round trip diffraction loss of the fundamental mode not exceeding $5$~ppm, whereas the loss of the first dipole as well as the other high order modes exceed $1,000$~ppm and $8,000$~ppm, respectively. The optimization comes at the price of tighter tolerances on the mirror tilt stability, but does not result in a significant modification of the optical beam ...

  14. Power electronic systems Walsh analysis with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Anish

    2014-01-01

    A Totally Different Outlook on Power Electronic System AnalysisPower Electronic Systems: Walsh Analysis with MATLAB® builds a case for Walsh analysis as a powerful tool in the study of power electronic systems. It considers the application of Walsh functions in analyzing power electronic systems, and the advantages offered by Walsh domain analysis of power electronic systems. Solves Power Electronic Systems in an Unconventional WayThis book successfully integrates power electronics as well as systems and control. Incorporating a complete orthonormal function set very much unlike the sine-cosin

  15. Power Quality Analysis in Off-Grid Power Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Misak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research projects in the field of electrical distribution systems are moving to a new philosophy of Smart Grids, where the effort is to use the maximum possible share of power from renewable energy potential. Under this philosophy the emphasis is on energy independence, reliability and safety of operation of energy distribution system. Research in this area leads for example to developing of autonomous local microgrids with the several specific requirements. However, the problem of parameters keeping of quality of electric energy can arise together with increased penetration of distributed generation in microgrids. This problem is caused by decreased short-circuit power of local renewable energy sources, stochastic supply of electric energy from renewable energy sources and operating of active distribution grid in autonomous mode without connection to the external distribution system. General introduction to the power quality evaluation in off-grid power system is introduced in this paper. Initial results from power quality analysis from small off-grids system is presented in this text too.

  16. Application of Interline Power Flow Controller to Increase Transient Stability of Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC is a novel device which can increase transient stability of power system. To verify the capability of the effect of IPFC on stability improvement of power system, the suitable mathematical model and control strategy of IPFC are needed to be presented. Approach: This study presented the mathematical model and control strategy of IPFC. The multi-series converters of IPFC are represented by multi-series voltage sources with associate transformer leakage reactance. The parameters of IPFC are modeled into power flow equation and thus it is used to determine control strategy. This study used Bang-Bang control strategy. The swing curves of the three phase faulted power system without and with an IPFC are tested and compared in various cases. Results: The swing curve of system without an IPFC get increased monotonically and thus the system can be considered as unstable whereas the swing curves of system with an IPFC can return to stable equilibrium point. Conclusion: The presented model of IPFC can help us to comprehend the effect of IPFC on transient stability improvement of power system. From simulation results, the IPFC can increase transient stability of power system.

  17. Research and Design Problems Introduced by Increased Power Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Oskar

    1937-01-01

    In what follows the question of the number and geometrical arrangement of the cylinders so important in the design of high performance power units will be considered from various points of view. A discussion will be given of the possibilities of the various working processes and an investigation will be made of possible means for improving the continuous operation and take-off performance, particularly the methods of supercharging, increasing the r.p.m., and employing the two-stroke-cycle engine. Finally, the question of lowered fuel consumption will be gone over briefly. The subject will be treated under four headings: I) Considerations on the engine layout; II) Increase in output per given swept volume; III) Improvement in the take-off performance; IV) Lowering of the fuel consumption.

  18. Effects of increased impeller power in a production-scale Aspergillus oryzae fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng Jian; Shukla, Vivek; Wenger, Kevin S; Fordyce, Andrew P; Pedersen, Annemarie Gade; Marten, Mark R

    2002-01-01

    The goal in this study was to determine how increased impeller power affects enzyme expression in large-scale (80 m(3)), fed-batch Aspergillus oryzae fermentations. An approximate 50% increase in average impeller power was achieved by increasing impeller diameter approximately 10%, while operating at slightly reduced speed. Measured decreases in terminal (95%) mixing time show increased power improved bulk mixing. However, batches operated at increased power had lower recombinant enzyme productivity. Biomass assays and image analysis tests showed no significant difference between "high power" and control batches, suggesting that slower growth, altered morphology, or increased hyphal fragmentation were not the cause of reduced productivity. Off-line tests on the shear-thinning, highly viscous broth show oxygen limitation occurred after transport through the air-liquid interface and imply the limitation may involve bulk mixing. Specifically, oxygen transfer may be limited to a small zone surrounding each impeller. When this is the case, oxygen mass transfer will be determined by both impeller shear and fluid circulation, which have been characterized with the energy dissipation/circulation function (EDCF). EDCF values during control fermentations were approximately constant at 25 kW m (-3) s(-1), while EDCF values during "high power" batches fell linearly from 40 to 15 kW m (-3) s(-1). The point at which "high power" EDCF values drop below those in control fermentations corresponds almost exactly with the point at which product titer stops increasing. Thus, our findings suggest oxygen mass transfer was less efficient during the latter half of "high power" fermentations because of reductions in impeller speed and subsequent decreases in EDCF values. This observation has clear implications during the scale-up of viscous fungal fermentations, implying that not only is the level of impeller power important, but also relevant is how this power is applied. PMID:12052056

  19. Increasing Power of Groupwise Association Test with Likelihood Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Jae Hoon; Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

    Sequencing studies have been discovering a numerous number of rare variants, allowing the identification of the effects of rare variants on disease susceptibility. As a method to increase the statistical power of studies on rare variants, several groupwise association tests that group rare variants in genes and detect associations between groups and diseases have been proposed. One major challenge in these methods is to determine which variants are causal in a group, and to overcome this challenge, previous methods used prior information that specifies how likely each variant is causal. Another source of information that can be used to determine causal variants is observation data because case individuals are likely to have more causal variants than control individuals. In this paper, we introduce a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that uses both data and prior information to infer which variants are causal and uses this finding to determine whether a group of variants is involved in a disease. We demonstrate through simulations that LRT achieves higher power than previous methods. We also evaluate our method on mutation screening data of the susceptibility gene for ataxia telangiectasia, and show that LRT can detect an association in real data. To increase the computational speed of our method, we show how we can decompose the computation of LRT, and propose an efficient permutation test. With this optimization, we can efficiently compute an LRT statistic and its significance at a genome-wide level. The software for our method is publicly available at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/rarevariants.

  20. TRIGA Reactor Power Upgrading Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor physics safety analysis supporting the power upgrading from 1MW to 2MW of a typical TRIGA Mark II reactor is presented for steady state and pulse operation. The analysis is performed for mixed core configuration consisting of two types of fuel elements: standard 8,5% or 12% stainless-steel clad fuel elements and LEU fuel elements (20% uranium concentration). The following reactor physics codes are applied: WIMS, TRIGAC, EXTERMINATOR, PULSTRI and TRISTAN. Results of the calculations are compared to experiments for steady state operation at 1 MW. The analysis shows that besides technical modifications of the core (installation of an additional control rod) also some strict administrative limitations have to be imposed on operational parameters (excess reactivity, pulse reactivity, core composition) to assure safe operation within design limits. (author)

  1. Power analysis of trials with multilevel data

    CERN Document Server

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design.The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians i

  2. Cree criticize HQ power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of the Grand Council of the Crees in Quebec to the development of hydro-electric resources on the Great Whale River in the James Bay region and its impact on Quebec's Cree population was discussed. The Cree have condemned the generation market power analysis which Hydro-Quebec Energy Services submitted to the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in support of an application for a FERC power marketer license. The Cree argued that the license would result in the flooding of Cree hunting lands and the destruction of prime wildlife habitat. Hydro-Quebec argued that the utility would not act without the agreement of the Cree, and would not do anything that is not acceptable to the people living in the area

  3. Fuel design with low peak of local power for BWR reactors with increased nominal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Commission of Electricity recently announcement the beginning of the works related with the increase of the power to 120% of the original nominal one in the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV): In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies of the impact on the design of the recharge of derived fuel of this increase. One of the main effects of the power increase type that it is promoting, is the increment of the flow of generated vapor, what takes, to a bigger fraction of vacuum in the core presenting increased values of the maximum fraction to the limit, so much of the ratio of lineal heat generation (XFLPD) as of the ratio of critic power (MFLCPR). In the made studies, it is found that these fractions rise lineally with the increase of the nominal power. Considering that the reactors of the CLV at the moment operate to 105% of the original nominal power, it would imply an increment of the order of 13.35% in the XFLPD and in the MFLCPR operating to a nominal power of 120% of the original one. This would propitiate bigger problems to design appropriately the fuel cycle and the necessity, almost unavoidable, of to resort to a fuel assembly type more advanced for the recharges of the cores. As option, in the ININ the feasibility of continuing using the same type of it fuel assembles that one has come using recently in the CLV, the type GE12 is analyzed. To achieve it was outlined to diminish the peak factor of local power (LPPF) of the power cells that compose the fuel recharge in 13.35%. It was started of a fuel design previously used in the recharge of the unit 1 cycle 12 and it was re-design to use it in the recharge design of the cycle 13 of the unit 1, considering an increase to 120% of the original power and the same requirements of cycle extension. For the re-design of the fuel assembly cell it was used the PreDiCeldas computer program developed in the ININ. It was able to diminish the LPPF

  4. Impact of Production from Photovoltaic Power Plants on Increase of Ancillary Services in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Smocek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources represent a noticeable part of the overall energetic concept development. New integration of renewable energy resources into power grids has a significant impact on the reliability and quality of power supply. The major problem of the photovoltaic and wind power plants is their dependency on weather conditions, since it has a direct effect on their immediate output produced that shows stochastic behaviour. These stochastic outputs result in very adverse impacts on the power grid. Further development of these resources could lead to exceeding of the control and absorption abilities of the power grid. The power grid must be set in balance with respect to the production and consumption of electric power at any time. The operation of photovoltaic power plants impair keeping this balance. That has an adverse impact on the very operation and maintenance of network parameters within the extent required. This survey deals with analysis focused on operation of the photovoltaic power plants with respect to the increase of reserve power in ancillary services in the Czech Republic.

  5. How fast increasing powers of a continuous random variable converge to Benford's law

    OpenAIRE

    Wójcik, Michał Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    It is known that increasing powers of a continuous random variable converge in distribution to Benford's law as the exponent approaches infinity. The rate of convergence has been estimated using Fourier analysis, but we present an elementary method, which is easier to apply and provides a better estimation in the widely studied case of a uniformly distributed random variable.

  6. PowerFactory applications for power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and applications of DIgSILENT PowerFactory, an advanced power system simulation software package, for different types of power systems studies. Written by specialists in the field, it combines expertise and years of experience in the use of DIgSILENT PowerFactory with a deep understanding of power systems analysis. These complementary approaches therefore provide a fresh perspective on how to model, simulate and analyse power systems. It presents methodological approaches for modelling of system components, including both classical and non-

  7. Focus: Increasing profitability from powerful assets. Annual report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report on operations at the end of fiscal year 1998 and on the year-end financial position of PanCanadian Petroleum Limited is provided. By all accounts the company had a successful year: increased production by seven percent to 796 mmcf/day, making the company the largest publicly traded gas producer in Canada; ranked as one of lowest-cost producers in western Canada with average operating costs of $ 0.37/mcf; drilled 1,081 new wells at a success rate of 85 per cent and increased royalty interest production five per cent to an average of 26,700 barrels of oil equivalent per day. Other achievements included drilling in Nova Scotia, land and license aquisition in the Gulf of Mexico and in the North Sea respectively, acquisition of a 15 per cent interest in two exploration blocks off the Ivory Coast in West Africa, refining of proprietory seismic technologies developed in recent years, reduction of average well costs by 10 per cent by using new drill bit technology, consolidation of Canadian and American natural gas marketing groups to increase market access across North America, and management reorganization of the Heavy Oil Business Unit. In addition to details of these and other achievements, the report also contains management analysis of key business results, the consolidated financial statements and various operating and financial statistics and results

  8. Magnetic Metamaterial Superlens for Increased Range Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Da Huang(Chongqing University of Posts & Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 China); Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Matthew S. Reynolds; Smith, David R.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the “long range” regime – referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest ...

  9. Power Consumption Analysis of a Modern Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Muhammad Yasir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents observations about power consumption of a latest smartphone. Modern smartphones are powerful devices with different choices of data connections and other functional modes. This paper provides analysis of power utilization for these different operation modes. Also, we present power consumption by vital operating system (OS) components.

  10. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  11. Expertise about the request of the nuclear power plant Leibstadt for increasing the power to 3600 MWth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . In the case of design incidents too, all safety-relevant limits and the maximal tolerable dose rates in the environment must be respected. In the context of design incidents, the 'transitory' group also constitutes the limiting case with the higher power. For the complete judgement of the safety of a nuclear power plant it is not sufficient to estimate the effects of a design incident through deterministic methods. The evaluation of the effects of out-of-design accidents needs a probabilistic safety analysis which determines the frequency as well as the consequences of an accident. The results show that KKL represents a very small risk for the environment. In KKL the measures necessary for safe operation and protection of mankind and environment at a thermal power of 3600 MW have already been taken or will be taken shortly. According to its examination, HSK concludes that there are no safety-relevant reasons speaking against an operational license for the increased thermal power. The increase will, however, have to be carried out in 4 steps of 1 year each in order to gain operational experience

  12. Analysis of a solar powered absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Conventional absorption system modified to increase COP. • Results indicated increase of 10% in COP due to dephlegmator heat recovery. • Results indicated increase of 8% in COP due to refrigerant storage unit. • Results indicated increase of 18% in COP due to combined effect of modifications. • Simulation results indicated a very good agreement with the measured results. - Abstract: Today, fossil fuel is the primary extensively used source of energy. However, its negative impact on the environment have forced the energy research continuity to seriously consider renewable sources of energy. Solar energy, in particular, has been the main focus in this regard because it is a source of clean energy and naturally available. This study presents the design and analysis of a solar powered absorption refrigeration system modified to increase its coefficient of performance (COP). The modifications include recovering of waste heat from a dephlegmator and utilization of a refrigerant storage unit. The simulation results indicate an increase of 10% in the COP of the conventional design using dephlegmator heat recovery and an increase of 8% in the COP of the conventional design due to the use of a refrigerant storage. The analysis for the combined effect of modifications indicates an increase of 18% in the COP compared to conventional design. Calculated values of coefficient of performance indicate a very good agreement with the ones obtained based on measurement

  13. Increasing power generation in horizontal axis wind turbines using optimized flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, John A., Jr.

    In order to effectively realize future goals for wind energy, the efficiency of wind turbines must increase beyond existing technology. One direct method for achieving increased efficiency is by improving the individual power generation characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines. The potential for additional improvement by traditional approaches is diminishing rapidly however. As a result, a research program was undertaken to assess the potential of using distributed flow control to increase power generation. The overall objective was the development of validated aerodynamic simulations and flow control approaches to improve wind turbine power generation characteristics. BEM analysis was conducted for a general set of wind turbine models encompassing last, current, and next generation designs. This analysis indicated that rotor lift control applied in Region II of the turbine power curve would produce a notable increase in annual power generated. This was achieved by optimizing induction factors along the rotor blade for maximum power generation. In order to demonstrate this approach and other advanced concepts, the University of Notre Dame established the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design (eWiND). This initiative includes a fully instrumented meteorological tower and two pitch-controlled wind turbines. The wind turbines are representative in their design and operation to larger multi-megawatt turbines, but of a scale that allows rotors to be easily instrumented and replaced to explore new design concepts. Baseline data detailing typical site conditions and turbine operation is presented. To realize optimized performance, lift control systems were designed and evaluated in CFD simulations coupled with shape optimization tools. These were integrated into a systematic design methodology involving BEM simulations, CFD simulations and shape optimization, and selected experimental validation. To refine and illustrate the proposed design methodology, a

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  15. GAS POWERED MUCOADHESIVE SYSTEM TO INCREASE GASTRIC RETENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zikriya Abrar; Quazi Aamer; Jathar Rajashree; Supute Trupti

    2012-01-01

    A lot of scientific and technological advancements have been made in the drug delivery research in the recent years. Physiological problems like short Gastric Residence Time (GRT) and the unpredictable Gastric Emptying Time (GET) were overcome with the use of gas powered mucoadhesive dosage forms which provide opportunity for both local and systemic drug action. Several approaches are currently being used in the prolongation of GRT, which includes the Gas Powered Drug Delivery Systems (GPDDS)...

  16. Magnetic Metamaterial Superlens for Increased Range Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; da Huang; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S.; Smith, David R.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the ``long range'' regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)6; power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A ``superlens'', however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF MODULAR UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS WITH INCREASED RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of technical development today requires the creation of highly effective, including reliable, uninter-rupted power supply systems. We have shown modern requirements and design features of modern systems of uninterruptible power supply, which should be built on a modular principle. It is shown that the problem of synthesis of systems in a modular approach is addressing three issues: development of the structure of the system subject to the requirements of consumers to quality of power and the allowable time of power outage; determining the required level redundancy of major functional units (blocks, elements to ensure the required reliability of the system; - ensuring the most effective interconnection of modules, including electromagnetic compatibility, and the rational use during normal and emergency operation of the system. We have proposed new structural solution of the main functional units and uninterrupted power supply systems in modular design. To reduce EMI and improve efficiency uninterruptible power supply systems in the design of static converters we need to use a transformer with a rotating magnetic field. In addition, the prospective current is to be used as a source of renewable energy. Another promising approach is the use of direct frequency converters as voltage stabilizers and frequency of the current

  18. Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Huang, Da; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S; Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the "long range" regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)(6); power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A "superlens", however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system. PMID:24407490

  19. Financial analysis of wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a financial assessment of the economic competitiveness of wind power projects in Argentina compared with other no CO2 emission sources, such as nuclear, was developed. Argentina has a market driven electrical grid system, and no greenhouse gas emissions penalty taxes, together with a very low natural gas cost and a sustained nuclear development program. For the financial analysis an average wind velocity source of 8 m/s, on several wind farms (from 2 machines to 60) built with new technology wind generators (750 kilowatts power, 900 dollar/kilowatt cost) operating over 20 years, was considered. The leveled cost obtained is decreasing while the number of machines is increasing, from 0,130 dollar/kilowatt-hour to 0,090 dollar/kilowatts-hour. This poor performance can be partially explained considering the higher interest rates in the argentine financial market (15%) than the ones in developed countries

  20. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  1. Impact of increasing MHTGR power on passive heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 a cost reduction study recommended that the reference US MHTGR module design be changed to an 84-column, 450 MW(t) annular reactor core to attain improved economics with the same high level of safety as the previous reference 66-column, 350 MW(t) MHTGR module. The objective of this paper is to report on a recently completed core configuration trade study that reviewed the basis for that recommendation with more detailed assessments. The trade study examined alternate core configurations in terms of the size, shape, and power level. Core configurations at 450 MW(t), an alterative at higher power, and one at lower power were considered. These alternatives represented the maximum achievable power for fuel element for two different reactor vessel sizes. Fuel, reactor internal and vessel temperatures during pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown transients are presented and compared to limits. Based on the need to improve economics without sacrificing the MHTGR's high level of safety, the trade study confirmed that the previously selected 84-column, 450 MW(t) annular design remains the preferable configuration

  2. Does green consumerism increase the acceptance of wind power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Noblet, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    based on a random sample of residents of the state of Maine, USA, we find that both everyday ‘‘ green ’’ behaviour and the acceptance of an expansion of wind power are rooted in environmental concern and that everyday ‘‘green’’ behaviour gives a significant contribution to predicting acceptance of wind...

  3. Probabilistic analysis of power assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de Maurits; Manthey, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem for wireless ad hoc networks is the assignment of suitable transmission powers to the wireless devices such that the resulting communication graph is connected. The goal is to minimize the total transmit power in order to maximize the life-time of the network. Our aim is a prob

  4. Mandatory direct marketing of wind power increases financing costs

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Thilo; Neuhoff, Karsten; Tisdale, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 reform of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare-Energien- Gesetz, or EEG) entailed that a mandatory direct marketing of green electricity be introduced. According to this law, operators of larger wind turbines must sell their electricity production on the electricity market. In addition to the wholesale price they receive a floating market premium, which is based on the average market value of all wind power in Germany. The mandatory direct marketing affects both the costs in...

  5. Mandatory Direct Marketing of Wind Power Increases Financing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Thilo Grau; Karsten Neuhoff; Matthew Tisdale

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 reform of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare-Energien- Gesetz, or EEG) entailed that a mandatory direct marketing of green electricity be introduced. According to this law, operators of larger wind turbines must sell their electricity production on the electricity market. In addition to the wholesale price they receive a floating market premium, which is based on the average market value of all wind power in Germany. The mandatory direct marketing affects both the costs in...

  6. Power Analysis Software for Educational Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Long, Haiying; Abaci, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of statistical power analysis in quantitative research and the repeated emphasis on it by American Educational Research Association/American Psychological Association journals, the authors examined the reporting practice of power analysis by the quantitative studies published in 12 education/psychology journals between 2005…

  7. Supplement analysis, Southpoint power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-16

    The Calpine Corporation applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) Parker-Davis project in western Arizona. Western, as a major electric transmission system owner is required by existing policies and regulations, to provide access to its transmission system, when requested by an eligible organization. The proposed interconnection would integrate a major source of new generation into the Parker-Davis system which would allow Calpine to supply its power to the electric wholesale market. Based on this application, Western`s proposed action is to enter into an interconnection agreement with Calpine.

  8. Modelling of electrical power systems for power flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The industry systems in Brazil are responsible for a consumption of over 50% (fifty per cent) of the total electrical power generated: therefore, they are import loads in power flow studies, and their modeling should be as much the best. Usually, in power flow studies, the industry systems are modeled by taking the influence of the power (active and reactive) and of the current on the voltage into account. Since the inducting motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversize, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristic of power on shaft versus voltage into account. Since the induction motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversized, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristics of power on shaft versus voltage for the analysis of power systems, aiming a load flow study. Thereafter, a model of an equivalent motor which has a basis the typical performance curve of an induction motor is present. This model is obtained from empirical parameters, surveyed from a population of over 1000 motors. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Increasing role of nuclear power to tackle climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung-Oke; Baek, Hun; Nam, Yung-Suk

    2010-09-15

    The global community is faced with challenges about both environmental and resource risks represented by climate change. In order to address and fight global warming and to be better prepared for the possible depletion of such fossil fuels, it is urgent for the global community to significantly lower its excessive dependency on fossil fuels. This paper attempts to make a prediction on global energy consumption and GHG emissions. It also analyzes the role of nuclear power in reducing GHG emissions in order to highlight the competitiveness of nuclear energy from the economic and environmental perspectives.

  10. Safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about the safety analysis of nuclear power plant, giving emphasis to how and why to do is presented. The utilization of the safety analysis aiming to perform the licensing requirements is discussed, and an example of the Angra 2 and 3 safety analysis is shown. Some presented tendency of the safety analysis are presented and examples are shown.(E.G.)

  11. Failure analysis on China power grid based on power law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng WENG; Yiguang HONG; Ancheng XUE; Shengwei MEI

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the mechanism of blackouts in China power system from the viewpoint of self-organized criticality. By using two estimation algorithms of scaled window variance (SWV) and rescaled rangestatistics (R/S), this paper studies the blackout data in China power system during 1988-1997. The result of analysis shows that the blackout data of 1994-1997 coincides well with the autocorrelation. Furthermore, it is found that the function of blackout probability vs. blackout size exhibits power law distribution.

  12. An Effective Distributed Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUTHU, B. M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern power systems consist of many interconnected synchronous generators having different inertia constants, connected with large transmission network and ever increasing demand for power exchange. The size of the power system grows exponentially due to increase in power demand. The data required for various power system applications have been stored in different formats in a heterogeneous environment. The power system applications themselves have been developed and deployed in different platforms and language paradigms. Interoperability between power system applications becomes a major issue because of the heterogeneous nature. The main aim of the paper is to develop a generalized distributed model for carrying out power system stability analysis. The more flexible and loosely coupled JAX-RPC model has been developed for representing transient stability analysis in large interconnected power systems. The proposed model includes Pre-Fault, During-Fault, Post-Fault and Swing Curve services which are accessible to the remote power system clients when the system is subjected to large disturbances. A generalized XML based model for data representation has also been proposed for exchanging data in order to enhance the interoperability between legacy power system applications. The performance measure, Round Trip Time (RTT is estimated for different power systems using the proposed JAX-RPC model and compared with the results obtained using traditional client-server and Java RMI models.

  13. Power flow analysis of a power system in the presence of interline power flow controller (IPFC)

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ramana; Ch. Padmanabharaju; S.Sivanagaraju; A. V. Naresh Babu

    2010-01-01

    One of the latest generation flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controllers is interline power flow controller (IPFC). In general, it is connected in multiple transmission lines of a power system network. This paper presents power injection model (PIM) of IPFC. This model is incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm to study the effect of IPFC parameters in power flow analysis. A program in MATLAB has been written in order to extend conventional NR algorithm based on this...

  14. Power System Transients Analysis by Wavelet Transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维荣; 宋永华; 赵蔚

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to Fourier transform, wavelet transform is especially suitable for transient analysis because of its time-frequency characteristics with automatically-adjusted window lengths. Research shows that wavelet transform is one of the most powerful tools for power system transient analysis. The basic ideas of wavelet transform are presented in the paper together with several power system applications. It is clear that wavelet transform has some clear advantages over other transforms in detecting, analyzing, and identifying various types of power system transients.

  15. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George

    2008-01-01

    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  16. Dynamic security issues in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, I.D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;

    2011-01-01

    Technical requirements set by the network operators nowadays include various aspects, such as fault ride-through capability of wind turbines during faults, voltage-reactive power control and overall control of the wind farms as conventional power plants. Detailed models for the power system as well...... as for the wind farms are therefore essential for power system studies related to these issues, especially when applied to non interconnected systems with high wind power penetration. Detailed generic models for three different wind turbine technologies – Active Stall Induction Generator (ASIG), Doubly Fed...... Asynchronous Generator (DFAG) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) – are applied and issues regarding interaction with the power system are investigated. This paper provides conclusions about the dynamic security of non-interconnected power systems with high wind power penetration based...

  17. Study on development system of increasing gearbox for high-performance wind-power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongbin; Yan, Kejun; Zhao, Junyu

    2005-12-01

    Based on the analysis of the development potentiality of wind-power generator and domestic manufacture of its key parts in China, an independent development system of the Increasing Gearbox for High-performance Wind-power Generator (IGHPWG) was introduced. The main elements of the system were studied, including the procedure design, design analysis system, manufacturing technology and detecting system, and the relative important technologies were analyzed such as mixed optimal joint transmission structure of the first planetary drive with two grade parallel axle drive based on equal strength, tooth root round cutting technology before milling hard tooth surface, high-precise tooth grinding technology, heat treatment optimal technology and complex surface technique, and rig test and detection technique of IGHPWG. The development conception was advanced the data share and quality assurance system through all the elements of the development system. The increasing Gearboxes for 600KW and 1MW Wind-power Generator have been successfully developed through the application of the development system.

  18. Analysis of Increased Information Technology Outsourcing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brcar Franc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the field of IT outsourcing. The narrow field of research is to build a model of IT outsourcing based on influential factors. The purpose of this research is to determine the influential factors on IT outsourcing expansion. A survey was conducted with 141 large-sized Slovenian companies. Data were statistically analyzed using binary logistic regression. The final model contains five factors: (1 management’s support; (2 knowledge on IT outsourcing; (3 improvement of efficiency and effectiveness; (4 quality improvement of IT services; and (5 innovation improvement of IT. Managers immediately can use the results of this research in their decision-making. Increased performance of each individual organization is to the benefit of the entire society. The examination of IT outsourcing with the methods used is the first such research in Slovenia.

  19. Safety Analysis for Power Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main function of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) is to safely shutdown the reactor and prevents the release of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to present a technique and its application for used in the analysis of safety system of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A more advanced technique has been presented to accurately study such problems as the plant availability assessments and Technical Specifications evaluations that are becoming increasingly important. The paper provides the Markov model for the Reactor Protection System of the NPP and presents results of model evaluations for two testing policies in technical specifications. The quantification of the Markov model provides the probability values that the system will occupy each of the possible states as a function of time.

  20. Power System Transient Stability Analysis Using SIMULINK

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    SIMULINK is one of the most widely used software in academia and industry for modelling, analysis and simulating dynamical systems. Using SIMULINK, the simulation model can be established systematically beginning from easy sub-models. This paper covers modelling, simulation and transient stability analysis of a multi-machine power system using SIMULINK for educational and research purposes. The detailed model is developed for power system transient stability simulation and its implementation ...

  1. Computational methods in power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Idema, Reijer

    2014-01-01

    This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.

  2. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The orbit-to-ground laser power conversion system analysis investigated the feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting solar energy into laser energy in space, and transmitting the laser energy to earth for conversion to electrical energy. The analysis included space laser systems with electrical outputs on the ground ranging from 100 to 10,000 MW. The space laser power system was shown to be feasible and a viable alternate to the microwave solar power satellite. The narrow laser beam provides many options and alternatives not attainable with a microwave beam.

  3. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes

  4. Analysis on Resources Utilization of Thermal Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis and comparison of coal, oil and water consumptions in thermal power plants, thispaper introduces the present state of resources utilization in thermal power industry, and points out that the poten-tial of resources saving lies mainly in cutting down coal consumption and increasing the ratio of large-sized thermalunits. Measures and suggestions for upgrading resources utilization are put forward, such as to optimize coal-firedthermal power structure, develop cogeneration, clean coal combustion techniques and gas-steam combined cycletechniques. The existing thermal power plants shall execute technical retrofits and popularize water saving techniques.

  5. Nigerian Power Sector: Comparative Analysis of Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuamadi ObiomaChidiebere

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, power instability in the Nigerian Power Sector despite several mitigative measures by the government has created some chocks in the national socio-economic wheel of development. Unfortunately, the conceptual objective of the power reforms to remedy inadequate power generation capacity, inefficient usage of capacity, ineffective regulation and high technical losses is tardily being achieved. This research comparatively analyzed the rate of productivity change in Nigeria’s power sector from 2005 – 2013. The analysis reveals that privatization improved the productivity index by 89%. It is expected that this work may assist the power policy makers and regulators to come up with abetter framework for the full realization of the noble goals envisaged in this reform act.

  6. Development of Standardized Power Electronic Components, Subsystems, and Systems for Increased Modularity and Scalability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Pink, C.; Price, J.; Kroposki, B.; Kern, G.

    2007-11-01

    Power electronics devices hold substantial promise for making distributed energy applications more efficient and cost effective. This project is motivated towards developing and testing inverters that will allow distributed energy systems to provide ancillary services such as voltage and VAR regulation, and increased grid reliability by seamlessly transitioning between grid-tied and stand-alone operation modes. The objectives of this project are to identify system integration and optimization issues and technologies and to provide solutions through research, analysis, and testing of power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications that are cost-competitive and have substantially faster response times than conventional technologies. In addition, the testing of power electronics interfaces will develop a technical basis for performance assessment for distributed energy systems, subsystems, and components that will finally create a foundation for standardized measurements and test procedures. The ultimate goal for this research is to advance the potential benefits of distributed energy to provide ancillary services, enhance power system reliability, and allow customer choice.

  7. Research on prevention of the abnormal increase of thermal power in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the power operation of the HANARO started in 1995, the reactor trip occurred many times during startup and power operation due to abnormal increase of thermal power. For the resolution of this problem, the reactor trip records were analyzed and, several countermeasures were taken. As result, the number of reactor trip due to N/T mismatch decreased remarkably

  8. Probability analysis of nuclear power plant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability analysis of risk is described used for quantifying the risk of complex technological systems, especially of nuclear power plants. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of the occurrence of a dangerous event and the significance of its consequences. The process of the analysis may be divided into the stage of power plant analysis to the point of release of harmful material into the environment (reliability analysis) and the stage of the analysis of the consequences of this release and the assessment of the risk. The sequence of operations is characterized in the individual stages. The tasks are listed which Czechoslovakia faces in the development of the probability analysis of risk, and the composition is recommended of the work team for coping with the task. (J.C.)

  9. Influence of the fluctuating increasing wind and solar power input into the electrical power grid onto the thermal power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassel, E.; Meinke, S.; Nocke, J.; Huebel, M. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Technical Thermodynamics; Ziems, C.; Weber, H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a way to investigate the influence of increasing wind and solar energy on thermal power plants is presented, reaching from a top level model for the electrical grid down to models for specific power plants including a detailed analysis of particular components of these plants. The global model structure and the simulation procedure consist of several steps. First, history data for wind, solar and conventional electricity production in Germany for the year 2010 is collected. With the predicted buildup of wind and solar energy we project a number of future scenarios. Using this data we estimate the operation schedule for different types of plants in Germany and we prescribe these schedules for our example power plants Rostock and Mainz-Wiesbaden, taking into account the merit order caused by the cost structure of the different plants. This operation schedule is the input into the detailed transient thermodynamic models. These plant models are able to capture the temporal behavior of all important parts of these fossil plants. Therefore physical equations and material properties as well as geometrical information for thousands of components are implemented in each model. Based on the thermodynamic properties calculated for every part, thermal and mechanical stress in critical components is computed and quantitative lifetime assessment is done, using different structural mechanical approaches. Then control loop modifications, repowering strategies and requirements for new power plants are developed. Also optimization strategies can be examined regarding parameters like efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions, lifetime and operation costs. (orig.)

  10. Safety analysis for non-power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-power reactors have been operating in Canada since 1945, with NRU (National Research Universal, 1957) being the oldest operating non-power reactor. Presently, there are five generic 'types' of non-power reactors: NRU, ZED-2, SLOWPOKE, MNR and MAPLE, the latter undergoing commissioning as the MDS Medical Isotope Reactor. These reactors range in thermal power from 200 Watts to more than 100 MW. Other non-power reactors are likely to be built for new applications and to replace older reactors. The uniqueness of each reactor, the wide range of power levels and the evolution of safety philosophy over time have lead to non-uniform practices for safety analysis. This non-uniformity may be a problem for the preparation by the licensee and review by the regulator of the safety analysis report required for licensing of the reactor facility. Clearly, there is no universally applicable practice, while at the same time, expectations for safety analyses have evolved in order to demonstrate higher levels of overall safety. This paper examines a new 'graded approach' to preparing the safety analysis report for reactors of diverse features but with a common standard of safety. It discusses necessary content, methods and the training and qualification of the safety analyst. (author)

  11. Joint Operation of Several Types of Power Plants to Increasing Net Profit in Deregulated Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes joint operation of power plant and electric energy storage plant in order to maximizing overall profit in a restructured electricity market. The goal is investigating the coupling efficiency on profit increment considering various intensities of power plant’s fuel constraint. In order to reach this goal, the amount of overall profits of fuel-constrained power plant, battery plant and their coupling are first calculated in a specific time interval. Then, the coupling efficiency is determined using incremental profit rate. Having an appropriate strategy to calculate this parameter is essential. Hence, a comprehensive approach to selfschedule of individual and coupled plants is developed. This comprehensive self-scheduling approach is therefore formulated and solved as a Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed.

  12. Operating the Irish power system with increased levels of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuohy, A.; Denny, E.; Meibom, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the main impacts of large amounts of wind power installed in the island of Ireland. Using results from various studies performed on this system, it is shown that wind power will impact on all time frames, from seconds to daily planning of the system operation. Results...... from studies examining operation of the system with up to approximately 40% of electricity provided by wind show that some of the most important aspects to be considered include the type of wind turbine technology, the provision of reserve to accommodate wind forecasting error and the method used...

  13. Performance analysis of OTEC power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy is the basis for almost all industrial activities and domestic needs. But recently there are increasing concerns internationally over environmental problems and consequent climate changes caused by the excessive use of fossil fuels. Furthermore the price of crude oil is increasing steadily with unstable supplies. In order to solve these national energy problems, the utilization of ocean energy is introduced as one of the best alternative technologies for the future. OTEC power plant has been installed at the west Inchon power plant site. Temperature differences of 20∼25 deg. C have been utilized for plant operations, where R22 is used as a working fluid. The system is composed of low pressure turbine, plate type heat exchanger, and pumps. In the present investigation the experimental results, such as gross power, net power and objective function, are analysed when temperature differences change from the reference design point

  14. Power and performance software analysis and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Kukunas, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Power and Performance: Software Analysis and Optimization is a guide to solving performance problems in modern Linux systems. Power-efficient chips are no help if the software those chips run on is inefficient. Starting with the necessary architectural background as a foundation, the book demonstrates the proper usage of performance analysis tools in order to pinpoint the cause of performance problems, and includes best practices for handling common performance issues those tools identify. Provides expert perspective from a key member of Intel's optimization team on how processors and memory

  15. Increase of pulse power of power supply systems of induction linacs with current pulse magnettic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A powerful three section magnetic pulse generator of a nanosecond range designed for supply of a small-sectioned sccelerating structure up to GW units is developed. The pumping generator is mounted using the TTI2500/50 pulsed hydrogen thyratron according to the sections of magnetic compression. 2 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  16. The risk of low investments in new electric power plants for increased power failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the market for electricity changed the decision making process for investment in new electric power plants. The question is whether a free energy market can take care of a reliable energy supply against acceptable prices. Or is a strict governmental policy required to secure a reliable supply of electricity

  17. Warm weather conditions moderated the increase of power consumption in Finland in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Year 2000 was exceptionally warm in Finland. The amount of rainfalls in Northern Finland was larger than in 1999. This is shown clearly in the production of hydroelectric power. The wind conditions were also better, so the wind power generation doubled in 2000. The increase in power consumption in 2000 was only 1.7%. The power consumption rate was slightly over 79 TWh. The power consumption of household and agricultural sectors decreased by nearly 2% and in the public sector by 0.2%. The industrial power consumption increased by nearly 3%. Year 2000 was excellent for the industrial sector. The industrial production increased by 11%. The increment of power demand in heavy metal industry, chemical industry and forest industry was 5-7%. Power demand of process industry in 2000 exceeded 43.4 TWh, of which the share of building industry was more than 200 GWh. Process industry use about 55% of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000. The power demand of forest industry was 26.3 TWh, which is about 2% higher than in 1999. The corresponding figures for metal industry were 7.1 TWh and growth rate 3%. Chemical industry used in 2000 about 5.9 TWh of electric power. The growth rate was more that 4% higher in 2000 than in 1999. Power consumption of other industrial sectors in 2000 increased about 3% being now about 3.9 TWh. Hydroelectric power generation in 2000 was nearly 14.4 TWh, which is nearly 14.4 % higher than in 1999. The share of hydroelectric power generation of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000 was 18%. The wind power generation in 2000 was nearly 80 GWh, which are about 60% higher than in 1999. The number of wind power plants is 63, and the capacity of them 38 MW. The production of nuclear power in 2000 decreased by about 2% because of the longer and more thorough maintenance stoppages in the Loviisa 1 reactor. The utilisation rates of Finnish nuclear power plants in 2000 were high, Loviisa 1 by nearly 85%, Loviisa 2 by 91%, Olkiluoto 1 by 96

  18. Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power on Market Quantities and Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Jónsson, Tryggvi; Zugno, Marco;

    2012-01-01

    In view of the increasing penetration of wind power in a number of power systems and markets worldwide, we discuss some of the impacts that wind energy may have on market quantities and cross-border power flows. These impacts are uncovered through statistical analyses of actual market and flow data...... in Europe. Due to the dimensionality and nonlinearity of these effects, the necessary concepts of dimension reduction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), as well as nonlinear regression are described. Example application results are given for European cross-border flows, as well as for the...

  19. Power Estimation in Multivariate Analysis of Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean François Allaire

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Power is often overlooked in designing multivariate studies for the simple reason that it is believed to be too complicated. In this paper, it is shown that power estimation in multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA can be approximated using a F distribution for the three popular statistics (Hotelling-Lawley trace, Pillai-Bartlett trace, Wilk`s likelihood ratio. Consequently, the same procedure, as in any statistical test, can be used: computation of the critical F value, computation of the noncentral parameter (as a function of the effect size and finally estimation of power using a noncentral F distribution. Various numerical examples are provided which help to understand and to apply the method. Problems related to post hoc power estimation are discussed.

  20. Market Based Analysis of Power System Interconnections

    OpenAIRE

    Obuševs, A; Turcik, M; Oļeiņikova, I; Junghāns, G

    2011-01-01

    Analysis in this Article is focused on usage of transmission grid under liberalized market with implicit transmission capacity allocation method, e.g. Nordic market. Attention is paid on fundamental changes in transmission utilization and its economical effective operation. For interconnection and power flow analysis and losses calculation model of Nordic grid was developed and transmission losses calculation method was created. Given approach will improve economical efficiency of system oper...

  1. Power analysis attacks revealing the secrets of smart cards

    CERN Document Server

    Mangard, Stefan; Popp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of power analysis attacks and countermeasures. Based on the principle that the only way to defend against power analysis attacks is to understand them, this book explains how power analysis attacks work. It discusses simple and differential power analysis as well as advanced techniques like template attacks.

  2. Energy and exergy analysis of solar power tower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishing the renewable electricity contribution from solar thermal power systems based on energy analysis alone cannot legitimately be complete unless the exergy concept becomes a part of that analysis. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the energy analysis and exergy analysis of the solar power tower system using molten salt as the heat transfer fluid. Both the energy losses and exergy losses in each component and in the overall system are evaluated to identify the causes and locations of the thermodynamic imperfection. Several design parameters including the direct normal irradiation (DNI), the concentration ratio, and the type of power cycle are also tested to evaluate their effects on the energy and exergy performance. The results show that the maximum exergy loss occurs in the receiver system, followed by the heliostat field system, although main energy loss occurs in the power cycle system. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the receiver and the overall system can be increased by increasing the DNI and the concentration ratio, but that increment in the efficiencies varies with the values of DNI and the concentration ratio. It is also found that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the solar tower system can be increased to some extent by integrating advanced power cycles including reheat Rankine cycles and supercritical Rankine cycles. - Highlights: →We presented a theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the solar tower system. →We tested the effects of several design parameters on the energy and exergy performance. →The maximum exergy loss occurs in the receiver system, followed by the heliostat field system. →Integrating advanced power cycles leads to increases in the overall energy and exergy efficiencies.

  3. Improve your word power a concise way to increase your word power

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    English is a unique language which has innumerable great poets and authors from the past as well as the present, who have contributed profusely to its rich heritage. Nonetheless, we can not ignore the complexities of the English language which sometimes perplex a reader or even a scholar of this language. Improve your word power by Clifford Sawhney simplifies all these complexities of the language by providing answers to the many nagging grammatical queries, syntax, style, choice of words, spellings, etc. This book serves as a complete guide and elaborately explains the different usages of no

  4. Steamline break analysis for 1000 MWe Kudankulam nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thermal hydraulic analysis has been carried out for the steamline break outside the containment of VVER-1000 reactor. 1000 MWe VVER is a light water moderated, light water-cooled pressurised water reactor with four primary coolant loops. The double-ended break in the non-isolable steamline was considered, as it will result in higher heat removal by the secondary circuit. This analysis has been carried out using thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD 3.2. As a result of steam generator steamline rupture the steam begins out flowing from the secondary circuit, the secondary pressure decreases. Consequently the coolant temperature, coolant pressures in the primary circuit decrease. Due to negative coolant temperature reactivity, the increase of the reactor power can take place. The end of refuelling cycle is considered in the present analysis since the coolant feedbacks are the most negative and increase of reactor power is maximum. Also loss of power is not considered in the analysis as it results more coolant temperature and great rise in power takes place. The analysis predicts thermal hydraulic conditions following steamline break. Thermal hydraulic conditions like pressure, temperature, and flow at different locations in the PHT as well as in secondary side in the steam generator have been estimated during the transient. The analysis results have been discussed and compared with the acceptance criteriam

  5. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks -- a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. U...

  6. DENINT power plant cost benefit analysis code: Analysis of methane fuelled power plant/district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DENINT power plant cost benefit analysis code takes into consideration, not only power production costs at the generator terminals, but also, in the case of cogeneration, the costs of the fuel supply and heat and power distribution systems which depend greatly on the location of the plant. The code is able to allow comparisons of alternatives with varying annual operation hours, fuel cost increases, and different types of fossil fuels and production systems. For illustrative purposes, this paper examines two methane fired cogeneration plant/district heating alternatives

  7. Energy analysis of nuclear power plants and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy analysis has become an increasingly feasible and practical additional method for evaluating the engineering, economic and environmental aspects of power-producing systems. It compares total direct and indirect energy investment into construction and operation of power plants with their lifetime energy output. This method was applied to nuclear power-producing systems and their fuel cycles. Results were adapted to countries with various levels of industrialization and resources. With dynamic energy analysis different scenarios were investigated. For comparison purposes fossil-fuelled and solar power plants were analysed. The global results of static evaluation analysis were specifically modified according to the economic situations of countries with various levels of industrialization. The influence of energy imports upon energy analysis is also discussed. By dynamic energy analyses the cumulative energy requirements for specific power plant construction programmes have been compared with their total energy output. Investigations of this sort are extremely valuable not only for economic reasons, but especially for their usefulness in showing the advantages and disadvantages of a specific power programme with respect to its alternatives. Naturally the impact of these investigations on the fuel requirements is of importance, especially because of the frequently cited ''valuable cumulated fossil fuel savings''. (author)

  8. Principles for Soft-Hardware Complex Development to Increase Efficiency of Power Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Trushnikov

    2014-01-01

    The paper reveals principles for development and operation of soft-hardware complex which is designed to control transformer substations of industrial enterprisers. Purpose of soft-hardware components of the complex is considered in the paper.Development and application of such complex allow to increase an efficiency of power transformer resource and decrease electric power losses in the elements of power-supply system at industrial enterprisers.

  9. Towards optimal cluster power spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The power spectrum of galaxy clusters is an important probe of the cosmological model. In this paper, we develop a formalism to compute the optimal weights for the estimation of the matter power spectrum from cluster power spectrum measurements. We find a closed-form analytic expression for the optimal weights, which takes into account: the cluster mass, finite survey volume effects, survey masking, and a flux limit. The optimal weights are w(M,χ ) ∝ b(M,χ )/[1+bar{n}_h(χ ) overline{b^2}(χ )overline{P}(k)], where b(M, χ) is the bias of clusters of mass M at radial position χ(z), bar{n}_h(χ ) and overline{b^2}(χ ) are the expected space density and bias squared of all clusters, and overline{P}(k) is the matter power spectrum at wavenumber k. This result is analogous to that of Percival et al. We compare our optimal weighting scheme with mass weighting and also with the original power spectrum scheme of Feldman et al. We show that our optimal weighting scheme outperforms these approaches for both volume- and flux-limited cluster surveys. Finally, we present a new expression for the Fisher information matrix for cluster power spectrum analysis. Our expression shows that for an optimally weighted cluster survey the cosmological information content is boosted, relative to the standard approach of Tegmark.

  10. Simulations of the design basis accident at conditions of power increase and the o transient of MSIV at overpressure conditions of the Laguna Verde Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the analysis of the simulation of the loss of coolant accident at uprate power conditions, that is 2027 MWt (105% of the current rated power of 1931MWt). This power was reached allowing an increase in the turbine steam flow rate without changing the steam dome pressure value at its rated conditions (1020 psiaJ. There are also presented the results of the simulation of the main steam isolation va/ve transient at overpressure conditions 1065 psia and 1067 MWt), for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. Both simulations were performed with the best estimate computer code TRA C BF1. The results obtained in the loss of coolant accident show that the emergency core coolant systems can recover the water level in the core before fuel temperature increases excessively, and that the peak pressure reached in the drywell is always below its design pressure. Therefore it is concluded that the integrity of the containment is not challenged during a loss of coolant accident at uprate power conditions.The analysis of the main steam isolation valve transients at overpressure conditions, and the analysis of the particular cases of the failure of one to six safety relief valves to open, show that the vessel peak pressures are below the design pressure and have no significant effect on vessel integrity. (Author)

  11. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  12. Electric power wheeling and dealing: Technological considerations for increasing competition. Volume 2. Contractor documents, Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The report reviews the technologies for electric power transmission and how it is employed by utilities. Contents: Case studies on increasing transmission access; Case studies of transmission bottlenecks; Technological considerations in proposed scenarios for increasing competition in the electric utility industry; Technical background and considerations in proposed increased wheeling, transmission access and non-utility generation.

  13. Multi Megawatt Power System Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Harvego, Edwin Allan; Schnitzler, Bruce Gordon; Seifert, Gary Dean; Sharpe, John Phillip; Verrill, Donald Alan; Watts, Kenneth Donald; Parks, Benjamin Travis

    2001-11-01

    Missions to the outer planets or to near-by planets requiring short times and/or increased payload carrying capability will benefit from nuclear power. A concept study was undertaken to evaluate options for a multi-megawatt power source for nuclear electric propulsion. The nominal electric power requirement was set at 15 MWe with an assumed mission profile of 120 days at full power, 60 days in hot standby, and another 120 days of full power, repeated several times for 7 years of service. Of the numerous options considered, two that appeared to have the greatest promise were a gas-cooled reactor based on the NERVA Derivative design, operating a closed cycle Brayton power conversion system; and a molten lithium-cooled reactor based on SP-100 technology, driving a boiling potassium Rankine power conversion system. This study examined the relative merits of these two systems, seeking to optimize the specific mass. Conclusions were that either concept appeared capable of approaching the specific mass goal of 3-5 kg/kWe estimated to be needed for this class of mission, though neither could be realized without substantial development in reactor fuels technology, thermal radiator mass efficiency, and power conversion and distribution electronics and systems capable of operating at high temperatures. Though the gas-Brayton systems showed an apparent advantage in specific mass, differences in the degree of conservatism inherent in the models used suggests expectations for the two approaches may be similar. Brayton systems eliminate the need to deal with two-phase flows in the microgravity environment of space.

  14. Exergy analysis of a cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the following study exergetic evaluation of a cogeneration power plant in operation with installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW it is performed. The main objective of the research was to determine the influence of the increase in power generation capacity, raising the superheated steam parameters and the number of regenerative heaters on the second law efficiency and irreversibilities in the different components of the plant. To study the power plant was divided into subsystems: steam generator blowdown expander, main steam pipe, steam turbine regenerative heaters, reduction system, deaerator and pumps. The study results show that exergy losses and irreversibilities differ widely from one subsystem to another. In general, the total irreversibility accounted for 70.7% of primary fuel availability. The steam generator subsystem had the highest contribution to the irreversibility of the plant by 54%. It was determined that the increased steam parameters helps reduce the irreversibility and increase the exergetic efficiency of installation. The suppression of the reduction and incorporation of extraction-condensing turbine produce the same effect and helps to reduce power consumption from the national grid. Based on the results recommendations for improving plant efficiency are made. (full text)

  15. Increasing power output from Francis turbines : Effektøkning i vannkraftverk med Francis turbiner

    OpenAIRE

    Brunes, Bente Taraldsten

    2009-01-01

    The main objective in this thesis was to investigate a potential increase of power output from the existing turbines at Ruacana Hydropower Station. This was restricted to only consider a runner replacement, and only technical aspects of a rehabilitation project has been evaluated. This involved an investigation of hydraulic condtions, limited to surge oscilliation and water hammer calculations. The results was thereafter used in a calculation model to estimate potential increase in power outp...

  16. Sarcomere length dependence of power output is increased after PKA treatment in rat cardiac myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hanft, Laurin M.; McDonald, Kerry S.

    2009-01-01

    The Frank-Starling relationship of the heart yields increased stroke volume with greater end-diastolic volume, and this relationship is steeper after β-adrenergic stimulation. The underlying basis for the Frank-Starling mechanism involves length-dependent changes in both Ca2+ sensitivity of myofibrillar force and power output. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKA-induced phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins would increase the length dependence of myofibrillar power output, whi...

  17. Perspectives of power increasing of arc cesium-oxygen thermoemission converters with tungsten electrodes at increased emitter temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of experimental thermoemission converters with emitters made of oxygen-containing monocrystal tungsten produced by chloride gas-phase technology were studied. The emitters, besides their main function in the operating converters, played the role of inner source of oxygen. An attempt was made to expand the range of the emitter temperatures towards increase for attaining the maximum output power of the converter using the new emitter material. Efficiency of using the monocrystal oxygen-free tungsten collector compared to collectors made of polycrystal tungsten and niobium alloy Cb-1 was studied

  18. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-15

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of boron at Koeberg Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble reactivity poisons, also called chemical shim, produce spatially uniform neutron absorption when dissolved in reactor coolant water. The boron-10 isotope having a high neutron absorption coefficient is used in commercial pressurised water reactors (PWR) to limit and control reactivity. This is achieved at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) and the majority of commercial PWR's worldwide by the addition of natural boric acid to the reactor coolant. The boric acid dissolved in the coolant decreases the thermal utilisation factor, causing a decrease in reactivity. By varying the concentration of boric acid (and hence also the B-10 concentration) in the coolant, a process referred to as boration and dilution, the reactivity of the core can be easily managed. An increase in boron concentration (boration) creates negative reactivity and if the boron concentration is reduced (dilution), positive reactivity is added. The changing of boron concentration in a PWR is used primarily to compensate for fuel burn-up or poison build-up. The variation in boron concentration allows control rod use to be minimised, which results in a flatter flux profile over the core than can be produced by control rod manipulation. Accurate laboratory and on-line chemical analysis of boron concentration is important because of its operational implications associated with reactivity control and also for nuclear safety. In a normal fuel cycle, as the nuclear fuel is being consumed, the reactor coolant boric acid (B-10) concentration must be reduced by dilution with purified water to maintain the reactor at constant power. Besides in the reactor coolant water, boric acid concentration is also important in the chemical and volume control system and reactor make-up system for operation. For nuclear safety, boric acid concentrations are technical specification parameters, maintained and monitored in the spent fuel system and safety injection systems. Boron concentration determination is

  20. Analysis of higher power research reactors' parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this monograph was to analyze and compare parameters of different types of research reactors having higher power. This analysis could be used for decision making and choice of a reactor which could possibly replace the existing ageing RA reactor in Vinca. Present experimental and irradiation needs are taken into account together with the existing reactors operated in our country, RB and TRIGA reactor

  1. Dynamic analysis of Leningrad nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of this study a preliminary dynamic analysis for the detonation explosion and earthquake load cases was carried out for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant. A soil model was added to the three-dimensional shell model which was taken over from IVO (Finland). During this Research Program the model was translated into the STARDYNE program and was investigated by means of time history modal analysis. Since the status quo of the documentation available at that time had to be completed through useful technical assumptions this report only considers exemplary selected results

  2. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, N.; Thompson, L. L.

    2016-04-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation.

  3. Balance of the LVC plant with increase in 15 % of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the tendencies in many power reactors has been to modify some operation conditions, in order to increasing the electricity generation. The Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV) it has not been the exception and in the recent past an increment of 5% was made in the original nominal thermal power. In the face of the possibility of carrying out more modifications, a study was made in the one that one simulates an eventual increment of the power of the reactor in 15% of the original value. With this increment one carries out the balance of the plant and the thermodynamic properties were determined. With this purpose it was developed a computer tool to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the plant in several points of the power cycle, as well as to carry out energy and mass balances to determine the flows in the different extractions of steam of the turbines. The program is compared with the results to 100% and 105% of increase of power obtaining good results, for what it is concluded that the extrapolation to 115% of power increase is acceptable. (Author)

  4. A coherency-based method to increase dynamic security in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tuglie, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Ambiente e per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile - DIASS, Politecnico di Bari, Viale del Turismo 8, 74100 Taranto (Italy); Iannone, S.M.; Torelli, F. [Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica - DEE, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    Dynamic security analysis is the evaluation of the ability of a system to withstand contingencies by surviving transient conditions to acceptable steady-state operative states. When potential instability due to contingency is detected, preventive action may be desired to improve the system security. This is very important in the on-line operation of a power system, especially when the system is stability-limited. The method proposed in this paper is based on the idea that increasing coherency between generators in the transient behaviour following a system perturbation gives rise to a more stable system. In this paper, we suggest the use of the ''input-output feedback-linearization'' with a reference trajectory obtained using a system dynamic equivalent based on the centre of inertia. To quantify coherency levels a new coherency indicator has been assumed for the given reference trajectory. The result is an increasing level in coherency, critical clearing time and system stability. The method is tested on the IEEE 30 bus test system. (author)

  5. Hydropower: a vital asset in a power system with increased need for flexibility and firm capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a power system with increased need for flexibility, wind and solar power are characterised by considerable volatility across different scales and their output cannot be predicted with certainty. In order to deal with the resulting variations and forecast errors, system operators as well as electricity markets will need to have access to increasing volumes of flexibility as the penetration of wind and solar power grows. Due to their flexibility and size, hydropower plants are perfectly suited for supplying these capabilities to current and future electricity markets and power systems. Storage as well as pump storage plants can be quickly started within a few minutes and adjust their output within seconds. Consequently, hydropower plants are able to follow even major variations in real time. (author)

  6. Stability analysis of large electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern electric power systems are large and complicated, and, in many regions of the world, the generation and transmission systems are operating near their limits. Ensuring the reliable operation of the power system requires engineers to study the response of the system to various disturbances. The responses to large disturbances are examined by numerically solving the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations describing the power system. The response to small disturbances is typically studied via eigenanalysis. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently developed the Extended Transient/Mid-term Stability Program (ETMSP) to study large disturbance stability and the Small Signal Stability Program Package (SSSP) to study small signal stability. The primary objectives of the work described in this report were to (1) explore ways of speeding up ETMSP, especially on mid-term voltage stability problems, (2) explore ways of speeding up the Multi-Area Small-Signal Stability program (MASS), one of the codes in SSSP, and (3) explore ways of increasing the size of problem that can be solved by the Cray version of MASS.

  7. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  8. Comparison and analysis of performance using Low Temperature Power Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low Temperature Power Cycles have become increasingly interesting means of increasing energy efficiency of processes as well as for base load power generation from solar, and geothermal, heat. Theoretical understanding of the various processes, components and limitations is constantly increasing through extensive research. Practical utilisation of this knowledge is also increasing steadily though properly published field data is scarce. In this article a number of different solutions for power generation from low temperature heat sources have been gathered and analysed. Some of the studied units have not previously been described. A method for general evaluation of LTPC's is proposed and the outcome of the analysis is discussed as well as how to use it for practical purposes. By separating thermodynamic potential from irreversibilities the analysis indicates that the irreversibilities show limited dependency on temperature, size, thermodynamic cycle or working fluid. Instead performance of the studied units follows a relatively simple correlation with utilisation of the thermal potential. This correlation is defined and discussed. One conclusion is that the correlation allows for a possibility to express the maximum expected real power generation with knowledge of the characteristics of the heat source and heat sink only. -- Highlights: ► We present field data from power generating units using low temperature heat. ► We explain how data from fundamentally different units can be compared. ► We describe a correlation between performance and utilisation of a heat source. ► We demonstrate a simplified method to estimate total power generation with information on heat source and sink only

  9. Complex Evaluation of Light Sources in Case of Electric Power Cost Increase

    OpenAIRE

    Y. N. Kolesnik; A. V. Ivaneychik

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives complex evaluation of efficiency of incandescent lamps, luminescent and light-emitting-diode (LED) light sources in case of electric power price increase. On the basis of experimental table lamp electric power indices of light-emitting-diode (LED) light sources with equivalent luminous flux have been determined. Dependences of main indices of economic efficiency of various light sources on their operational regimes have been obtained and rate of influence on these indices of e...

  10. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-03-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major contents in this study are as follows : 1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. 2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. 3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs

  12. Analysis and NN-based control of doubly fed induction generator in wind power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Orlando; Gonçalves, Henrique; Martins, António; Carvalho, Adriano

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing size of wind power generation it is required to perform power system stability analysis that uses dynamic wind generator models. In this paper are presented all the wind power system components, including the turbine, the generator, the power electronic converter and controllers. The aim is to study the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operation and its connection to the power system, either during normal operation or during transient grid faul...

  13. A Novel Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication Algorithm against Power Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hongming Liu; Yujie Zhou; Nianhao Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, power analysis attacks are becoming more and more sophisticated. Through power analysis attacks, an attacker can obtain sensitive data stored in smart cards or other embedded devices more efficiently than with any other kind of physical attacks. Among power analysis, simple power analysis (SPA) is probably the most effective against elliptic curve cryptosystem, because an attacker can easily distinguish between point addition and point doubling in a single execution of scalar multip...

  14. An Effective Distributed Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    MUTHU, B. M.; VEILUMUTHU, R.; PONNUSAMY, L.

    2011-01-01

    The modern power systems consist of many interconnected synchronous generators having different inertia constants, connected with large transmission network and ever increasing demand for power exchange. The size of the power system grows exponentially due to increase in power demand. The data required for various power system applications have been stored in different formats in a heterogeneous environment. The power system applications themselves have been developed and deployed in diff...

  15. Transient analysis following an increase in coolant inventory for AHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a 750 MWth vertical pressure tube type boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated reactor. Passive design features of this reactor is that the heat removal is achieved through natural circulation of primary coolant at all power levels with no primary coolant pumps. This paper highlights the transient scenario and evolution of acceptance criteria is also made along with design implications. Increase in set point of steam drum, level controller results in increase in feed water flow. This leads to addition of positive reactivity, due to void collapse resulting in reactor power increase. Consequences depend upon the duration for which the feed flow remains high, which is decided by the steam drum, level controller characteristics. Consequences in terms of clad temperature change also depend upon channel behavior in terms of pressure, flow and quality. In this paper, the set point for the steam drum level is driven up from 1.1m collapsed level (corresponding to 1.5 m swell level) to 1.5 m, to study the system response following change (an increase) in the feed water flow, using a two-fluid code RELAP5/MOD3.2 [1 ]. Three-element level controller is included in the transient

  16. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  17. The causes of local hardness increasing in power plant rotors and its modification by tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local hardness increasing on the surface of the power plant rotor may result in severe damages. One major solution for rapid repairing of the rotors is the adaptive tempering heat treatment. For this purpose, after identification of the damaged rotor, initial investigations and tests (such as visual inspection, chemical analysis, nondestructive hardness measurements and replica or on-site metallographic tests) were performed on the rotor journal. The results showed that, the occurrence of local phase transformation (i.e. tempered bainite to austenite and finally martensite) is the main factor. Finally, based on the aforementioned results, tempering heat treatment method was selected as a modifying solution for the following purposes: 1. Decreasing hardness in embrittled places (i.e. 400-690 HV) and, 2. invariable or admissible decrease of hardness in undamaged areas (250-300 HV). Experiments showed that by choosing the 680degC/4 hours as an optimum condition for tempering heat treatment, the two mentioned objectives can be met

  18. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  19. Power excursion analysis for high burnup cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken of power excursions in high burnup cores. There were three objectives in this study. One was to identify boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) transients in which there is significant energy deposition in the fuel. Another was to analyze the response of BWRs to the rod drop accident (RDA) and other transients in which there is a power excursion. The last objective was to investigate the sources of uncertainty in the RDA analysis. In a boiling water reactor, the events identified as having significant energy deposition in the fuel were a rod drop accident, a recirculation flow control failure, and the overpressure events; in a pressurized water reactor, they were a rod ejection accident and boron dilution events. The RDA analysis was done with RAMONA-4B, a computer code that models the space- dependent neutron kinetics throughout the core along with the thermal hydraulics in the core, vessel, and steamline. The results showed that the calculated maximum fuel enthalpy in high burnup fuel will be affected by core design, initial conditions, and modeling assumptions. The important uncertainties in each of these categories are discussed in the report

  20. Attacking Embedded Systems through Power Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sastry JKR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Embedded Systems are being used for the development and implementation of Safety and Mission Critical Systems. Malfunctions of such type of embedded systems will lead to disasters at times. The embedded systems must be fully secured from outside intervention in order to have effective functioning as well as to provide protective environment to these mission critical systems. There are several attacking systems discussed in the literature each requiring a kind of counter attacking system. Power Analysis and variations of power analysis are the significant attacking mechanisms discussed in the literature. Crypto servers are the main areas of attacking as they deal with securing the data that flow in-between several components of the embedded systems. Most of the attacking systems suggested in the litterer suffer from lack of experimental models to emulate the attacking system. An attacking system could be amply proved when several samples of data are used for attacking and the samples of data provides for knowledge base. In this paper an experimental setup is proposed which is an embedded system itself for creation of a Knowledgebase which shall form the basis for attacking. The experimental setup required for undertaking the actual attacking with the usage of the knowledgebase is also presented. Further the proposed attacking system is applied for mission critical system and the experimental results obtained through the simulation are also presented.

  1. A Study on Increasing The Capacity Factor of Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our estimate on generating costs of nuclear power compared with coal-fired thermal power shows that nuclear power is more economical when capacity factor exceeds 60 percent. Upgrading the plant performance in terms of capacity factor is believed most essential so as to achieve lower energy costs and to diversify the energy sources in Korea, as well. A detailed implementation plan for improving the plant capacity factor is now being developed with the plant betterment projects, considering the situation of each unit. In case of 5 percent increase of capacity factor for 9 operating plants in 1991, our preliminary estimate shows 4.68 million barrels of oil could be saved each year. It will also contribute a great deal to the economy of nation's electric power generation

  2. Increasing reliability of nuclear energy equipment and at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy at the Technical University in Brno cooperates with nuclear power plants in increasing their reliability. The teaching programme is briefly described. The scientific research programme of the Department of Heat and Nuclear Power Energy Equipment in the field of reliability is based on a complex systematic concept securing a high level of reliability. In 1996 the Department prepared a study dealing with the evaluation of the maintenance system in a nuclear power plant. The proposed techniques make it possible to evaluate the reliability and maintenance characteristics of any individual component in a nuclear power plant, and to monitor, record and evaluate data at any given time intervals. (M.D.)

  3. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  4. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  5. Conceptual Design of Solar-micro Hydro Power Plant to Increase Conversion Efficiency for Supporting Remote Tribal Community of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmona Shabnam Pranti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is endowed with people along with limited primary energy sources and low electrification rate. Most of the hilly areas are out of the coverage of national grid where tribal people, a significant part of the country, are dwelling. The economic development of the whole country depends upon their advancement which is related to the electrification rate. Available micro hydro potential in hilly region could be a solution for this crisis if modified design is used. This paper deals with a new design of water power potential conversion efficiency increment of a micro hydro power plant to 95% from about 50% by using solar power for heating the water. In this proposed hybrid design, a parabolic reflector is considered to be used after comparative solar intensity analysis on different micro hydro power sites in Bangladesh to increase the velocity as well as the flow rate through penstock by heating the water to increase power production and efficiency. The main purpose of this concept is to supply electricity to more people, especially, remote tribal community by available renewable energy sources for economic development.

  6. New Mersenne Number Transform Diffusion Power Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Al-Gailani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Due to significant developments in the processing power and parallel processing technologies, the existing encryption algorithms are increasingly susceptible to attacks, such as side-channel attacks, for example. Designing new encryption algorithms that work efficiently on different platforms and security levels to protect the transmitted data from any possible attacks is one of the most important issues in today’s information and network security. The aim is to find more secure, reliable and flexible systems that can run as a ratified standard, with reasonable computational complexity for a sufficient service time. To expand the longevity of the algorithm, it is important to be designed to work efficiently on a variety of block sizes and key lengths according to the security demand. A sensible solution is the suggested use of a parameter transform. Approach: The present study evaluates the appropriateness of the New Mersenne Number Transform for security applications by analyzing and estimating its avalanche and diffusion power. Results: The results confirm that the transform in general reflects good avalanche characteristics that are for most cases over 50% and can be up to 100%. The lower bound can be further improved by increasing the modulus and/or the transform length. Conclusion: This New Mersenne Number Transform is highly flexible and adaptable for this application. It can be involved in the design of a secure cryptosystem for the following reasons; changing a single input element makes drastic changes in the output elements and vice versa (sensitivity, provides variable block size and key length (parameterization. Has long transform length (power of two, is error free and its inverse is the same with a scale factor of (1/N which simplifies implementation of both encryption and decryption. Finally, it is appropriate for real time implementations such as fast algorithms, which can be applied to it, to speed up

  7. Harmonic analysis of nonlinear devices on spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Frank; Sheble, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    A nonlinear device modeling algorithm (NOLID) has been developed for use in spacecraft power system analysis. This algorithm is designed to explore the effects of nonlinear devices and loads on a spacecraft power system. Application of this harmonic modeling algorithm in spacecraft power system management programs such as harmonic power flow analysis packages is discussed. It is shown that the NOLID algorithm can be applied in conjunction with a harmonic power flow to give a more accurate description of system state.

  8. Application of sorption heat pumps for increasing of new power sources efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, L.; Filatova, O.; Tsitovich, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the 21st century the way to increase the efficiency of new sources of energy is directly related with extended exploration of renewable energy. This modern tendency ensures the fuel economy needs to be realized with nature protection. The increasing of new power sources efficiency (cogeneration, trigeneration systems, fuel cells, photovoltaic systems) can be performed by application of solid sorption heat pumps, regrigerators, heat and cold accumulators, heat transformers, natural gas and hydrogen storage systems and efficient heat exchangers.

  9. Increased power of resting-state gamma oscillations in autism spectrum disorder detected by routine electroencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diessen, Eric; Senders, Joeky; Jansen, Floor E.; Boersma, Maria; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest that increased resting-state power of gamma oscillations is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To extend the clinical applicability of this finding, we retrospectively investigated routine electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of 19 patients with ASD and 1

  10. A NOVEL CONCEPT FOR REDUCING WATER USAGE AND INCREASING EFFICIENCY IN POWER GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiao-Hung Chiang; Guy Weismantel

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the project is to apply a unique ice thermal storage (ITS) technology to cooling the intake air to gas turbines used for power generation. In Phase I, the work includes theoretical analysis, computer simulation, engineering design and cost evaluation of this novel ITS technology. The study includes two typical gas turbines (an industrial and an aeroderivative type gas turbine) operated at two different geographic locations: Phoenix, AZ and Houston, TX. Simulation runs are performed to generate data for both power output (KW) and heat rate (Btu/KWh) as well as water recovery (acre ft/yr) in terms of intake air temperature and humidity based on weather data and turbine performance curves. Preliminary engineering design of a typical equipment arrangement for turbine inlet air-cooling operation using the ITS system is presented. A cost analysis has been performed to demonstrate the market viability of the ITS technology. When the ITS technology is applied to gas turbines, a net power gain up to 40% and a heat rate reduction as much as 7% can be achieved. In addition, a significant amount of water can be recovered (up to 200 acre-ft of water per year for a 50 MW turbine). The total cost saving is estimated to be $500,000/yr for a 50 MW gas turbine generator. These results have clearly demonstrated that the use of ITS technology to cool the intake-air to gas turbines is an efficient and cost effective means to improve the overall performance of its power generation capacity with an important added benefit of water recovery in power plant operation. Thus, further development of ITS technology for commercial applications in power generation, particularly in coal-based IGCC power plants is warranted.

  11. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  12. PPICA, Power Plant Investment Cost Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: This software package contains two modules: - CAPITAL1 calculates investment costs from overnight costs, based on the capital structure of the utility (debt/equity ratio), return and interest rates according to the type of securities involved, and a standard-shaped curve of capital outlays during construction of a power plant. - FCRATE1 calculates the year-by-year revenue requirements to cover the capital-related charges incurred by the new investment and their economic equivalent: the levelled fixed-charge rate and capital contribution to the levelled unit power generation cost per kWh. They are proposed as an alternative to the corresponding modules CAPITAL and FCRATE, included in the LPGC (Levelled Power Generation Cost) suite of codes developed by ORNL and US-DOE. They perform the same type of analysis and provide the same results. 2 - Methods: Results output from CAPITAL1, in terms of the initial investment at startup and the fraction thereof that is allowable for tax depreciation, can be transferred automatically as data input to FCRATE1. Other user-defined data are: the project life, the time horizon of the economic analysis (which does not necessarily coincide with the project life), the plant load factor (lifetime average), the tax rate applicable to utility's income, the tax depreciation scheme and the tax charge accounting method (normalised or flow- through). The results of CAPITAL1 and FCRATE1 are expressed both in current money and in constant money of a reference year. Inflation rate and escalation rate of construction expenditures during construction period, and of fixed charges during service life are defined by the user. The discount rate is set automatically by the programme, equal to the weighted average tax-adjusted cost of money. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: CAPITAL1 and FCRATE1 are 'alternatives', not 'substitutes', to the corresponding programs CAPITAL and FCRATE of the LPGC

  13. Overview of methods to increase dryout power in CANDU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa (Canada); Leung, L.K.H. [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); Park, J.H. [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Small changes in bundle geometry can have noticeable effects on the bundle CHF. • Rod spacing devices can results in increases of over 200% in CHF. • CHF enhancement decays exponentially downstream from spacers. • CHF-enhancing bundle appendages also increase the post-CHF heat transfer. - Abstract: In CANDU reactors some degradation in the CCP (critical channel power, or power corresponding to the first occurrence of CHF in any fuel channel) will occur with time because of ageing effects such as pressure-tube diametral creep, increase in reactor inlet-header temperature, increased hydraulic resistance of feeders. To compensate for the ageing effects, various options for recovering the loss in CCP are described in this paper. They include: (i) increasing the bundle heated perimeter, (ii) optimizing the bundle configuration, (iii) optimizing core flow and flux distribution, (iv) reducing the bundle hydraulic resistance, (v) use of CHF-enhancing bundle appendages, (vi) more precise experimentation, and (vii) redefining CHF. The increase in CHF power has been quantified based on experiments on full-scale bundles and subchannel code predictions. The application of several of these CHF enhancement principles has been used in the development of the 43-rod CANFLEX bundle.

  14. Analysis of future nuclear power plants competitiveness with stochastic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To satisfy the increased demand it is necessary to build new electrical power plants, which could in an optimal way meet, the imposed acceptability criteria. The main criteria are potential to supply the required energy, to supply this energy with minimal (or at least acceptable) costs, to satisfy licensing requirements and be acceptable to public. The main competitors for unlimited electricity production in next few decades are fossil power plants (coal and gas) and nuclear power plants. New renewable power plants (solar, wind, biomass) are also important but due to limited energy supply potential and high costs can be only supplement to the main generating units. Large hydropower plans would be competitive under condition of existence of suitable sites for construction of such plants. The paper describes the application of a stochastic method for comparing economic parameters of future electrical power generating systems including conventional and nuclear power plants. The method is applied to establish competitive specific investment costs of future nuclear power plants when compared with combined cycle gas fired units combined with wind electricity generators using best estimated and optimistic input data. The bases for economic comparison of potential options are plant life time levelized electricity generating costs. The purpose is to assess the uncertainty of several key performance and cost of electricity produced in coal fired power plant, gas fired power plant and nuclear power plant developing probability distribution of levelized price of electricity from different Power Plants, cumulative probability of levelized price of electricity for each technology and probability distribution of cost difference between the technologies. The key parameters evaluated include: levelized electrical energy cost USD/kWh,, discount rate, interest rate for credit repayment, rate of expected increase of fuel cost, plant investment cost , fuel cost , constant annual

  15. Nuclear power and sustainable development. Maintaining and increasing the overall assets available to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A central goal of sustainable development is to maintain or increase the overall assets available to future generations, while minimizing consumption of finite resources and not exceeding the carrying capacities of ecosystems. The development of nuclear power broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, increases human and man-made capital, and, when safely handled, has little impact on ecosystems. Energy is essential for sustainable development. With continuing population and economic growth, and increasing needs in the developing world, substantially greater energy demand is a given, even taking into account continuing and accelerated energy efficiency and intensity improvements. Today, nuclear power is mostly utilized in industrialized countries that have the necessary technological, institutional and financial resources. Many of the industrialized countries that are able and willing to use nuclear power are also large energy consumers. Nuclear power currently generates 16% of the world's electricity. It produces virtually no sulfur dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds or greenhouse gases. Globally, nuclear power currently avoids approximately 600 million tonnes of carbon emissions annually, about the same as hydropower. The 600 MtC avoided by nuclear power equals 8% of current global greenhouse gases emissions. In the OECD countries, nuclear power has for 35 years accounted for most of the reduction in the carbon intensity per unit of delivered energy. Existing operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) for which initial capital investments are largely depreciated are also often the most cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions from electricity generation. In fact in the United States in 2000, NPPs were the most cost-effective way to generate electricity, irrespective of avoided carbon emissions. In other countries the advantages of existing nuclear generating stations are also increasingly recognized. Interest

  16. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  17. 76 FR 16394 - Analysis of Horizontal Market Power Under the Federal Power Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...--and failure of either screen results in a rebuttable presumption of horizontal market power. The... Energy Regulatory Commission Analysis of Horizontal Market Power Under the Federal Power Act AGENCY... should revise its approach for examining horizontal ] market power concerns in transactions under...

  18. Effects of increased microwave heating power in the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Alejandro; Koehn, Alf; Ali, Ahmed; Ramisch, Mirko [Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    One of the microwave heating systems at the stellarator TJ-K has been recently upgraded: a third klystron has been installed, increasing the heating power from 4 kW to 6 kW operating at 14 GHz. A phased-array antenna is used which allows to vary the injection angle by sweeping the microwave frequency in order control the coupling mechanism of the microwave to the plasma. With the two klystrons already installed, ionization degrees of α ≅ 1 have been reached. We expect that an increased heating power, by means of the third klystron put into operation, leads to an increase in the electron temperature T{sub e} only, rather than in electron density n{sub e}, and thus a decrease in the collision frequency ν{sub ei} ∝ n{sub e}T{sub e}{sup -3/2} which has an impact on heating flow damping and neoclassical properties. Parameter scans have been performed in order to characterize the new heating scenario. A radial movable Langmuir probe has been used to obtain radial profiles of the electron density and temperature. An arrangement of bolometers and an optical diode have been used to obtain the power losses by radiation. A particle and power balance model is used to obtain estimated densities and temperatures in order to compare with the experimental results.

  19. Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Nanoparticles enhance solar cell efficiency. → Solar cell power increase by nanorod coating. → Metal-oxide nanorods are prepared in flames. → Molybdenum oxide nanorods effectively scatter light on solar cell surface. → Scattering efficiency depends on coating density. -- Abstract: Photovoltaic cells produce electric current through interactions among photons from an ambient light source and electrons in the semiconductor layer of the cell. However, much of the light incident on the panel is reflected or absorbed without inducing the photovoltaic effect. Transition metal-oxide nanoparticles, an inexpensive product of a process called flame synthesis, can cause scattering of light. Scattering can redirect photon flux, increasing the fraction of light absorbed in the thin active layer of silicon solar cells. This research aims to demonstrate that the application of transition metal-oxide nanorods to the surface of silicon solar panels can enhance the power output of the panels. Several solar panels were coated with a nanoparticle-methanol suspension, and the power outputs of the panels before and after the treatment were compared. The results demonstrate an increase in power output of up to 5% after the treatment. The presence of metal-oxide nanorods on the surface of the coated solar cells is confirmed by electron microscopy.

  20. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  1. Analysis of nuclear-power construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of regression analysis for estimating construction costs. The estimate is based on an historical data base and quantification of key factors considered external to project management. This technique is not intended as a replacement for detailed cost estimates but can provide information useful to the cost-estimating process and to top management interested in evaluating project management. The focus of this paper is the nuclear-power construction industry but the technique is applicable beyond this example. The approach and critical assumptions are also useful in a public-policy situation where utility commissions are evaluating construction in prudence reviews and making comparisons to other nuclear projects. 13 references, 2 figures

  2. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  3. Modelling and stability analysis of aircraft power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areerak, Kongpan

    2009-01-01

    The more-electric aircraft concept is a major trend in aircraft electrical power system engineering and results in an increase in electrical loads based on power electronic converters and motor drive systems. Unfortunately, power electronic driven loads often behave as constant power loads having the small-signal negative impedance that can significantly degrade the power system stability margin. Therefore, the stability issue of aircraft power systems is of great importance. The research of ...

  4. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  5. Multiscale power analysis for heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peng; Liu, Hongxing; Ni, Huangjing; Zhou, Jing; Xia, Lan; Ning, Xinbao

    2015-06-01

    We first introduce multiscale power (MSP) method to assess the power distribution of physiological signals on multiple time scales. Simulation on synthetic data and experiments on heart rate variability (HRV) are tested to support the approach. Results show that both physical and psychological changes influence power distribution significantly. A quantitative parameter, termed power difference (PD), is introduced to evaluate the degree of power distribution alteration. We find that dynamical correlation of HRV will be destroyed completely when PD>0.7.

  6. Analysis for SG replacement and power uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To document and license the increase of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) power to 2000 MWt with replaced steam generator (RSG) , an exhaustive program of analyses has been conducted. It also covers operation in a range of reactor coolant temperatures, SG tube plugging level of up to 5% and cycles durations of 12 to 18 months. As far as feasible, the same methodologies/licensing basis, as existed before, have been followed. R.G. 1.70 rev.3 was observed for the accident analyses. A few changes in methodologies/licensing basis have however been introduced. They include Leak-Before- Break studies to exclude large break LOCA dynamic effects. Throughout the work, emphasis has consistently been placed on limiting plant modifications as far as feasible. Work has been documented along the project in work reports. Those have been reviewed by one or several authorized institutions and by SNSA. Work has been scrutinized by the reviewers to the minute detail, including non safety related parts. Results of the analyses being acceptable and, this acceptability being validated by a comprehensive licensing process, operation of Krsko NPP at 2000 MWt has been fully verified to be safe. (author)

  7. Generation increases at Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant based on accurate feedwater flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the application of Caldon LEFM ultrasonic flow and temperature measurement systems at Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. Based on plant instrumentation, Cofrentes engineering personnel estimated an 8 to 10 MW electric shortfall in generation due to venturi nozzle fouling. An external LEFM ultrasonic flow measurement system installed in October 2000 showed a shortfall of about 9 MW electric, consistent with expectations. The plant has increased generation by using the more accurate ultrasonic system to correct for the venturi nozzle bias. Following the recovery of generation lost to venturi fouling, Cofrentes plans to upgrade the flow meter to Caldon's LEFM CheckPlus system. This system is sufficiently accurate to warrant re-licensing for a power up-rate of up to 1,7% based on improved thermal power measurement. (author)

  8. Power System Transient Stability Analysis through a Homotopy Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaobu; Du, Pengwei; Zhou, Ning

    2014-04-01

    As an important function of energy management systems (EMSs), online contingency analysis plays an important role in providing power system security warnings of instability. At present, N-1 contingency analysis still relies on time-consuming numerical integration. To save computational cost, the paper proposes a quasi-analytical method to evaluate transient stability through time domain periodic solutions’ frequency sensitivities against initial values. First, dynamic systems described in classical models are modified into damping free systems whose solutions are either periodic or expanded (non-convergent). Second, because the sensitivities experience sharp changes when periodic solutions vanish and turn into expanded solutions, transient stability is assessed using the sensitivity. Third, homotopy analysis is introduced to extract frequency information and evaluate the sensitivities only from initial values so that time consuming numerical integration is avoided. Finally, a simple case is presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method, and simulation results show that the proposed method is promising.

  9. Safety analysis program for steam generators replacement and power uprate at Tihange 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Tihange 2 nuclear power plant went into commercial operation in 1983 producing a thermal power of 2785 MW. Since the commissioning of the plant the steam generators U-tubes have been affected by primary stress corrosion cracking. In order to avoid further degradation of the performance and an increase in repair costs, Electrabel, the owner of the plant, decided in 1997 to replace the 3 steam generators. This decision was supported by the feasibility study performed by Tractebel Energy Engineering which demonstrated that an increase of 10% of the initial power together with a fuel cycle length of 18 months was achieved. Tractebel Energy Engineering was entrusted by Electrabel as the owner's engineer to manage the project. This paper presents the role of Tractebel Energy Engineering in this project and the safety analysis program necessary to justify the new operation point and the fuel cycle extension to 18 months re-analysis of FSAR chapter 15 accidents and verification of the capacity of the safety and auxiliary systems. The FSAR chapter 15 accidents were reanalyzed jointly by Framatome and Tractebel Energy Engineering while the systems verifications were carried out by Tractebel Energy Engineering. (author)

  10. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.

  11. Post-calculation of power increase transient for NHR-5 heating reactor with ATHLET code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral nuclear heating reactor with natural circulation is one of innovative type of nuclear reactors to expend peaceful application of nuclear energy in near future. The small unit of integral type of PWR, such as IRAS proposed by Westinghouse, has been addressed importance recently for the changing electric market. China is among the countries to develop integral type of reactors emphasized on improving safety standard by passive safety characteristics, especially for urban district heating and sea water desalination purpose. This paper reports a study on a power increase transient procedure of the NHR-5, a pilot test heating reactor with 5MW thermal power, at the institute of nuclear energy technology (INET) of Tsinghua University of China, with ATHLET code simulation. The test operation data of the NHR-5 has been used to assess the result from the code simulation. The results show that ATHLET code can produce reasonable solutions, and may somehow demonstrate that the design of NHR-5 is sound with respect to self power following capability in power increase transient. (author)

  12. Modeling and analysis of harmonic resonance in a power electronics based AC power system

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic interactions among the interconnected power converters may bring in harmonic resonance in a power electronics based power system. This paper addresses this issue in a power system dominated by multiple current- and voltage-controlled inverters with LCL- and LC-filters. The impedance-based analysis approach is adopted and expanded to a meshed and balanced three-phase power network. An impedance ratio derivation method is proposed based on the nodal admittance matrix. By this means,...

  13. Probabilistic Analysis of an Automatic Power Factor Controller with variation in Power Factor

    OpenAIRE

    P K Bhatia; ROOSEL JAIN; GULSHAN TANEJA,

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the probabilistic analysis of an automatic power factor controller (APFC) system working in industry/factory is investigated. The power factor correction of electrical loads and energy losses due to poor power factor are the problems common to all industrial companies. Therefore, the study of APFC unit is of greatimportance. Initially, the system is operative with controlled power factor. Then it may transit to state with power factor not controlled. On the failure of th...

  14. Power Assigning Method for Increasing the Number of Users in Time-spreading Optical CDMA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Abiri, Ebrahim; Kazemi, Keyvan; Dezfouli, Mehran

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a method for increasing the number of supportable users in a time-spreading Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed. In the presented technique, a unique codeword is assigned to a couple of users instead of just one. Different optical powers are employed for such users in order to distinguish them from each other. Other methods use the frequency or the polarization of the optical signals as an additional coding dimension to increase the number of codewords and hence the number of users in the network. It is proposed to employ nonlinear optical regenerators for separating optical pulses with different powers. A comprehensive design algorithm for such regenerators is presented. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed regenerators a TS-OCDMA system is simulated using OptiSystem software. Results indicate an error free transmission in the system employing the proposed technique.

  15. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  16. Future Generation Adequacy of the Hungarian Power System with Increasing Share of Res

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gerse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Power generation sector is expected to undergo substantial changes in Hungary in the next years due to the decommissioning of several large units reaching the end of their lifetimes in parallel to the projected increase of renewable electricity generating capacity. In addition to the traditionally widely used deterministic adequacy assessment methods, a probabilistic approach has a great importance in case of technologies with different capacity credits. An analytical country-specific adequacy assessment model enabling the probabilistic modelling of wind power plants was developed and applied to generating capacity forecasts for Hungary. Model parameters were estimated using multi-annual production, plant availability, and hourly system demand data. Adequacy indicators obtained from the model clearly show increasing reliance on imported electricity in the absence of investments in new generating capacity.

  17. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of nonfuel operating costs for nuclear power plants. Most studies of the economic costs of nuclear power have focused on the rapid escalation in the cost of constructing a nuclear power plant. The present analysis found that there has also been substantial escalation in real (inflation-adjusted) nonfuel operating costs. It is important to determine the factors contributing to the escalation in operating costs, not only to understand what has occurred but also to gain insights about future trends in operating costs. There are two types of nonfuel operating costs. The first is routine operating and maintenance expenditures (O and M costs), and the second is large postoperational capital expenditures, or what is typically called ''capital additions.'' O and M costs consist mainly of expenditures on labor, and according to one recently completed study, the majoriy of employees at a nuclear power plant perform maintenance activities. It is generally thought that capital additions costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep the plants operational, and to make plant modifications (backfits) required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Many discussions of nuclear power plant operating costs have not considered these capital additions costs, and a major finding of the present study is that these costs are substantial. The objective of this study was to determine why nonfuel operating costs have increased over the past decade. The statistical analysis examined a number of factors that have influenced the escalation in real nonfuel operating costs and these are discussed in this report. 4 figs, 19 tabs

  18. New trends in design and fabrication of signal and power cables to increase nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    contained halogens that lead to formation of fluorine chlorine, bromine, and iodine salts. The fluorine and chlorine were important for old types of cables and wires as atoms in plastic molecules; bromine was a component of flame protection additives. During burning, behavior of cables is very important for installation in buildings and also in power and control systems of the plants. When such cables are under flame influence they allow propagation of flame and produce smoke and fire and also corrosive and toxic gases. They develop smoke with high density (endangering the use of emergency exits) and make difficult the fire extinguishing. A disadvantage of these types of cables is that the isolation is not mechanically too resistant. The new type of cables with halogen free jackets are composed of polymers based on pure hydrocarbons. Polymers like polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) are halogen-free. This paper presents the behavior of halogen-free cables during accelerated ageing generated by thermal, abnormal conditions and nuclear environment conditions. The effect on availability of an electrical system as well as the reliability parameters of both types of cables are compared and presented in the paper. Aging mechanism, effects, and simulation were studied and the analysis of the test results is given as well. In conclusions, we evaluated the aging degradation after accelerated aging of polyethylene jacket and under continuous and intermittent heating condition. Contrary to general expectation, we found that intermittent heating to polyethylene cable jacket showed low aging degradation as compared with continuous heating. We also had evaluated accelerated aging degradation in radiation flux conditions similar to those in rooms 303 and 304 in Cernavoda NPP and we found an increase of rigidity of PVC jackets. This can be an inconvenient for cables laid on cable transporter

  19. Power Quality Analysis in Off-Grid Power Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Misak; Jindrich Stuchly; Jakub Vramba; Lukas Prokop; Marian Uher

    2014-01-01

    Research projects in the field of electrical distribution systems are moving to a new philosophy of Smart Grids, where the effort is to use the maximum possible share of power from renewable energy potential. Under this philosophy the emphasis is on energy independence, reliability and safety of operation of energy distribution system. Research in this area leads for example to developing of autonomous local microgrids with the several specific requirements. However, the problem of parameters...

  20. Power enhancement by increasing the initial array radius and wire number of tungsten Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten wire array implosions on the 7- to 8-MA Saturn generator have been optimized using wire number and array diameter variations to produce 75±10TW of x rays with total energy outputs of 450±50kJ. By increasing the number of wires in a 12.5-mm-diam array from 24 to 70 and simultaneously decreasing the individual wire diameter from 13 to 7.5 μm, the total radiated power increased from 20±3 to 40±6TW and the x-ray pulse width decreased from 18 to 8.5 ns. In addition, a diameter scan at an implosion time of 50±5ns showed that the pulse width has a strong dependence on collapse velocity and wire thickness. For the largest diameter load of 17.5 mm with 120 5-μm-diam wires, a 4-ns pulse width with a peak power of 75±10TW was achieved: four times power gain over the 20-TW electrical power generated by the pulsed power system. Time-resolved pinhole photography confirms that the power enhancement with increased wire number is associated with the plasma achieving a tighter compression and better axial uniformity. For the higher-velocity implosions, we infer from two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic calculations that the plasma becomes hotter and hence radiates at a higher brightness temperature. Zero- and two-dimensional load models coupled with a detailed circuit model have shown expected radial kinetic energies in the range of 100 endash 200 kJ. The total radiated energy of >400kJ in a 4 endash 20-ns FWHM pulse exceeds the total kinetic energy by more than a factor of 2. Two-dimensional, three-temperature simulations reproduce the observed trends in powers and pulse widths by using a variable initial random density perturbation. These calculations also indicate that the radiated energy is accounted for by the total work done on the plasma by the magnetic field. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Electric power systems analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Saccomanno, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    "Highly relevant and timely in scope, the book is essential reading for anyone associated with electric power systems, including students and teachers of power engineering courses, professionals in the industry, consultants, and researchers."--Jacket.

  2. Increasing voltage of high power electric pulses by means of a pulse transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vdovin, S.S.

    1985-07-01

    The production of megavolt and terawatt electric pulses is difficult and complex. A component part of this problem is increasing the voltage of power pulses of the primary generators used. The problem of increasing the voltage of these pulses can be solved by the use of pulse transformers. However, due to the great voltages and power involved, it is necessary to establish the possibility in principle of increasing voltages to several megavolts, as well as the suitability of the technical and economic characteristics of pulse transformers designed for these purposes. Calculations performed in this article indicate that with pulse lengths of over 1 microsecond, pulse transformers can yield sufficiently high voltages with very slight distortions of transformed pulse shape and power losses. The use of pulse transformers is therefore effective and expedient at pulse lengths of over 1 microsecond. At lengths of less than 0.02 microsecond, pulse transformers apparently became undesirable due to low pulse voltages, great peak distortions and low efficiency.

  3. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  4. Small break LOCA analysis for Maanshan nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jer-Cherng Kang; Shou-Chuan Chiang; Lang-Chen Wang [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China)

    1994-12-31

    Since 1990, Taiwan Power Company has conducted a LWR LOCA technology transfer program on RELAP5YA computer code from Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC). One objective of this program is to acquire the RELAP5YA computer code from YAEC for Taipower in-house licensing analysis. The RELAP5YA is a computer program developed at YAEC for analysing the dynamic behaviour of thermal-hydraulic systems, and it can cover most of the postulated accidents and transients in light water reactor systems. In this paper, Taipower`s engineers have performed a small break loss of coolant accidents analysis for Maanshan nuclear power plant. Thais action is used to perform the licensing actions for increasing the operation margin on the steam generator tube plugging. The result is shown that the steam generator tube can be plugged slightly without a reduction in safety margins. This analysis covers a spectrum of break size for a small break LOCA. For a complete spectrum of the transient and accident analysis, the large break LOCA and the non-LOCA analysis were performed by the fuel vendor for the reload safety evaluation.

  5. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  6. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.)

  7. Optimal rate of power increase in nuclear fuel. Pellet behaviour under dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model has been worked out for the determination of the optium power escalation rate for nuclear power plants from the view-pint of fuel integrity. The model calculates the stress and strain transients in the pellet-cladding system with rapid power increase. No burnup effects are included due to the short time scale involved. An elastic solution has been transposed to a linear viscoelastic one using the correspondence principle. The cladding has however been treated under the programme assumptions as purely elastic. The fuel material has been assumed to be completely relaxed prior to the power transient. Radial cracking is included. The UO2-material distortion has been assumed to be linear viscoelastic, while the dilation is assumed as elastic. The system has been treated assuming plane strain since friction between the pellet and the cladding is large with practical burnsups, and the pellet column can be regarded as infinitely long, compared to the diameter of the pellet. The results of the calculations made show that under the above assumptions the clad stress is independent of the rate of power increase in the pellet. Scince this result is in opposition to general opinion an experimental programme was performed in order to test the results of the model. These results were confirmed. The occurance of clad failures in practice is not determined purely by clad straining. Current thought pays attention to the influence of e.g. stress-corrosion phenomena as significant. The programme reported here pays no attention such-like effects, or the effects of clad creep which could be of considerable significance with local deformations. These later effects are receiving attention in work now being initiated at the Department.(author)

  8. Performance Prediction of Wind Power Turbine by CAD Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a vertical-type wind power generator system was predicted by CAD analysis. In the analysis, the reaction torque was calculated for a given rotational speed of the blades. The blade torque of a wind power system was obtained for various rotational speeds, and the generation power was calculated using the obtained torque and the rotational speed. The optimum generator specification, therefore, could be decided using the relationship between the generated power and the rotational speeds. The effects of the number of blades and blade shapes on the generation power were also investigated. Finally, the analysis results were compared with the experimental results

  9. Increased installation in existing hydro power plants. Potentials and costs; Oekt installasjon i eksisterende kraftverk. Potensial og kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, Kjell Erik (ed.)

    2011-06-15

    This report seeks to highlight the costs associated with increased installed capacity of existing hydropower plants. Five selected power plant is further studied. Furthermore, given an overview of the technical possibilities of power expansions in Norway. (AG)

  10. Fault analysis of multichannel spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement computer-controlled fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Elements under study include the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power system faults is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study will be applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS) breadboard. The results of the power system fault study and the planned implementation of these faults into the LASEPS breadboard are described.

  11. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  12. Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Holbøll, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    commercially available and functioning successfully in fixed speed and vari- able speed turbines. Power performance analysis is a method specifically applicable to wind turbines for the detection of power generation changes due to external factors, such as ic- ing, internal factors, such as controller...... malfunction, or delib- erate actions, such as power de-rating. In this paper, power performance analysis is performed by sliding a time-power window and calculating the two eigenvalues corresponding to the two dimensional wind speed - power generation dis- tribution. The power is classified into five bins in...... order to achieve better resolution and thus identify the most proba- ble root cause of the power deviation. An important aspect of the proposed technique is its independence of the power curve provided by the turbine manufacturer. It is shown that by detecting any changes of the two eigenvalues trends...

  13. A New Method for Increasing Output Power of a Three-Cavity Transit-Time Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun-Tao; ZHONG Hui-Huang; QIAN Bao-Liang; LIU Yong-Gui

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new method to increase the output power of a three-cavity transit-time oscillator (TC-TTO).Conventional transit-time effect oscillators, such as the split-cavity oscillator (SCO), super-Reltron, and TC-TTO (or double-foil SCO), etc., have a common feature that the span of any modulating cavity is uniform. The new method is to vary the three-cavity spans from uniform to nonuniform. Its configuration is called the nonuniform three-cavity transit-time oscillator (NTC-TTO). Numerical simulations show that the electron-beam is modulated more deeply in certain NTC-TTOs than that in the TC-TTO with the same whole modulating length, and the output microwave power in certain NTC-TTOs is higher than that in the TC-TTO. The experimental results are in agreement with those of the numerical simulations. The results show that the new method can increase the output power of a microwave tube based on the TC-TTO.

  14. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav;

    2014-01-01

    carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation can now be analytically studied, and specialized optimization in the upper level......This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is...... control can also be made accordingly. Case studies on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation are carried out using proposed power flow analysis....

  15. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  16. Operating health analysis of electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

    The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation

  17. Wireless Powered Communications: Performance Analysis and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Caijun; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Karagiannidis, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the average throughput of a wireless powered communications system, where an energy constrained source, powered by a dedicated power beacon (PB), communicates with a destination. It is assumed that the PB is capable of performing channel estimation, digital beamforming, and spectrum sensing as a communication device. Considering a time splitting approach, the source first harvests energy from the PB equipped with multiple antennas, and then transmits information to the...

  18. Geometrical Methods for Power Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano; Gupta, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    This book is a short introduction to power system planning and operation using advanced geometrical methods. The approach is based on well-known insights and techniques developed in theoretical physics in the context of Riemannian manifolds. The proof of principle and robustness of this approach is examined in the context of the IEEE 5 bus system. This work addresses applied mathematicians, theoretical physicists and power engineers interested in novel mathematical approaches to power network theory.

  19. Analysis of power system collapse risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper are analysed the initialization events with considering different scenarios and their impact on the power system transient stability. As an initialization event is considered a short circuit at various places of power line. In each scenario are considered protection failures (backup protection), circuit-breaker failures (breaker failure relay activation). The individual states are analysed and the power system collapse risk assessed based on the simulation experiments results (Authors)

  20. Analysis and determination of power purchase price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any agency proposing to connect a windfarm to the power grid must first arrange a power purchase contract involving a power purchase price (PPP). This paper reviews methods of determining the initial PPP and of establishing the mechanism for subsequent annual PPP reviews, both as two separate functions and as combined elements in an optimisation procedure. Various strategies for dealing with the PPP and its annual review are discussed. (Author)

  1. Investigation into the absorptivity change in Metals with increased laser Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blidegn, Kristian; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    At a first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG and CO2 lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However industrial inert gas cutting abilities demonstrates that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser...... interaction. An increase which can not be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing. The Drude free electron model or simplifications like the Hagen-Rubens relation has often been used to model the...... processes.This paper discuss the need to extend the Drude model taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect in order to describe in increase in absorptivity seen at high intensities. The absorption model will be used in a cut front simulation and results are compared with cutting...

  2. Investigation into the absorptivity change in metals with increased laser power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blidegn, Kristian; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    At a first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG and CO2 lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However industrial inert gas cutting abilities demonstrates that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser...... interaction. An increase which can not be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing. The Drude free electron model or simplifications like the Hagen-Rubens relation has often been used to model the...... processes.This paper discuss the need to extend the Drude mode taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect in order to describe in increase in absorptivity seen at high intensities. The absorption model will be used in a cut front simulation and results are compared with cutting...

  3. Methods for Increasing Power Efficiency of Heating Furnaces Applied in Metallurgical and Mechanical Engineering Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. German

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available  The paper analyzes experimental data and results of balance tests of two continuous heating furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries. Furnace power technological characteristics  and dependences of these characteristics on equipment productivity have been determined in the paper. The analysis has made it possible to reveal reasons of higher efficiency of a heating furnace used at BSW Rolling Mill-320 and formulate recommendations on reduction of fuel consumption in operating and designed combustion furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries.

  4. Increasing biomass resource availability through supply chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased inclusion of biomass in energy strategies all over the world means that greater mobilisation of biomass resources will be required to meet demand. Strategies of many EU countries assume the future use of non-EU sourced biomass. An increasing number of studies call for the UK to consider alternative options, principally to better utilise indigenous resources. This research identifies the indigenous biomass resources that demonstrate the greatest promise for the UK bioenergy sector and evaluates the extent that different supply chain drivers influence resource availability. The analysis finds that the UK's resources with greatest primary bioenergy potential are household wastes (>115 TWh by 2050), energy crops (>100 TWh by 2050) and agricultural residues (>80 TWh by 2050). The availability of biomass waste resources was found to demonstrate great promise for the bioenergy sector, although are highly susceptible to influences, most notably by the focus of adopted waste management strategies. Biomass residue resources were found to be the resource category least susceptible to influence, with relatively high near-term availability that is forecast to increase – therefore representing a potentially robust resource for the bioenergy sector. The near-term availability of UK energy crops was found to be much less significant compared to other resource categories. Energy crops represent long-term potential for the bioenergy sector, although achieving higher limits of availability will be dependent on the successful management of key influencing drivers. The research highlights that the availability of indigenous resources is largely influenced by a few key drivers, this contradicting areas of consensus of current UK bioenergy policy. - Highlights: • As global biomass demand increases, focus is placed indigenous resources. • A Biomass Resource Model is applied to analyse UK biomass supply chain dynamics. • Biomass availability is best increased

  5. Highly purified water control and analysis on power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the quality control of water has become more and more important to secure the safety of instruments and various pipes in an atomic power station and also to increase their lifetimes. The control of trace ion impurities in pure water of the secondary system in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has become very strict year after year. Here, the present situations on the analysis and the control of the impurities were described in addition to the quality criteria of the water in atomic power stations. The analysis of trace ions in ultrapure water is carried out by on-line ionchromatography (IC). IC has been used since 1975 and now it became possible to determine the highly accurate concentrations of trace ions by various developments and improvements of the concerned makers. The control of water quality are considered in terms of make-up water system, thermal power plant, condensate and feed water, boiling water reactor and PWR secondary system. At present, determinations of Na+ and Cl- concentrations became necessary to reduce the incomes of impurities from the make-up water. However, it was confirmed that on-line IC developed for the measurement of ultrapure water is able to detect those ions at 0.01 ppb. (M.N.)

  6. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY OF RAILWAYS TRACTION SUBSTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    I.V. Domansky

    2013-01-01

    A system analysis of external power supply circuits of railways traction substations over the period of 1993 through 2011 and power supply circuits projects up to 2016 in the market economy environment and under standard requirements of the power industry of Ukraine is conducted

  7. Systems analysis on laser beamed power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.

  8. Integrating several formalisms in order to increase Fault Trees' modeling power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codetta-Raiteri, Daniele, E-mail: raiteri@mfn.unipmn.i [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    The Fault Tree (FT) is a widespread model in the field of Reliability, but its modeling power is very limited. Therefore, several FT extensions have been proposed in the literature, each introducing particular modeling primitives, but in a separate way. In this paper, we integrate the primitives coming from three relevant FT extensions (parametric, dynamic, and repairable FT), into the formalism called generalized FT (GFT). We define each primitive in such a way that it can be combined with any other one. This allows to compactly represent redundancies and symmetries of the system structure, set several kinds of dependency among the events, and model repair processes, in the same model. The paper provides also the analysis process for GFT models, based on the modular approach. In particular, we provide the conditions to detect modules, considering the presence of all the primitives. Besides modules, we exploit the parametric form also at the solution level, with the aim of reducing the cost of analysis.

  9. Balance Sheet and Analysis of Reactive Power Demand in the Polish Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Kot

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the balance sheet and the reactive power demand of the Polish Power System. Reactive power balance sheets were made for the specific operating conditions of the system: the last winter peak, summer peak and summer off peak load. The basis of the study was load flow models and selected load flow calculation results. In addition, changes in demand for active and reactive power in recent years were presented.

  10. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  11. Increasing power distribution mains efficiency through new mains configurations; Effizienzsteigerung im Verteilnetz durch neue Netzkonfigurationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeckel, M.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the findings of a study that sought to find new approaches to minimise distribution losses in medium and low voltage power grids. Options examined included the optimisation of distribution-station density, increasing the nominal voltage of the low-voltage grid and the implementation of decentralised energy production. Data from real-life grids were used together with simulations to analyse possible solutions. The conclusions of these analyses are presented and discussed. In addition, qualitative and detailed examinations were made concerning grid quality factors such as availability and voltage stability.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems. [use of a digital computer for designing power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, K. A.; Hayden, J. H.; Rehmann, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of formulating a methodology for the modeling and analysis of aerospace electrical power processing systems is investigated. It is shown that a digital computer may be used in an interactive mode for the design, modeling, analysis, and comparison of power processing systems.

  13. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related. PMID:26923210

  14. Rural Power System Load Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jun-long; Xing Yu; Fu Yu; Xu Yang; Liu Guo-liang

    2015-01-01

    Power load forecasting accuracy related to the development of the power system. There were so many factors influencing the power load, but their effects were not the same and what factors played a leading role could not be determined empirically. Based on the analysis of the principal component, the paper forecasted the demands of power load with the method of the multivariate linear regression model prediction. Took the rural power grid load for example, the paper analyzed the impacts of different factors on power load, selected the forecast methods which were appropriate for using in this area, forecasted its 2014-2018 electricity load, and provided a reliable basis for grid planning.

  15. Application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to mitigate operating and maintenance cost increases for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating nuclear power generation facilities face increased pressure from state utility commissions to improve the cost effectiveness of operations and maintenance programs. Some costs are not allowed for inclusion in the current rate base and represent an operating loss to the utility. State regulators seem more willing to use operating and maintenance cost comparisons of competing technologies, such as existing fossil and cogeneration facilities. In contrast to these pressures are the requirements applied by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to improve the ''quality'' of operations. The NRC, as a regulator, sometimes uses conflicting parameters to judge the effectiveness of operations, and often issues regulations that significantly impact operating costs. As Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) are completed and submitted to the NRC for review, numerous additional opportunities exist for application of PRA methodology and plant specific results to address the risk impact of recent regulations. Quadrex Corporation is currently performing research for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to investigate the application of risk analysis to improve the cost effectiveness of operations and maintenance programs for nuclear plants. The project is being performed with the cooperation of two participating utilities. The focus of the investigation is the use of the plant specific risk analysis to improve the cost effectiveness of efforts associated with utility response to NRC Generic Letter 89-10; a program that can significantly increase the requirements for motor-operated valve testing and surveillance programs. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  16. An analysis of space power system masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Cull, Ronald C.; Kankam, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Various space electrical power system masses are analyzed with particular emphasis on the power management and distribution (PMAD) portion. The electrical power system (EPS) is divided into functional blocks: source, interconnection, storage, transmission, distribution, system control and load. The PMAD subsystem is defined as all the blocks between the source, storage and load, plus the power conditioning equipment required for the source, storage and load. The EPS mass of a wide range of spacecraft is then classified as source, storage or PMAD and tabulated in a database. The intent of the database is to serve as a reference source for PMAD masses of existing and in-design spacecraft. The PMAD masses in the database range from 40 kg/kW to 183 kg/kW across the spacecraft systems studied. Factors influencing the power system mass are identified. These include the total spacecraft power requirements, total amount of load capacity and physical size of the spacecraft. It is found that a new utility class of power systems, represented by Space Station Freedom, is evolving.

  17. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  18. Analysis of Switching Noise on Power Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ž. Stojilović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Power delivery networks (PDNs in modern printed circuit boards (PCBs are usually realized using power planes. Since the planes have very low inductance, it is usually believed that such PDNs have the smallest amount of switching noise. However, in reality, the power planes can resonate. The noise at resonant frequencies can be significant and it deteriorates the PDN performance. One of the classical methods for decreasing the noise is bypassing. This paper investigates the behavior of a typical PDN and the effect that real SMD bypass capacitors produce when attached to it.

  19. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  20. Increases in the average power output of wave energy converters using quiescent period predictive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmont, M.R. [Exeter Marine Dynamics Group, School of Engineering, Mathematics, Computer Science and Physics, North Part Rd., Exeter, Devon EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The potential of controlling wave energy converters, (WEC), by deterministic prediction of large damaging waves is introduced and shown to offer very substantial increases in the annual average power output of such devices. Results obtained for idealised WEC models show that the potential exists for this increase to be at least a factor of two. Numerical simulations of actual dynamical models for both point absorbers and directionally sensitive devices employing practical control strategies show that most of this potential can actually be realised. The control of large scale wave farms using quiescent period predictive control is likely to be most cost effective using master/slave WEC systems. To achieve the computational savings that will allow this strategy analytic approximations are required for the response of WECs with time varying coefficients, preliminary forms of these have also been introduced. (author)

  1. 5-week block periodization increases aerobic power in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Thyli, V; Bakken, T A; Sandbakk, Ø

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in elite cross-country skiers approaching the competition period. During the 5-week intervention period, one group performed block periodization (BP; n = 10) with 5 and 3 high-intensity sessions (HIT) during the first and third training week. One HIT was performed during the remaining weeks in BP, while the group performing traditional training organization (TRAD, n = 9) performed two weekly HIT except during the third week where they performed three HIT. HIT were interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) and both groups performed similar total amount of both HIT and LIT during the intervention. BP achieved a larger relative increase in peak power output and power output at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/L than TRAD (4 ± 4 vs -3 ± 6% and 11 ± 10 vs 2 ± 4%, respectively, both P increased maximal oxygen uptake by 2 ± 2% (P < 0.05), while no changes occurred in TRAD. The effect sizes of the relative improvement in these measurements revealed moderate effects of BP vs TRAD training. The present study suggests that block periodization of endurance training have superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with traditional organization. PMID:25648345

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a FBCC steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the analysis of first and second laws of thermodynamics in a 7.7 MW steam power plant located in Torbali (Izmir, Turkey). It involves a fluidized bed, a waste heat boiler (WHB) and an economizer as subsystems. Fans, pumps, cyclone and chimney are also considered through the analysis as auxiliary systems in the thermal plant. The analysis is performed for the whole system and subsystems by considering the available energy balance. In this analysis which consists of a detailed fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC) model, the amount of irreversibilities occurring in the system is calculated at each location. Analysis results are compared with the test results obtained from the measurements at several locations in the system and good agreement is observed. These measured values are the temperatures at three levels in the FBCC and boiler, economizer exit temperatures as well as flue gas composition at the boiler exit and steam flow rate. The maximum error observed in temperature values and steam flow rate is about 3.03% and 4.03%, respectively. Through the developed and validated model, effects of excess air and ambient temperature on first and second law efficiency of the subsystems and overall system are investigated. The second-law analysis reveals that the FBCC has the largest irreversibility, with about 80.4% of the total system exergy loss. The FBCC temperature, first and second law efficiencies decrease 19.8%, 5.1% and 5.2%, respectively, as the excess air increases from 10% to 70%. Also steam flow rate decreases 5.1%. As the ambient temperature increases from 25 to 45 deg. C, the FBCC temperature, system first and second law efficiencies increase 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.3%, respectively.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a FBCC steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskin, Nurdil; Oezdemir, Koray [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical Univ., 34437 Istanbul (Turkey); Gungor, Afsin [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde Univ., 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the analysis of first and second laws of thermodynamics in a 7.7 MW steam power plant located in Torbali (Izmir, Turkey). It involves a fluidized bed, a waste heat boiler (WHB) and an economizer as subsystems. Fans, pumps, cyclone and chimney are also considered through the analysis as auxiliary systems in the thermal plant. The analysis is performed for the whole system and subsystems by considering the available energy balance. In this analysis which consists of a detailed fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC) model, the amount of irreversibilities occurring in the system is calculated at each location. Analysis results are compared with the test results obtained from the measurements at several locations in the system and good agreement is observed. These measured values are the temperatures at three levels in the FBCC and boiler, economizer exit temperatures as well as flue gas composition at the boiler exit and steam flow rate. The maximum error observed in temperature values and steam flow rate is about 3.03% and 4.03%, respectively. Through the developed and validated model, effects of excess air and ambient temperature on first and second law efficiency of the subsystems and overall system are investigated. The second-law analysis reveals that the FBCC has the largest irreversibility, with about 80.4% of the total system exergy loss. The FBCC temperature, first and second law efficiencies decrease 19.8%, 5.1% and 5.2%, respectively, as the excess air increases from 10% to 70%. Also steam flow rate decreases 5.1%. As the ambient temperature increases from 25 to 45 C, the FBCC temperature, system first and second law efficiencies increase 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.3%, respectively. (author)

  4. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  5. Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Power Transformer with Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Jian Yu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer technologies enable power transfer to loads through air. The contactless power transformer is a key element of it. In this work, a new transformer with metamaterial is proposed, through which the power transfer distance increases. The electromagnetic properties about metamaterial are discussed at first. Then, the finite element analyses of this transformer are presented as well. The magnetic field distributions and the computational results show that this type of transformer can enlarge the power transfer range of a wireless power transfer system.

  6. Security and Stability Analysis for Yunnan Power Grid with Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Qiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is sustainable, renewable and clean energy. There are abundant wind resources in Yunnan province, China. In recent years, wind power integration has developed rapidly in Yunnan province. With the first batch of the wind farm being built and a part of them going into production in Yunnan, the wind power resources will be large-scale developed and utilized in the future. Based on the wind power planning of Yunnan, the impacts of security and stability after wind power are studied in this paper. The major researches are made on the capacity analysis for accessing high-capacity wind farm, the analysis for power system voltage stability and comparison of different wind-generator model structures, thus finding out the most suitable choice for fan selection in Yunnan Power Grid.

  7. Galena Electric Power A Situational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Chaney; Stephen G. Colt; Ronald A. Johnson; Richard W. Wiles; Gregory J. White

    2008-12-31

    The purpose of the investigation is to compare the economics of various electrical power generation options for the City of Galena. Options were assessed over a 30-year project period, beginning in 2010, and the final results were compared on the basis of residential customer electric rates ($/kWh). Galena's electric utility currently generates power using internal combustion diesel engines and generator sets. Nearby, there is an exposed coal seam, which might provide fuel for a power plant. Contributions to the energy mix might come from solar, municipal solid waste, or wood. The City has also been approached by Toshiba, Inc., as a demonstration site for a small (Model 4S) nuclear reactor power plant. The Yukon River is possibly a site for in-river turbines for hydroelectric power. This report summarizes the comparative economics of various energy supply options. This report covers: (1) thermal and electric load profiles for Galena; (2) technologies and resources available to meet or exceed those loads; (3) uses for any extra power produced by these options; (4) environmental and permitting issues and then; and (5) the overall economics of each of the primary energy options.

  8. Accounting experimental analysis method of functioning regimes of electrical power supply systems at the industrial enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Problems of analysis and control of electric power supply in corelation with requirements of the new interstate standards to the quality of energy supply are investigated. The methodology of analyzing the state of electric power supply system and sampling procedures in increasing efficiency of system functioning on the basis of using experimental and accountable methods of research is performed

  9. Analysis of the Spectral Resolving Power in Tomographic Imaging Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方俊永; 赵达尊; 蒋月娟

    2004-01-01

    From the point of view of design requirements, influence of the width of the output image of an imaging subsystem in a tomographic imaging spectrometer, namely width of the slit, the grating and the size of the CCD pixel are analyzed. For the tomographic imaging spectrometry, if the amplification ratio of the imaging subsystem is not high enough to make the whole object to be compressed within the slit, then either the slit width should be increased or the slit width kept unchanged but scanned to receive information of the object. While the width-increase method reduces the spectral resolving power and the SNR; the scanning method reduces the SNR. Analysis of the two cases and computer simulation results are given.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Power Transformer with Metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Jian Yu

    2013-01-01

    Wireless power transfer technologies enable power transfer to loads through air. The contactless power transformer is a key element of it. In this work, a new transformer with metamaterial is proposed, through which the power transfer distance increases. The electromagnetic properties about metamaterial are discussed at first. Then, the finite element analyses of this transformer are presented as well. The magnetic field distributions and the computational results show that this type of trans...

  11. The Impact Of Increased Stability And Efficiency Through Automatic Control System For A Steam Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Marian, Popescu

    2015-09-01

    This paper shows necessity for a new dynamic evolution of a energy goup in the context of, in the energy system, the wind and photovoltaic energy have priority. The actual automatic control systems, already implemented, allow analysis of more than 5,000 measuring points in real time, but also very consistent evolutionary history. In this context it is proposed and analysis solution, based on closed loop modeling, which can lead to knowledge of this complex process. Knowing with a high degree of accuracy of this process can lead to redesigning the control algorithms in the direction of increasing the stability and efficiency.

  12. AC Versus DC Link Comparison Based on Power Flow Analysis of a Multimachine Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdeljalil DJEHAF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation and privatization is posing new challenges on high voltage transmission and on distributions systems as well. An increasingly liberalized market will encourage trading opportunities to be identified and developed. High voltage power electronics, such as HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems provide the necessary features to avoid technical problems in heavily loaded power systems; HVDC offers most advantages: it can be used for system interconnection and for control of power flow as well. The major benefit of HVDC is its incorporated ability for fault-current blocking, which is not possible with synchronous AC links. In addition, HVDC can effectively support the surrounding AC systems in case of transient fault conditions and it serves as firewall against cascading disturbances. This paper presents a comparison between HVDC link and an HVAC link in a 29 Bus multimachine system, based on load flow analysis using Newton-Raphson method for the AC link case, and sequential method for the HVDC link case.

  13. Power law analysis of the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs. PMID:26407082

  14. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  15. Summary of IEA-R1 research a reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a summary of IEA-R1 research reactor licensing related to its power increase from 2 to 10 MW. It reports also safety requirements, fuel elements, and reactor control modifications inherent to power increase. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Thermo-hydraulic analysis for SCWR during power-raising phase of startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of thermal characteristics during startup is one of the most important aspects for safety analysis of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). According to the given sliding pressure mode of SCWR, thermal analysis on temperature-raising phase and power-raising phase of startup are carried out. Considering the radial heterogeneity of power distribution,thermal characteristics for different assemblies during startup are also put forward. The results show that,during temperature-raising phase with core power increased only, the temperature of moderator, coolant and fuel cladding in inner assemblies are increased with little amplitude. During power-raising phase with core power and feed-water flow rate increased, the coolant temperature keeps unchanged, but the moderator temperature is decreased. With a greater variation of power, fuel cladding temperature shows a greater increase. Furthermore, considering the uneven distribution of radial power, thermo-hydraulic characteristics with uneven cladding temperature distribution shows a certain horizontal heterogeneity for different fuel assemblies, which becomes serious as flow rate and power increase. By adjusting flow rate distribution in different fuel assemblies or changing power setting during startup, the cladding temperature difference could be effectively reduced, which provides a certain reference for startup optimization of SCWR. (authors)

  17. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy security index was developed to measure how the introduction of nuclear power generation improved the national security of energy supply in Korea. Using the developed index, a quantitative effort was made to analyze the relationship between the nuclear power generation and the national energy security. Environmental impacts were evaluated and a simplified external cost of a specific coal-fired power plant in Korea was estimated using the QUERI program, which was developed by IAEA. In doing so, efforts were made to quantify the health impacts such as mortality, morbidity, and respiratory hospital admissions due to particulates, SOx, and Nox. The effects of CO2 emission regulation on the national economy were evaluated. In doing so, the introduction of carbon tax was assumed. Several scenarios were established about the share of nuclear power generation and an effort was made to see how much contribution nuclear energy could make to lessen the burden of the regulation on the national economy. This study re-evaluated the methods for estimating and distributing decommissioning cost of nuclear power plant over lifetime. It was resulted out that the annual decommissioning deposit and consequently, the annual decommissioning cost could vary significantly depending on estimating and distributing methods. (author). 24 refs., 44 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Stability analysis of spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.; Sheble, G. B.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The problems in applying standard electric utility models, analyses, and algorithms to the study of the stability of spacecraft power conditioning and distribution systems are discussed. Both single-phase and three-phase systems are considered. Of particular concern are the load and generator models that are used in terrestrial power system studies, as well as the standard assumptions of load and topological balance that lead to the use of the positive sequence network. The standard assumptions regarding relative speeds of subsystem dynamic responses that are made in the classical transient stability algorithm, which forms the backbone of utility-based studies, are examined. The applicability of these assumptions to a spacecraft power system stability study is discussed in detail. In addition to the classical indirect method, the applicability of Liapunov's direct methods to the stability determination of spacecraft power systems is discussed. It is pointed out that while the proposed method uses a solution process similar to the classical algorithm, the models used for the sources, loads, and networks are, in general, more accurate. Some preliminary results are given for a linear-graph, state-variable-based modeling approach to the study of the stability of space-based power distribution networks.

  19. Design Analysis of a Novel Synchronous Generator for Wind Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Higuchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel synchronous generator is proposed for wind power generation. The field flux is generated by the half-wave rectified excitation method. The generator does not require slip rings and brushes for field power supply, as well as permanent magnets. In this paper, the excitation method is explained, and then, the basic characteristics are calculated using the finite element method analysis. Furthermore, the generator is designed for increasing the output power and efficiency.

  20. Power-laws and spectral analysis of the Internet topology

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Laxmi

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the analysis on power-laws and spectral properties of the Internet topology at AS level based on Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing datasets collected from two repositories (Route Views and RIPE) over the period of five years. Analysis of collected datasets revealed that the two datasets have similar historical trends in the development of the Internet. Furthermore, the power-law exponents have not substantially changed over time while spectral analysis revealed ...

  1. Increasing sensitivity of quasi-binary media analysis by spectral distribution of gamma-radiation albedo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There has been suggested a method of increasing sensitivity of quasi-binary media analysis based on peculiarities of spectral distribution of gamma-radiation albedo. In quasi-binary media analysis in which there is observed close inter-connection between the effective coefficient of gamma-radiation weakening and heavy component content, it is necessary to obtain the maximum sensitivity of the analytical signal to the parameter being determined. The study showed that in certain geometrical parameters (source-detector distance, air gap between the probe and the medium surface) there is observed the spectrum displacement of the secondary radiation at the medium material composition change. The power distribution displacement of gamma-radiation albedo at the effective coefficient of gamma-radiation weakening change (the medium material composition) is explained by the adequate changing the length of free flight of primary quantum, angle characteristics of scattering and probability of photoelectric absorption of secondary radiation. The essence of the method suggested is in measuring the power corresponding to the maximum in the spectrum of the secondary radiation and the magnitude of gamma-radiation albedo. At the expense of these parameters change at the material composition of the medium analyzed variation there has been obtained the increase of the method contrast range. Depending on the type of the quasi-binary medium (coal, iron ore, carbonate raw materials) there have been determined optimal condition (primary radiation power, probe geometrical parameters) at which there is observed the maximum linear displacement of the power corresponding to the maximum in the secondary radiation spectrum and chosen the power intervals for normal magnitude of gamma-radiation albedo. The method is recommended to analyze raw and industrial materials of quasi-binary composition in which there is observed close correlation dependence between their effective atomic

  2. Practical computer analysis of switch mode power supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Johnny C

    2006-01-01

    When designing switch-mode power supplies (SMPSs), engineers need much more than simple "recipes" for analysis. Such plug-and-go instructions are not at all helpful for simulating larger and more complex circuits and systems. Offering more than merely a "cookbook," Practical Computer Analysis of Switch Mode Power Supplies provides a thorough understanding of the essential requirements for analyzing SMPS performance characteristics. It demonstrates the power of the circuit averaging technique when used with powerful computer circuit simulation programs. The book begins with SMPS fundamentals and the basics of circuit averaging models, reviewing most basic topologies and explaining all of their various modes of operation and control. The author then discusses the general analysis requirements of power supplies and how to develop the general types of SMPS models, demonstrating the use of SPICE for analysis. He examines the basic first-order analyses generally associated with SMPS performance along with more pra...

  3. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay's ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel's sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  4. Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, K.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    2004-01-01

    Lorentzian provides. This is achieved using old and new theory for Brownian motion in an incompressible fluid, and new results for a popular photodetection system. The trap and photodetection system are then calibrated simultaneously in a manner that makes optical tweezers a tool of precision for force......The force exerted by an optical trap on a dielectric bead in a fluid is often found by fitting a Lorentzian to the power spectrum of Brownian motion of the bead in the trap. We present explicit functions of the experimental power spectrum that give the values of the parameters fitted, including...

  5. Computer analysis of failures in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer analysis of minor failures at nuclear power plants have been carried out in the Institute for Electrical Power Research (VEIKI) since 1976. The research work was mainly directed to the computer based application of methods to be used at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant; the proposed procedures, however, can also be used at traditional power plants. The paper describes the general aims and main steps of failure analysis and summarizes the state of the art and perspectives of R and D in Hungary. (N.I.)

  6. First results from operation of the H-1NF heliac at increased magnetic field and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H-1 heliac is being developed as a national research facility. A new power supply system which allows operation to fields ≤1 T has been commissioned; the ripple in the supply is controlled to <0.01% to eliminate induced currents. Up to 100 kW of rf power at 7 MHz is used at present to produce plasmas using helicon waves. Multiple diagnostic studies of these plasmas and comparison experiments with a linear helicon device suggest that the near fields of the rf antennas result in ion temperatures that increase at the edge of the plasma, even though the antennas are 3-4 cm outside the last closed flux surface. Probe and spectroscopic results indicate that there the mass flow velocities are much less than the ExB velocity. Thus, radial force balance holds in detail, and the ambipolar radial electric field balances the ion pressure gradient. In L-mode plasmas, tomographic interferometry and probe studies show low-mode-number coherent oscillations in electron density and electron and ion temperatures that are suppressed at the L-H transition. (author)

  7. Determination of the potential for utilising combined heat and power and of the target reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, inclusive of cost analysis (increased use of combined heat and power); Ermittlung der Potenziale fuer die Anwendung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der erzielbaren Minderung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen einschliesslich Bewertung der Kosten (Verstaerkte Nutzung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Manfred; Ziesing, Hans-Joachim [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, Felix Christian; Harthan, Ralph [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Menzler, Gerald [VIK Verband der Industriellen Energie- und Kraftwirtschaft e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The report provides a statistical overview of CHP utilisation up to now in Germany, analyses the general economic and political conditions with a view to evaluating the competitiveness of CHP, discusses the effectiveness of the German CHP Act with respect to its contribution to meeting emissions-related goals, analyses the cost-effectiveness of investments in different types of new CHP installations, addresses mid- and longer term potential as well as impediments to the utilisation of CHP installations, presents model simulations of how CHP is expected to develop in the context of economic conditions subject to various general political conditions and makes recommendations with an eye to additional requirements and opportunities to support CHP, against the background of the findings of the analysis. (orig.)

  8. Electrical power transmission system engineering analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Gonen, Turan

    2011-01-01

    Although many textbooks deal with a broad range of topics in the power system area of electrical engineering, few are written specifically for an in-depth study of modern electric power transmission.Drawing from the author's 31 years of teaching and power industry experience, in the U.S. and abroad, Electrical Power Transmission System Engineering: Analysis and Design, Second Edition provides a wide-ranging exploration of modern power transmission engineering. This self-contained text includes ample numerical examples and problems, and makes a special effort to familiarize readers with vocabul

  9. Modal Analysis of Power Systems with Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jialin

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the reliable operation of the power system, stability analysis considering the interaction between wind power and power system must be understood. In this thesis, the impact of wind power on the stability of Nordic32A power system is of interest. Many wind farms nowadays employ doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) variable speed wind turbines. In this thesis, a third order DFIG model and its control circuits are employed. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to tu...

  10. Analysis and planning of the utilization of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization coefficient as one of the characteristics of availability of nuclear power plants and the operation results (like maximum power, block number, and electric energy generation) are investigated by different statistic methods for several nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors and compared with those of WWER 440-type reactors. By means of linear many-parameter regression analysis the utilization coefficient is studied in dependence on block power and time after reactor commissioning. Forecastings of mean utilization coefficients are presented for the power of WWER 1000-type reactors

  11. INCREASING THE FISHER INFORMATION CONTENT IN THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM BY NONLINEAR WAVELET WIENER FILTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a purely mathematical tool to recover some of the information lost in the nonlinear collapse of large-scale structure. From a set of 141 simulations of dark matter density fields, we construct a nonlinear Wiener filter in order to separate Gaussian and non-Gaussian structure in wavelet space. We find that the non-Gaussian power is dominant at smaller scales, as expected from the theory of structure formation, while the Gaussian counterpart is damped by an order of magnitude on small scales. We find that it is possible to increase the Fisher information by a factor of three before reaching the translinear plateau, an effect comparable to other techniques like the linear reconstruction of the density field.

  12. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases. PMID:25541548

  13. Technology-induced increase of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal as fossil fuels can contain at least 1-2 ppm Uranium and 3-4 ppm Thorium. Significant increase of concentration of natural radionuclides in ashes and slag takes place during the process of coal burning in power plants. The paper presents data on the specific activity of natural radionuclides in various types of coal, ashes and slag in four coal-fired plants in the central part of Yugoslavia. The annual production of natural radionuclides due to coal burning in these plant has been calculated. The data obtained show that the annual production of 238U ranges from 0.096 to 0.278 MBq per MW of produced electrical energy; for 232Th the corresponding values range from 0.053 to 0.133; respectively for 40K from 0.151 to 1.027. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Graphical analysis of power systems for mobile robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raade, Justin William

    The field of mobile robotics places stringent demands on the power system. Energetic autonomy, or the ability to function for a useful operation time independent of any tether, refueling, or recharging, is a driving force in a robot designed for a field application. The focus of this dissertation is the development of two graphical analysis tools, namely Ragone plots and optimal hybridization plots, for the design of human scale mobile robotic power systems. These tools contribute to the intuitive understanding of the performance of a power system and expand the toolbox of the design engineer. Ragone plots are useful for graphically comparing the merits of different power systems for a wide range of operation times. They plot the specific power versus the specific energy of a system on logarithmic scales. The driving equations in the creation of a Ragone plot are derived in terms of several important system parameters. Trends at extreme operation times (both very short and very long) are examined. Ragone plot analysis is applied to the design of several power systems for high-power human exoskeletons. Power systems examined include a monopropellant-powered free piston hydraulic pump, a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine with hydraulic actuators, and a fuel cell with electric actuators. Hybrid power systems consist of two or more distinct energy sources that are used together to meet a single load. They can often outperform non-hybrid power systems in low duty-cycle applications or those with widely varying load profiles and long operation times. Two types of energy sources are defined: engine-like and capacitive. The hybridization rules for different combinations of energy sources are derived using graphical plots of hybrid power system mass versus the primary system power. Optimal hybridization analysis is applied to several power systems for low-power human exoskeletons. Hybrid power systems examined include a fuel cell and a solar panel coupled with

  15. Systematic safety analysis of old nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of systematic safety analysis of old nuclear power plants has been engaged by French safety authorities. Beyond the reshaping of safety documents (safety reports, general rules of operation, incidental and accidental procedures, internal emergency plan and manual of quality organization), this examination consisted of an analysis of the operation experience of circuits frequently actuated and a systematic analysis of safety circuits. This paper is based on the presentation of the exercise carried out at the Ardennes nuclear power plant operating for 15 years. This paper reviews also the main studies and modifications engaged on this power plant

  16. Building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Power System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Larry X. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the characterization and analysis of a high current power supply for the building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The system described in this report became operational in 2013, replacing the original 1968 system which employed an induction voltage regulator. This analysis and testing was completed to help the parent organization understand why an updated and redesigned power system was not delivering adequate power to resistive heater elements in the HWT. This analysis led to an improved understanding of the design and operation of the revised 2013 power supply system and identifies several reasons the revised system failed to achieve the performance of the original power supply installation. Design modifications to improve the performance of this system are discussed.

  17. Power distribution and performance analysis for wireless communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of transmission power and network performance in different wireless communication networks. It presents the latest research and techniques for power and interference control and performance modeling in wireless communication networks with different network topologies, air interfaces, and transmission techniques. While studying the power distributions and resource management, the reader will also learn basic methodology and skills for problem formulations, can ascertain the complexity for designing radio resource management strategies in modern wireless communicat

  18. Photovoltaic Generation Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Linan Qu; Dawei Zhao; Tao Shi; Ning Chen; Jie Ding

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to model photovoltaic generation system based power system electromechanical transient time scales for large-scale PV connected to power system stability analysis. The model should reflect the non-linear output characteristics, fault ride-through response characteristics and output limits of photovoltaic generation system. A PV model used to meet these demands is proposed in this paper. Base on a 3-generator, 9-bus power system, the comparison and verification of the model is ...

  19. Green Power voluntary purchases. Price elasticity and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of ±68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales. (author)

  20. Green Power voluntary purchases: Price elasticity and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of ±68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales.

  1. Thermal performance analysis system based on measurement validation for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have needs to develop a performance analysis system that can be used in nuclear power plant turbine cycle to determine whether or not to tune some equipment and when to replace the equipment. We developed NOPAS (Nuclear Operation Performance Analysis System) to aid robust performance analysis. Robustness in the performance analysis is increased by verification and validation of measured input data. We suggest new algorithm in which estimation relations for valid measurements can be obtained using correlation model between measurements and plant state. The estimation model is obtained using design data and initial acceptance measurement data of nuclear power plant. The model consists of finding most correlated state variables and mapping relations based on the model and the current state of power plant. Using this validation scheme and several adaptations from ASME PTC, we can construct more robust performance analysis system for operating nuclear power plant turbine cycle. (author)

  2. Extending the lifetime of power electronic assemblies by increased cooling temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Hutzler, Aaron; Tokarski, Adam; Schletz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime of power electronic modules can be assessed by an active power cycling test. The results are often compared to empirical (e.g. LESIT) and physical lifetime models (e.g. Suhir). During the last years new device technologies, such as silver-sintering instead of soldering and SiC instead of Si semiconductors, found their way into power electronics. For the evaluation of lifetime prediction models for assemblies with these new technologies, power cycling tests were performed. Thereby...

  3. Characteristic Analysis and Design of Power Flow of Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YonganZhang; HuaLiang

    2004-01-01

    This thesis has carried on comparative analysis to the power characteristic of 5 kinds of institutional framework of enterprises at first, and has carried on the survey to the domestic and international train of thought in the research about enterprise's power, then puts forward the basic contradiction in enterprises organization ("The contradictions of the complexity of management's target and people's limited reason") and essential feature ofcurrent enterprise's power ("Solidification of power"), and then has put forward new train of thought in the study of enterprise's power and organization ("flow of power"), finally has designed the way and direction that the power flowed in enterprises, Combining enterprise's life cycle theory and American scholar L.E.Greiner's model about organization development.

  4. Human reliability analysis of Lingao Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of human reliability analysis (HRA) of Lingao Nuclear Power Station are analyzed, and the method and operation procedures of HRA is briefed. One of the human factors events (HFE) is analyzed in detail and some questions of HRA are discussed. The authors present the analytical results of 61 HFEs, and make a brief introduction of HRA contribution to Lingao Nuclear Power Station

  5. Performance and stability analysis of a photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, W. C.; Blaha, R. J.; Pickrell, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The performance and stability characteristics of a 10 kVA photovoltaic power system are studied using linear Bode analysis and a nonlinear analog simulation. Power conversion efficiencies, system stability, and system transient performance results are given for system operation at various levels of solar insolation. Additionally, system operation and the modeling of system components for the purpose of computer simulation are described.

  6. Integrated analysis software for bulk power system stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Nagao, T.; Takahashi, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents Central Research Inst.of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI`s - own developed three softwares for bulk power network analysis and the user support system which arranges tremendous data necessary for these softwares with easy and high reliability. (author) 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Power Analysis in Two-Level Unbalanced Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on statistical power has discussed mainly single-level designs or 2-level balanced designs with random effects. Although balanced experiments are common, in practice balance cannot always be achieved. Work on class size is one example of unbalanced designs. This study provides methods for power analysis in 2-level unbalanced designs…

  8. Analysis and countermeasures in information work of current nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    That is analysis information requirements of current user of nuclear power, and proposed to explore nuclear information services in new ways under the new situation. Nuclear information workers should be courageous in practice, to be creative, close to users, close to the demand, give full play to advantages of nuclear power information network, to carry out information services, to make nuclear information services. (author)

  9. Technical-economical analysis of the Saveh biogas power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giti Taleghani; Akbar Shabani Kia [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran). Center for Development of New Energies

    2005-03-01

    The resource limitation of fossil fuels and the problems arising from their combustion has led to widespread research on the accessibility of new and renewable energy resources. Solar, wind, thermal and hydro sources, and finally biogas are among these renewable energy resources. But what makes biogas distinct from other renewable energies is its importance in controlling and collecting organic waste material and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Unlike other forms of renewable energy, biogas neither has any geographical limitations and required technology for producing energy and nor is it complex or monopolistic. Considering the ever increasing amount of different types of organic waste materials (about 15 million tonnes) in Iran, working on the control of waste material and biogas production becomes inevitable. In this paper, biogas and the benefits from its production are discussed, as is the technical-economic analysis of the Saveh biogas power plant as a case study. (author)

  10. The environment power system analysis tool development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeward, Gary A.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Kennedy, Eric M.; Stevens, N. John; Putnam, Rand M.; Roche, James C.; Wilcox, Katherine G.

    1990-01-01

    The Environment Power System Analysis Tool (EPSAT) is being developed to provide space power system design engineers with an analysis tool for determining system performance of power systems in both naturally occurring and self-induced environments. The program is producing an easy to use computer aided engineering (CAE) tool general enough to provide a vehicle for technology transfer from space scientists and engineers to power system design engineers. The results of the project after two years of a three year development program are given. The EPSAT approach separates the CAE tool into three distinct functional units: a modern user interface to present information, a data dictionary interpreter to coordinate analysis; and a data base for storing system designs and results of analysis.

  11. Universal Power Quality Controller Modeling and Inverters Loading Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gharedaghi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As much as nonlinear loads and power electronics devices are more applied in power distribution systems, the importance of power quality increases. This study proposes a Universal Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC with double-converter structure. The operation principle, the algorithm of compensation reference generation, and the control method are introduced. Computer simulation and many prototype experiments are carried out to verify the operation principle and investigate the compensation characteristics of UPQC for different power quality problems. It is verified that the UPQC can effectively compensate multiple different power quality interferences originated either from the load side or from the line side. The capacity of series and shunt inverters is calculated through loading calculations of these inverters applying phasor diagram to increase the design accuracy. The results of simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK software show that the system operates correctly.

  12. Analysis of electric power industry restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Yahya

    1998-10-01

    This thesis evaluates alternative structures of the electric power industry in a competitive environment. One structure is based on the principle of creating a mandatory power pool to foster competition and manage system economics. The structure is PoolCo (pool coordination). A second structure is based on the principle of allowing independent multilateral trading and decentralized market coordination. The structure is DecCo (decentralized coordination). The criteria I use to evaluate these two structures are: economic efficiency, system reliability and freedom of choice. Economic efficiency evaluation considers strategic behavior of individual generators as well as behavioral variations of different classes of consumers. A supply-function equilibria model is characterized for deriving bidding strategies of competing generators under PoolCo. It is shown that asymmetric equilibria can exist within the capacities of generators. An augmented Lagrangian approach is introduced to solve iteratively for global optimal operations schedules. Under DecCo, the process involves solving iteratively for system operations schedules. The schedules reflect generators strategic behavior and brokers' interactions for arranging profitable trades, allocating losses and managing network congestion. In the determination of PoolCo and DecCo operations schedules, overall costs of power generation (start-up and shut-down costs and availability of hydro electric power) as well as losses and costs of transmission network are considered. For system reliability evaluation, I examine the effect of PoolCo and DecCo operating conditions on the system security. Random component failure perturbations are generated to simulate the actual system behavior. This is done using Monte Carlo simulation. Freedom of choice evaluation accounts for schemes' beneficial opportunities and capabilities to respond to consumers expressed preferences. An IEEE 24-bus test system is used to illustrate the concepts

  13. Power Law Analysis of Financial Index Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tenreiro Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Power law (PL and fractional calculus are two faces of phenomena with long memory behavior. This paper applies PL description to analyze different periods of the business cycle. With such purpose the evolution of ten important stock market indices (DAX, Dow Jones, NASDAQ, Nikkei, NYSE, S&P500, SSEC, HSI, TWII, and BSE over time is studied. An evolutionary algorithm is used for the fitting of the PL parameters. It is observed that the PL curve fitting constitutes a good tool for revealing the signal main characteristics leading to the emergence of the global financial dynamic evolution.

  14. Increasing the efficiency of nuclear and geothermal power plants by means of using the environmental low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One studied possibility to improve efficiency of geothermal and nuclear power plants through the utilization of the low ambient temperatures. Substitution of water-and-ammonia mixture or of other agent non-solidifying under condensation temperatures (-30...-40 deg C) for the conventional working medium of the thermal power cycle, that is, for water is shown to enable to increase essentially capacity both of nuclear and geothermal power plants during most of the year

  15. Retrofitting fossil-fired power plants with gas turbines as a means of increasing output and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that power plant efficiency can be increased substantially by joining a steam turbine and a gas turbine in a combined cycle. This is because the high average inlet temperature of the gas turbine produces a high overall efficiency when combined with the low average outlet temperature of the steam turbine. This is particularly important in the present power plant situation where good fuel efficiency, low power generation costs and the reduction of pollutant emissions are major factors

  16. Personality analysis and evaluation of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on several studies concerned in the personality analysis and evaluation of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators, a procedure and method of this research are identified and discussed to draw a fairly comprehensive picture of an operator's personality and to use personality data as predictors of a nuclear power plant operator performance. The primary research for Chinese NPP operators' personality analysis and evaluation shows the feasibility and importance of this procedure and method

  17. Exergy Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant: NTPC Dadri, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Arvind Kumar; M. M. Hasan; Islam, Mohd.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to exergy analysis of combined Brayton/Rankine power cycle of NTPC Dadri India. Theoretical exergy analysis is carried out for different components of dadri combined cycle power plant which consists of a gas turbine unit, heat recovery steam generator without extra fuel consumption and steam turbine unit. The results pinpoint that more exergy losses occurred in the gas turbine combustion chamber. Its reached 35% of the total exergy losses while the exergy losse...

  18. Exergy Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant: NTPC Dadri, India

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Kumar Tiwari; M. M. Hasan; Mohd Islam,

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to exergy analysis of combined Brayton/Rankine power cycle of NTPC Dadri India. Theoretical exergy analysis is carried out for different components of dadri combined cycle power plant which consists of a gas turbine unit, heat recovery steam generator without extra fuel consumption and steam turbine unit. The results pinpoint that more exergy losses occurred in the gas turbine combustion chamber. Its reached 35% of the total exergy losses while the exergy losse...

  19. FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    TOSHIYUKI SUEYOSHI

    2005-01-01

    Financial Ratio Analysis is newly proposed to examine the financial performance of the American power/energy industry. The new approach compares the financial performances of 147 non-default firms with those of 24 default firms in the US power/energy market. The proposed approach is a new type of nonparametric discriminant analysis that provides a set of weights of a linear discriminant function, consequently yielding an evaluation score for group membership. Such weight estimates, along with...

  20. Inverse covariance principal component analysis for power system stability studies

    OpenAIRE

    AL-ODIENAT, Abdullah; Gulrez, Tauseef

    2014-01-01

    The dominant poles (eigenvalues) of system matrices are used extensively in determining the power system stability analysis. The challenge is to find an accurate and efficient way of computing these dominant poles, especially for large power systems. Here we present a novel way for finding the system stability based on inverse covariance principal component analysis (ICPCA) to compute the eigenvalues of large system matrices. The efficacy of the proposed method is shown by numerical ca...

  1. Modeling and analysis of harmonic resonance in a power electronics based AC power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Weimin

    -based analysis approach is adopted and expanded to a meshed and balanced three-phase power network. An impedance ratio derivation method is proposed based on the nodal admittance matrix. By this means, the contribution of each inverter to the system resonance modes can be easily predicted by the Nyquist......The dynamic interactions among the interconnected power converters may bring in harmonic resonance in a power electronics based power system. This paper addresses this issue in a power system dominated by multiple current- and voltage-controlled inverters with LCL- and LC-filters. The impedance...... stability criterion. To validate the theoretical analysis, the time domain simulations and experimental tests on a three-inverter-based system are presented....

  2. Toward optimal cluster power spectrum analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The power spectrum of galaxy clusters is an important probe of the cosmological model. In this paper we determine the optimal weighting scheme for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio for such measurements. We find a closed form analytic expression for the optimal weights. Our expression takes into account: cluster mass, finite survey volume effects, survey masking, and a flux limit. The implementation of this weighting scheme requires knowledge of the measured cluster masses, and analytic models for the bias and space-density of clusters as a function of mass and redshift. Recent studies have suggested that the optimal method for reconstruction of the matter density field from a set of clusters is mass-weighting (Seljak et al 2009, Hamaus et al 2010, Cai et al 2011). We compare our optimal weighting scheme with this approach and also with the original power spectrum scheme of Feldman et al (1994). We show that our optimal weighting scheme outperforms these approaches for both volume- and flux-limited cluster...

  3. Visual and Statistical Analysis of Digital Elevation Models Generated Using Idw Interpolator with Varying Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, F. F.

    2012-07-01

    Digital elevation data obtained from different Engineering Surveying techniques is utilized in generating Digital Elevation Model (DEM), which is employed in many Engineering and Environmental applications. This data is usually in discrete point format making it necessary to utilize an interpolation approach for the creation of DEM. Quality assessment of the DEM is a vital issue controlling its use in different applications; however this assessment relies heavily on statistical methods with neglecting the visual methods. The research applies visual analysis investigation on DEMs generated using IDW interpolator of varying powers in order to examine their potential in the assessment of the effects of the variation of the IDW power on the quality of the DEMs. Real elevation data has been collected from field using total station instrument in a corrugated terrain. DEMs have been generated from the data at a unified cell size using IDW interpolator with power values ranging from one to ten. Visual analysis has been undertaken using 2D and 3D views of the DEM; in addition, statistical analysis has been performed for assessment of the validity of the visual techniques in doing such analysis. Visual analysis has shown that smoothing of the DEM decreases with the increase in the power value till the power of four; however, increasing the power more than four does not leave noticeable changes on 2D and 3D views of the DEM. The statistical analysis has supported these results where the value of the Standard Deviation (SD) of the DEM has increased with increasing the power. More specifically, changing the power from one to two has produced 36% of the total increase (the increase in SD due to changing the power from one to ten) in SD and changing to the powers of three and four has given 60% and 75% respectively. This refers to decrease in DEM smoothing with the increase in the power of the IDW. The study also has shown that applying visual methods supported by statistical

  4. TRACE analysis of Phenix core response to an increase of the core inlet sodium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the analysis, using the TRACE code, of the Phenix core response to an inlet sodium temperature increase. The considered experiment was performed in the frame of the Phenix End-Of-Life (EOL) test program of the CEA, prior to the final shutdown of the reactor. It corresponds to a transient following a 40°C increase of the core inlet temperature, which leads to a power decrease of 60%. This work focuses on the first phase of the transient, prior to the reactor scram and pump trip. First, the thermal-hydraulic TRACE model of the core developed for the present analysis is described. The kinetic parameters and feedback coefficients for the point kinetic model were first derived from a 3D static neutronic ERANOS model developed in a former study. The calculated kinetic parameters were then optimized, before use, on the basis of the experimental reactivity in order to minimize the error on the power calculation. The different reactivity feedbacks taken into account include various expansion mechanisms that have been specifically implemented in TRACE for analysis of fast-neutron spectrum systems. The point kinetic model has been used to study the sensitivity of the core response to the different feedback effects. The comparison of the calculated results with the experimental data reveals the need to accurately calculate the reactivity feedback coefficients. This is because the reactor response is very sensitive to small reactivity changes. This study has enabled us to study the sensitivity of the power change to the different reactivity feedbacks and define the most important parameters. As such, it furthers the validation of the FAST code system, which is being used to gain a more in-depth understanding of SFR core behavior during accidental transients. (author)

  5. Analysis of TRIGA reactor thermal power calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of thermal power method of the nuclear instrumentation of the TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana is described. Thermal power calibration was performed at different power levels and at different conditions. Different heat loss processes from the reactor pool to the surrounding are considered. It is shown that the use of proper calorimetric calibration procedure and the use of heat loss corrections improve the accuracy of the measurement. To correct the position of the control rods, perturbation factors are introduced. It is shown that the use of the perturbation factors enables power readings from nuclear instrumentation with accuracy better than without corrections.(author)

  6. Windfarm Generation Assessment for ReliabilityAnalysis of Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis; Holmstrøm, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays a...

  7. Windfarm Generation Assessment for Reliability Analysis of Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barberis Negra, Nicola; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Holmstrøm, O.; Sørensen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays a...

  8. Windfarm generation assessment for reliability analysis of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, N.B.; Holmstrøm, O.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays a...

  9. Wavelet multiscale analysis of a power system load variance

    OpenAIRE

    Avdakovic, Samir; Nuhanovic, Amir; Kusljugic, Mirza

    2013-01-01

    Wavelet transform (WT) represents a very attractive mathematical area for just more than 15 years of its research in applications in electrical engineering. This is mainly due to its advantages over other processing techniques and signal analysis, which is reflected in the time-frequency analysis, and so it has an important application in the processing and analysis of time series. In this paper, for example, the analysis of the hourly load of a real power system over the past few yea...

  10. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Power System with Renewable Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan

    evaluation can be achieved through a probabilistic analysis that takes into account the stochastic behavior of wind power generation (WPG) and load demand. Such a probabilistic analysis may help network operators to cut down the cost associated with system planning. Thus, the objective of this thesis is to...... control and energy curtailment of WTs, subject to voltage and current constraints. These developed models and proposed algorithms serve as effective tools to assist network operators in decision-making during the operation and planning of power systems.......Unlike traditional fossil-fuel based power generation, renewable generation such as wind power relies on uncontrollable prime sources such as wind speed. Wind speed varies stochastically, which to a large extent determines the stochastic behavior of power generation from wind farms. With the...

  11. Utilization of graph theory in security analysis of power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Válek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes way how to use graph theory in security analysis. As an environment is used network of power lines and devices which are included here. Power grid is considered as a system of nodes which make together graph (network. On the simple example is applied Fiedler´s theory which is able to select the most important power lines of whole network. Components related to these lines are logicly ordered and considered by author´s modified analysis. This method has been improved and optimalized for risks related with illegal acts. Each power grid component has been connected with possible kind of attack and every of this device was gradually evaluated by five coefficients which takes values from 1 to 10. On the coefficient basis was assessed the level of risk. In the last phase the most risky power grid components have been selected. On the selected devices have been proposed security measures.

  12. Reference MWA EoR Power Spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Bryna; Pober, Jonathan; Beardsley, Adam; Morales, Miguel F.; Sullivan, Ian S.; MWA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the Epoch of Reionization using redshifted 21cm HI emission promise to provide sensitive new cosmological constraints in the next few years. The current generation of HI EoR telescopes are targeting a statistical detection of the EoR in the power spectrum of the 21cm emission. The principal challenge lies in extracting the faint cosmological signal in the face of bright foregrounds and instrumental systematics that threaten to overwhelm it.We present the UW EoR power spectrum code, the reference code for the MWA and the first power spectrum analysis to analytically propagate the error bars through the full data analysis pipeline. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the power spectrum as a diagnostic tool for identifying subtle systematics and show power spectra of the first season of MWA observations.

  13. Energy loss analysis of an integrated space power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. David; Ribeiro, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies related to conceptual topologies of an integrated utility-like space power system are described. The system topologies are comparatively analyzed by considering their transmission energy losses as functions of mainly distribution voltage level and load composition. The analysis is expedited by use of a Distribution System Analysis and Simulation (DSAS) software. This recently developed computer program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) uses improved load models to solve the power flow within the system. However, present shortcomings of the software with regard to space applications, and incompletely defined characteristics of a space power system make the results applicable to only the fundamental trends of energy losses of the topologies studied. Accountability, such as included, for the effects of the various parameters on the system performance can constitute part of a planning tool for a space power distribution system.

  14. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  15. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyukhin, Sergei A.; Mikheev, Nikolai B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkovskii, Leo N.; Reshetov, Leo A.; Zvetkova, Marianna Ya. [All-Russian Research Institute of Atomic Machine-Building, Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Yagodkin, Ivan V.; Osipov, Viktor P.; Skvortsov, Sergei S. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Berkovich, Viktor M.; Taranov, Gennadii S.; Grigor' ev, Mikhail M. [Institute ' Atomenergoproekt' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Meshkov, Vladimir M.; Noskov, Andrei A.; Mitrofanov, Mikhail I. [ROSENERGOATOM Concern, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  16. Radioisotope Power System Facility shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of calculations for the Radioisotope Power System Facility have been performed. These analyses have determined the shielding required for storage, testing, and transport of 238Pu heat source modules using the Monte Carlo code MCNP3B. The source terms and the assumptions used have been verified by comparison of calculated dose rates with measured ones. This paper describes the methodology used for shielding designs and the utilization of available variance reduction techniques to improve the computational efficiency. The new version of MCNP (MCNP3B) with a repeated structure capability was used. It decreased the chance for computer model errors and greatly decreased the model setup time. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Comparison of wind turbines based on power curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    In the study measured power curves for 46 wind turbines were analyzed with the purpose to establish the basis for a consistent comparison of the efficiency of the wind turbines. Emphasis is on wind turbines above 500 kW rated power, with power curves measured after 1994 according to international recommendations. The available power curves fulfilling these requirements were smoothened according to a procedure developed for the purpose in such a way that the smoothened power curves are equally representative as the measured curves. The resulting smoothened power curves are presented in a standardized format for the subsequent processing. Using wind turbine data from the power curve documentation the analysis results in curves for specific energy production (kWh/M{sup 2}/yr) versus specific rotor load (kW/M{sup 2}) for a range of mean wind speeds. On this basis generalized curves for specific annual energy production versus specific rotor load are established for a number of generalized wind turbine concepts. The 46 smoothened standardized power curves presented in the report, the procedure developed to establish them, and the results of the analysis based on them aim at providers of measured power curves as well as users of them including manufacturers, advisors and decision makers. (au)

  18. Dynamic energy analysis and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial inquiry (intended for the layman) into how the net energy balance of exponential programmes of energy conversion facilities varies in time; what are the energy inputs and outputs of commercial nuclear reactors, both singly and in such programmes; what are the possible errors and omissions in this analysis; and what are the policy and research implications of the results. (author)

  19. Power system stability modelling, analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, Abdelhay A

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject from both a physical and mathematical perspective and covers a range of topics including modelling, computation of load flow in the transmission grid, stability analysis under both steady-state and disturbed conditions, and appropriate controls to enhance stability.

  20. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  1. On increasing the level of engineering and economical substatiation for wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic arguments for developing wind power plants contained in the article by L.G.Ovis published in the journal Ehnergeticheskoe Mashinostroenie, N6, 1992 are analyzed. Incorrectness of the author's conclusion on advisability of using wind power plants in The Khabarovsk Region is proved. The conclusion on the necessity of fundamental technical-economical studies for substantiation of the wind power plant applicability in each individual case is made

  2. A new framework to increase the efficiency of large-scale solar power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Kleissl, Jan P.

    2015-11-01

    A new framework to estimate the spatio-temporal behavior of solar power is introduced, which predicts the statistical behavior of power output at utility scale Photo-Voltaic (PV) power plants. The framework is based on spatio-temporal Gaussian Processes Regression (Kriging) models, which incorporates satellite data with the UCSD version of the Weather and Research Forecasting model. This framework is designed to improve the efficiency of the large-scale solar power plants. The results are also validated from measurements of the local pyranometer sensors, and some improvements in different scenarios are observed. Solar energy.

  3. Analysis of power curves of Danish and foreign wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an analysis of power curves for a number of wind turbines, 30 Danish and 17 foreign - European - wind turbines. The investigation is limited to wind turbines of 150 kW capacity and greater, and to wind turbines for which a power curve is available. The power curves are transformed into a common, uniform presentation in order to facilitate the succeeding treatment, which primarily is the calculation of the production of electrical energy yielded per year. From the known data of the wind turbine, equipped generator power and rotor area and the area swept by the blades, the specific electrical production is calculated in three terms: yield per square meter of rotor area, yield per kW generator power and yield per square meter and per kilowatt generator power. Based on these findings a number of comparisons are established, such as comparisons of conceptual designs and technical- economical evaluations. (au)

  4. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  5. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  6. Accident analysis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way the philosophy of Safety in Depth can be verified through the analysis of simulated accidents is shown. This can be achieved by verifying that the integrity of the protection barriers against the release of radioactivity to the environment is preserved even during accident conditions. The simulation of LOCA is focalized as an example, including a study about the associated environmental radiological consequences. (Author)

  7. Engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of Hamaoka nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement works of the ground of outdoor piping and duct system of Hamaoka-3, one of engineering works for increasing earthquake resistance of the plant, are reported. The movable outdoor piping systems were moved. SJ method, one of the high-pressure jet mixing method, improved the ground between the duct and the unmoved light oil tank on the western side, and the environmental ground. The other places were improved by the concrete replacement works. The results of ground treated by SJ method showed the high quality of stiffness and continuity. Outline of engineering works, execution of concrete replacement works, the high-pressure jet mixing method, SJ method, the quality control and treatment of the generated mud by SJ method are reported. A seismic response analysis, execution facilities, construction planning, working diagram, improvement work conditions of three methods, and steps of SJ method are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. The Analysis of Nuclear Power Development due to Own Investment Potentials of Power-Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of reactors and their fuel cycles will play major role at different periods of time during development of nuclear energy. Three stages of nuclear energy development could be considered. Each stage differs from other ones by investment needs and by types of basic reactor installation. The first stage of nuclear energy development is the 'young' nuclear energy that is characterized by growth of nuclear power plant installed capacity (time is less than nuclear power plant life time). Thermal reactors are considered to be basic ones to grow nuclear power plant installed capacity. These reactors operate in open fuel cycle. The second stage of nuclear energy development is a steady development of nuclear energy that is characterized by simultaneous replacement and growth of nuclear power plant installed capacity (time is greater than nuclear power plant life time). Both thermal and fast reactors are considered to be basic ones. These reactors operate in open and closed fuel cycles. The third stage of development is stationary level of nuclear power plant installed capacity with replacement of withdrawn nuclear power plants (time is much greater than nuclear power plant life time). Both fast and thermal reactors are considered to be basic ones. And these reactors operate in closed fuel cycle. At the all stage of nuclear energy development nuclear power plants should be competitive with thermal power plants in the market conditions for electricity and investments. On the other hand after TMI and Chernobyl reactor accidents safety requirements became tougher. Conflict of safety and economics requirements for nuclear power plants with conventional (LWR, FR) reactor installations is solved by increase of nuclear power plant power level. That increases in turn capital costs and construction period, requires presence of large scale grids and transportation of large-size equipment. It results in necessity to develop innovative reactor installations that has

  9. Burnup analysis of the power reactor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several years of endeavors has been devoted to development of three-dimensional nuclear-thermal-hydro-dynamic simulators and research by basing the progress on the merits and demerits of the variational method, the functional approximation method, etc. As the result, the three-dimensional nuclear-thermal-hydro-dynamic code FLORA has been prepared. It has the following features. (1) The executive time is one third -- half as much as that by the convensional programs. (2) Numerical error is small when neutron spectrum mismatches. (3) In the fuels in which the distributions of Gd2O3 and enrichments are localized axially in the reactor core, three-dimensional nuclear-thermal-hydro-dynamic calculations are possible. (4) The transport kernel can be obtained by the coarse mesh method and the functional approximation method. (5) Albedo can be calculated by the two-group diffusion theory. (6) Power distribution can be obtained in the case of partial control rods inserted in the core. The course taken to the preparation, the theoretical background and example calculations with FLORA are described. The present report can be also used as a manual. (auth.)

  10. Increasing of Manoeuvrability of Cogeneration Combined Cycle Power Plants Owing to the Usage of Electric Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kachan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of efficiency evaluation  of using the electric boilers to improve maneuver capabilities of the cogeneration combined cycle power plants (as an example, 230 MW combined cycle unit of Minsk CHP-3 in comparison with the traditional steam-turbine units of cogeneration power plants.

  11. Increasing of Manoeuvrability of Cogeneration Combined Cycle Power Plants Owing to the Usage of Electric Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kachan; I. Baranovski

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains the results of efficiency evaluation  of using the electric boilers to improve maneuver capabilities of the cogeneration combined cycle power plants (as an example, 230 MW combined cycle unit of Minsk CHP-3) in comparison with the traditional steam-turbine units of cogeneration power plants.

  12. Power Grid Data Analysis with R and Hadoop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Gibson, Tara D.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2014-01-01

    This book chapter presents an approach to analysis of large-scale time-series sensor information based on our experience with power grid data. We use the R-Hadoop Integrated Programming Environment (RHIPE) to analyze a 2TB data set and present code and results for this analysis.

  13. Analysis of Trinity Power Metrics for Automated Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalenko, Ashley Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation from Los Alamos National Laboraotyr (LANL) about the analysis of trinity power metrics for automated monitoring. The following topics are covered: current monitoring efforts, motivation for analysis, tools used, the methodology, work performed during the summer, and future work planned.

  14. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method

  15. Operation analysis of distribution feeders with wind power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.T.; Chen, C.S.; Lee, Y.D. [National Sun Yat-sen Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Hsu, C.T. [Southern Taiwan Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The government of Taiwan aims to increase the percent of renewable power generation to 10 per cent of total generation capacity, or 5139 MW, by 2010. This study explored the impact of wind power generation to the distribution systems. In particular, a practical distribution feeder from the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was used for a computer simulation of a wind powered micro-grid system. For the normal operation of the test feeder, the system voltage variation was derived by considering the daily load profile of test feeder with wind power generation. For the permanent fault in the distribution system, the load shedding scheme was developed for the islanding micro-grid so that stable operation could be restored with the proper pitch angle control for the wind power generator. The seasonal wind power generated by wind turbines was calculated by applying the exponential rate and Weibull possibility distribution model according to the actual minutely wind speed data from the Hengchun area in Taiwan. The mean value and standard deviation of seasonal wind power output were determined for the design of the load shedding scheme when the distribution feeder had been isolated for the islanding operation. For a permanent fault at the outlet of the test feeder, the islanding operation of the isolated power system was formulated after the feeder circuit breaker was tripped. Following 3 stages of load shedding and pitch angle control, the micro-grid stabilized to maintain the power service at critical loads in the distribution feeder. 7 refs., 17 figs.

  16. WWER-440 reactor thermal power increase. Up-to-date approaches to substantiation of the core heat-engineering reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the Units power is an urgent problem for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. Improving the fuel assembly designs and calculated codes creates all prerequisites to fulfil this purpose. The decrease in the core power peaking is reached by using the profiled fuel assemblies, burnable absorber integrated into the fuel, the FA with the modernized interface attachment, modern calculated codes that allows to reduce conservatism of the RP safety substantiation. A wide spectrum of experimental study of behaviour of the fuel having reached burn-up (50-60) MW days / kg U under the transients and accident conditions was carried out, the post-irradiated examination of the fuel assemblies, fuel rods and fuel pellets with four and five annual operating fuel cycle were performed as well and confirmed the high reliability of the fuel, the presence of large margins of the fuel stack state that contributes to reactor operation at the increased power. The results of the carried out experiments on implementing the five and six annual fuel cycles show that the limiting fuel state as to its serviceability in the WWER-440 reactors is far from being reached. Presently there is an experience of the increased power operation of Kola NPP, Units 1, 2, 4 and Rovno NPP, Unit 2. The Loviisa NPP Units are operated at 109 % power. The Russian experts had gained an experience in substantiating the core operation at 108 % power for Paks NPP, Unit 4. In this paper the additional conditions for increasing the power of the Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2 and the main results of substantiation of increase in power of the Paks NPP, Unit 4 up to 1485 MW are presented in details

  17. Life cycle cost analysis of wind power considering stochastic uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a long-term cost analysis of wind power and compares its competitiveness to non-renewable generating technologies. The analysis considers several important attributes related to wind intermittency that are sometimes ignored in traditional generation planning or LCOE (levelized cost of energy) studies, including the need for more nameplate capacity due to intermittency, hourly fluctuations in wind outputs and cost for reserves. The competitiveness of wind power is assessed by evaluating four scenarios: 1) adding natural gas generating capacity to the power grid; 2) adding coal generating capacity to the power grid; 3) adding wind capacity to the power grid; and, 4) adding wind capacity and energy storage to the power grid where an energy storage device is used to cover wind intermittency. A case study in the state of Michigan is presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed methodology, in which a time horizon from 2010 to 2040 is considered. The results show that wind energy will still be more expensive than natural gas power plants in the next three decades, but will be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. Furthermore, if the costs of carbon emissions and environmental externalities are considered, wind generation will be a competitive option for grid capacity expansion. - Highlights: • The competitiveness of wind power is analyzed via life cycle cost analysis. • Wind intermittency and reserve costs are explicitly considered in the analysis. • Results show that wind is still more expensive than natural gas power plants. • Wind can be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. • Wind will be competitive if costs of carbon emissions are considered

  18. A homogeneous group of persons with multiple sclerosis seem to use different net joint power strategies to increase gait speed - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John

    2014-01-01

    PwMS with an EDSS score median at 2.5 (Inter quartile range=1) participated. The gait patterns were analysed using 3D motion analysis at self-selected and maximum gait speed. The net joint power peaks were measured for H1-S, H2-S, H3-S, H1-F, H2-F, H3-F, K1-S, K2-S, K3-S, A1-S and A2-S in the...... affected and least affected limb, and both intra- and inter-limb comparisons and associations were made, using non-parametric statistics. Results: Except from the eccentric work by A1-S in both limbs, net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in affected...... of PwMS seems to improve gait speed using different net joint power strategies. Even so, trends indicated that hip abductor power increased in the affected limb, net joint power in sagittal plan increased bilaterally, and intra-limb net joint power synergies between plantar flexors (A2-S), hip...

  19. Exergoeconomic analysis of a solar-powered/fuel assisted Rankine cycle for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Rankine System assisted for solar radiation and fuel combustion which produces 57 kW electrical power are evaluated from exergoeconomic point of view. The Parabolic trough collector efficiency has been performed to investigate its effect as heat source. The exergoeconomic parameters as the relative cost difference and the exergoeconomic factor for each component are evaluated. The analysis is based on the SPECO (Specific Exergy Costing) approach. The simulation of system on March, June, September and December 21st from 7 am to 4 pm for Natal/Brazil using real data was carried out. The results reveal the daily average values of collector efficiencies, ratio of the useful solar energy, electricity produced, the specific cost per exergy unit of the produced electricity and others heat rates. The system is advantageous for higher solar radiation. The outcome of the analysis can be useful in design, optimization of operating parameters and help to take decision of investment. - Highlights: • As the solar irradiation decreases, the electricity cost per exergy unit increases. • The cost rate is high at collector field due to higher purchase cost. • The system is advantageous when the solar radiation is high. • Further aspect as environmental impact is important

  20. Safety analysis of nuclear power plants during low power and shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Safety analysis of Nuclear Power Plants during Low Power and Shutdown Conditions held in Vienna, Austria, 1-5 December 1997, was organized by IAEA within the framework of the Technical Co-operation project RER/9/046. The 23 participants from 14 Member States presented 18 technical papers devoted to various aspects of low power and shutdown conditions (LPS): safety assessment studies; description of particular phenomena; calculational analysis of individual events; contents of safety reports; hardware modifications; experience from plant operation, etc. A number of events at nuclear power plants, as well as from probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies for different types of NPPs (PWRs, WWERs, RBMK, CANDU) indicated that events occurring during shutdown modes may contribute significantly to the overall risk associated to NPP operation. It is recognized that a great deal of work over the past years in the worldwide nuclear power community was focused upon reducing the risk associated with LPS operation by analysing specific phenomena occurring during LPS conditions, improving analysis methodology, implementing additional administrative measures and hardware modifications, and starting incorporation of the LPS conditions in the safety analysis report. Detailed recommendations were adopted in the field of probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic analysis methodology as well as NPP operation

  1. Applications of wavelet transforms for nuclear power plant signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) may be enhanced by the timely processing of information derived from multiple process signals from NPPs. The most widely used technique in signal analysis applications is the Fourier transform in the frequency domain to generate power spectral densities (PSD). However, the Fourier transform is global in nature and will obscure any non-stationary signal feature. Lately, a powerful technique called the Wavelet Transform, has been developed. This transform uses certain basis functions for representing the data in an effective manner, with capability for sub-band analysis and providing time-frequency localization as needed. This paper presents a brief overview of wavelets applied to the nuclear industry for signal processing and plant monitoring. The basic theory of Wavelets is also summarized. In order to illustrate the application of wavelet transforms data were acquired from the operating nuclear power plant Borssele in the Netherlands. The experimental data consist of various signals in the power plant and are selected from a stationary power operation. Their frequency characteristics and the mutual relations were investigated using MATLAB signal processing and wavelet toolbox for computing their PSDs and coherence functions by multi-resolution analysis. The results indicate that the sub-band PSD matches with the original signal PSD and enhances the estimation of coherence functions. The Wavelet analysis demonstrates the feasibility of application to stationary signals to provide better estimates in the frequency band of interest as compared to the classical FFT approach. (author)

  2. Recent Research Progress in Fault Analysis of Complex Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we adopt a novel approach to the fault analysis of complex electric power systems. Electric power system is one of the most complex artificial systems in the world. Its safe, steady, economical and reliable operating plays a very important part in guaranteeing socioeconomic development, and even in safeguarding social stability. The complexity of electric power system is determined by its characteristics about constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc. No matter if, we adopt new analytical methods or technical means, we must have a distinct recognition of electric power system itself and its complexity, and increase analysis continuously, operation and control level. In this paper, utilizing real-time measurements of phasor measurement unit, based on graph theory and multivariate statistical analysis theory, we are using mainly Breadth-first search, Depth-first search and cluster analysis. Then, we seek for the uniform laws of marked changes of electrical quantities. Then we can carry out fast and exact analysis of fault component. Finally, we can accomplish fault isolation. According to line fault and bus-bar fault (single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault and three-phase fault in complex electric power systems, we have carried out a great deal of simulation experiments and obtained ideal results. These researches have proven that the faults in complex electric power systems can be explored successfully by analysis and calculation based on graph theory and multivariate statistical analysis theory.

  3. Response Time Analysis in Cognitive Tasks with Increasing Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, Yury S.; Dodonova, Yulia A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, speeded tasks with differing assumed difficulties of the trials are regarded as a special class of simple cognitive tasks. Exploratory latent growth modeling with data-driven shape of a growth curve and nonlinear structured latent curve modeling with predetermined monotonically increasing functions were used to analyze…

  4. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guixian Dong; Ning Zhang; Zhanpo Wu; Yumin Liu; Litao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs...

  5. The monotonic increasing relationship between average powers of CMOS VLSI circuits with and without delay and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆祖莹; 闵应骅; 杨士元; 李晓维

    2002-01-01

    The authors theoretically describe the monotonic increasing relationship between averagepowers of a CMOS VLSI circuit with and without delay. The power of an ideal circuit without delay, whichcan be fast computed, has been used as the evaluation criterion for the power of a practical circuit withdelay, which needs more computing time, in such fields as fast estimation for the average power and themaximum power, and fast optimization for the Iow test power. The authors propose a novel simulationapproach that uses delay-free power to compact a long input vector pair sequence into a short sequenceand then, uses the compacted one to fast simulate the average (or maximum) power for a CMOS circuit. Incomparison with the traditional simulation approach that uses an un-compacted input sequence to simu-late the average (or maximum) power, experiment results demonstrate that in the field of fast estimationfor the average power, the present approach can be 6-10 times faster without significant loss in accuracy(less than 3.5% on average), and in the field of fast estimation for the maximum power, this approach canbe 6-8 times faster without significant loss in accuracy (less than 5% on average). In the field of fast op-timization for the test power, the authors propose a novel delay-free power optimization approach for thetest power. Experiment results demonstrate that, in comparison with the approach of direct optimizationand the approach of Hamming distance optimization, this approach is of the highest optimization effi-ciency because it needs shorter time (16.84%) to obtain a better optimization effect (reducing 35.11% testpower).

  6. Probabilistic safety analysis of DC power supply requirements for nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic safety assessment was performed as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission generic safety task A-30, Adequacy of Safety Related DC Power Supplies. Event and fault tree analysis techniques were used to determine the relative contribution of DC power related accident sequences to the total core damage probability due to shutdown cooling failures. It was found that a potentially large DC power contribution could be substantially reduced by augmenting the minimum design and operational requirements. Recommendations included (1) requiring DC power divisional independence, (2) improved test, maintenance, and surveillance, and (3) requiring core cooling capability be maintained following the loss of one DC power bus and a single failure in another system

  7. Analysis of VSC based FACTS stabilizers in damping power system oscillations : multi-machine power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, W. [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)]|[Bath Univ., Bath (United Kingdom); Wang, H.F. [Queen' s Univ. of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Dunn, R. [Bath Univ., Bath (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The Voltage Source Converter (VSC) for Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices can be equipped with a supplementary damping function to improve power system oscillation stability. This paper presented a general analytical method to study this type of VSC based FACTS stabilizers in damping power system oscillations. These converters include electronic devices such as the Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), the Series Static Synchronous Compensator, (SSSC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). A proposed analysis was provided for the simple case of single-machine infinite-bus power systems. This paper also presented the extension of the proposed method to the more general case of multi-machine power systems. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Nitrogen-Based Fuels: A Power-to-Fuel-to-Power Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg Dana, Alon; Elishav, Oren; Bardow, André; Shter, Gennady E; Grader, Gideon S

    2016-07-25

    What are the fuels of the future? Seven representative carbon- and nitrogen-based fuels are evaluated on an energy basis in a power-to-fuel-to-power analysis as possible future chemical hydrogen-storage media. It is intriguing to consider that a nitrogen economy, where hydrogen obtained from water splitting is chemically stored on abundant nitrogen in the form of a nontoxic and safe nitrogen-based alternative fuel, is energetically feasible. PMID:27286557

  9. Power System Blackouts: Analysis and Simulation of August 9, 2004 Blackout in Jordan Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah I. Al-Odienat

    2006-01-01

    Large blackouts are usually caused by a complicated sequence of cascading failures. Initial failures weaken the system and cause further failures, which further weaken the system and so on. This study investigates the blackout that occurred on 9th August in the Jordanian Power System. For modeling the blackout, a base case was established by creating a power flow simulation for the system with both of Egypt And Syria links. The analysis shows that the blackout has occurred as a result of full...

  10. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heberle; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a combined heat and power generation (CHP) case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency...

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Tiwari,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC can replace the heat recovery steam generator and the steam turbine of the conventionalcombined cycle plant. The exhaust energy of the topping gas turbine of existing combine cycle is sent to gas-air heat exchange, which heats the air in the secondary gas turbine cycle. In 1980’s the ABC was proposed as an alternative for the conventional steam bottoming cycle. In spite of the cost of reducing hardware installations it could achieve a thermal efficiency of 80%. The complete thermodynamic analysis of the system has been performed by using specially designed programme, enabling the variation of main independent variables. The result shows the gain in net work output as well as efficiency of combined cycle is 35% to 68%.

  12. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features

  13. Nordic Power market integration : a market based approach to the price effects of increased Nordic continental power trade in the Nordic market

    OpenAIRE

    Boge, Mathias Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Based on historical market data for 2011 this thesis models estimated effects that increased Nordic-Continental power trade potential would have had on trade and on Nordic prices during this year. The model used differs from most other models used to estimate trade effects as it focuses on realized market data contrasted to the more commonly used fundamental bottom up model of the power market. The approach used in this work suggests that one extra interconnector combined with ...

  14. Thermo-economic analysis of a trigeneration HCPVT power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selviaridis, Angelos; Burg, Brian R.; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Maréchal, François; Michel, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The increasing need for electricity and heat in a growing global economy must be combined with CO2 emissions reduction, in order to limit the human influence on the environment. This calls for energy-efficient and cost-competitive renewable energy systems that are able to satisfy both pressing needs. A High-Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal (HCPVT) system is a cogeneration concept that shows promising potential in delivering electricity and heat in an efficient and cost-competitive manner. This study investigates the transient behavior of the HCPVT system and presents a thermo-economic analysis of a MW-scale trigeneration (electricity, heating and cooling) power plant. Transient simulations show a fast dynamic response of the system which results in short heat-up intervals, maximizing heat recuperation throughout the day. Despite suboptimal coupling between demand and supply, partial heat utilization throughout the year and low COP of commercially available devices for the conversion of heat into cooling, the thermo-economic analysis shows promising economic behavior, with a levelized cost of electricity close to current retail prices.

  15. Error analysis of nuclear power plant operator cognitive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant is a complex human-machine system integrated with many advanced machines, electron devices and automatic controls. It demands operators to have high cognitive ability and correct analysis skill. The author divides operator's cognitive process into five stages to analysis. With this cognitive model, operator's cognitive error is analysed to get the root causes and stages that error happens. The results of the analysis serve as a basis in design of control rooms and training and evaluation of operators

  16. Pricing for scarcity? An efficiency analysis of increasing block tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2011-06-01

    Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics, IBT cannot usually be recommended. In this paper, we consider whether the explicit inclusion of scarcity considerations can strengthen the appeal of IBT. Results show that when both demand and costs react to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a response to a combination of water scarcity and customer heterogeneity. We derive testable conditions and then illustrate their application through an estimation of Portuguese residential water demand. We show that the recommended tariff schedule hinges crucially on the choice of functional form for demand.

  17. Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh)-1 under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

  18. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  19. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  20. The Murchison Widefield Array 21 cm Power Spectrum Analysis Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Daniel C; Trott, C M; Dillon, Joshua S; Pindor, B; Sullivan, I S; Pober, J C; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Bernardi, G; Bowman, Judd D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Carroll, P; Corey, B E; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Emrich, D; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hewitt, J N; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kim, H S; Kratzenberg, E; Lenc, E; Line, J; Loeb, A; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Neben, A R; Thyagarajan, N; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Paul, S; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tegmark, M; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Wyithe, J S B

    2016-01-01

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple, independent, data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregr...

  1. Seismic Analysis of Nuclear Power Equipment Related to Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the finite element method to analyze the seismic design of a liquid storage tank for a polar crane at a nuclear power plant. We obtained the natural frequency and vibration modes by modal analysis, and we evaluated the seismic stability by response spectrum analysis. Furthermore, the seismic analysis of the tank was accomplished by analyzing not only the forces applied to the wall by the sloshing of the liquid, but also the safe-shutdown earthquake condition for the tank. We propose a seismic-design process and a seismic-analysis method for liquid storage tanks based on the commercial finite element analysis program, ANSYS

  2. Analysis and optimisation of virtual DataPower appliances

    OpenAIRE

    JANŠA, JURE

    2014-01-01

    Thesis describes the market of IBM DataPower appliances and their corresponding functionalities. We explain the benefits of these devices in the SOA (Services Oriented Architecture) environments. Case study of testing environment configuration is demonstrated on the physical XI50 and XI52 models and various configurations of virtual DataPower appliance. The analysis of the data obtained with these configurations is performed. At the end we provide the principles and guidelines for the proper ...

  3. Electrical Power Distribution and Control Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Johnny S.; Liffring, Mark; Mehdi, Ishaque S.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD&C) Modeling and how modeling can support analysis. The presentation discusses using the EASY5 model to simulate and analyze the Space Shuttle Electric Auxiliary Power Unit. Diagrams of the model schematics are included, as well as graphs of the battery cell impedance, hydraulic load dynamics, and EPD&C response to hydraulic load variations.

  4. Analysis of information and power transfer in wireless communications

    OpenAIRE

    Caspers, Erick; Ho Yeung, Sai; Sarkar, Tapan K; Garcia-Lamperez, Alejandro; Salazr, Magdalena; Lagunas Hernandez, Miguel A.; PÉREZ NEIRA, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of wireless information compared to power transfer over the same channel, consisting of a transmitting and receiving antenna system, is discussed. This frequency-selective additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel displays a fundamental tradeoff between the rate at which energy and the rate at which reliable information can be transmitted over the same channel, as in an RFID system, a power-line communication system, or for an energy-harvesting system. The optimal tradeoffs between po...

  5. An algebraic metric for parametric stability analysis of power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Lewis; Champneys, Alan; De'Bell, Keith; di Bernardo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    An analytic approximation for the critical clearing time (CCT) metric is derived from direct methods for power system stability. The formula has been designed to incorporate as many features of transient stability analysis as possible such as different fault locations and different post-fault network states. The purpose of this metric is to analyse trends in stability (in terms of CCT) of power systems under the variation of a system parameter. We demonstrate the performance of this metric to...

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of CO2 capture processes for power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Biyouki, Zeinab Amrollahi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work presents an evaluation of various processes for reducing CO2 emissions from natural-gas-fired combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. The scope of the thesis is to focus mainly on post-combustion chemical absorption for NGCC. For the post-combustion capture plant, an important interface is the steam extraction from the steam turbine in order to supply the heat for solvent regeneration. The steam extraction imposes a power production penalty. The thesis includes analysis and compa...

  7. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Shahatha Salim, Jassim Mohammed Najim, Salih Mohammed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation an...

  8. Design and analysis of an active power factor correction circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhen

    1989-01-01

    The design of an active-unity power factor correction circuit with variable-hysteresis control for off-line dc-to-dc switching power supplies is described. Design equations relating the boost inductor current ripple to the circuit components selection and circuit performance arc discussed. A computer-aided design program (CADO) is developed to give the optimal circuit components selection. A 500 watt, 300 volt experimental circuit is built to verify the simulation and analysis ...

  9. Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide harmonized guidance to designers, operators, regulators and providers of technical support on deterministic safety analysis for nuclear power plants. It provides information on the utilization of the results of such analysis for safety and reliability improvements. The Safety Guide addresses conservative, best estimate and uncertainty evaluation approaches to deterministic safety analysis and is applicable to current and future designs. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Grouping of initiating events and associated transients relating to plant states; 3. Deterministic safety analysis and acceptance criteria; 4. Conservative deterministic safety analysis; 5. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis; 6. Verification and validation of computer codes; 7. Relation of deterministic safety analysis to engineering aspects of safety and probabilistic safety analysis; 8. Application of deterministic safety analysis; 9. Source term evaluation for operational states and accident conditions; References.

  10. Environmental performance and energy analysis of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trough this study we try to develop a useful analysis of the energy produced by nuclear power systems from environmental and energy point of view using the Life Cycle Assessment method. Life Cycle Assessment of Nuclear Power Production must include processes like extraction, fuel production, construction of waste facilities as well as operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and waste facilities. Databases regarding nuclear power systems are not so easy to find and compare because of the variety of the nuclear power producing systems and procedures. Flows of consumables and by-products in each phase of the nuclear fuel cycle are analyzed to various degrees 'from cradle to grave'. Resource use, emissions and waste are distributed over a plausible technical life of modern nuclear power plant. Impact evaluation was made on the following impact parameters: resource use, waste, land use, noise, and the environmental impact of emissions (greenhouse gases, ozone depletion, acidification, ground level ozone, and eutrophication). We present also an energy analysis that includes a life cycle energy requirement for nuclear power plant processes and an energy comparison between several types of energy production. The results obtained are presented in tables and diagrams. From energetic point of view it is a useful way of comparing net energy yields from different ways of electricity generation. Thus, the answer to the question what system produces the best return on energy invested and generates the minimum impact can be easier obtained. (authors)

  11. Methods and tools for analysis and optimization of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen

    2000-09-01

    The most noticeable advantage of the introduction of the computer-aided tools in the field of power generation, has been the ability to study the plant's performance prior to the construction phase. The results of these studies have made it possible to change and adjust the plant layout to match the pre-defined requirements. Further development of computers in recent years has opened up for implementation of new features in the existing tools and also for the development of new tools for specific applications, like thermodynamic and economic optimization, prediction of the remaining component life time, and fault diagnostics, resulting in improvement of the plant's performance, availability and reliability. The most common tools for pre-design studies are heat and mass balance programs. Further thermodynamic and economic optimization of plant layouts, generated by the heat and mass balance programs, can be accomplished by using pinch programs, exergy analysis and thermoeconomics. Surveillance and fault diagnostics of existing systems can be performed by using tools like condition monitoring systems and artificial neural networks. The increased number of tools and their various construction and application areas make the choice of the most adequate tool for a certain application difficult. In this thesis the development of different categories of tools and techniques, and their application area are reviewed and presented. Case studies on both existing and theoretical power plant layouts have been performed using different commercially available tools to illuminate their advantages and shortcomings. The development of power plant technology and the requirements for new tools and measurement systems have been briefly reviewed. This thesis contains also programming techniques and calculation methods concerning part-load calculations using local linearization, which has been implemented in an inhouse heat and mass balance program developed by the author

  12. Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.

  13. Mixed-signal power system emulator extension to solve unbalanced fault transient stability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Guillaume; Kyriakidis, Theodoras; Cherkaoui, Rachid; Kayal, Maher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a platform originally devoted to symmetrical transient stability analysis, into the domain of unbalanced faults. The aim of this solver is to increase the speed of dynamic stability assessment for power systems. It is based on an analog representation of the grid alongside dedicated digital resources for the simulation of the models of power network components. Using the symmetrical components theory, this platform can be adapted to handle unsymmetrical di...

  14. Analysis of thermoelectric cooler performance for high power electronic packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an analysis of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) performance is conducted for high power electronic packages such as processors. Based on the TEC module parameters, two sets of analytical solutions for TECs in system constraints are derived for the junction temperature Tj at a fixed cooling power Qc, and for Qc at a fixed Tj, respectively. As against the iterative procedure often reported in literature, the major advantage of the present analytical method lies in the fact that the solutions can be obtained without resorting to the pellet thermoelectric parameters and geometric details. Two cooling scenarios, the processor test and the processor cooling under end-user conditions, are analyzed based on the present analysis models for two commercial TECs with high cooling power capacities nominal. Analytical results show that significant thermal enhancements are achievable based on optimized currents and cooling configurations. The validation of the present analysis is also conducted through experimental measurements and comparison with previous solutions.

  15. Thermomechanics analysis and optimization for high power density blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermomechanics analysis, i.e. steady thermal analysis and steady thermal stress analysis have been carried out for a high power density blanket. The Fusion Experimental Breeder (FEB) is adopted as the reference reactor. The parts for the blanket module in Pro/ENGINEER were created, then turn to Pro/MECHANICA functionality for thermomechanics analysis. During analysis, the distribution of the power density in the blanket was optimized to be more flat, the arched curvature and rounds of the cooling tube panels were optimized to less stiffness, and the boundary condition at the interface of helium cooling tube panel and manifold chamber was optimized, which is reasonable by using advanced welding processes with electron beam or laser beam in a single pass. To the end, a maximum temperature Tm 350 degree C and a maximum shear stress τm 80 MPa for the helium cooling panels have been shown in the calculations. (authors)

  16. Neutronic calculations regarding the new LEU 6 x 6 fuel bundle for 14 MW TRIGA - SSR, in order to increase the reactor power up to 21 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorgulis, C.; Ciocanescu, M.; Preda, M.; Mladin, M. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    1998-07-01

    In order to meet the increasing demands of terminal flux for the experimental devices which will be loaded with CANDU natural uranium pins (or clusters), is necessary to rise the reactor power up to 21 MW. In this respect we consider in our evaluations a new 6x6 TRIGA fuel bundle geometry (the actual fuel bundle contains 5x5 pins). This paper will contain a comparative analysis regarding: flux and power distribution across the 29 fuel bundles standard core, and managements patters, in order to maximize the discharge fuel burnup and core lifetime. (author)

  17. Estimation of the rate of increase in nitrogen dioxide concentrations from power plant stacks using an imaging-DOAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Young J; Lee, Chulkyu

    2009-05-01

    The emission of nitrogen compounds from power plants accounts for a significant proportion of the total emissions of nitrogen to the atmosphere. This study seeks to understand the nature of chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving nitrogen, which is important in undertaking quantitative assessments of the contribution of such reactions to local and regional air pollution. The slant column density (SCD) of power-plant-generated NO(2) was derived using imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (I-DOAS) with scattered sunlight as a light source. The vertical structure of NO(2) SCD from power plant stacks was simultaneously probed using a pushbroom sensor. Measured SCDs were converted to mixing ratios in calculating the rate of NO(2) increase at the center of the plume. This study presents quantitative measurements of the rate of NO(2) increase in a rising plume. An understanding of the rate of NO(2) increase is important because SO(2) and NO(x) compete for the same oxidizing radicals, and the amount of NO(x) is related to the rates of SO(2) oxidation and sulfate formation. This study is the first to directly obtain the rate of NO(2) increase in power plant plumes using the I-DOAS technique. NO(2) increase rates of 60 and 70 ppb s(-1) were observed at distances of about 45 m from the two stacks of the Pyeongtaek Power Plant, northwest South Korea. PMID:18535919

  18. Design and Analysis of Sequential Elements for Low Power Clocking System with Low Power Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sasidhar Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the design of sequential elements for low power clocking system with low low power techniques for saving the power. Power consumption is a major bottleneck of system performance and is listed as one of the top three challenges in International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor 2008. In practice, a large portion of the on chip power is consumed by the clock system which is made of the clock distribution network and flop-flops. In this paper, various design techniques for a low power clocking system are surveyed. Among them is an effective way to reduce capacity of the clock load by minimizing number of clocked transistors. To approach this, proposed a novel clocked pair shared flip-flop which reduces the number of local clocked transistors by approximately 40%. A 24% reduction of clock driving power is achieved. In addition, low swing and double edge clocking, can be easily incorporated into the new flip-flop to build clocking systems. As the feature size becomes smaller, shorter channel lengths result in increased sub-threshold leakage current through a transistor when it is off. Dual sleep and sleepy stack methods are proposed to avoid static power consumption; the flip flops are simulated using HSPICE.

  19. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  20. Computational component analysis techniques for high temperature power plant applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, James Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in the power industry for high temperature components (such as steam pipe work) to be operated in an increasingly arduous fashion. This would involve the use of elevated steam temperatures/pressures and a greater frequency of start up/shut down cycles. Such generation strategies are being adopted due to the need for thermally efficient power supply that can match fluctuating market demands. If these generation strategies are to be implemented safely it is critical that carefu...

  1. Transient Stability Performance Analysis of Power System Using Facts Devices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Srinivasa Rao; L. Murali Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Transient stability is increasingly important for secure loading. Transient stability evaluation of large scale power systems is an extremely intricate and highly non linear problem. An important function of transient evaluation is to appraise the capability of the power system to with stand serious contingency in time, so that some emergencies or preventive control can be carried out to prevent system breakdown, the fault current so produced is diverted to the capacitor by us...

  2. Mental self-regulation as factor of increasing reliability of power system operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letikhova, L.A.

    Mental self-regulation, based on self-suggestion, allows activation of mental processes to achieve desired behaviors. Mastery of the skills of mental self-regulation can significantly smooth interactions among teams at power plants and improve their working effectiveness. All power-plant workers should be included in a program of self-training to achieve the benefits of mental self regulation. Such programs have been developed at the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Psychology and are successfully used in psychological training of specialists in various professions. Training in mental self-regulation should involve all power plant administrative workers as well as production workers. Drills on mental self-regulation can be included in courses intended to improve the qualifications of administrators and workers. 4 references.

  3. Increased risk of preterm delivery in women residing near thermal power plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2004-09-01

    In this article, the researchers studied the prevalence of preterm births for women living near thermal power plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants was significantly higher among women living within 3 km of a thermal power plant than among women living within 3-4 km of a plant. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and birth site), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.30) for delivery of preterm infants for women living close to the thermal power plants. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy, although a semiecological study cannot confirm a direct causal relationship. PMID:16381490

  4. X-ray power increase from symmetrized wire-array Z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that, for the first time, the measured spatial characteristics and x-ray powers can approach those of two-dimensional, radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations when large numbers of wires are used. Calculations show that the implosion begins to transition from that of individual plasma wires to that of a continuous plasma shell, when the circumferential gap between wires in the array is reduced below 1.4 +1.3/-0.7 mm. This calculated gap coincides with the measured transition of 1.4 ± 0.4 mm between the observed regimes of slow and rapid improvement in power output with decreasing gap. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers in excess of a factor of three over that generated in the plasma-wire region are measured. (author). 5 figs., 16 refs

  5. The analysis of human errors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are basically three different method known to approach human factors in the NPP-operation: - probabilistic error analysis; - analysis of human errors in real plant incidents; - job task analysis. Analysis of human errors occurring during operation and job analysis can be easily converted to operational improvements. From the analysis of human errors and errors' causes and, on the other hand, from the analysis of possible problems, it is possible to came to a derivation of requirements either for modifications of existing working systems or for the design of a new nuclear power plant. Of great importance is to have an established classification system for the error analysis in such a way that requirements can be derived by a set of elements of a matrix. (authors)

  6. Bottoming organic Rankine cycle configurations to increase Internal Combustion Engines power output from cooling water waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on waste heat recovery of jacket cooling water from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Cooling water heat does not always find use due to its low temperature, typically around 90 °C, and usually is rejected to the ambient despite its high thermal power. An efficient way to take benefit from the ICE cooling water waste heat can be to increase the power output through suitable bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Thereby, this work simulates six configurations using ten non flammable working fluids and evaluates their performances in efficiency, safety, cost and environmental terms. Results show that the Double Regenerative ORC using SES36 gets the maximum net efficiency of 7.15%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 5.3%, although requires duplicating the number of main components and high turbine size. A more rigorous analysis, based on the system feasibility, shows that small improvements in the basic cycle provide similar gains compared to the most complex schemes proposed. So, the single Regenerative ORC using R236fa and the Reheat Regenerative ORC using R134a seem suitable cycles which provide a net efficiency of 6.55%, incrementing the ICE electrical efficiency up to 4.9%. -- Highlights: • Suitable bottoming cycles for ICE cooling water waste heat recovery are studied. • Non flammable working fluids and various ORC configurations are evaluated. • Double regenerative cycle using SES36 is the most efficient configuration. • Regenerative and reheat regenerative ORCs seem feasible cycles. • Electrical efficiency of the ICE can be improved up to 5.3%

  7. Implementation of Line Stability Index for Contingency Analysis and Screening in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Estimating the margin in the loadability of the power system is essential in the real time voltage stability assessment. Voltage stability is currently one of the most important research areas in the field of electrical power system. In power system operation unpredictable events is termed as contingency and may be caused by line outage in the system which could lead to entire system instability. Voltage stability analysis and contingency analysis are would be performed in a power system by evaluating the derived voltage stability index. Approach: Voltage Stability Index Lmn can be useful for estimating the distance from the current operating point to voltage collapse point. The index can either reveal the critical bus of a power system or the stability of each line connected between two buses in an interconnected network or evaluate the voltage stability margins of a system. Results: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS devices have been proposed as an effective solution for controlling power flow and regulating bus voltage in electrical power systems, resulting in an increased transfer capability, low system losses and improved stability. However to what extent the performance of FACTS devices can be brought out highly depends upon the location and the parameters of these devices. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is the most promising FACTS device for power flow control. Conclusion/Recommendations: The performance of this index is presented and the effectiveness of the analyzed methods is demonstrated through simulation studies in IEEE 14 bus reliability test systems.

  8. Prolonged Living as a Refugee from the Area Around a Stricken Nuclear Power Plant Increases the Risk of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiichiro

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011) resulted in a large number of disaster-related deaths, it is not common knowledge that the number of disaster-related deaths continues to increase, even four years after the earthquake, in Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear power plant accident occurred. There has been a lack of a minute and critical analysis for the causes for this continuous increase. In this report, the causes for the increase in disaster-related deaths in Fukushima Prefecture were analyzed by aggregating and comparing multiple data released by public organizations (the Reconstruction Agency, the National Police Agency, and Fukushima Prefecture), which may also have implications for developing response strategies to other disasters. The disaster-related death rate, the dead or missing rate, and the refugee rate (the number of disaster-related deaths, dead or missing persons, and refugees per 1,000 people) in each prefecture in stricken areas, and also each city, county, town, and village in Fukushima Prefecture, were calculated and compared with each other. The populations which were used for the calculation of each death rate in the area were based on the number of dead victims who had lived in the area when the earthquake occurred, regardless of where they were at the time of their death. The disaster-related death rate was higher than the dead or missing rate in the area around a stricken nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. These areas coincide exactly with the Areas under Evacuation Orders because of unsafe radiation levels. The external and internal radiation doses of most of the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake have appeared not to be so high to harm their health, until now. The psychological stress associated with being displaced from one's home for a long time with an uncertain future may be the cause for these disaster-related deaths. There is an urgent need to recognize refugees

  9. Increasing the Power of Instruction: Integration of Language, Literacy, and Math Across to Preschool Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickedanz, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    With many learning goals to be met, preschool teachers may wonder how to accomplish all of them. This book is intended to show teachers how to maximize the scope and power of instruction through integration across content domains and learning contexts. Focusing on language, literacy, and mathematics, the author introduces strategies to bolster…

  10. Wind power predictions analysis. Part 2. Economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part, the five daily runs of predictions provided by the wind power prediction method developed by ECN have been compared. It appears that the freshest runs are not always the most accurate: their level of power is not accurate enough. It is concluded that the run of predictions including predictions beginning at 12 o'clock (UT) the previous day turns out to be the most accurate. Then, we have compared different ways to fill an E-program: submitting a constant value for the E-program, using one run provided by the power prediction method (run 12) and updating the E-program each time there is a new set of predictions available. Here the imbalance costs is not a good criterion to take a decision in so far as it is not representative for the amount of imbalance sent to the grid. The best way to proceed is thus to use the run 12 to predict production for the next day because it will bring about the smallest amount of imbalance. In the final part of this study, we have set up a method to help the producer to decide if it is worthwhile changing when the change of the E-program is not free. This method computes the updating gains thanks to the improvement of the prediction and to the TenneT imbalance prices model. Then, if gains are superior to benefits, there is an E-program change. This method computes the updating gain with a confidence level of 60%

  11. Development of performance analysis system (NOPAS) for turbine cycle of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have needs to develop a performance analysis system that can be used in domestic nuclear power plants to determine performance status of turbine cycle. We developed new NOPAS system to aid performance analysis of turbine cycle. Procedures of performance calculation are improved using several adaptations from standard calculation algorithms based on ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) PTC (Performance Test Code). Robustness in the performance analysis is increased by verification and validation scheme for measured input data. The system also provides useful aids for performance analysis such as graphic heat balance of turbine cycle and components, turbine expansion lines, automatic generation of analysis reports. (author)

  12. Locality-Driven Parallel Static Analysis for Power Delivery Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zhiyu

    2011-06-01

    Large VLSI on-chip Power Delivery Networks (PDNs) are challenging to analyze due to the sheer network complexity. In this article, a novel parallel partitioning-based PDN analysis approach is presented. We use the boundary circuit responses of each partition to divide the full grid simulation problem into a set of independent subgrid simulation problems. Instead of solving exact boundary circuit responses, a more efficient scheme is proposed to provide near-exact approximation to the boundary circuit responses by exploiting the spatial locality of the flip-chip-type power grids. This scheme is also used in a block-based iterative error reduction process to achieve fast convergence. Detailed computational cost analysis and performance modeling is carried out to determine the optimal (or near-optimal) number of partitions for parallel implementation. Through the analysis of several large power grids, the proposed approach is shown to have excellent parallel efficiency, fast convergence, and favorable scalability. Our approach can solve a 16-million-node power grid in 18 seconds on an IBM p5-575 processing node with 16 Power5+ processors, which is 18.8X faster than a state-of-the-art direct solver. © 2011 ACM.

  13. Cooperative genome-wide analysis shows increased homozygosity in early onset Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Simón-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD occurs in both familial and sporadic forms, and both monogenic and complex genetic factors have been identified. Early onset PD (EOPD is particularly associated with autosomal recessive (AR mutations, and three genes, PARK2, PARK7 and PINK1, have been found to carry mutations leading to AR disease. Since mutations in these genes account for less than 10% of EOPD patients, we hypothesized that further recessive genetic factors are involved in this disorder, which may appear in extended runs of homozygosity.We carried out genome wide SNP genotyping to look for extended runs of homozygosity (ROHs in 1,445 EOPD cases and 6,987 controls. Logistic regression analyses showed an increased level of genomic homozygosity in EOPD cases compared to controls. These differences are larger for ROH of 9 Mb and above, where there is a more than three-fold increase in the proportion of cases carrying a ROH. These differences are not explained by occult recessive mutations at existing loci. Controlling for genome wide homozygosity in logistic regression analyses increased the differences between cases and controls, indicating that in EOPD cases ROHs do not simply relate to genome wide measures of inbreeding. Homozygosity at a locus on chromosome19p13.3 was identified as being more common in EOPD cases as compared to controls. Sequencing analysis of genes and predicted transcripts within this locus failed to identify a novel mutation causing EOPD in our cohort.There is an increased rate of genome wide homozygosity in EOPD, as measured by an increase in ROHs. These ROHs are a signature of inbreeding and do not necessarily harbour disease-causing genetic variants. Although there might be other regions of interest apart from chromosome 19p13.3, we lack the power to detect them with this analysis.

  14. The IAEA, nuclear power and sustainable development. Maintaining and increasing the overall assets available to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of one of the fundamental objectives of the IAEA mandate to enhance the contribution of nuclear technologies towards meeting the needs of Member States, the present status, all the aspects, and the future of nuclear power are reviewed. The development of nuclear power broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, increases human and man-made capital, and when safely handled has little impact on ecosystems. This means that it could meet the central goal of sustainable development, considering that it covers maintaining or increasing the overall assets available to future generations, while minimizing consumption of finite resources and not exceeding the carrying capacities of ecosystems

  15. An analysis of decay heat power in the experimental VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decay heat power of the typical fuels loaded in the experimental multipurpose very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) has been calculated, based on the American National Standard which has been newly developped as to be applicable to light water reactors. Physical constants of the reactor core, such as fission power during operation, burn-up of fissile atoms and change in composition, have been evaluated with the VHTR lattice burn-up code DELIGHT-5. The analysis has been done for the fuels of different enrichments under a given power density and for the cases in which the power density changes during operation, then some characteristics of the VHTR decay heat, especially the effect of operation period, are shown. (author)

  16. Financial risk analysis and prediction of Chinese power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of 57 Shanghai and Shenzhen power industry companies was presented. The study considered financial ratios between companies in order to determine risk factors for financial crises. Financial data from the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets were used to investigate power company performance from 2006 to 2008. Data from the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) were also used. Results of the study indicated that the cash-to-current debt ratio, the return on equity (ROE), net asset growth ratio, and inventory turnover presented uncorrelated and significantly varying ratios for failed power companies. The study also showed that most power companies have a high proportion of liabilities, higher debt risk, low asset turnover ratios, and negative net working capital. Results of the analysis were used to design an early warning model that used logistic regression techniques to predict risk. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Reliability Analysis Techniques for Communication Networks in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project is to investigate and study existing reliability analysis techniques for communication networks in order to develop reliability analysis models for nuclear power plant's safety-critical networks. It is necessary to make a comprehensive survey of current methodologies for communication network reliability. Major outputs of this study are design characteristics of safety-critical communication networks, efficient algorithms for quantifying reliability of communication networks, and preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of thermal efficiency and power of Minto engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minto engine is a kind of liquid piston heat engine that operates on a small temperature gradient. But there is no power formula for it yet. And its thermal efficiency is low and formula sometimes is misused. In this paper, deriving the power formula and simplifying the thermal efficiency formula of Minto engine based on energy distribution analysis will be discussed. To improve the original Minto engine, a new design of improved Minto engine is proposed and thermal efficiency formula and power formula are also given. A computer program was developed to analyze thermal efficiency and power of original and improved Minto engines operating between low and high-temperature heat sources. The simulation results show that thermal efficiency of improved Minto engine can reach over 7% between 293.15 K and 353.15 K which is much higher than that of original one; the temperature difference between upper and lower containers is lower than half of that between low and high temperature of heat sources when the original Minto engines output the maximum power; on the contrary, it is higher in the improved Minto engines. -- Highlights: ► The thermal efficiency formula of Minto engine is simplified and the power formula is established. ► A high-powered design of improved Minto engine is proposed. ► A computer simulation program based on real operating environment is developed.

  19. Spectrum Analysis of the Wind Farm Power based on the Spatial Structures of Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Teru; Yamashita, Masaru

    Spectrum analysis has been carried out based on the spatial structure model of wind. Power fluctuation from nine wind turbines arranged in 3 × 3 manner is less than that from a single turbine, regardless of wind direction. The increased distance between two turbines slightly reduces power fluctuation. In case of an inline arrangement, power fluctuation caused by the wind perpendicular to the turbine line is lower than that by the wind parallel to the turbine line, because the coherence of wind perpendicular to the wind direction decays sharply. For double line arrangement, fluctuation will be almost the same for the 3 × 3 arrangement.

  20. Study on accident response robot for nuclear power plant and analysis of key technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry and improving demand for nuclear safety, the demand for developing accident response robot in nuclear power plant is increasingly urgent. Firstly, design analysis for accident response robot is taken with environmental conditions in nuclear power plant. Secondly, development for response robots after Chernobyl, JCO and Fukushima accidents are reviewed, and improvements for commercial mobile robot for use in radioactive environments are summarized. Finally, some key technologies including radiation-tolerance and system reliability are analyzed in details. (authors)

  1. System analysis of power transients in advanced WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Farber, Gennady

    2002-06-01

    This paper considers dynamical transient effects in the physical layer of an optical circuit-switched WDM network. These transients of the average transmission power have millisecond time scales. Instead of studying detailed nonlinear dynamics of the network elements, such as optical line amplifiers, a linearized model of the dynamics around a given steady state is considered. System-level analysis in this paper uses modern control theory methods and handles nonlinearity as uncertainty. The analysis translates requirements on the network performance into the requirements to the network elements. These requirements involve a few gross measures of performance for network elements and do not depend on the circuit switching state. One such performance measure is the worst amplification gain for all harmonic disturbances of the average transmission power. Another, is cross coupling of the wavelength channel power variations. The derived requirements guarantee system-level performance for all network configurations and can be used for specifying optical components and subsystems.

  2. Incorporation of a Wind Generator Model into a Dynamic Power Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles-Camacho C.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is nowadays one of the most cost-effective and practical options for electric generation from renewable resources. However, increased penetration of wind generation causes the power networks to be more depend on, and vulnerable to, the varying wind speed. Modeling is a tool which can provide valuable information about the interaction between wind farms and the power network to which they are connected. This paper develops a realistic characterization of a wind generator. The wind generator model is incorporated into an algorithm to investigate its contribution to the stability of the power network in the time domain. The tool obtained is termed dynamic power flow. The wind generator model takes on account the wind speed and the reactive power consumption by induction generators. Dynamic power flow analysis is carried-out using real wind data at 10-minute time intervals collected for one meteorological station. The generation injected at one point into the network provides active power locally and is found to reduce global power losses. However, the power supplied is time-varying and causes fluctuations in voltage magnitude and power fl ows in transmission lines.

  3. Solar Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, control design, and control performance test of solar power system. Solar power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter control, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter control is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for control design. The dynamic analysis results show that these controls affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of controllers are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of control parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter control stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.

  4. Expanding exports, increasing smog : Ontario Power Generation's and Hydro One's strategies to continue coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of coal-fired electricity increased by approximately 150 per cent in Ontario between 1995 and 2000. As a result, the smog-causing emissions generated by the five coal-fired power plants operated by Ontario Power Generation caused an increase in smog and worsened air quality in the province as well as affecting air quality as far afield as the Atlantic provinces. Between 2002 and 2005, it is expected that the Pickering and Bruce nuclear plants will be returned to service, making the electricity generated by the coal plants surplus to Ontario's needs. Increasing this surplus are the planned natural gas generating stations. Ontario Power Generation is planning on using this surplus to export it to the United States rather than phasing out its reliance on coal. The increase in exports to the United States Northeast and Midwest is planned with Hydro One, already busy increasing its transmission capacity to the United States by 1,000 megawatt (MW). This plan involves laying 975 MW submarine cable from the Nanticoke Generating Station (operated by Ontario Power Generation) under Lake Erie to Pennsylvania, Ohio, or both states. At the moment, the exports are constrained by the government emissions limits imposed by the Ontario government on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This constraint could be removed if Ontario Power Generation decides to pay further for pollution controls for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides at its coal stations. Unfortunately, increasing the exports would also result in emissions increases for 28 other uncapped pollutants such as lead, mercury and arsenic. The author recommended that the Ontario government ban non-emergency coal-fired electricity exports to improve air quality in the province. refs., 8 figs

  5. PRICE DISCRIMINATION AND MARKET POWER: A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Smirnova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the contemporary theoretical and empirical research in the field of impact assessment of market power and conclusions about the possibilities of the company to implement price discrimination in different market structures. The results of the analysis allow to evaluate current approaches to antitrust regulation of price discrimination.

  6. Analysis and characterization of security regions in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is repoted in a study performed to investigate the concept of security regions in the context of power system security analysis. The background and motivation for this research, the results of 2 years of work, and proposed future studies are discussed. (LCL)

  7. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power in agricultu...

  8. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  9. Noise analysis in bolometer detector for microwave power measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario, Petrizzelli; Brunetti, Luciano

    2003-01-01

    A study of noise related with a thermal detector used as power standard on the 26.5-40GHz frequency band, is presented. This study starts with electromagnetic and thermal analysis, and is based on a cryogenic resistive thermometer functioning at liquid-He temperatures. In addition, the study fixes the theoretical limit of sensitivity. PMID:15916174

  10. 384 Power plant waste water sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the 384 Power House Sampling and Analysis Plan. The Plan describes sampling methods, locations, frequency, analytes, and stream descriptions. The effluent streams from 384, were characterized in 1989, in support of the Stream Specific Report (WHC-EP-0342, Addendum 1)

  11. Biologically relevant molecular transducer with increased computing power and iterative abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Tamar; Piran, Ron; Jonoska, Natasha; Keinan, Ehud

    2013-05-23

    As computing devices, which process data and interconvert information, transducers can encode new information and use their output for subsequent computing, offering high computational power that may be equivalent to a universal Turing machine. We report on an experimental DNA-based molecular transducer that computes iteratively and produces biologically relevant outputs. As a proof of concept, the transducer accomplished division of numbers by 3. The iterative power was demonstrated by a recursive application on an obtained output. This device reads plasmids as input and processes the information according to a predetermined algorithm, which is represented by molecular software. The device writes new information on the plasmid using hardware that comprises DNA-manipulating enzymes. The computation produces dual output: a quotient, represented by newly encoded DNA, and a remainder, represented by E. coli phenotypes. This device algorithmically manipulates genetic codes. PMID:23706637

  12. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  13. Fujian electric system analysis and nuclear power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to conduct a long term electric expansion planning and nuclear power planning for Fujian Province. The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III) is used to optimize the electric system. Probabilistic Simulation is one of the most favorite techniques for middle and long term generation and production cost planning of electric power system. The load duration curve is obtained by recording the load data of a time interval into a monotone non-increasing sense. Polynomial function is used to describe the load duration curve (LDC), and this LDC is prepared for probabilistic simulation in WASP-III. WASP-III is a dynamic optimizing module in the area of supply modelling. It could find out the economically optimal expansion plan for a power generating system over a period of up to thirty years, with the constraints given by the planners. The optimum is evaluated in terms of minimum discounted total costs. Generating costs, amount of energy not served and reliability of the system are analyzed in the system expansion planning by using the probabilistic simulation method. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. Hydro electricity is the cheapest one of all available technologies and resources. After the large hydro station is committed at the end of 1995, more base load power plants are needed in the system. Coal-fired power plants with capacity of 600 MWe will be the most competitive power plants in the future of the system. At the end of the studying period, about half of the stalled capacity will be composed of these power plants. Nuclear power plants with capacity of 600 MWe are suitable for the system after the base load increases to a certain level. Oil combustion units will decrease the costs of the system. (12 tabs., 6 figs.)

  14. Fast simulation of wind generation for frequency stability analysis in island power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, James [EirGrid, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-07-01

    Frequency stability is a major issue for power system planning and operation in an island power system such as Ireland. As increasing amounts of variable speed wind generation are added to the system, this issue becomes more prominent, as variable speed wind generation does not provide an inherent inertial response. This lack of an inertial response means that simplified models for variable speed wind farms can be used for investigating frequency stability. EirGrid uses DIgSILENT Power Factory (as well as other software tools) to investigate frequency stability. In PowerFactory, an automation program has been created to convert detailed wind farm representation (as necessary for other types of analysis) to negative load models for frequency stability analysis. The advantage of this approach is much-improved simulation speed without loss of accuracy. This approach can also be to study future wind energy targets, and long-term simulation of voltage stability. (orig.)

  15. Design and analysis of solar thermoelectric power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharasathien, Narong; Hirunlabh, Jongjit; Khedari, Joseph; Daguenet, Michel

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on the design and performance analysis of a solar thermoelectric power generation plant (STEPG). The system considers both truncated compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) with a flat receiver and conventional flat-plate collectors, thermoelectric (TE) cooling and power generator modules and appropriate connecting pipes and control devices. The design tool uses TRNSYS IIsibat-15 program with a new component we developed for the TE modules. The main input data of the system are the specifications of TE module, the maximum hot side temperature of TE modules, and the desired power output. Examples of the design using truncated CPC and flat-plate collectors are reported and discussed for various slope angle and half-acceptance angle of CPC. To minimize system cost, seasonal adjustment of the slope angle between 0° and 30° was considered, which could give relatively high power output under Bangkok ambient condition. Two small-scale STEPGs were built. One of them uses electrical heater, whereas the other used a CPC with locally made aluminum foil reflector. Measured data showed reasonable agreement with the model outputs. TE cooling modules were found to be more appropriate. Therefore, the TRNSYS software and the developed TE component offer an extremely powerful tool for the design and performance analysis of STEPG plant.

  16. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis. PMID:25723953

  17. Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Kruse, Torben A;

    2014-01-01

    population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability for...... carrying beneficial genes and thus are useful samples for gene-longevity association analysis. We conducted a computer simulation to estimate the power of association study using longevity concordant twin pairs. We observed remarkable power increases in using singletons from longevity concordant twin pairs...... as cases in comparison with cases of sporadic proband. A similar power would require doubled sample sizes for fraternal twins than for identical twins who are concordant for longevity suggesting that longevity concordant identical twins are more efficient samples than fraternal twins. We also...

  18. Probabilistic safety analysis for the Unterweser Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October last year, a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was conducted for the Unterweser Nuclear Power Station as part of the periodic safety review (PSR). As a living PSA, the probabilistic safety analysis was based on the first analysis conducted in 1995; its scope was extended in accordance with the 1996 PSA guideline. Besides the in-plant initiating events in the power mode, which were considered already in the 1995 PSA, the current PSA included external impacts, fires in the plant, and events occurring during plant outages as well as plant-specific data. Also findings of current research were incorporated. The results obtained show the KKU plant to enjoy a high level of safety and allow the PSA to be used alongside plant operation. (orig.)

  19. JOYO MK-III performance test report. Blower start-up test (PT-303), power-increase test (PT-301), rated power operation test (PT-302)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the MK-III performance test for the experimental fast reactor JOYO, the reactor thermal power was raised gradually with steps at about 20%, 50%, 75%, 90%, and 100% (140 MWt). The rated power of 140 MWt for the MK-III reactor core was reached on October 28, 2003. Then, it was operated continuously by rated power for 100 hours or more. The major results of the tests are as follows. (1) From standby states (sodium temperature of 250degC, isothermal condition), the rated power of 140 MWt for the MK-III reactor core was reached on October 28, 2003 by the usual power-increase operation (a power-up rate of about 5 MWt/20 min, where the power was held for about 10 minutes every 5 MWt). It was confirmed that the temperature and flow of sodium were the alarm setting values or less at each steps. (2) The blower start-up operation of which the parameter was the reactor thermal power was done, and the influence which it was on coolant temperature was confirmed. As a result, the optimal reactor thermal power to start up the blower from a natural ventilation cooling state was set to about 18 MWt, and the starting procedure was made into a method (order of 1A->2A->1B->2B) which starts four sets of one blower at a time one by one. (3) The reactor shutdown operation was confirmed by two simultaneous control-rod insertions at 35 MWt. It was confirmed to be carried out by a series of operations from the control rod insertion to the blower shutdown with enough time margin. By adopting this reactor shutdown operation, operation complexity was mitigated and plant characteristics also improved. (4) The rated power of 140 MWt was reached on November 14. It was operated continuously by rated power for 100 hours or more on November 20, 10:30. The detailed plant data was acquired at intervals of 24 hours, and was confirmed to be less than the alarm setting values. (author)

  20. The increasing importance of power electronics; Die wachsende Bedeutung der Leistungselektronik. Stromerzeugung, -uebertragung und Stromverteilung sind heute ohne Silizium kaum denkbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumberger, H.; Steimer, P. [ABB Schweiz AG, Turgi (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the importance today of silicon in power generation, power transmission and power distribution. Also, the importance of this semiconductor as an important component in systems that can increase the efficiency of power use is discussed. Various requirements placed on power electronics are examined, both in the areas of control and protection. The cooling required by such high-power semiconductors and the possibilities of realising it are discussed. Their use in the power generation area, for instance in wind power, photovoltaics and tidal power stations is reviewed, as are applications in pump-storage power stations. Along with power transmission applications, reactive power and energy storage applications are discussed. The article is rounded off with a review of the use of power electronics in consumer and industrial applications such as variable speed drives, mains voltage stabilisation and uninterruptible power supplies.

  1. Techniques for Improving Filters in Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolf, Robert D.; Haglin, David J.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2011-12-31

    In large-scale power transmission systems, predicting faults and preemptively taking corrective action to avoid them is essential to preventing rolling blackouts. The computational study of the constantly-shifting state of the power grid and its weaknesses is called contingency analysis. Multiple-contingency planning in the electrical grid is one example of a complex monitoring system where a full computational solution is operationally infeasible. We present a general framework for building and evaluating resource-aware models of filtering techniques for this type of monitoring.

  2. Analysis of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased. In the period considered (August 2006-July 2008), monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium variations (decreasing with variance of spot prices during delivery period and increasing with skewness of spot prices during delivery period). Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development of all the coexistent forward contracting mechanisms and with further integration of European Regional Electricity Markets. (author)

  3. Analysis of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased. In the period considered (August 2006-July 2008), monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium variations (decreasing with variance of spot prices during delivery period and increasing with skewness of spot prices during delivery period). Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development of all the coexistent forward contracting mechanisms and with further integration of European Regional Electricity Markets.

  4. Exergetic analysis of a solar thermal power system with PCM storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergy efficiency of parabolic trough system is 10% while energy efficiency is 30%. • Overall exergy efficiency can increase up to 30% using PCM with the solar collector. • PCM with higher melting point temperature give higher exergy efficiency of the system. - Abstract: Exergy analysis has become an important tool for thermodynamic assessment of power generation systems. In the present study, thermodynamic performance (energy and exergy) analysis is performed for a solar thermal power plant located in Shiraz, Iran. In addition, a computational exergy analysis is performed to show the possible improvement of this power plant integrating with Phase Change Material (PCM) storage. Consequently, it is found that overall energy efficiency without PCM storage is about 30% while the exergy efficiency is about 10%. However, about 30% overall exergy efficiency can be achieved for the case of using PCM storage along with the solar collector

  5. Sensitivity of Transient Phenomena Analysis of the Francis Turbine Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Iliev; Bojan Ivljanin

    2015-01-01

    The accurate definition of the transient phenomena of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) and its units, taking into account various aspects of operation is an essential requirement for design, performances and control of HPPs. Numerical analysis of transient phenomena, such as increase of the rotational speed (runaway) of the units, increase of the pressure (turbine inlet head) in the hydraulic system (water hammer) and water level oscillation in the surge tank is presented. The ...

  6. Kysat-2 electrical power system design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molton, Brandon L.

    In 2012, Kentucky Space, LLC was offered the opportunity to design KYSat-2, a CubeSat mission which utilizes an experimental stellar-tracking camera system to test its effectiveness of determining the spacecraft's attitude while on orbit. Kentucky Space contracted Morehead State University to design the electrical power system (EPS) which will handle all power generation and power management and distribution to each of the KYSat-2 subsystems, including the flight computer, communications systems, and the experimental payload itself. This decision came as a result of the success of Morehead State's previous CubeSat mission, CXBN, which utilized a custom built power system and successfully launched in 2011. For the KYSat-2 EPS to be successful, it was important to design a system which was efficient enough to handle the power limitations of the space environment and robust enough to handle the challenges of powering a spacecraft on orbit. The system must be developed with a positive power budget, generating and storing more power than will be stored by KYSat-2 over mission lifetime. To accomplish this goal, the use of deployable solar panels has been utilized to double the usable surface area of the satellite for power generation, effectively doubling the usable power of the satellite system on orbit. The KYSat-2 EPS includes of set of gold plated deployable solar panels utilizing solar cells with a 26% efficiency. Power generated by this system is fed into a shunt regulator circuit which regulates the voltage generated to be stored in a 3-cell series battery pack. Stored powered is maintained using a balancing circuit which increases the efficiency and lifetime of the cells on-orbit. Power distribution includes raw battery voltage, four high-power outputs (two 5V and two 3.3 V) and a low-noise, low power 3.3V output for use with noise sensitive devices, such as microcontrollers. The solar panel deployment system utilizes the nichrome wire which draws current

  7. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  8. 福清核电1、2号机组增大应急给水箱容积安全分析%Safety Analysis on the Volume Increase of Auxiliary Water Tank for Number One and Two Units of Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟立丽; 邵舸; 顾健; 薛峻峰; 彭建平; 王志强

    2013-01-01

    When main feed water system or start-up feed water system is unavailable, auxiliary feed water system, as Engineered Safety Facility (ESF), provides water for Steam Generators (SG) to remove the stored and decay heat from the reactor core. In order to improve the safety of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and increase operational flexibility, the water inventory of the auxiliary feed water tank is increased in the number one and two units of Fuqing NPP. The model of the NPP is built based on mechanical safety analytical code, and conservative assumptions are used in the calculation. Three typical accident sequences, such as loss of main feed water, loss of offsite power in category Ⅱ accident, and main feed water line break in category IV, are selected to analyze whether or not the inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the relevant requirements in RCC-R The results show that auxiliary water inventory of 713m3 is needed for loss of main feed water accident, auxiliary water inventory of 723m3 is needed for loss of offsite power accident, and auxiliary water inventory of 799m3 is needed for main feed water line break accident. The inventory in auxiliary water tank after improvement satisfies the requirements for category Ⅱ and Ⅳ accidents. The safety of NPP is improved due to the inventory redundancy and a time window is also provided for the operators to perform related accident procedures.%辅助给水系统(ASG)作为专设安全设施在主给水或启动给水不可用时向蒸汽发生器供水,以导出堆芯余热.为了提高电厂安全性,增加运行灵活性,福清核电1、2号机组对应急给水箱的有效容积进行了增加.本文采用机理性安全分析程序,建立核电厂分析模型,在计算过程中采用保守假设条件,选取Ⅱ类工况下正常给水丧失事故,厂外电丧失事故,Ⅳ类工况下主给水管道破裂事故3条典型事故序列,分析改进后的应急给水箱容量是否满足压水

  9. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rigorous design and optimization of an axial flux microelectromechanical systems (MEMS brushless dc (BLDC micromotor with dual rotor improving both efficiency and power density with an external diameter of only around 10 mm. The stator is made of two layers of windings by MEMS technology. The rotor is developed by film permanent magnets assembled over the rotor yoke. The characteristics of the MEMS micromotor are analyzed and modeled through a 3-D magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC taking the leakage flux and fringing effect into account. Such a model yields a relatively accurate prediction of the flux in the air gap, back electromotive force (EMF and electromagnetic torque, whilst being computationally efficient. Based on 3-D MEC model the multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA is developed for the optimal design of this special machine. Both 3-D finite element (FE simulation and experiments are employed to validate the MEC model and MOFA optimization design.

  10. The impact of oil price increases on the market for nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1973, the Agency concluded a market survey of nuclear power in fourteen selected developing countries throughout the world. The results of this survey have been reported in fourteen country reports and a general report and also in a summary report presented at the Seventeenth Regular Session of the Agency's General Conference. These results indicate that in the fourteen countries surveyed, about 60,000 MW(e) of nuclear plant capacity might be put into operation during the period 1980 to 1989. Most of this nuclear capacity would be in the form of units of 600 MW(e) or larger since under the assumed economic conditions, nuclear units in the 200-400 MW(e) size range were generally found to be uneconomical compared to oil-fired plants. (author)

  11. An innovative program to increase safety culture for workers on a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To implement the WENRA harmonized guidelines and the IAEA reference guides, Electrabel has recently introduced a major training program for both its own staff and the contractors working on the sites of its Nuclear Power Plants. This training program stresses the importance of safety culture on both theoretical and practical level and is mostly focused on the behavioural aspects during activities performed at the site of a Nuclear Power Plant. Further emphasis is put on radiation protection, industrial safety, environmental protection and explosion prevention. The training scheme for both the staff of Electrabel and contractors typically contains a theoretical part introducing the basic concepts of nuclear safety and safety culture and a practical exercise in a simulated environment. A novel element in the training cycle is the use of a simulated environment, where the actual working conditions in the nuclear part of the installation are simulated. This mock-up installation enables the workers to train the nuclear safety constraints linked to the actual installation and to enhance safety culture by responding on simulated problems and changing conditions possibly being encountered during an intervention at the real working site. To analyze the behaviour of the future workers, the activities are videotaped and commented for further improvement. A refresh of the training courses is implemented after 3 years.Although this training program has only been in operation for just 6 months, the response of the contractors and the staff to this training has been enthusiastic. At this moment, more than 1.000 workers have successfully completed the training course. (author)

  12. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: ► Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation ► We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making ► Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange ► Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments ► The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.

  13. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of an idealised solar tower thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the real solar tower thermal power system, it is widely acknowledged that the thermodynamic irreversibility, such as convective and radiative loss on tower receiver, and thermal resistance in heat exchangers, is unavoidable. With above factors in mind, this paper presents an ideal model of the solar tower thermal power system to analyze the influence of various parameters on thermal and exergy conversion efficiencies, including receiver working temperature, concentration ratio, endoreversible heat engine efficiency and so forth. And therefore the variation of maximum thermal conversion efficiency in terms of concentration ratio and endoreversible heat engine efficiency could be theoretically obtained. The results indicate that raising the receiver working temperature could initially increase both thermal and exergy conversion efficiencies until an optimum temperature is reached. The optimum temperature would also increase with the concentration ratio. Additionally, the concentration ratio has a positive effect on the thermal conversion efficiency: increasing the concentration ratio could raise the conversion efficiency until the concentration ratio is extremely high, after which there will be a slow drop. Lastly, the endoreversible engine efficiency also has significant influence on the thermal conversion efficiency, it will increase the thermal conversion efficiency until it reaches the maximum and optimum value, and then the conversion efficiency will drop dramatically. - Highlights: • Built an idealized thermodynamic model for solar tower thermal power plants. • Analyze the influence of various parameters on thermal and exergy efficiencies. • The optimum temperature would increase with the concentration ratio. • The endoreversible engine efficiency would have an optimum value

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of Thermophotovoltaic Efficiency and Power Density Tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.F. Baldasara; J.E. Reynolds; G.W. Charache; D.M. DePoy; C.T. Ballinger; T. Donovan; J.M. Borrego

    2000-02-22

    This report presents an assessment of the efficiency and power density limitations of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems for both ideal (radiative-limited) and practical (defect-limited) systems. Thermodynamics is integrated into the unique process physics of TPV conversion, and used to define the intrinsic tradeoff between power density and efficiency. The results of the analysis reveal that the selection of diode bandgap sets a limit on achievable efficiency well below the traditional Carnot level. In addition it is shown that filter performance dominates diode performance in any practical TPV system and determines the optimum bandgap for a given radiator temperature. It is demonstrated that for a given radiator temperature, lower bandgap diodes enable both higher efficiency and power density when spectral control limitations are included. The goal of this work is to provide a better understanding of the basic system limitations that will enable successful long-term development of TPV energy conversion technology.

  16. Betweenness as a Tool of Vulnerability Analysis of Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Gyanendra Kumar; Chowdhury, Tamalika; Chanda, Chandan Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Complex network theory finds its application in analysis of power grid as both share some common characteristics. By using this theory finding critical elements in power network can be achieved. As vulnerabilities of elements of the network decide the vulnerability of the total network, in this paper, vulnerability of each element is studied using two complex network models—betweenness centrality and extended betweenness. The betweenness centrality considers only topological structure of power system whereas extended betweenness is based on both topological and physical properties of the system. In the latter case, some of the electrical properties such as electrical distance, line flow limits, transmission capacities of lines and PTDF matrix are included. The standard IEEE 57 bus system has been studied based upon the above mentioned indices and following conclusions have been discussed.

  17. Core thermal hydraulic analysis for TNR power uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study undertaken to investigate the possibility of raising the power of the Tajura Nuclear Research Reactor (TNRR) from 10 to 20 MWt keeping the same core configuration and with minimum changes in the primary cooling circuit. The study was carried out for a fresh core, with compact load (16 assemblies) under normal operation conditions. A computer program, TAJT, was used to simulate the core and perform the necessary thermal hydraulic analysis. The results obtained show that the reactor power could be raised to 15 MWt safely and with no changes in the primary cooling circuit. To raise the power to 20 MWt will require changes in the core configuration and primary circuit

  18. Software and codes for analysis of concentrating solar power technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-12-01

    This report presents a review and evaluation of software and codes that have been used to support Sandia National Laboratories concentrating solar power (CSP) program. Additional software packages developed by other institutions and companies that can potentially improve Sandia's analysis capabilities in the CSP program are also evaluated. The software and codes are grouped according to specific CSP technologies: power tower systems, linear concentrator systems, and dish/engine systems. A description of each code is presented with regard to each specific CSP technology, along with details regarding availability, maintenance, and references. A summary of all the codes is then presented with recommendations regarding the use and retention of the codes. A description of probabilistic methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of concentrating solar power technologies is also provided.

  19. Harmonic Analysis and Active Filtering in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Guerrero, Josep M.; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Ł. H.; Jensen, C. F.

    the point of common coupling (PCC). The resonance conditions should be avoided in all cases. This paper describes the harmonic analysis techniques applied on an OWPP network model. A method is proposed to estimate the harmonic current compensation from a shunt-connected active power filter to mitigate......Due to presence of long high voltage cable networks, and power transformers for the grid connection, the offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) are susceptible to harmonic distortion and resonances. The grid connection of OWPP should not cause the harmonic distortion beyond the permissible limits at...... the harmonic voltage distortion at the PCC. Finally the harmonic distortions in the compensated and the uncompensated systems are compared to demonstrate the efficacy of the compensation....

  20. Exergy analysis and optimization of Dieng single-flash geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyze the exergy simulation of the geothermal power plant in Dieng, Indonesia. • We also optimize the power plant to consider the improvement of power output. • The total available exergy of the geothermal fluid is estimated to be 59.52 MW. • It is found that the second law efficiency of the power plant is 36.48%. • With optimization, the power output increases by lowering the separator pressure. - Abstract: Exergy analysis and optimization of a single-flash geothermal power plant are conducted by developing a mathematical model that is applied to the Dieng geothermal power plant in Indonesia. Calculations are conducted by using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) code using methods based on the laws of thermodynamics. The exergy flow and efficiency are computed at several plant components, including the separator, turbine, condenser, and for the whole power plant. The exergy of the geothermal fluid that is discharged from the production wells is estimated to be 59.52 MW. This amount of fluid produces 21.71 MW of electricity from the power plant overall, with second law efficiency to be 36.48%. There is a considerable amount of waste brine, amounting to 17.98% (10.70 MW) of the total available exergy, which is disposed of in the plant’s reservoir. The optimization of the plant is carried out by adjusting the separator pressure. The results show that a slight increase of 20 kW in the output power can be attained by lowering the separator pressure to 9 bar from 10 bar. The Grassmann diagram shows the exergy losses at each component in the power plant. The turbine and separator losses are 7.51 MW (12.62%) and 8.04 MW (13.5%), respectively, while the cooling tower has an exergy loss of 2.62 MW (4.40%). The total condenser loss is 5.8 MW (9.75%)

  1. Uncertainty in Power Law Analysis: Influences of Sample Size, Measurement Error, and Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, D.; Luo, Y.; Jackson, R. B.

    2005-12-01

    A power function, Y=Y0 Mbeta, can be used to describe the relationship of physiological variables with body size over a wide range of scales, typically many orders of magnitude. One of the key issues in the renewed power law debate is whether the allometric scaling exponent β equals 3/4 or 2/3. The analysis could be remarkably affected by sampling size, measurement error, and analysis methods, but these effects have not been explored systematically. We investigated the influences of these three factors based on a data set of 626 pairs of base metabolic rate and mass in mammals with the calculated β=0.711. Influence of sampling error was tested by re-sampling with different sample sizes using a Monte Carlo approach. Results showed that estimated parameter b varied considerably from sample to sample. For example, when the sample size was n=63, b varied from 0.582 to 0.776. Even though the original data set did not support either β=3/4 or β=2/3, we found that 39.0% of the samples supported β=2/3, 35.4% of the samples supported β=3/4. Influence of measurement error on parameter estimations was also tested using Bayesian theory. Virtual data sets were created using the mass in the above-mentioned data set, with given parameters α and β (β=2/3 or β=3/4) and certain measurement error in base metabolic rate and/or mass. Results showed that as measurement error increased, more estimated bs were found to be significantly different from the parameter β. When measurement error (i.e., standard deviation) was 20% and 40% of the measured mass and base metabolic rate, 15.4% and 14.6% of the virtual data sets were found to be significant different from the parameter β=3/4 and β=2/3, respectively. Influence of different analysis methods on parameter estimations was also demonstrated using the original data set and the pros and cons of these methods were further discussed. We urged cautions in interpreting the power law analysis, especially from a small data sample, and

  2. Expertise about the request of the nuclear power plant Leibstadt for increasing the power to 3600 MW{sub th}; Gutachten zum Gesuch des Kernkraftwerks Leibstadt um Leistungserhoehung auf 3600 MW{sub th}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-15

    . In the case of design incidents too, all safety-relevant limits and the maximal tolerable dose rates in the environment must be respected. In the context of design incidents, the 'transitory' group also constitutes the limiting case with the higher power. For the complete judgement of the safety of a nuclear power plant it is not sufficient to estimate the effects of a design incident through deterministic methods. The evaluation of the effects of out-of-design accidents needs a probabilistic safety analysis which determines the frequency as well as the consequences of an accident. The results show that KKL represents a very small risk for the environment. In KKL the measures necessary for safe operation and protection of mankind and environment at a thermal power of 3600 MW have already been taken or will be taken shortly. According to its examination, HSK concludes that there are no safety-relevant reasons speaking against an operational license for the increased thermal power. The increase will, however, have to be carried out in 4 steps of 1 year each in order to gain operational experience

  3. Harmonic Analysis of Boolean Networks: Determinative Power and Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Heckel, Reinhard; Bossert, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Consider a large Boolean network with a feed forward structure. Given a probability distribution for the inputs, can one find-possibly small-collections of input nodes that determine the states of most other nodes in the network? To identify these nodes, a notion that quantifies the determinative power of an input over states in the network is needed. We argue that the mutual information (MI) between a subset of the inputs X = {X_1, ..., X_n} of node i and the function f_i(X)$ associated with node i quantifies the determinative power of this subset of inputs over node i. To study the relation of determinative power to sensitivity to perturbations, we relate the MI to measures of perturbations, such as the influence of a variable, in terms of inequalities. The result shows that, maybe surprisingly, an input that has large influence does not necessarily have large determinative power. The main tool for the analysis is Fourier analysis of Boolean functions. Whether a function is sensitive to perturbations or not...

  4. Increase of the competition on the electric power french market: 6000 MW for the concurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the energy market deregulation in France, EDF became wedded to three objectives: encourage the competition in France, contribute to the development of a unique energy market in Europe and and allowed the EDF group development in the same conditions of the concurrence. In this mind, EDF put 6000 MW for auction. An economic analysis of the EDF group policy facing the competition of the new energy de-regulated market is proposed. (A.L.B.)

  5. Analysis of power system event using synchronized PMUs in Thailand power network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamroo, I.; Kunakorn, A.; Leelajindakrirerk, M. [King Mongkut' s Inst. of Technology, Ladkrabang (Thailand). Faculty of Engineering; Mitani, Y.; Dechanupapritta, S.; Watanabe, M [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan); Jintakosonwit, P. [Frabinet Company, Kookot, Lumlookka, Patumthani (Thailand); Hashiguchi, T.; Ota, Y.; Ukai, H. [Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakulrat, J. [Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai, Songkhla (Thailand); Sode-Yome, A. [Electricity Generation Authority of Thailand, Bangkok (Thailand); Tanasaksiri, T. [Chiang Mai Univ., Amphur Muang, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    The interconnection between power systems in central and southern areas formulates a longitudinal structure whose interconnection may cause an inter-area oscillation. In order to detect an inter-area oscillation, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are synchronized based on the time stamp of a global positioning system (GPS). In order to increase the feasibility of the wide-area monitoring of power system oscillations, the authors proposed a new cost-effective PMU-based detection system with convenient installation at a distribution level, with Internet based data transmission and easy access for university researchers. This paper applied the synchronized PMUs based wide-area monitoring system to analyze the power system event under the occurrence of large disturbance. The salient feature of the monitoring system was the convenient installation of PMU at 220 V home outlet. The power system event presented in this paper was the tripping of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link between Thailand and Malaysia caused by a fault in a thyristor room at Khlong Ngae converter station of Thailand side on July 22, 2005. In order to analyze the characteristic of the inter-area oscillations between central and southern areas in both time and frequency domains, the discrete wavelet decomposition and short-time Fourier transform were applied. It was concluded that the analyzed results based on PMUs data were consistent with the actual tie-line power flow between both areas. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Fuzzy adaptive robust optimal controller for wide range power regulation and increasing load follow capability of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors are in nature nonlinear and their parameters vary with time as a function of power, fuel burnup, and control rod worth. Therefore, these characteristics must be considered if large power variations occur in power plant working regimes (for example in load following conditions). In this paper a Fuzzy Adaptive Robust Optimal Controller (FAROC) based on a proposed modified dynamic non-singleton fuzzy logic systems is presented. A Robust Optimal Self-Tuning Regulator (ROSTR) response is used as a reference trajectory to determine the feedback, feedforward and observer gains of the fuzzy controller. The fuzzy controller displays good stability and performance for a wide range of operation as well as considerable reduction in computation time in regard to ROSTR. It also increases the load follow capability of nuclear reactor. (author)

  7. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  8. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  9. Digital Processor Module Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system used in plant, military equipment, satellite, etc. consists of many electronic parts as control module, which requires relatively high reliability than other commercial electronic products. Specially, Nuclear power plant related to the radiation safety requires high safety and reliability, so most parts apply to Military-Standard level. Reliability prediction method provides the rational basis of system designs and also provides the safety significance of system operations. Thus various reliability prediction tools have been developed in recent decades, among of them, the MI-HDBK-217 method has been widely used as a powerful tool for the prediction. In this work, It is explained that reliability analysis work for Digital Processor Module (DPM, control module of SMART) is performed by Parts Stress Method based on MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE2. We are using the Relex 7.6 of Relex software corporation, because reliability analysis process requires enormous part libraries and data for failure rate calculation

  10. Exergy Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant: NTPC Dadri, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Tiwari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to exergy analysis of combined Brayton/Rankine power cycle of NTPC Dadri India. Theoretical exergy analysis is carried out for different components of dadri combined cycle power plant which consists of a gas turbine unit, heat recovery steam generator without extra fuel consumption and steam turbine unit. The results pinpoint that more exergy losses occurred in the gas turbine combustion chamber. Its reached 35% of the total exergy losses while the exergy losses in other plant components are between 7% -21% of the total exergy losses at 1400o C turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio 10 .This paper also considered the effect of the pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, pressure drop in combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator on the exergy losses in the plant, there are a clear effects in the exergy losses when changing pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature.

  11. Human factor analysis and preventive countermeasures in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the human error analysis theory and the characteristics of maintenance in a nuclear power plant, human factors of maintenance in NPP are divided into three different areas: human, technology, and organization. Which is defined as individual factors, including psychological factors, physiological characteristics, health status, level of knowledge and interpersonal skills; The technical factors including technology, equipment, tools, working order, etc.; The organizational factors including management, information exchange, education, working environment, team building and leadership management,etc The analysis found that organizational factors can directly or indirectly affect the behavior of staff and technical factors, is the most basic human error factor. Based on this nuclear power plant to reduce human error and measures the response. (authors)

  12. A long-term analysis of pumped hydro storage to firm wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This is a long term generation analysis of a high wind power system. • A high CO2 and fossil fuel price is closest to Ireland’s EU ETS 2020 target. • New pumped storage to firm wind is limited unless strong market costs exist. • Reserve for wind power show that ancillary services are relevant for balancing. - Abstract: Although pumped hydro storage is seen as a strategic key asset by grid operators, financing it is complicated in new liberalised markets. It could be argued that the optimum generation portfolio is now determined by the economic viability of generators based on a short to medium term return on investment. This has meant that capital intensive projects such as pumped hydro storage are less attractive for wholesale electricity companies because the payback periods are too long. In tandem a significant amount of wind power has entered the generation mix, which has resulted in operating and planning integration issues due to wind’s inherent uncertain, varying spatial and temporal nature. These integration issues can be overcome using fast acting gas peaking plant or energy storage. Most analysis of wind power integration using storage to date has used stochastic optimisation for power system balancing or arbitrage modelling to examine techno-economic viability. In this research a deterministic dynamic programming long term generation expansion model is employed to optimise the generation mix, total system costs and total carbon dioxide emissions, and unlike other studies calculates reserve to firm wind power. The key finding of this study is that the incentive to build capital-intensive pumped hydro storage to firm wind power is limited unless exogenous market costs come very strongly into play. Furthermore it was demonstrated that reserve increases with increasing wind power showing the importance of ancillary services in future power systems

  13. Some aspects of increasing the quality of personnel training for nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant personnel in Czechoslovakia is subject to periodical training in accordance with the Unified System of Nuclear Facility Personnel Training. This training is the responsibility of the Educational and Training Centre of the Nuclear Plant Research Institute in Trnava. Nuclear plant personnel is divided into 7 groups as follows: A - supervisory technical-administrative management staff; B - selected operating personnel such as shift supervisors, unit supervisors, reactor operators and secondary circuit operators; C - engineering-technical personnel of technical and maintenance departments; D - managing shift-operating staff; E - workers at technical plant departments; F - operational shift workers and servicemen; and G - maintenance personnel. These groups are respected in the training, which includes basic training, re-training and additional training. The basic training comprises 8 stages: general theoretical education; specialized theoretical education; on-the-job training in a plant designated for training; training on a simulator (group B); preparing for and taking final examinations for the certificate; doubling in the NPP designated for training (groups B, D, F); preparation in the NPP of future employment; preparing for and taking the state examination for obtaining the license (group B). Details of the management of the training process, experience gained during the implementation of the training and challenges for future improvement of the system are outlined. (P.A.)

  14. Jacobian integration method increases the statistical power to measure gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gray matter atrophy provides important insights into neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS and can be used as a marker of neuroprotection in clinical trials. Jacobian integration is a method for measuring volume change that uses integration of the local Jacobian determinants of the nonlinear deformation field registering two images, and is a promising tool for measuring gray matter atrophy. Our main objective was to compare the statistical power of the Jacobian integration method to commonly used methods in terms of the sample size required to detect a treatment effect on gray matter atrophy. We used multi-center longitudinal data from relapsing–remitting MS patients and evaluated combinations of cross-sectional and longitudinal pre-processing with SIENAX/FSL, SPM, and FreeSurfer, as well as the Jacobian integration method. The Jacobian integration method outperformed these other commonly used methods, reducing the required sample size by a factor of 4–5. The results demonstrate the advantage of using the Jacobian integration method to assess neuroprotection in MS clinical trials.

  15. Rerouting end-face-TIR capable rays to significantly increase evanescent wave signal power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Ma; Yasser Chiniforooshan; Huacai Chen; Jiahua Chen; Wojtek J. Bock; Andrea Cusano

    2011-01-01

    The critical findings associated with end-face total internal reflection (TIR) phenomemon we proved before are reported. In particular, these findings reveal that the end-face-TIR capable rays experience enormous mode mixing when encountering a roughened end face. As a result, 94% of the overall detectable power is contributed by this effect. With a smooth fiber end face, this figure is mere 52%. We interpret the mechanism behind these unusual phenomena and its significance for the performance enhancement of fiber optic evanescent wave sensor.%@@ The critical findings associated with end-face total internal reflection (TIR) phenomemon we proved before are reported, In particular, these findings reveal that the end-face-TIR capable rays experience enormous mode mixing when encountering a roughened end face.As a result, 94Vo of the overall detectable poweris contributed by this effect.With a smooth fiber end face, this figure is mere 52%.We interpret the mechanism behind these unusual phenomena and its significance for the performance enhancement of fiber optic evanescent wave sensor.

  16. Method for Increasing the Efficiency of Automatic Fire Extinguish System at Objects Of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of energy facilities requires compliance with all safety standards, and especially fire safety. Emergency situations that arise when operated the power equipment damage not only the objects of the technosphere but also the environment. In recent years, can be noted a trend of quite intensive development of technological bases of technology water mist fire extinguishing. Using the methods of optical panoramic imaging PIV, IPI and the method of high-speed video recording were performed the experimental studies of the characteristics of evaporation of large single water droplets as they pass through the flames of oil and oil products with varying parameters of the processes (the initial size of 2–6 mm, the rate of 2–4 m/s and the temperature of water drops 290–300 K, the temperature of the combustion products 185–2073 K. Was established decisive influence droplet size, velocities at which droplets enter the gaseous medium, the initial water temperature on heating rate and evaporation of droplets in a stream of high-temperature combustion products.

  17. Analysis of electrical tree propagation in XLPE power cable insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Minghui; Yin, Xiaogen; He, Junjia

    2011-04-01

    Electrical treeing is one of the major breakdown mechanisms for solid dielectrics subjected to high electrical stress. In this paper, the characteristics of electrical tree growth in XLPE samples have been investigated. XLPE samples are obtained from a commercial XLPE power cable, in which electrical trees have been grown from pin to plane in the frequency range of 4000-10,000 Hz, voltage range of 4-10 kV, and the distances between electrodes of 1 and 2 mm. Images of trees and their growing processes were taken by a CCD camera. The fractal dimensions of electric trees were obtained by using a simple box-counting technique. The results show that the tree growth rate and fractal dimension was bigger when the frequency or voltage was higher, or the distance between electrodes was smaller. Contrary to our expectation, it has been found that when the distance between electrodes changed from 1 to 2 mm, the required voltage of the similar electrical trees decreased only 1or 2 kV. In order to evaluate the difficulties of electrical tree propagation in different conditions, a simple energy threshold analysis method has been proposed. The threshold energy, which presents the minimum energy that a charge carrier in the well at the top of the tree should have to make the tree grow, has been computed considering the length of electrical tree, the fractal dimension, and the growth time. The computed results indicate that when one of the three parameters of voltage, frequency, and local electric field increase, the trends of energy threshold can be split into 3 regions.

  18. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated

  19. Employing Power Graph Analysis to Facilitate Modeling Molecular Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momchil Nenov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling is used to explore and understand complex systems ranging from weather patterns to social networks to gene-expression regulatory mechanisms. There is an upper limit to the amount of details that can be reflected in a model imposed by finite computational resources. Thus, there are methods to reduce the complexity of the modeled system to its most significant parameters. We discuss the suitability of clustering techniques, in particular Power Graph Analysis as an intermediate step of modeling.

  20. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  1. Life-cycle energy and emission analysis of power generation from forest biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper evaluated the energy use and GHG emissions for forest harvest residues. • Two chipping scenarios were compared for power plant sizes from 10 to 300 MW. • Feedstock transportation to power plant highest energy use and GHG emissions. • Chipping at landing used less energy and GHG emissions than chipping at power plant. • Results were most sensitive to biomass moisture content and power plant lifetime. - Abstract: Forest harvest residues, which include limbs, branches, and tree tops, have the potential to generate energy. This paper uses a life-cycle assessment to determine the energy input-to-output ratios for each unit operation in the use of these residues for power generation. Two preparation options for obtaining the biomass were evaluated. For Option 1, the forest residues were chipped at the landing, while for Option 2 they were bundled and chipped at the power plant. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were found for power plants sizes ranging from 10 to 300 MW. For power plants with capacities greater than 30 MW, the transportation of either bundles or woodchips to the power plant used the most energy, especially at larger power plant sizes. Option 1 used less energy than Option 2 for all power plant sizes, with the difference between the two becoming smaller for larger power plants. For the life-cycle GHG emissions, Option 1 ranges from 14.71 to 19.51 g-CO2eq/kW h depending on the power plant size. Option 2 ranges from 21.42 to 20.90 g-CO2eq/kW h. The results are not linear and are close to equal at larger power plant sizes. The GHG emissions increase with increasing moisture content. For a 300 MW power plant with chipping at the landing, the GHG emissions range from 11.17 to 22.24 g-CO2eq/kW h for moisture contents from 15% to 50%. The sensitivity analysis showed both energy use and GHG emissions are most sensitive to moisture content and then plant lifetime. For the equipment, both the energy use and GHG

  2. Increasing DG Capacity of Existing Networks through Reactive Power Control and Curtailment

    OpenAIRE

    Leisse, Ingmar; Samuelsson, Olof; Svensson, Jörgen

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES), especially wind turbines, have become more important during the last years. An increasing number of distributed generation (DG) units are connected to weak medium voltage distribution networks in rural areas where they have a large influence on the voltage and the line losses. Voltage rise is in this case often a limiting factor for the maximum amount of DG capacity. Already current wind turbines with a capacity of 2 MW can often not easily be co...

  3. Power Spectrum Analysis of Three-Dimensional Redshift Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Peacock, J A; Feldman, Hume A.; Kaiser, Nick; Peacock, John A.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a general method for power spectrum analysis of three dimensional redshift surveys. We present rigorous analytical estimates for the statistical uncertainty in the power and we are able to derive a rigorous optimal weighting scheme under the reasonable (and largely empirically verified) assumption that the long wavelength Fourier components are Gaussian distributed. We apply the formalism to the updated 1-in-6 QDOT IRAS redshift survey, and compare our results to data from other probes: APM angular correlations; the CfA and the Berkeley 1.2Jy IRAS redshift surveys. Our results bear out and further quantify the impression from e.g.\\ counts-in-cells analysis that there is extra power on large scales as compared to the standard CDM model with $\\Omega h\\simeq 0.5$. We apply likelihood analysis using the CDM spectrum with $\\Omega h$ as a free parameter as a phenomenological family of models; we find the best fitting parameters in redshift space and transform the results to real space. Finally, we calcul...

  4. Westinghouse FREY calculations: excessive load increase, boron dilution, and rod withdrawal at power. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to execute three sample problems with the FREY Code (a transient analysis code for fuel rods), to document the problems, and to discuss the results. Three ANSI Condition II overpower transients were evaluated. Problem inputs were generated from reactor system models and fuel rod parameters. FREY results were compared to results from a Westinghouse fuel rod modeling code. FREY results for fuel temperatures in general display the correct trend with time during the transients. FREY temperature results are lower than the values obtained from the Westinghouse code. These differences were found to have been principally due to differences in the calculated gap conductance values

  5. Survey and analysis of communications problems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a Technical Planning Study performed to investigate communications problems in nuclear power plants. Four operating power plants covering a range of reactor types, operating conditions, and operating experience were surveyed by a multidisciplinary research team comprised of human factors, operations, and engineering personnel. Unique data collection technique and procedures were formulated for sampling verbal communications that transpired in the nuclear power plant control room. Methods used to collect data included communications activity sampling, questionnaires, structured observation, noise and light level measurements, and evaluation of communications equipment vendor specifications. Results of the study indicate that current communications systems in nuclear power plants are generally inadequate to handle the functions required of them. Expanded requirements and increased plant staffing above and beyond initial plant designs, along with a lack of integration among the various communications systems, have contributed to the present communications problems. Specific problems identified were that (1) existing systems cannot handle high communications demand due to outmoded or incompatible equipment, (2) communications systems lack centralization, (3) high signal density and multiple messages result in confusion and failure to process signals, (4) noise levels in both the control room and other plant areas reduce speech intelligibility, and (5) communications procedures are not well developed and are not utilized to their best advantage. Recommendations are offered for further investigation of improvements to communications in nuclear power plants

  6. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs

  7. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, E.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S. (Morse, Richard, Weisenmiller Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    As private power has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital. This leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not borne by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  8. Intervention analysis of power plant impact on fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intervention analysis was applied to 10 yr (years 1973-1982) of field fish abundance data at the D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, southeastern Lake Michigan. Three log-transformed catch series, comprising monthly observations, were examined for each combination of two species (alewife, Alosa pseudoharenga, or yellow perch, Perca flavescens) and gear (trawl or gill net): catch at the plant discharged transect, catch at the reference transect, and the ratio of plant catch to reference catch. Time series separated by age groups were examined. Based on intervention analysis, no change in the abundance of fish populations could be attributed to plant operation. Additionally, a modification of the intervention analysis technique was applied to investigate trends in abundance at both the plant discharge and reference transects. Significant declines were detected for abundance of alewife adults at both of the transects. Results of the trend analysis support the contention that the alewives have undergone a lakewide decrease in abundance during the 1970s

  9. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EV-MOGA AND GODLIKE MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR RISK BASED OPTIMAL POWER SCHEDULING OF A VIRTUAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh S. Narkhede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made in this article to compare the performances of two multiobjective evolutionary algorithms namely ev-MOGA and GODLIKE. The performances of both are evaluated on risk based optimal power scheduling of virtual power plant. The risk based scheduling is proposed as a conflicting bi objective optimization problem with increased number of durations of day. Both the algorithms are elaborated in detail. Results based on the performance analysis are depicted at the end.

  11. Cascaded gain fibers for increasing output power and the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, J A; Temyanko, V; Dobler, J T; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Dianov, E M; Peyghambarian, N

    2016-05-20

    We show both experimentally and theoretically a method to increase the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and output power of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers. This method employs two or more fibers with varying concentrations of the Raman gain material dopant such as GeO2 or P2O5 in silicate-based glasses. These fibers are then cascaded to form an amplifier gain stage, disrupting the buildup of SBS that normally occurs in single continuous fibers. The numerical model shown is applicable to arbitrary amplifier systems for gain stage optimization and increased power scaling. We give experimental results for phosphosilicate fibers that agree well with simulation predictions that support the numerical model used. PMID:27411133

  12. Increasing the power of FiR 1 TRIGA reactor by a factor of 2 1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An early domestic reactor engineering project was increasing the neutron flux of the Triga Mark II reactor in Otaniemi by a factor of 2 1/2, thirty-five years ago. The thermal power of the facility was increased from 100 kW to 250 kW by modifications made in the fuel loading, control rods, control and protection systems, radiation shielding structures and in the heat removal system. This improved the efficiency of the plant and reduced time requirements in proportion for physical research, isotope production and medical irradiations. Experimental runs were made at 318 kW power, and the final approval inspection for continuous operation at 250 kW was completed on August 3, 1967. (author)

  13. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity

    OpenAIRE

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohen, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from ‘outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954–2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to...

  14. Increased Power Capture by Rotor Speed–Dependent Yaw Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    the yaw alignment can be improved using measurements from the existing standard measurements system. By analyzing data from a case turbine and a corresponding meteorological mast, a correction scheme for the original yaw control system is suggested. The correction scheme is applied to the case turbine...... advanced measurement technologies, such as light detection and ranging systems. However, application of advanced measurement equipment is associated with additional costs and increased system complexity. This study is focused on assessing the current performance of an operating turbine and exploring how...

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE METHOD FOR COMPENSATIVE POWER IN THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY NETWORKS BASED ON PORTABLE ELECTRIC POWER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Karamnov, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a base technology for compensating the reactive power in electricity supply networks based on portable electric power stations (e.g. bank of capacitors, synchronous motors, barier-layer statistical reactive power source). Analysis of advantages and disadvantages for considered engineering solutions is performed.

  16. Phalanx force magnitude and trajectory deviation increased during power grip with an increased coefficient of friction at the hand-object interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Leah R; Seo, Na Jin

    2011-05-17

    This study examined the effect of friction between the hand and grip surface on a person's grip strategy and force generation capacity. Twelve young healthy adults performed power grip exertions on an instrumented vertical cylinder with the maximum and 50% of maximum efforts (far above the grip force required to hold the cylinder), while normal and shear forces at each phalanx of all five fingers in the direction orthogonal to the gravity were recorded. The cylinder surface was varied for high-friction rubber and low-friction paper coverings. An increase in surface friction by replacing the paper covering with the rubber covering resulted in 4% greater mean phalanx normal force (perpendicular to the cylinder surface) and 22% greater mean phalanx shear force in either the proximal or distal direction of the digits (prubber surface compared to the paper surface was associated with a 20% increase in the angular deviation of the phalanx force from the direction normal to the cylinder surface (pglove use, or injuries resulting in reduced sensation. PMID:21496820

  17. Synthesis on power electronics for large fuel cells: From power conditioning to potentiodynamic analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Active load for fuel cell managing electrical drive constraints: frequency and current ripple can be adjusted independently. • Multi-port resonant soft-switched topology for power management of a thirty kilowatt segmented PEM fuel cell. • Splitting current control strategy for power segmented PEM fuel cell in case of a segment is under fault. • Reversible Buck topology for large fuel cell with control of the fuel cell potential linked to current density nonlinearity. - Abstract: The work addressed in this paper deals with a synthesis on power electronic converters used for fuel cells. The knowledge gap concerns conceptually different electronic converter architectures for PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells able to perform three types of functionalities: The first one is the capacity of emulating an active load representative of electrical drive constraints. In that case, frequency and fuel cell current ripple can be set independently to investigate the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell. The second one is power conditioning applied to large high power and segmented fuel cell systems (“Large” represents several tens of cells and multi-kilowatt stacks), which is a non trivial consideration regarding the topological choices to be made for improving efficiency, compactness and ensure operation under faulty condition. A multi-port resonant isolated boost topology is analyzed enabling soft switching over a large operating range for a thirty kilowatt segmented fuel cell. A splitting current control strategy in case of a segment is under fault is proposed. Each considered converter topologies meet specific constraints regarding fuel cell stack design and power level. The third functionality is the ability for the power electronics to perform analysis and diagnosis techniques, like the cyclic voltammetry on large PEM fuel cell assemblies. The latter technique is an uncommon process for large fuel cell stacks since it is rather performed on

  18. Thermoeconomic analysis of a power/water cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogeneration plants for simultaneous production of water and electricity are widely used in the Arabian Gulf region. They have proven to be more thermodynamically efficient and economically feasible than single purpose power generation and water production plants. Yet, there is no standard or universally applied methodology for determining unit cost of electric power generation and desalinated water production by dual purpose plants. A comprehensive literature survey to critically assess and evaluate different methods for cost application in power/water cogeneration plants is reported in this paper. Based on this analysis, an in-depth thermoeconomic study is carried out on a selected power/water cogeneration plant that employs a regenerative Rankine cycle. The system incorporates a boiler, back pressure turbine (supplying steam to two MSF distillers), a deaerator and two feed water heaters. The turbine generation is rated at 118 MW, while MSF distiller is rated at 7.7 MIGD at a top brine temperature of 105 deg. C. An appropriate costing procedure based on the available energy accounting method which divides benefits of the cogeneration configuration equitably between electricity generation and water production is used to determine the unit costs of electricity and water. Capital charges of common equipment such as the boiler, deaerator and feed water heaters as well as boiler fuel costs are distributed between power generated and desalinated water according to available energy consumption of the major subsystems. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the impact of the variation of fuel cost, load and availability factors in addition to capital recovery factor on electricity and water production costs

  19. Increasing the Discriminatory Power of DEA Using Shannon’s Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Xie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many data envelopment analysis (DEA applications, the analyst always confronts the difficulty that the selected data set is not suitable to apply traditional DEA models for their poor discrimination. This paper presents an approach using Shannon’s entropy to improve the discrimination of traditional DEA models. In this approach, DEA efficiencies are first calculated for all possible variable subsets and analyzed using Shannon’s entropy theory to calculate the degree of the importance of each subset in the performance measurement, then we combine the obtained efficiencies and the degrees of importance to generate a comprehensive efficiency score (CES, which can observably improve the discrimination of traditional DEA models. Finally, the proposed approach has been applied to some data sets from the prior DEA literature.

  20. Analysis of chinese Power Market in 2007 and Its Forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Power supply and demand in January-September, 2007 Since 2007, the national economy developed continuously, showing a situation of rapid growth, more optimized structure, increased efficiency and improvement of people's livelihood. In the first three quarters, GDP achieved 16.6043 trillion Yuan, and its year-on-year growth rate was 11.5%; the growth rate was 0.7 percentage points higher than that of the previous year.

  1. Merger market power analysis: Pacific Enterprises and Enova Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Enterprises - Enova (PE-Enova) merger may be viewed as an example of the new breed of gas and power 'convergence' mergers. The merger involved the combination of a large gas distribution utility and a contiguous gas and electric utility located in Southern California. As with most mergers, the PE-Enova merger was proposed to federal and state regulators as an opportunity to achieve ratepayer savings. However, the merger also presented an issue of vertical market power involving the substantial electric generation capacity served by Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) and its potential impact on electric market prices, and the associated revenues for generation assets owned by San Diego Gas and Electric (SDGandE). In order for the merger to proceed, the approval of at least five separate State and federal regulators would be required. Although much of the attention of state regulators, proponents, and intervenors surrounded the division of synergy savings between ratepayers and shareholders, the analysis of the potential for market power abuse was extensive. Intervenors presented numerous complex arguments regarding the potential adverse effects of the merger on competition. In particular, intervenors argued that the combined company would manipulate its storage and transport operations to influence the delivered price of gas to California generators, and therefore, the price of power in the wholesale electric market. The arguments surrounding the existence and impacts of market power in this case are of interest in the understanding the nature and complexity of factors that may be considered in evaluating mergers. The proceeding also provides insight into how regulators are grappling with market power issues associated with convergence mergers, and weigh merger costs and benefits

  2. Analysis of Probabilistic Harmonic Currents and Voltages of Electronic Power Converter Contributed in Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hua Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic analysis is an important application to power systems and an efficient approach to evaluate the injected Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of currents flowing into a power system due to the summation of randomly varying harmonic currents produced by AC/DC power converters is presented in this study. A probabilistic model is established to derive the magnitude of the injected harmonic currents using the expected value and variance of the harmonic current sources. This study presents a method for predicting the net harmonic current and voltage produced by a large number of electronic power converter loads at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC. Two of the more difficult aspects of applying IEEE Standard 519 are one determining an appropriate harmonic penetration Point of Common Coupling (PCC and second establishing a harmonic model at the increasingly distributed loads test system. The estimated results obtain by simulating a distribution system show that the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Analysis of the Thermonuclear Instability including Low-Power ICRH Minority Heating in IGNITOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinali, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear thermal balance equation for classical plasma in a toroidal geometry is analytically and numerically investigated including ICRH power. The determination of the equilibrium temperature and the analysis of the stability of the solution are performed by solving the energy balance equation that includes the transport relations obtained by the kinetic theory. An estimation of the confinement time is also provided. We show that the ICRH heating in the IGNITOR experiment, among other applications, is expected to stabilize the power of the thermonuclear burning by automatic regulation of the RF coupled power. Here a scenario is considered where IGNITOR is led to operate in a slightly sub-critical regime by adding a small fraction of ${}^3He$ to the nominal 50-50 Deuterium-Tritium mixture. The difference between power lost and alpha heating is compensated by additional ICRH heating, which should be able to increase the global plasma temperature via collisions between ${}^3He$ minority and the background...

  4. Information or prices, which is most powerful in increasing consumer demand for organic vegetables?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2012-01-01

    to prices. “New” consumers can be persuaded to buy organic vegetables by providing information about the negative health effects of consuming conventional vegetables since it increases the probability of an organic purchase. Once consumers have entered the organic marked for vegetables, information......Based on a unique and very detailed panel dataset covering consumption of organically and conventionally produced vegetables in the years 2005 - 2007, we examine the effects of information about positive health effects of consuming organic vegetables and information about negative health effects...... of consuming conventional vegetables on demand for organic foods for six different segments of Danish households. Three of these segments are positive towards organics whereas the remaining three segments are negative or indifferent. Using the double hurdle model we estimate partial effects of both directly...

  5. Analysis of competition and market power in the wholesale electricity market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity reforms were initiated in India with the objective of promoting competition in the electricity market. In order to promote competition, the Electricity Act 2003 was enacted and various policy initiatives were taken by the Government of India. Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) also facilitated competition through the regulatory framework of availability based tariff, Indian Electricity Grid Code, open access in inter-state transmission, inter-state trading and power exchanges. Despite these initiatives, electricity prices increased in the Wholesale Electricity Market in India (WEMI). This paper analyses the market structure and competitiveness in the WEMI. There are, of course, various potential reasons for the rise in the electricity price. This paper seeks to investigate, if market power was one of the reasons for increase in market prices. Concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman index, Supply Margin Assessment, and Residual Supply Index have been used to measure market power. This paper also uses the price-cost mark-up to examine, if exercise of market power led to higher margins. The analysis suggests that market power of firms may be part of the reason for the increase in electricity prices in WEMI. The study suggests various measures to increase competition in the WEMI.

  6. Fault tree based reliability analysis for digital reactor power control system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fault tree method is used for reliability analysis for reactor power control system, including uncertainty analysis and sensitive analysis. 'loss of regulation accident' top event and 'loss of effective control' top event are defined, corresponding fault tree are constructed, and contribution of hardware failure and software failure to system safety are calculated. It points out that common mode failures of software, actuator, sensor and operator's response have significant influence to system reliability in 'loss of regulation accident'; software common mode failure and operators' response have significant contribution to system reliability in 'loss of efficient control accident'. (authors)

  7. Economical analysis of FV power plants according installed performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According prognosis of future development of power capacities in Slovakia till 2030 there is assumed increasing of the electricalenergy volume, produced from renewable energy sources from present 260 MW approximately to 2100 MW (Petrovič, 2008, thatpresents almost 800 % increasing! In Slovakia position of photovoltaic in this sector was due to the high investment cost and on the lastplace due to the low system efficiency. Only possible way for implementation of the photovoltaic to the energetic system of the stateis 0donation. Slovakia will go this way also.

  8. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  9. Power plant selection in a carbon constrained world the TERA (technoeconomic environmental risk analysis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Ogaji; Pericles Pilidis; Vishal Sethi

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing concern that current trends of consumption of natural resources cannot continue. It is imperative that major targeted investments are made into economical and reliable environment friendly propulsion and power solutions. Many novel and promising concepts are being proposed. The selection of the best candidates to pursue for investment becomes a very difficult choice.A detailed TERA (techno-economic environmental risk analysis) framework is described here to quantify risks and to compare and rank competing schemes on a formal and consistent basis. This technique is based on detailed and rigorous thermodynamic representations of power plants. A layer of environment, economic, weather and other models to describe the appropriate local conditions is superimposed to this.The outcome is a techno-economic environmental risk analysis framework with appropriate detail of each power plant as applied to the appropriate conditions. The results for each concept can then be compared and contrasted to make appropriate selections.

  10. Modus operandi for maximizing energy efficiency and increasing permeate flux of community scale solar powered reverse osmosis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental data on energy efficient photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis system. • Synergetic management of electrical, thermal and hydraulic energies. • Use of reflectors, heat exchanger and turgo turbine. - Abstract: Photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis systems can only be made cost effective if they are made highly energy efficient. In this work we describe a protocol to maximize energy efficiency and increase permeate flux in a fully integrated installation of such a system. The improved system consisted of (i) photovoltaic array fitted with suitably positioned and aligned North–South V-trough reflectors to enhance power output from the array; (ii) direct contact heat exchanger fitted on the rear of the photovoltaic modules for active cooling of the same while safeguarding the terminals from short-circuit and corrosion; (iii) use of reverse osmosis feed water as heat exchange medium while taking due care to limit the temperature rise of feed water; (iv) enhancing permeate flux through the rise in feed water temperature; (v) turgo-turbine for conversion of hydraulic energy in reverse osmosis reject water into mechanical energy to provide part of the energy to replace booster pump utilized in the reverse osmosis unit. The V-trough reflectors onto the photovoltaic modules with thermal energy recovery system brought about an increase in power output of 40% and the synergistic effect of (i)–(iv) gave rise to total permeate volume boost of 59%. Integration of (v) resulted in 56% and 26% saving of electrical power when the reverse osmosis plant was operated by battery bank and direct photovoltaic array respectively

  11. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems. PMID:27409584

  12. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems. PMID:27409584

  13. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  14. Analysis of Maisotsenko open gas turbine power cycle with a detailed air saturator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Developed an accurate air saturator model. • Performed sensitivity analysis for Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC). • Performed comparative analysis for MGTC and simple gas turbine with reheat (SGTR) and humid air turbine (HAT). • MGTC has higher efficiency and specific work output with at high compressor pressure ratio. • Optimum air saturator water mass flow rate is calculated. - Abstract: With ever increasing cost of fossil fuels and natural gas, the improvement in gas turbine power cycle efficiency is needed due to the tremendous savings in fuel consumption. Water/steam injection is considered as one of the most popular power augmentation techniques because of its significant impact on the gas turbine performance. One of the recently suggested evaporative gas turbine cycles is the Maisotsenko open cycle for gas turbine power generation. In this paper, detailed thermodynamic analysis of this cycle is investigated with a thorough air saturator model. A comparative analysis is carried out to signify the advantages and disadvantages of Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC) as compared with humid air gas turbine cycles. MGTC performance is evaluated based on a simple recuperated gas turbine cycle. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of different operating parameters on the overall cycle performance. Finally, integrating an air saturator instead of a conventional heat exchanger in recuperated gas turbine cycles enhances the power plant performance such that an efficiency enhancement of 7% points and net specific work output augmentation of 44.4% are obtained

  15. Performance analysis of solar driven heat engine with internal irreversibilities under maximum power and power density condition

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, A.; K. M. Pandey; Deb, R.

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamic optimizations based on the maximum power and maximum power density criteria have been performed for a solar-driven heat engine with internal irreversibilities. In the analysis, it is assumed that the heat transfer from the hot reservoir is to be in the radiation mode and the heat transfer to the cold reservoir is to be in the convection mode. The power and power density functions have been derived, and maximization of these functions has been performed for various design and ope...

  16. An Analysis of the Accuracy of Electromechanical Eigenvalue Calculations Based on Instantaneous Power Waveforms Recorded in a Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Pruski; Stefan Paszek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of calculating the eigenvalues (associated with electromechanical phenomena) of the state matrix of the Polish Power System model on the basis of analysis of simulated and measured instantaneous power disturbance waveforms of generating units in Łaziska Power Plant. The method for electromechanical eigenvalue calculations used in investigations consists in approximation of the instantaneous power swing waveforms in particular generating units with the use of the...

  17. STATCOM power frequency model with VSC charging dynamics and its application in the power system stability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Y.; Snider, L

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the STATCOM power frequency model is derived with voltage source converter charging dynamics. The main control and supplementary control are then added for voltage regulation and damping power oscillation. The integrated STATCOM system model is used in power system transient stability analysis. Computer program is developed based on Power System Toolbox of MATLAB. Computer test results show clearly the effects of the STATCOM on system dynamic behavior and transfer limit.

  18. The Environment-Power System Analysis Tool development program. [for spacecraft power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeward, Gary A.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Kennedy, Eric M.; Wilcox, Katherine G.; Stevens, N. John; Putnam, Rand M.; Roche, James C.

    1989-01-01

    The Environment Power System Analysis Tool (EPSAT) is being developed to provide engineers with the ability to assess the effects of a broad range of environmental interactions on space power systems. A unique user-interface-data-dictionary code architecture oversees a collection of existing and future environmental modeling codes (e.g., neutral density) and physical interaction models (e.g., sheath ionization). The user-interface presents the engineer with tables, graphs, and plots which, under supervision of the data dictionary, are automatically updated in response to parameter change. EPSAT thus provides the engineer with a comprehensive and responsive environmental assessment tool and the scientist with a framework into which new environmental or physical models can be easily incorporated.

  19. Probabilistic methods in nuclear power plant component ageing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plant ageing research is aimed to ensure that the plant safety and reliability are maintained at a desired level through the designed, and possibly extended lifetime. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time- dependent decrease in reliability. The results of analyses can be used in the evaluation of the remaining lifetime of components and in the development of preventive maintenance, testing and replacement programmes. The report discusses the use of probabilistic models in the evaluations of the ageing of nuclear power plant components. The principles of nuclear power plant ageing studies are described and examples of ageing management programmes in foreign countries are given. The use of time-dependent probabilistic models to evaluate the ageing of various components and structures is described and the application of models is demonstrated with two case studies. In the case study of motor- operated closing valves the analysis are based on failure data obtained from a power plant. In the second example, the environmentally assisted crack growth is modelled with a computer code developed in United States, and the applicability of the model is evaluated on the basis of operating experience

  20. Increasing the energy conservation awareness using the influential power of a lottery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amruta Vijay

    This thesis presents an influence maximization-driven approach to promoting energy conservation awareness, with the objective to generate a competitive environment for energy consumption supervision. As consumers are typically reluctant to invest their time and effort in the activities beyond their business, an incentive-based distribution strategy is proposed to encourage consumers to actively take part in energy conservation. The key idea of the thesis lies in leveraging the consumer instincts as a driving factor for spreading positive social influence, via a smart lottery program. In the proposed framework, saving energy automatically increases the consumers' chances of winning the lottery, thereby motivating them to save more, while the smart winner selection will maximize the word-of-mouth effect of the program. The thesis collects and organizes a large body of literature in support of the claim that the spread of awareness in a social network can play a key role in the emergence of energy conscious behavior. It also reports on the findings of a survey conducted to determine the present day consumer perspective toward energy conservation and the level of influence required to motivate them to conserve more energy. Finally, a mathematical model for smart lottery winner selection is presented, and insightful observations are made concerning the properties of optimal solutions to tractable, small problem instances.