WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis including long-term

  1. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  2. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  3. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  4. [Analysis of long-term survivors in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akira; Matuzu, Kenichi

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the clinicopathologic and therapeutic factors associated with long-term survival in 449 patients with anaplastic carcinoma registered with the Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Consortium of Japan. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between long-term survival of more than 1 year and the following factors: the appearance of acute symptom; WBC thyroid gland after surgery; no distant metastasis at initial diagnosi; complete resection of gross tumor; and administration of external irradiation (40 Gy) and chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, only tumor diameter (disease.

  5. Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Long-term Periodicity Analysis of Polarization Variation for Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We use the database of University of Michigan Radio As- tronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at three radio bands (4.8, 8 and 14.5. GHz) to analyse the long-term polarization variation in search of the pos- sible periodicity. Using the power spectral analysis method (PSA), the. Jurkevich method and the discrete ...

  7. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  8. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  9. Data Preservation and Long Term Analysis in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Several important and unique experimental high-energy physics programmes at a variety of facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, the B-factories and the Tevatron. The wealth of physics data from these experiments is the result of a significant financial and human effort, and yet until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on data preservation and long-term analysis in high-energy physics was convened at the end of 2008, publishing an interim report in 2009. The membership of the study group has since expanded, including the addition of the LHC experiments, and a full status report has now been released. This report greatly expands on the ideas contained in the original publication and provides a more solid set of recommendations, not only concerning data preservation and its implementation in high-energy physics, but also the future direction and organisational model of the study group. The main messages of the status report were presented for the first time at the 2012 International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics and are summarised in these proceedings.

  10. Long-term Preservation of Data Analysis Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.; Arviset, C.; Ibarra, A.; Pollock, A.

    2015-09-01

    While the long-term preservation of scientific data obtained by large astrophysics missions is ensured through science archives, the issue of data analysis software preservation has hardly been addressed. Efforts by large data centres have contributed so far to maintain some instrument or mission-specific data reduction packages on top of high-level general purpose data analysis software. However, it is always difficult to keep software alive without support and maintenance once the active phase of a mission is over. This is especially difficult in the budgetary model followed by space agencies. We discuss the importance of extending the lifetime of dedicated data analysis packages and review diverse strategies under development at ESA using new paradigms such as Virtual Machines, Cloud Computing, and Software as a Service for making possible full availability of data analysis and calibration software for decades at minimal cost.

  11. International Long-term Data and Analysis Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J; Rahal, G; South, D; Guelzow, V; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of scientific data for long-term use and re-analysis has been identified as a key requirement in the field of High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, as well as Life and Earth Sciences. In collaboration with related projects in the US (in particular in close collaboration with the National Science Foundation and Department of Energy) the proposed project would take the work of the Data Preservation in HEP Study group that defines the physics motivation for long-term data preservation and many of the associated issues, and extend this to cover not only the existing use cases but also consider the needs of the LHC experiments at CERN. This work would ensure the persistent availability of existing data and enable it to be shared between organisations and across national boundaries. Now is the time to define standards for data and meta-data formats and address access and authorization issues for on-going experiments (e.g. those at the LHC) – issues that hav...

  12. Development of a Long Term Cooling Analysis Methodology Using Rappel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. I.; Jeong, J. H.; Ban, C. H.; Oh, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the revision of the 10CFR50.46 in 1988, which allowed BE (Best-Estimate) method in analyzing the safety performance of a nuclear power plant, safety analysis methodologies have been changed continuously from conservative EM (Evaluation Model) approaches to BE ones. In this context, LSC (Long-Term core Cooling) methodologies have been reviewed by the regulatory bodies of USA and Korea. Some non-conservatism and improperness of the old methodology have been identified, and as a result, USNRC suspended the approval of CENPD-254-P-A which is the old LSC methodology for CE-designed NPPs. Regulatory bodies requested to remove the non-conservatisms and to reflect system transient behaviors in all the LSC methodologies used. In the present study, a new LSC methodology using RELAP5 is developed. RELAP5 and a newly developed code, BACON (Boric Acid Concentration Of Nuclear power plant) are used to calculate the transient behavior of the system and the boric acid concentration, respectively. Full range of break spectrum is considered and the applicability is confirmed through plant demonstration calculations. The result shows a good comparison with the old-fashioned ones, therefore, the methodology could be applied with no significant changes of current LSC plans

  13. On the long-term analysis with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods on long-term behaviour is given. This is followed by a survey of the method of the inner state variables, which on the one hand gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computer-ready calculation process. Two examples on long-term behaviour illustrate the regions of application of the computer methods. (orig./LH) [de

  14. Long term reliability analysis of standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long term reliability of 11 diesel generators of 125 to 250 kV A size has been analysed from 26 years of data base information on individual diesel service as standby power supplies for the Chalk River research reactor facilities. Failure to start on demand and failure to run data is presented and failure by diesel subsystem and multiple failures are also analysed. A brief comparison is made with reliability studies of larger diesel generator units used for standby power service in nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. A portable chemotaxis platform for short and long term analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Xu

    Full Text Available Flow-based microfluidic systems have been widely utilized for cell migration studies given their ability to generate versatile and precisely defined chemical gradients and to permit direct visualization of migrating cells. Nonetheless, the general need for bulky peripherals such as mechanical pumps and tubing and the complicated setup procedures significantly limit the widespread use of these microfluidic systems for cell migration studies. Here we present a simple method to power microfluidic devices for chemotaxis assays using the commercially available ALZET® osmotic pumps. Specifically, we developed a standalone chemotaxis platform that has the same footprint as a multiwell plate and can generate well-defined, stable chemical gradients continuously for up to 7 days. Using this platform, we validated the short-term (24 hours and long-term (72 hours concentration dependent PDGF-BB chemotaxis response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  16. Analysis of the SPS Long Term Orbit Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velotti, Francesco [CERN; Bracco, Chiara [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Fraser, Matthew [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN

    2016-06-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is the last accelerator in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain, and has to deliver the two high-intensity 450 GeV proton beams to the LHC. The transport from SPS to LHC is done through the two Transfer Lines (TL), TI2 and TI8, for Beam 1 (B1) and Beam 2 (B2) respectively. During the first LHC operation period Run 1, a long term drift of the SPS orbit was observed, causing changes in the LHC injection due to the resulting changes in the TL trajectories. This translated into longer LHC turnaround because of the necessity to periodically correct the TL trajectories in order to preserve the beam quality at injection into the LHC. Different sources for the SPS orbit drifts have been investigated: each of them can account only partially for the total orbit drift observed. In this paper, the possible sources of such drift are described, together with the simulated and measured effect they cause. Possible solutions and countermeasures are also discussed.

  17. Long-term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Prabhjot K; Castro-Codesal, Maria Luisa; Featherstone, Robin; AlBalawi, Mohammed M; Alkhaledi, Bashar; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Flores-Mir, Carlos; MacLean, Joanna E

    2018-01-01

    The use of long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to treat sleep and breathing disorders in children has increased substantially in the last decade; however, less data exist about its use in infants. Given that infants have distinct sleep and breathing patterns when compared to older children, the outcomes of infants on long-term NIV may differ as well. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use and outcomes of long-term NIV in infants. Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, CINAHL (via EbscoHOST), PubMed, and Wiley Cochrane Library were systematically searched from January 1990 to July 2017. Studies on infants using long-term NIV outside of an acute care setting were included. Data were extracted on study design, population characteristics, and NIV outcomes. A total of 327 studies were full-text reviewed, with final inclusion of 60. Studies were distributed across airway (40%), neuromuscular (28%), central nervous system (10%), cardio-respiratory (2%), and multiple (20%) disease categories. Of the 18 airway studies reporting on NIV outcomes, 13 (72%) reported improvements in respiratory parameters. Of the 12 neuromuscular studies exclusively on spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), six (50%) reported decreased hospitalizations and nine (75%) reported on mortality outcomes. Risk of bias was moderate to serious, and quality of the evidence was low to very low for all studies. Most studies had an observational design with no control group, limiting the potential for a meta-analysis. The outcomes reported in studies differed by the disease category being studied. Studies on airway conditions showed improvements in respiratory parameters for infants using NIV. Studies on neuromuscular disorder, which were almost exclusively on SMA1, reported decreased hospitalizations and prolonged survival. Overall, it appears that NIV is an effective long-term therapy for infants. However, the high risk of bias and low quality of the available evidence limited strong

  18. Long-term analysis of slender concrete structures with cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, J.C.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A special form of the finite element program, which is based on the equilibrium of forces in various cross sections of the beam together with the principle of virtual work, is presented for solving concrete beam problems. This analytical method uses the newly developed rheological element and exponential algorithm for computing time-dependent deformation and stress distribution in cracked concrete members subjected to sustained loads, temperature, or drying. Temperature and moisture effects on hydration (aging) and creep rate are included. The rate effects of temperature and moisture on the deformation of concrete are also taken into account in the formulation. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the validity of the analysis on concrete beams. Plain and reinforced concrete beams subjected to bending, heating or drying are analyzed and checked against experimental data

  19. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM RESULTS OF SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Nenashev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of 97 shoulder arthroplasties during 1998 to 2009 was performed. The hemiarthroplasty were fulfilled in 92 patients and total shoulder replacement in 5 patients. Total rate good and satisfactory results consists 32,0%, poor results - 68,0% (66 patients, include 5 patients with total shoulder arthroplasty. The lower level of good results was revealed in patients with chronic fractures and fracture-dislocations of shoulder. It related with changes bones of shoulder and muscles of shoulder (rotator cuff. In the studied group of patients there was no proper pre-operative diagnostics of the rotator cuff, articular surface of the scapula, which shows the need for careful preoperative examination to determine the indications for shoulder arthroplasty and select the type of prosthesis. Unsatisfactory results of total arthroplasty related to screw migration (in case of the transacromion approach and to the development of subacromial impingement. The conclusion about the need to narrow the indications for use of the scapular component «Ortho-P». The authors showed preference to cemented implants without a metal base. It is necessary to introduce in practice the anatomic implants of the third generation allowing the fullest play the anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder joint.

  20. Long term energy performance analysis of Egbin thermal power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at providing an energy performance analysis of Egbin thermal power plant. The plant operates on Regenerative Rankine cycle with steam as its working fluid .The model equations were formulated based on some performance parameters used in power plant analysis. The considered criteria were plant ...

  1. Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The annual and seasonal trend analysis of different surface temperature parameters (average, maximum, minimum and diurnal temperature range) has been done for historical (1971–2005) and future periods (2011–2099) in the middle catchment of Sutlej river basin, India. The future time series of temperature data has ...

  2. Long-term Periodicity Analysis of Polarization Variation for Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Using the power spectral analysis method (PSA), the Jurkevich method and the discrete correlation function (DCF) method, we find that there are 16 sources lying in periodicity. The results show the astrophysically meaningful periodicity covering 2.1 years to 16.2 years at 4.8 GHz, 2.8 years to 16.3 years at ...

  3. Coagulation factor analysis in patients on long-term anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H A; Biben, R L

    1970-03-01

    Ninety studies on 58 patients undergoing chronic warfarin therapy included Quick prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times, thromboplastin generation tests and assays for clotting factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII. The results indicate no benefit from supplementation of the Quick tests by any of these other procedures. It is suggested that the Quick test uniformly performed, using a standard uniform thromboplastin, would be the procedure of choice.

  4. SWAAM-LT: The long-term, sodium/water reaction analysis method computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Chung, H.H.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Tanabe, H.

    1993-01-01

    The SWAAM-LT Code, developed for analysis of long-term effects of sodium/water reactions, is discussed. The theoretical formulation of the code is described, including the introduction of system matrices for ease of computer programming as a general system code. Also, some typical results of the code predictions for available large scale tests are presented. Test data for the steam generator design with the cover-gas feature and without the cover-gas feature are available and analyzed. The capabilities and limitations of the code are then discussed in light of the comparison between the code prediction and the test data

  5. Geoscientific long-term prognosis. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrugalla, Sabine

    2011-07-01

    The preliminary safety analysis of the site Gorleben includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Aim and content of the geoscientific long-term prognosis for the site Gorleben; (3) Boundary conditions at the site Gorleben: climate; geomorphology; overlying rocks and adjoining rocks; hydrogeology; salt deposit Gorleben. (4) Probable future geological developments at the site Gorleben: supraregional developments with effects on the site Gorleben; glacial period developments; developments of the geomorphology, overlying and adjoining rocks; future developments of the hydrological systems at the site Gorleben; future saliniferous specific developments of the salt deposit Gorleben. (5) Commentary on the unlikely or excludable developments of the site Gorleben.

  6. Long-Term Safety Analysis of Baldone Radioactive Waste Repository and Updating of Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The main objective of the project was to provide advice to the Latvian authorities on the safety enhancements and waste acceptance criteria for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities of the Baldone repository. The project included the following main activities: Analysis of the current status of the management of radioactive waste in Latvia in general and, at the Baldone repository in particular Development of the short and long-term safety analysis of the Baldone repository, including: the planned increasing of capacity for disposal and long term storage, the radiological analysis for the post-closure period Development of the Environment Impact Statement, for the new foreseen installations, considering the non radiological components Proposal of recommendations for future updating of radioactive waste acceptance criteria Proposal of recommendations for safety upgrades to the facility. The work programme has been developed in phases and main tasks as follows. Phase 0: Project inception, Phase 1: Establishment of current status, plans and practices (Legislation, regulation and standards, Radioactive waste management, Waste acceptance criteria), Phase 2: Development of future strategies for long-term safety management and recommendations for safety enhancements. The project team found the general approach use at the installation, the basic design and the operating practices appropriate to international standards. Nevertheless, a number of items subject to potential improvements were also identified. These upgrading recommendations deal with general aspects of the management (mainly storage versus disposal of long-lived sources), site and environmental surveillance, packaging (qualification of containers, waste characterization requirements), the design of an engineered cap and strategies for capping. (author)

  7. Long-Term Aripiprazole in Youth with Developmental Disabilities Including Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Boehm, Danna; Yeh, Hung Wen; Butler, Merlin G.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed clinic charts of 21 children and adolescents with developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated consecutively with aripiprazole (ARI) for irritability and severe challenging behaviors. Data extracted include age, sex, and race; level of intellectual disability (ID); "Diagnostic and…

  8. Comparisons of periodontal regenerative therapies: A meta-analysis on the long-term efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Chun; Lin, Liang-Ko; Song, Cheng-Jie; Su, Yu-Xuan; Tu, Yu-Kang

    2017-05-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis for the long-term differences in treatment outcomes between periodontal regeneration therapies and flap operation. A systematic literature search was conducted using the EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane databases up to June 2016. Treatment outcomes were changes in probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. We extracted data reported at different time points after periodontal surgery and incorporated all data into the same model. The restricted cubic spline regression was used to estimate the non-linear trend in treatment outcomes. As some studies reported outcomes at multiple time points, we considered several correlation structures for data reported by the same study. A total of 52 randomized controlled trials were included in our longitudinal meta-analysis. The follow-up length ranged from 0.5 year to 10 years. The trends in the treatment outcomes were similar under different correlation structures. Enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) achieved greater probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain than flap operation (FO) in the long-term follow up, but no differences were found between EMD and GTR. Compared with FO, periodontal regeneration surgeries achieved greater PPD reduction and gain in CAL after 1 year, and its effects may last for 5-10 years. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Quantitative analysis of stability of 9%Cr steel microstructure after long-term ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golański G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the microstructure of martensitic X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91 and X13CrMoCo- VNbNB9-2-1 (PB2 steel subject to long-term ageing at the temperature of 620°C and holding times up to 30 000 hours. The microstructural tests of the examined steel types were performed using a scanning microscope Joel JSM - 6610LV and a transmission electron microscope TITAN 80 - 300. The stability of the microstructure of the investigated steels was analyzed using a quantitative analysis of an image, including measurements of the following: the density of dislocations inside martensite/subgrain laths, the width of martensite laths, and the mean diameter of precipitates. It has been concluded that during long-term ageing, the microaddition of boron in PB2 steel significantly influenced the slowing of the process of degradation of the martensitic steel microstructure, as a result of slowing the process of coagulation of M23C6 carbides and Laves phase. It had a favorable effect on the stabilization of lath microstructure as a result of retardation of the processes of recovery and polygonization of the matrix.

  10. A cost-effectiveness analysis of long-term intermittent catheterisation with hydrophilic and uncoated catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, J F; Mealing, S J; Scott, D A

    2016-01-01

    -old SCI patient with chronic urinary retention will live an additional 1.4 years if using HC catheters compared with UC catheters, at an incremental cost of £2100. Moreover, the lifetime number of UTI events will be reduced by 16%. All best- and worst-case estimates were within the UK threshold of being......STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysisObjective:To establish a model to investigate the cost effectiveness for people with spinal cord injury (SCI), from a lifetime perspective, for the usage of two different single-use catheter designs: hydrophilic-coated (HC) and uncoated (UC). The model...... includes the long-term sequelae of impaired renal function and urinary tract infection (UTI). SETTING: Analysis based on a UK perspective. METHODS: A probabilistic Markov decision model was constructed, to compare lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years, taking renal and UTI health states...

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Adverse Effects of Long-Term Azithromycin Use in Patients with Chronic Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Ding-Hui; Chen, Lu-Lu; Zhao, Qi; Yu, Yan-Zhe; Ding, Jing-Jing; Miao, Li-Yun; Xiao, Yong-Long; Zhang, De-Ping; Guo, Yu-Biao; Xie, Can-Mao

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of azithromycin on the treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases (CLD) were evaluated in the present study. MEDLINE and other databases were searched for relevant articles published until August 2013. Randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with chronic lung diseases who received long-term azithromycin treatment were selected, and data on microbiological studies and azithromycin-related adverse events were abstracted from articles and analyzed. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bacterial resistance in patients receiving long-term azithromycin treatment was increased 2.7-fold (risk ratio [RR], 2.69 [95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 1.249, 5.211]) compared with the risk in patients receiving placebo treatment. On the other hand, the risk of bacterial colonization decreased in patients receiving azithromycin treatment (RR, 0.551 [95% CI, 0.460, 0.658]). Patients receiving long-term azithromycin therapy were at risk of increased impairment of hearing (RR, 1.168 [95% CI, 1.030, 1.325]). This analysis provides evidence supporting the idea that bacterial resistance can develop with long-term azithromycin treatment. Besides the increasingly recognized anti-inflammatory role of azithromycin used in treating chronic lung diseases, we should be aware of the potential for adverse events with its long-term use. PMID:24189261

  12. Exploring patient priorities among long-term conditions in multimorbidity: A qualitative secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeh Cheraghi-Sohi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A lack of agreement between health-care providers and patient priorities can impact the health-care provider–patient relationship, treatment concordance and potentially health outcomes. Evidence suggests that people living with multiple morbidities do prioritise among their long-term conditions. However, the evidence revealing the underlying reasons behind this prioritisation remains limited. Given the potential implications for day-to-day self-management activity and ultimately patient outcomes, this study aims to explore how and why people with multimorbidity prioritise some long-term conditions over others and what the potential implications may be for self-management activity, and in turn, suggest how such information may help clinicians negotiate the management of multimorbidity patients. Methods: A secondary analysis of qualitative data was conducted utilising four existing data sets collated from the three research centres involved. Purposive sampling provided a sample of 41 participants who had multimorbidity. The research team collectively coded and analysed the data thematically. Results: All participants, except two, identified one ‘main’ priority long-term condition. Current priorities were arrived at by participants making comparisons between their long-term conditions, specifically by trading off the various attributes, impacts and perceived consequences of their individual long-term conditions. Two main themes emerged as to why participants identified a particular main long-term condition: (a proximate issues surrounding barriers to functional health and (b prioritisation of long-term conditions perceived to have a particular future risk. Conclusions: The recent focus on multimorbidity within the medical literature reflects its prevalence. It is therefore important to understand the complexities of the multimorbidity illness experience. We have added to the limited literature on condition prioritisation by

  13. Dementia case management and risk of long-term care placement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam-Tham, Helen; Cepoiu-Martin, Monica; Ronksley, Paul E; Maxwell, Colleen J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-09-01

    The objective of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of dementia case management compared with usual care on reducing long-term care placement, hospitalization, and emergency department visits for adult patients with dementia. We also sought to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention on delaying time to long-term care placement and hospitalization. We searched electronic databases supplemented by bibliographies and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials testing the effectiveness of dementia case management in reducing resource utilization in a population of caregiver-care recipient dyads living in the community. We meta-analyzed the risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean differences of long-term care placement and the RR of hospital admissions. Pooled estimates were further stratified by study characteristics and measures of study quality. Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled RR of long-term care placement was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [0.85, 1.03]; p = 0.227) for dementia case management compared with usual care. Stratification by follow-up duration indicated a statistically significant reduction in risk of long-term care placement when follow-up duration was less than 18 months (RR 0.61, 95% confidence interval [0.41, 0.91], p = 0.015). There was no effect of dementia case management compared with usual care for the other outcomes. Dementia case management demonstrated a short-term positive effect on reducing the risk of long-term care placement among older people with dementia residing in the community. However, other sources of resource utilization and more extended effects of dementia case management on risk of long-term care placement warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The long term effects of early analysis of a trauma registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashour Mazen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We established a trauma registry in 2003 to collect data on trauma patients, which is a major cause of death in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The aim of this paper is to report on the long term effects of our early analysis of this registry. Methods Data in the early stages of this trauma registry were collected for 503 patients during a period of 6 months in 2003. Data was collected on a paper form and then entered into the trauma registry using a self-developed Access database. Descriptive analysis was performed. Results Most were males (87%, the mean age (SD was 30.5 (14.9. UAE citizens formed 18.5%. Road traffic collisions caused an overwhelming 34.2% of injuries with 29.7% of those involving UAE citizens while work-related injuries were 26.2%. The early analysis of this registry had two major impacts. Firstly, the alarmingly high rate of UAE nationals in road traffic collisions standardized to the population led to major concerns and to the development of a specialized road traffic collision registry three years later. Second, the equally alarming high rate of work-related injuries led to collaboration with a Preventive Medicine team who helped with refining data elements of the trauma registry to include data important for research in trauma prevention. Conclusion Analysis of a trauma registry as early as six months can lead to useful information which has long term effects on the progress of trauma research and prevention.

  15. The long-term memory analysis of industrial indices of the Chinese stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L

    2008-01-01

    The main work of this paper is to apply the fractional market theory and time series analysis for analyzing various industrial indices of the Chinese stock market by rescaling range analysis. Hurst index and the long-term memory of price change in Chinese stock market are studied

  16. Interactive visual analysis promotes exploration of long-term ecological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.N. Pham; J.A. Jones; R. Metoyer; F.J. Swanson; R.J. Pabst

    2013-01-01

    Long-term ecological data are crucial in helping ecologists understand ecosystem function and environmental change. Nevertheless, these kinds of data sets are difficult to analyze because they are usually large, multivariate, and spatiotemporal. Although existing analysis tools such as statistical methods and spreadsheet software permit rigorous tests of pre-conceived...

  17. Patient Specific Characteristic of Brain Dynamic in Interpretation of Long Term EEG Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, V.; Paluš, Milan; Hrnčíř, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 45, Suppl. 3 (2004), s. 51 ISSN 0013-9580. [European Congress on Epileptology /6./. 30.05.2004-03.06.2004, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : brain dynamic * long term EEG analysis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary revascularization: meta-analysis of mid- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Umar A R; Harling, Leanne; Rao, Christopher; Ashrafian, Hutan; Ibrahim, Michael; Kokotsakis, John; Casula, Roberto; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-08-01

    Early outcomes for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) have been extensively compared with on-pump coronary revascularization (ONCAB); however, the long-term effects of OPCAB continue to be debated. This study aims to compare the mid-term (>1year; ≤5 years) and long-term (>5 years) survival and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events of OPCAB versus ONCAB. A systematic search identified 32 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. These were analyzed using random effects modeling, with subgroup evaluation according to study type. Primary outcomes were mid- and long-term survival over a follow-up period greater than 1 year. Secondary outcomes were mid- and long-term events including repeat revascularization, myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, and cerebrovascular accidents. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting confers similar overall mid-term survival when compared with ONCAB (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.19; p=0.31). On-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was associated with a significant trend towards a long-term survival advantage (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.13; p=0.05); however, this was no longer present when subgroup analysis of only randomized controlled trials, registry-based studies, and propensity-matched studies was performed. There was an increase in angina recurrence among two studies after OPCAB, but no difference was seen in 11 other studies reporting data as odds ratio. No significant differences were observed in other secondary outcomes. This analysis demonstrates comparable mid-term mortality and mid- to long-term morbidity between OPCAB and ONCAB. On-pump coronary artery bypass grafting may be associated with improved long-term survival when all study types are analyzed; however, analysis of only randomized controlled trials and propensity-matched studies demonstrates comparable long-term mortality between OPCAB and ONCAB. Copyright © 2014 The

  19. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Nararro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  20. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  1. Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon cancer: comparative analysis of short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Weizheng; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Weifeng; Gu, Dayong; Gao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic colectomy compared with open colectomy for patients with transverse colon cancer by matched-pair analysis. This study enrolled 59 patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomy and compared them with 59 matched patients who underwent open colectomy for transverse colon cancer. The following parameters were matched: clinical stage and type of resection. Both short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic colectomy were compared with those of open colectomy. No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of age, gender, ASA score, comorbidity, clinical stage and operative procedures. Regarding short-term outcomes, blood loss, time to first flatus, time to liquid diet and postoperative stay were significantly shorter in the laparoscopy group than in the open group, while operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopy group than in the open group. Postoperative complication was similar between the two groups. With respect to long-term outcomes, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of 5-year overall and disease-free survival. In summary, laparoscopic colectomy is a safe and feasible option for selected patients with transverse colon cancer. The short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic colectomy are considered to be acceptable.

  2. Evaluating temporal consistency of long-term global NDVI datasets for trend analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Fensholt, Rasmus; Verbesselt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    As a way to understand vegetation changes, trend analysis on NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series data have been widely performed at regional to global scales. However, most long-term NDVI datasets are based upon multiple sensor systems and unsuccessful corrections related...... to sensor shifts potentially introduce substantial uncertainties and artifacts in the analysis of trends. The temporal consistency of NDVI datasets should therefore be evaluated before performing trend analysis to obtain reliable results. In this study we analyze the temporal consistency of multi......-sensor NDVI time series by analyzing the co-occurrence between breaks in the NDVI time series and sensor shifts from GIMMS3g (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies 3rd generation), VIP3 (Vegetation Index and Phenology version 3), LTDR4 (Long Term Data Record version 4) and SPOT-VGT (Système Pour l...

  3. Failure Analysis Study and Long-Term Reliability of Optical Assemblies with End-Face Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichak, Robert A.; Ott, Melanie N.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Chuska, Richard F.; Greenwell, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the NESC received a multi-faceted request to determine the long term reliability of fiber optic termini on the ISS that exhibited flaws not manufactured to best workmanship practices. There was a lack of data related to fiber optic workmanship as it affects the long term reliability of optical fiber assemblies in a harsh environment. A fiber optic defect analysis was requested which would find and/or create various types of chips, spalls, scratches, etc., that were identified by the ISS personnel. Once the defects and causes were identified the next step would be to perform long term reliability testing of similar assemblies with similar defects. The goal of the defect analysis would be for the defects to be observed and documented for deterioration of fiber optic performance. Though this report mostly discusses what has been determined as evidence of poor manufacturing processes, it also concludes the majority of the damage could have been avoided with a rigorous process in place.

  4. Analysis on long-term strategy for radwaste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haicheng

    1998-08-01

    Radwaste presents a worldwide issue in the management of environmental protection. Most countries carrying out nuclear programs have developed strategies for their radwastes management. China has been executing its strategy, but the development of nuclear power is representing new challenges for the national radwastes management. This paper tries an analysis on the long-term management of radwastes in China. The exiting system of China's radwastes management is explained. Two important issues on radwastes management i.e. economics and social issues are analyzed. The future issues that will affect China's radwastes management are discussed. A short summary of the national radwastes management in NEA countries is involved in the paper. The analysis indicates that in China the exiting system of radwastes management is comprehensive but remains to be perfected. Improvements of long-term management need to be made in the aspects of economics and social issue. A financing system for long-term management, as a supplement for the exiting system of radwastes management, is expected to be created. (author)

  5. Long term performance degradation analysis and optimization of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhizkar, Tarannom; Roshandel, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A degradation based optimization framework is developed. • The cost of electricity based on degradation of solid oxide fuel cells is minimized. • The effects of operating conditions on degradation mechanisms are investigated. • Results show 7.12% lower cost of electricity in comparison with base case. • Degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term analysis. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is minimizing the cost of electricity of solid oxide fuel cell stacks by decelerating degradation mechanisms rate in long term operation for stationary power generation applications. The degradation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cells are caused by microstructural changes, reactions between lanthanum strontium manganite and electrolyte, poisoning by chromium, carburization on nickel particles, formation of nickel sulfide, nickel coarsening, nickel oxidation, loss of conductivity and crack formation in the electrolyte. The rate of degradation mechanisms depends on the cell operating conditions (cell voltage and fuel utilization). In this study, the degradation based optimization framework is developed which determines optimum operating conditions to achieve a minimum cost of electricity. To show the effectiveness of the developed framework, optimization results are compared with the case that system operates at its design point. Results illustrate optimum operating conditions decrease the cost of electricity by 7.12%. The performed study indicates that degradation based optimization is a beneficial concept for long term performance degradation analysis of energy conversion systems.

  6. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  7. Long term stability of Oligo (dT) 25 magnetic beads for the expression analysis of Euglena gracilis for long term space projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ina; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Hauslage, Jens; Lebert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis has a highly developed sensory system. The cells use different stimuli such as light and gravity to orient themselves in the surrounding medium to find areas for optimal growth. Due to the ability to produce oxygen and consume carbon dioxide, Euglena is a suitable candidate for life support systems. Participation in a long-term space experiment would allow for the analysis of changes and adaptations to the new environment, and this could bring new insights into the mechanism of perception of gravity and the associated signal transduction chain. For a molecular analysis of transcription patterns, an automated system is necessary, capable of performing all steps from taking a sample, processing it and generating data. One of the developmental steps is to find long-term stable reagents and materials and test them for stability at higher-than-recommended temperature conditions during extended storage time. We investigated the usability of magnetic beads in an Euglena specific lysis buffer after addition of the RNA stabilizer Dithiothreitol over 360 days and the lysis buffer with the stabilizer alone over 455 days at the expected storage temperature of 19 °C. We can claim that the stability is not impaired at all after an incubation period of over one year. This might be an interesting result for researchers who have to work under non-standard lab conditions, as in biological or medicinal fieldwork.

  8. Long term stability of Oligo (dT) 25 magnetic beads for the expression analysis of Euglena gracilis for long term space projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ina; Strauch, Sebastian M; Hauslage, Jens; Lebert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis has a highly developed sensory system. The cells use different stimuli such as light and gravity to orient themselves in the surrounding medium to find areas for optimal growth. Due to the ability to produce oxygen and consume carbon dioxide, Euglena is a suitable candidate for life support systems. Participation in a long-term space experiment would allow for the analysis of changes and adaptations to the new environment, and this could bring new insights into the mechanism of perception of gravity and the associated signal transduction chain. For a molecular analysis of transcription patterns, an automated system is necessary, capable of performing all steps from taking a sample, processing it and generating data. One of the developmental steps is to find long-term stable reagents and materials and test them for stability at higher-than-recommended temperature conditions during extended storage time. We investigated the usability of magnetic beads in an Euglena specific lysis buffer after addition of the RNA stabilizer Dithiothreitol over 360 days and the lysis buffer with the stabilizer alone over 455 days at the expected storage temperature of 19 °C. We can claim that the stability is not impaired at all after an incubation period of over one year. This might be an interesting result for researchers who have to work under non-standard lab conditions, as in biological or medicinal fieldwork. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Educational network comparative analysis of small groups: Short- and long-term communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chepurov, E. G.; Kokovin, A. V.; Ranyuk, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The present study is devoted to the discussion of small group communication network structures. These communications were observed in student groups, where actors were united with a regular educational activity. The comparative analysis was carried out for networks of short-term (1 hour) and long-term (4 weeks) communications, it was based on seven structural parameters, and consisted of two stages. At the first stage, differences between the network graphs were examined, and the random corresponding Bernoulli graphs were built. At the second stage, revealed differences were compared. Calculations were performed using UCINET software framework. It was found out that networks of long-term and short-term communications are quite different: the structure of a short-term communication network is close to a random one, whereas the most of long-term communication network parameters differ from the corresponding random ones by more than 30%. This difference can be explained by strong "noisiness" of a short-term communication network, and the lack of social in it.

  10. A retrospective cost-analysis of additional homeopathic treatment in Germany: Long-term economic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Witt, Claudia M.; Reinhold, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to provide a long-term cost comparison of patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with patients using usual care (control group) over an observation period of 33 months. Methods Health claims data from a large statutory health insurance company were analysed from both the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective (secondary outcome). To compare costs between patient groups, homeopathy and control patients were matched in a 1:1 ratio using propensity scores. Predictor variables for the propensity scores included health care costs and both medical and demographic variables. Health care costs were analysed using an analysis of covariance, adjusted for baseline costs, between groups both across diagnoses and for specific diagnoses over a period of 33 months. Specific diagnoses included depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache. Results Data from 21,939 patients in the homeopathy group (67.4% females) and 21,861 patients in the control group (67.2% females) were analysed. Health care costs over the 33 months were 12,414 EUR [95% CI 12,022–12,805] in the homeopathy group and 10,428 EUR [95% CI 10,036–10,820] in the control group (phomeopathy: EUR 6,289 [6,118–6,460]; control: EUR 5,498 [5,326–5,670], phomeopathy: EUR 1,794 [1,770–1,818]; control: EUR 1,438 [1,414–1,462], phomeopathy patients generated higher costs than control patients. Conclusion The analysis showed that even when following-up over 33 months, there were still cost differences between groups, with higher costs in the homeopathy group. PMID:28915242

  11. Impulse control disorder related behaviours during long-term rotigotine treatment: a post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, A; Chaudhuri, K R; Boroojerdi, B; Asgharnejad, M; Bauer, L; Grieger, F; Weintraub, D

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) and other compulsive behaviours (together called ICD behaviours). The frequency of ICD behaviours reported as adverse events (AEs) in long-term studies of rotigotine transdermal patch in PD was evaluated. This was a post hoc analysis of six open-label extension studies up to 6 years in duration. Analyses included patients treated with rotigotine for at least 6 months and administered the modified Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview. ICD behaviours reported as AEs were identified and categorized. For 786 patients, the mean (±SD) exposure to rotigotine was 49.4 ± 17.6 months. 71 (9.0%) patients reported 106 ICD AEs cumulatively. Occurrence was similar across categories: 2.5% patients reported 'compulsive sexual behaviour', 2.3% 'buying disorder', 2.0% 'compulsive gambling', 1.7% 'compulsive eating' and 1.7% 'punding behaviour'. Examining at 6-month intervals, the incidence was relatively low during the first 30 months; it was higher over the next 30 months, peaking in the 54-60-month period. No ICD AEs were serious, and 97% were mild or moderate in intensity. Study discontinuation occurred in seven (9.9%) patients with ICD AEs; these then resolved in five patients. Dose reduction occurred for 23 AEs, with the majority (73.9%) resolving. In this analysis of >750 patients with PD treated with rotigotine, the frequency of ICD behaviour AEs was 9.0%, with a specific incidence timeline observed. Active surveillance as duration of treatment increases may help early identification and management; once ICD behaviours are present rotigotine dose reduction may be considered. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  12. The WECHSL-Mod2 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, M.; Stiefel, S.

    1989-06-01

    The WECHSL-Mod2 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten LWR reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. The code assumes that the metallic phases of the melt pool form a layer at the bottom overlayed by the oxide melt atop. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA experiments. The test samples include a typical BETA post test calculation and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  13. Long-term trend analysis on total and extreme precipitation over Shasta Dam watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toride, Kinya; Cawthorne, Dylan L; Ishida, Kei; Kavvas, M Levent; Anderson, Michael L

    2018-06-01

    California's interconnected water system is one of the most advanced water management systems in the world, and understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric and hydrologic behavior has increasingly being seen as vital to its future well-being. Knowledge of such trends is hampered by the lack of long-period observation data and the uncertainty surrounding future projections of atmospheric models. This study examines historical precipitation trends over the Shasta Dam watershed (SDW), which lies upstream of one of the most important components of California's water system, Shasta Dam, using a dynamical downscaling methodology that can produce atmospheric data at fine time-space scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed to reconstruct 159years of long-term hourly precipitation data at 3km spatial resolution over SDW using the 20th Century Reanalysis Version 2c dataset. Trend analysis on this data indicates a significant increase in total precipitation as well as a growing intensity of extreme events such as 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72-hour storms over the period of 1851 to 2010. The turning point of the increasing trend and no significant trend periods is found to be 1940 for annual precipitation and the period of 1950 to 1960 for extreme precipitation using the sequential Mann-Kendall test. Based on these analysis, we find the trends at the regional scale do not necessarily apply to the watershed-scale. The sharp increase in the variability of annual precipitation since 1970s is also detected, which implies an increase in the occurrence of extreme wet and dry conditions. These results inform long-term planning decisions regarding the future of Shasta Dam and California's water system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of differences between long-term gregarious and solitarious desert locusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Badisco

    Full Text Available Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria show an extreme form of phenotypic plasticity and can transform between a cryptic solitarious phase and a swarming gregarious phase. The two phases differ extensively in behavior, morphology and physiology but very little is known about the molecular basis of these differences. We used our recently generated Expressed Sequence Tag (EST database derived from S. gregaria central nervous system (CNS to design oligonucleotide microarrays and compare the expression of thousands of genes in the CNS of long-term gregarious and solitarious adult desert locusts. This identified 214 differentially expressed genes, of which 40% have been annotated to date. These include genes encoding proteins that are associated with CNS development and modeling, sensory perception, stress response and resistance, and fundamental cellular processes. Our microarray analysis has identified genes whose altered expression may enable locusts of either phase to deal with the different challenges they face. Genes for heat shock proteins and proteins which confer protection from infection were upregulated in gregarious locusts, which may allow them to respond to acute physiological challenges. By contrast the longer-lived solitarious locusts appear to be more strongly protected from the slowly accumulating effects of ageing by an upregulation of genes related to anti-oxidant systems, detoxification and anabolic renewal. Gregarious locusts also had a greater abundance of transcripts for proteins involved in sensory processing and in nervous system development and plasticity. Gregarious locusts live in a more complex sensory environment than solitarious locusts and may require a greater turnover of proteins involved in sensory transduction, and possibly greater neuronal plasticity.

  15. Analysis of the long-term results of living donor liver transplantation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Cabús, Santiago; Estalella, Laia; Pavel, Mihai; Calatayud, David; Molina, Víctor; Ferrer, Joana; Fondevila, Constantino; Fuster, Josep; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an alternative to conventional transplantation given its excellent results. The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term outcomes in LDLT recipients. 100 consecutive THDV recipients from the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona from March 2000 to October 2015 were included. The main indication for transplantation was end-stage liver disease (58%) followed by hepatocellular carcinoma (41%). 95% of grafts consisted of the right liver of the donor and the 5% of the left liver. After a median follow-up of 65.5 months, patient and graft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93%, 80% and 74% and 90%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. The overall re-transplant rate was 9%. The most common long-term complication was biliary stenosis (40%) with an average time of onset of 13.5±12 months, with repeated admissions and an average of 1.9±2 endoscopic procedures and 3.5±3 Radiological procedures per patient. The definitive treatment was radiological dilation in 40% of cases, surgical intervention in 22.5% and re-transplantation in 7.5%. Given the long-term results, LDLT is confirmed as an alternative to conventional transplantation. However, the high rate of late biliary complications involves repeated admissions and invasive treatments that, while not compromising survival, can affect the patient's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivošević, Tatjana [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlić, Ivica [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Radović, Iva Bogdanović [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interaction, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • For the first time in Croatia, long term of fine aerosol pollution is reported. - Abstract: The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013–28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  17. Analysis to long-term stability of solar cables; Untersuchungen zur Langzeitstabilitaet von Solarleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funtan, P.

    2005-07-01

    For the moment it is not possible to say anything about the long-term stability of solar cables. Own experiences shows, that the rubber solar cable H07 RN-F (of one manufacturer) is not qualified for installations, longer than 10 years. The outer isolation of the cable first shows embrittlements and later deep cracks. Microscopically analysis confirms this. Measurements of temperature in typical installation areas of solar cables also shows, that the influence of temperature, regarding aging plays not the most important role, when the cable is installed in a sun protected position. Up to now the reason of the cable destruction is not definitely clarified. Chemically analysis of a damaged and an intact part of the cable, which was installed inside of a module junction box (reduced humility), shows no differences in the chemical consistence. It seems, that it is a combinated effect of temperature and humidity. Further analysis will be performed. (orig.)

  18. Long-term effects of prevention and treatment on youth antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Aaron M; Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior exacts a tremendous toll on society and often persists into adulthood. Although researchers have identified a number of psychosocial interventions that prevent or reduce youth antisocial behavior in the short term, evidence of long-term intervention benefits has only recently become available. In addition, research on such interventions spans two substantial but largely separate bodies of literature: prevention and therapy. The present study used meta-analysis to integrate research on the long-term effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for youth antisocial behavior and examined potential moderators of these effects. Results from 66 intervention trials (i.e., 34 prevention, 32 therapy) indicated that a broad range of youth psychosocial interventions demonstrated modest effects on antisocial behavior (mean d=0.31, 95% confidence interval=0.23-0.39) for at least one year beyond the end of interventions relative to control conditions. Among other findings, moderator analyses revealed that inclusion of a peer group intervention component was associated with reduced intervention effects for samples consisting predominantly of boys or older youths. The results of this study have important implications for service providers, administrators, and policymakers involved in the implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting youth antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. First Results on Long-Term Multiwavelength Variability Analysis in Mrk 421

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racero Elena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the broad-band nature of the emission from blazars, strong efforts are being placed in recent years on simultaneous multiwavelength campaigns as a way to understand the mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of ultra-relativistic particles in these objects. The present work aims at providing a systematic study of the broadband long-term variability properties of the TeV blazar, Mrk 421, by gathering archival multiwavelength data spanning nearly two decades in time over several energy bands, from radio frequencies through x-rays to high and very high γ-ray energies. The lightcurves at these energies have been characterized over long periods (≈months using several statistical methods, in order to study variability over long-term timescales and the dependence of this variability with flux and energy, aiming ultimately at shedding some light onto the physical mechanisms that drive blazar emission. We present in this work the preliminary results of the variability analysis for Mrk 421, and it will be extended in the future to see if the properties found are particular of this source or if they can be extended to the blazar class.

  20. A Long-Term Prediction Model of Beijing Haze Episodes Using Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid industrial development has led to the intermittent outbreak of pm2.5 or haze in developing countries, which has brought about great environmental issues, especially in big cities such as Beijing and New Delhi. We investigated the factors and mechanisms of haze change and present a long-term prediction model of Beijing haze episodes using time series analysis. We construct a dynamic structural measurement model of daily haze increment and reduce the model to a vector autoregressive model. Typical case studies on 886 continuous days indicate that our model performs very well on next day’s Air Quality Index (AQI prediction, and in severely polluted cases (AQI ≥ 300 the accuracy rate of AQI prediction even reaches up to 87.8%. The experiment of one-week prediction shows that our model has excellent sensitivity when a sudden haze burst or dissipation happens, which results in good long-term stability on the accuracy of the next 3–7 days’ AQI prediction.

  1. Long Term Trend Analysis in the Capital Market – The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radukić Snežana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the possibility of making investment decisions in emerging markets by using the trend analysis method on a particular example of the capital market in Serbia. The authors, starting from the common features of technical analysis, have analysed the common share index value in the capital market in Serbia, in the Belgrade Stock Exchange - Belexline from 1 March 2006 to 31 March 2009, by the usage of two moving averages method - Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD: an intermediate term of 50 days and a long-term one of 100 days. The above mentioned moving averages identify the establishment of a trend, the cessation of the existing one, a change and an establishment of the new one.

  2. Spatial variability and long-term analysis of groundwater quality of Faisalabad industrial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhammad Salman; Nasir, Abdul; Rashid, Haroon; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain

    2017-10-01

    Water is the basic necessity of life and is essential for healthy society. In this study, groundwater quality analysis was carried out for the industrial zone of Faisalabad city. Sixty samples of groundwater were collected from the study area. The quality maps of deliberately analyzed results were prepared in GIS. The collected samples were analyzed for chemical parameters and heavy metals, such as total hardness, alkalinity, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead, and fluoride, and then, the results were compared with the WHO guidelines. The values of these results were represented by a mapping of quality parameters using the ArcView GIS v9.3, and IDW was used for raster interpolation. The long-term analysis of these parameters has been carried out using the `R Statistical' software. It was concluded that water is partially not fit for drinking, and direct use of this groundwater may cause health issues.

  3. Successful weight loss maintenance includes long-term increased meal responses of GLP-1 and PYY3-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    at week 52. Glucagon levels were unaffected by weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Meal responses of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 remained increased 1 year after weight maintenance, whereas ghrelin and GIP reverted toward before-weight loss values. Thus, an increase in appetite inhibitory mechanisms and a partly decrease...... in appetite-stimulating mechanisms appear to contribute to successful long-term weight loss maintenance.......-week very low-calorie diet (800kcal/day). After weight loss, participants entered a 52-week weight maintenance protocol. Plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY3-36, ghrelin, GIP and glucagon during a 600-kcal meal were measured before weight loss, after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance. Area...

  4. Multi criteria analysis for the long term planning of the mexican electrical system expansion - 337

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, C.; Guadarrama, R.; Francois, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-criteria analysis was applied to the long term electricity expansion planning for Mexico for the 2008-2030 period. This methodology is based on a fuzzy logic inference system, which allows for the definition of a decision function that takes into account all the evaluation parameters. This function permits one to rank the alternative expansion plans in order to determine the most attractive option. In this study four evaluation parameters were considered: (a) the total generating cost obtained from an optimization expansion using the WASP-IV model, (b) the economic risk associated with fuel prices increases, (c) the diversity of technologies in the mix, and (d) the external costs. The analysis was applied to a base case and to three additional expansion cases, which are very similar to the base case, but each of them excludes the addition of a certain type of candidate technology in the optimization planning. The base case is Plan A which has six candidate technologies available for the optimization planning. Plan B excludes coal; Plan C excludes oil, and Plan D excludes nuclear energy. After the decision analysis was made it was found that Plan B is best followed by Plan A, then Plan C and finally Plan D. The worst plan expansion was obtained when the nuclear candidate was excluded in the program of additions during the time period. The primary conclusion is that nuclear energy must participate in the mix of electricity generation. This result can be used to define the energy policy for electricity production in Mexico in the medium-long term scenario. (authors)

  5. Parametric Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel Depletion Parameters for Long-Term-Disposal Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Utilization of burnup credit in criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel allows improved design efficiency and reduced cost due to the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup-credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents (in terms of criticality potential), followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k(sub)eff) for the a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models

  6. Long-term monitoring of the Sedlec Ossuary - Analysis of hygrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Balík, Lukáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Sedlec Ossuary is one of the twelve UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Czech Republic. Although the ossuary is listed among the most visited Czech tourist attractions, its technical state is almost critical and a radical renovation is necessary. On this account, hygrothermal performance of the ossuary is experimentally researched in the presented paper in order to get information on moisture sources and to get necessary data for optimized design of renovation treatments and reconstruction solutions that will allow preserve the historical significance of this attractive heritage site. Within the performed experimental analysis, the interior and exterior climatic conditions are monitored over an almost three year period together with relative humidity and temperature profiles measured in the most damage parts of the ossuary chapel. On the basis of measured data, the long-term hygrothermal state of the ossuary building is accessed and the periods of possible surface condensation are identified.

  7. A long-term analysis of pumped hydro storage to firm wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.M.; Leahy, P.G.; Li, K.; McKeogh, E.J.; Morrison, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is a long term generation analysis of a high wind power system. • A high CO 2 and fossil fuel price is closest to Ireland’s EU ETS 2020 target. • New pumped storage to firm wind is limited unless strong market costs exist. • Reserve for wind power show that ancillary services are relevant for balancing. - Abstract: Although pumped hydro storage is seen as a strategic key asset by grid operators, financing it is complicated in new liberalised markets. It could be argued that the optimum generation portfolio is now determined by the economic viability of generators based on a short to medium term return on investment. This has meant that capital intensive projects such as pumped hydro storage are less attractive for wholesale electricity companies because the payback periods are too long. In tandem a significant amount of wind power has entered the generation mix, which has resulted in operating and planning integration issues due to wind’s inherent uncertain, varying spatial and temporal nature. These integration issues can be overcome using fast acting gas peaking plant or energy storage. Most analysis of wind power integration using storage to date has used stochastic optimisation for power system balancing or arbitrage modelling to examine techno-economic viability. In this research a deterministic dynamic programming long term generation expansion model is employed to optimise the generation mix, total system costs and total carbon dioxide emissions, and unlike other studies calculates reserve to firm wind power. The key finding of this study is that the incentive to build capital-intensive pumped hydro storage to firm wind power is limited unless exogenous market costs come very strongly into play. Furthermore it was demonstrated that reserve increases with increasing wind power showing the importance of ancillary services in future power systems

  8. Long-term creep properties, including irradiation effects, of DIN 1.4948 steel from SNR-300 primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    1986-01-01

    Since 1968, the ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft warmfeste Staehle in VDEH'', sponsored by KfK/PSB, performs creep tests on austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948. Wrought materials both in the solution-annealed condition and in weldments are investigated. The DIN 1.4948 steel was finally chosen for the permanent primary structures of the SNR-300, such as the reactor vessel, the grid plate and the primary piping. The chemical specification of DIN 1.4948 steel has been narrowed for application in the SNR-300. The long-term programme at KfK on SNR-300 heats has reached times to rupture of up to 90,000 h for parent metal. At 823 K, the operating temperature of the SNR-300, the mean creep rupture strengths of standard DIN 1.4948 and SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 are equal, but the scatter of data for standard DIN 1.4948 parent metal is twice as large as that for SNR-300-grade parent metal. The strength of SNR-300 weldments falls within the scatter band for parent metal. At times to rupture of more than 10 4 h, all parent metals have ductilities of between 10% and 20%, whereas the welded joints show ductilities below 1%. The neutron irradiation effects on SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 heats and weldments have been studied with times to rupture of up to 10,000 h in the range from 723 K to 923 K. After irradiation the creep strength is reduced to values below the minimum stress rupture values according to the ASME B + PV Code. The ductility values of parent metal after irradiation are in the range of 4% to 10%. The ductility of welded joints is sometimes below 1%. With increasing Larson-Miller parameter the reduction in creep strength decreases. Therefore, long-term post-irradiation creep tests have been started at KfK and ECN in order to verify experimentally the creep strength reduction factor due to irradiation, for times to rupture of between 10 4 and 5x10 4 h. (author)

  9. Accumulation, productivity and technology : measurement and analysis of long term economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the "state of the art" on research on the sources of long term economic growth. It is argued that, despite the enormous progress in development of the theory and empirics on long term economic growth, we are still not able to unambiguously distinguish between

  10. Long-Term Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on Student Academic Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; Donker, Anouk; Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2018-01-01

    Meta-analyses have shown the positive effects of strategy instruction on student performance; however, little meta-analytical research has been conducted on its long-term effects. We examined the long-term effects of 48 metacognitive strategy instruction interventions on student academic

  11. Corals record long-term Leeuwin current variability including Ningaloo Niño/Niña since 1795

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, J.; Rountrey, A.; Feng, M.; Xie, S.-P.; Dissard, D.; Rankenburg, K.; Lough, J. M.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2014-04-01

    Variability of the Leeuwin current (LC) off Western Australia is a footprint of interannual and decadal climate variations in the tropical Indo-Pacific. La Niña events often result in a strengthened LC, high coastal sea levels and unusually warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs), termed Ningaloo Niño. The rarity of such extreme events and the response of the southeastern Indian Ocean to regional and remote climate forcing are poorly understood owing to the lack of long-term records. Here we use well-replicated coral SST records from within the path of the LC, together with a reconstruction of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation to hindcast historical SST and LC strength from 1795 to 2010. We show that interannual and decadal variations in SST and LC strength characterized the past 215 years and that the most extreme sea level and SST anomalies occurred post 1980. These recent events were unprecedented in severity and are likely aided by accelerated global ocean warming and sea-level rise.

  12. The WECHSL-Mod3 code: A computer program for the interaction of a core melt with concrete including the long term behavior. Model description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, J.J.; Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.; Stiefel, S.

    1995-02-01

    The WECHSL-Mod3 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional as well as in a one-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. It is assumed that an underlying metallic layer exists covered by an oxidic layer or that only one oxidic layer is present which can contain a homogeneously dispersed metallic phase. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The CALTHER code (developed at CEA, France) which models the radiative heat transfer from the upper surface of the corium melt to the surrounding cavity is implemented in the present WECHSL version. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA, ACE and SURC experiments. The test samples include a BETA and the SURC2 post test calculations and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variation in Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqian Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting Lake. In this case, 54 years of water level data for Dongting Lake were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test, Sen’s slope test, and the Pettitt test. The results showed the following: (1 Trends in annual maximum lake water level (WLM, annual mean lake water level (WL, and annual minimum lake water level (WLm increased from 1961 to 2014; however, the three variables showed different trends from 1981 to 2014; (2 The annual change trends in Dongting Lake between 1961–2014 and 1981–2014 were found to be from approximately 0.90 cm/year to −2.27 cm/year, 1.65 cm/year to −0.79 cm/year, and 4.58 cm/year to 2.56 cm/year for WLM, WL, and WLm, respectively; (3 A greater degree of increase in water level during the dry season (November–April was found from 2003 to 2014 than from 1981 to 2002, but a smaller degree of increase, even to the point of decreasing, was found during the wet season (May–October; (4 The measured discharge data and numerical modeling results showed the operation of Three Gorge Reservoir (TGR pushed to influence partly the recent inter-annual variation of water level in Dongting Lake region, especially in the flood and dry seasons. The analysis indicated that the water level of Dongting Lake has changed in the long term with decreasing of range between WLM and WLm, and may decrease the probability of future drought and flood events. These results can provide useful information for the management of Dongting Lake.

  14. Long-term live cell imaging and automated 4D analysis of drosophila neuroblast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina C F Homem

    Full Text Available The developing Drosophila brain is a well-studied model system for neurogenesis and stem cell biology. In the Drosophila central brain, around 200 neural stem cells called neuroblasts undergo repeated rounds of asymmetric cell division. These divisions typically generate a larger self-renewing neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell that undergoes one terminal division to create two differentiating neurons. Although single mitotic divisions of neuroblasts can easily be imaged in real time, the lack of long term imaging procedures has limited the use of neuroblast live imaging for lineage analysis. Here we describe a method that allows live imaging of cultured Drosophila neuroblasts over multiple cell cycles for up to 24 hours. We describe a 4D image analysis protocol that can be used to extract cell cycle times and growth rates from the resulting movies in an automated manner. We use it to perform lineage analysis in type II neuroblasts where clonal analysis has indicated the presence of a transit-amplifying population that potentiates the number of neurons. Indeed, our experiments verify type II lineages and provide quantitative parameters for all cell types in those lineages. As defects in type II neuroblast lineages can result in brain tumor formation, our lineage analysis method will allow more detailed and quantitative analysis of tumorigenesis and asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila brain.

  15. Using remote sensing and spatial analysis of trees characteristics for long-term monitoring in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, low humidity and small amount of precipitation. Trees In arid environments such an Acacia are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species. Long term monitoring of acacia tree population in those areas is thus essential tool to estimate the overall ecosystem condition. We suggest a new remote sensing data analysis technique that can be integrated with field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments and improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. In this work we have studied the contribution of remote sensing methods to long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid environments. In order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey, we implemented two different approaches: (1) Trees individual based change detection using Corona satellite images and (2) Spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. A map of individual acacia trees that was extracted from a color infra-red (CIR) aerial photographs taken at 2010 allowed us to examine the distribution pattern of the trees size and foliage health status (NDVI). Comparison of the tree sizes distribution and NDVI values distribution enabled us to differentiate between long-term (decades) and short-term (months to few years) processes that brought the population to its present state. The spatial analysis revealed that both tree size and NDVI distribution patterns were significantly clustered, suggesting that the processes responsible for tree size and tree health status (i.e., flash-floods spatial spreading) have a spatial expression. The distribution of the trees in the Wadi (ephemeral river) was divided into three distinct parts: large trees with high NDVI values, large trees with low NDVI values and small trees with

  16. Intermediate and long-term quality of life after total knee replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Leonard; Shan, Bernard; Suzuki, Arnold; Nouh, Fred; Saxena, Akshat

    2015-01-21

    Total knee replacement is a highly successful and frequently performed operation. Technical outcomes of surgery are excellent, with favorable early postoperative health-related quality of life. This study reviews intermediate and long-term quality of life after surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies published from January 2000 onward was performed to evaluate health-related quality of life after primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis in patients with at least three years of follow-up. Key outcomes were postoperative quality of life, function, and satisfaction compared with the preoperative status. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Quality appraisal and data tabulation were performed with use of predefined criteria. Data were synthesized by narrative review and random-effects meta-analysis utilizing standardized mean differences. Heterogeneity was assessed with the tau(2) and I(2) statistics. Nineteen studies were included in the review. Intermediate and long-term postoperative quality of life was superior to the preoperative level in qualitative and quantitative analyses. The pooled effect in combined WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) and KSS (Knee Society Score) outcomes was a marked improvement from baseline with respect to the total score (2.17; 95% CI [confidence interval], 1.13 to 3.22; p implied significant clinical and statistical heterogeneity. Total knee replacement confers significant intermediate and long-term benefits with respect to both disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life, especially pain and function, leading to positive patient satisfaction. Recommendations for necessary future studies are provided. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  17. Long-term variation analysis of a tropical river's annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyam, Mohammed; Othman, Faridah

    2015-07-01

    Studying the long-term changes of streamflow is an important tool for enhancing water resource and river system planning, design, and management. The aim of this work is to identify the long-term variations in annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010 in the Selangor River, which is one of the main tropical rivers in Malaysia. Initially, the data underwent preliminary independence, normality, and homogeneity testing using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Shapiro-Wilk and Pettitt's tests, respectively. The work includes a study and analysis of the changes through nine variables describing the annual streamflow and variations in the yearly duration of high and low streamflows. The analyses were conducted via two time scales: yearly and sub-periodic. The sub-periods were obtained by segmenting the 50 years into seven sub-periods by two techniques, namely the change-point test and direct method. Even though analysis revealed nearly negligible changes in mean annual flow over the study period, the maximum annual flow generally increased while the minimum annual flow significantly decreased with respect to time. It was also observed that the variables describing the dispersion in streamflow continually increased with respect to time. An obvious increase was detected in the yearly duration of danger level of streamflow, a slight increase was noted in the yearly duration of warning and alert levels, and a slight decrease in the yearly duration of low streamflow was found. The perceived changes validate the existence of long-term changes in annual streamflow regime, which increase the probability of floods and droughts occurring in future. In light of the results, attention should be drawn to developing water resource management and flood protection plans in order to avert the harmful effects potentially resulting from the expected changes in annual streamflow regime.

  18. Multilevel analysis of workplace and individual risk factors for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if psychosocial and physical work-environment factors predict long-term sickness absence (>8 weeks) at both the individual and the workplace level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces....... Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel logistic regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors of long-term sickness absence over 5 years based on data from a national absence register. RESULTS: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by physical work...

  19. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; Phospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; Plong-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had significantly less risk of long-term hospitalization than those of large cities. We found no influence of material and social deprivation in the long-term hospitalizations. Long-term hospitalization in psychiatry only concerns a minority of patients but represents the fifth of the total number of days of

  20. Quality Assessments of Long-Term Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Breast Cancer Xenograft Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Bai; Tian, Yuan; Liu, Tao; Thomas, Stefani N.; Chen, Li; Schnaubelt, Michael; Boja, Emily; Hiltket, Tara; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rodriguez, Henry; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Tabb, David L.; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Carr, Steven A.; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Zhang, Hui

    2017-09-21

    The identification of protein biomarkers requires large-scale analysis of human specimens to achieve statistical significance. In this study, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) based quantitative proteomics strategy using one channel for universal normalization across all samples. A total of 307 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analyses were completed, generating 107 one-dimensional (1D) LC-MS/MS datasets and 8 offline two-dimensional (2D) LC-MS/MS datasets (25 fractions for each set) for human-in-mouse breast cancer xenograft tissues representative of basal and luminal subtypes. Such large-scale studies require the implementation of robust metrics to assess the contributions of technical and biological variability in the qualitative and quantitative data. Accordingly, we developed a quantification confidence score based on the quality of each peptide-spectrum match (PSM) to remove quantification outliers from each analysis. After combining confidence score filtering and statistical analysis, reproducible protein identification and quantitative results were achieved from LC-MS/MS datasets collected over a 16 month period.

  1. Analysis of Long-Term Temperature Variations in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakappa, Pradeepa Hoskeri; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Body temperature is a continuous physiological variable. In normal healthy adults, oral temperature is estimated to vary between 36.1°C and 37.2°C. Fever is a complex host response to many external and internal agents and is a potential contributor to many clinical conditions. Despite being one of the foremost vital signs, temperature and its analysis and variations during many pathological conditions has yet to be examined in detail using mathematical techniques. Classical fever patterns based on recordings obtained every 8-12 h have been developed. However, such patterns do not provide meaningful information in diagnosing diseases. Because fever is a host response, it is likely that there could be a unique response to specific etiologies. Continuous long-term temperature monitoring and pattern analysis using specific analytical methods developed in engineering and physics could aid in revealing unique fever responses of hosts and in different clinical conditions. Furthermore, such analysis can potentially be used as a novel diagnostic tool and to study the effect of pharmaceutical agents and other therapeutic protocols. Thus, the goal of our article is to present a comprehensive review of the recent relevant literature and analyze the current state of research regarding temperature variations in the human body.

  2. PTA of Infrapopliteal Arteries: Long-term Clinical Follow-up and Analysis of Factors Influencing Clinical Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregrin, Jan H.; Koznar, Boris; Kovac, Josef; Lastovickova, Jarmila; Novotny, Jiri; Vedlich, Daniel; Skibova, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    This study was a retrospective analysis of patients with CLI who underwent infrapopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The main goal was to evaluate clinical and morphological factors that influence the clinical outcome of PTA in long-term follow-up. A total of 1,445 PTA procedures were performed in 1,268 patients. Main indications for PTA included gangrene, nonhealing ulcers, or rest pain. The mean number of treated arteries was 1.77 artery/limb, and the majority of lesions were type TASC D. The technical success rate of PTA was 89% of intended-to-treat arteries. The main criterion of clinical success was functional limb salvage (LS). One-year follow-up involved 1,069 limbs. Primary and secondary 1-year LS rates were 76.1 and 84.4%, respectively. The effect of clinical and morphological parameters on the 1-year LS was that the only associated disease with an adverse effect on LS rate was DM combined with dialysis. Regarding limb preprocedural status, gangrene was clearly a negative predictor. The most important factor affecting LS was the number of patent arteries post-PTA: patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 patent arteries had 1-year primary LS rates of 56.4, 73.1, 80.4, and 83%, respectively. Long-term follow-up of LS rates demonstrated secondary LS rates of 84.4, 78.8, and 73.3% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Every effort should be made to perform PTA for as many arteries as possible, even if TASC D type, to improve clinical outcome. Our study shows that repeat PTA is capable of keeping the long-term LS rate close to 75%.

  3. [Hernia recurrence long term follow-up after open procedures of abdominal wall plasty-prospective study including 142 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Mircea; Mureşan, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Neagoe, Radu; Sala, Daniela; Suciu, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The incisional hernia continues to be a frequent complication of laparotomies. The purpose of study is the analysis of hernia disease relapse after one year after different open plasties methods of the abdominal wall. A prospective longitudinal study was performed that included 142 patients. An analysis was performed on the individual data, the level of obesity, intra-surgical variations in intra-abdominal pressure, the intensity of post-surgical pain, the post-surgical complications, and the types of plasties of abdominal wall, simple and with polypropylene mesh. The analysis of studied group showed a general rate of relapse of 16.9%, and within the 4 procedures, 40.74% in the case of simple plasties, of 16.07% after the only plasties, 6.97% after the retro-muscular plasties, and 6.25% after the full substitution of parietal defect. On analysing the collected, hernia relapse was statistically significantly related to the level of obesity, variations in intra-abdominal pressure, post-surgical pain, and the type of procedure performed. Hernia is a frequent complication of laparotomies. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of simple plasties. Among the mesh procedures, the onlay plasty showed a higher rate of relapse and post-surgical complications. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of variations of intra-abdominal pressure, and with increased post-surgical pain. The use of an echography examination may increase the accuracy of the presence of hernia disease. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. All rights reserved.

  4. On the long-term seismic hazard analysis in the Zhangjiakou Penglai seismotectonic zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Guiping

    2004-10-01

    The Zhangjiakou-Penglai seismotectonic zone (ZPSZ) lies in the northern part of North China and extends along the Zhangjiakou-Beijing-Tianjin-Bohai Bay-Penglai-Yellow Sea. It is about 900 km long and some 250 km wide in a northwest direction. The great Sanhe-Pinggu ( MS=8.0) earthquake occurred on September 1679 and the Tangshan ( MS=7.8) earthquake on July 1976 caused serious economic and life losses. According to some differences in crust structure and regional tectonic stress field, the ZPSZ is divided into western and eastern segment by the 117°E line for study on long-term seismic hazard analysis. An analysis of Gutenberg-Richter's empirical relation of earthquake-frequency and time process of historic and recent earthquakes along the eastern and western segments shows that the earthquake activity obeys a Poisson process, and these calculations indicate that the earthquake occurrence probability of MS=6.0-6.9 is 0.77-0.83 in the eastern segment and the earthquake occurrence probability of MS=7.0-7.9 is 0.78-0.80 in the western segment of the ZPSZ during a period from 2005 to 2015.

  5. Long-term noise exposure and the risk for type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Mario Dzhambov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes for disability and mortality in modern societies. Apart from personal factors its incidence might be influenced by environmental risks such as air pollution and noise. This paper reports a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risk for type 2 diabetes due to long-term noise exposure. Electronic searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Internet yielded 9 relevant studies (5 for residential and 4 for occupational exposure. They were checked against a predefined list of safeguards against bias producing individual quality scores, which were then fed to MetaXL to conduct a quality effects meta-analysis. People exposed at their homes to roughly L den > 60 dB had 22% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.37 for type 2 diabetes in comparison to those exposed to L den 85 dB. There was no heterogeneity in the two groups (I2 = 0.00. The results should be interpreted with caution due to methodological discrepancies across the studies; however, they are indicative of the close links that noise pollution might have not only to cardiovascular diseases but to endocrine dysfunction as well.

  6. Long-term results after treatment for recurrent thymoma: a multicenter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Alberto; Cusumano, Giacomo; Lococo, Filippo; Alifano, Marco; Granone, Pierluigi; Margaritora, Stefano; Cesario, Alfredo; Oliaro, Alberto; Filosso, Pierluigi; Regnard, Jean-Francois; Ruffini, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    initial thymectomy to more aggressive WHO class assigned at thymic recurrence resection) was found in 25/61 cases (40.9%), but this phenomenon apparently did not influence patient's prognosis. Overall, the 5- and 10-year survival rates after the initial thymectomy were 94.8% and 71.7%, respectively, while the 5- and 10-year survival rates after the treatment of the recurrence at the thymic level were 73.6% and 48.3%, respectively (82.4% at 5 years and 65.4% at 10 years when a R0-re-resection was obtained). The analysis on the trends of disease-free survival indicated that the site of recurrence (hematogenous diffusion) seems to be associated to a higher risk of re-relapse (p = 0.01). Even following a thymectomy performed with radical intent, thymoma may recur several years later, usually as a locoregional relapse. A rewarding long-term survival may be expected after treatment, especially when a re-resection (radical) is performed (82.4% at 5 years). An histopathological "WHO upgrade" (from "low-risk" WHO classes at thymectomy to "high-risk classes" at relapse) may be observed in a remarkable percentage of patients (nearly 40% in this series), but this phenomenon seems to be not correlated with any worsening of the prognosis.

  7. Incidence, characteristics, and long-term follow-up of sternoclavicular injuries: An epidemiologic analysis of 92 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesmueller, Sandra; Wech, Margit; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Popp, Domenik; Bukaty, Adam; Huf, Wolfgang; Fialka, Christian; Greitbauer, Manfred; Platzer, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    The majority of published studies concerning sternoclavicular injuries are case series or systematic reviews. Prospective studies on the subject are hindered by the low incidence of these lesions. The aims of the present study were to provide an overview of this rare entity compared with those described in the literature and to present the long-term clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective data analysis of all sternoclavicular injuries treated at a single Level I trauma center from 1992 to 2011. Long-term clinical outcome was assessed using the ASES [American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons], SST [Simple Shoulder Test], UCLA [University of California-Los Angeles] Shoulder Scale, and VAS [Visual Analog Scale] at latest follow-up. We detected an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions. Ninety-two patients (52 males and 40 females) with a mean (SD) age of 39.2 (19.5) years (median, 41 years; range, 4-92 years) were included in this study. The main trauma mechanism was fall. Classification was performed according to Allman, the time point of treatment after initial trauma, and the direction of the dislocation. Nine patients of the 15 Grade III lesions were treated conservatively by closed reduction and immobilization, while four patients were treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation. Forty-nine percent of the patients were available for long-term follow-up at a median of 11.3 years (range, 5.3-22.6 years) with a mean ASES score of 96.21, SST score of 11.69, UCLA score of 31.89, and VAS score of 0.47. We found an overall incidence of 0.9% of sternoclavicular joint injuries related to all shoulder-girdle lesions and of 1.1% related to all dislocations, which is slightly lower compared with those described in the literature. Furthermore, we observed a high number of physeal sternoclavicular injuries with a percentage of 16% and overall good-to-excellent results at long-term follow-up. Epidemiologic

  8. An Intelligent Body Posture Analysis Model Using Multi-Sensors for Long-Term Physical Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chin-Feng; Hwang, Ren-Hung; Lai, Ying-Hsun

    2017-04-01

    Sensors can be installed on various body parts to provide information for computer diagnosis to identify the current body state. However, as human posture is subject to gravity, the direction of the force on each limb differs. For example, the directions of gravitational force on legs and trunk differ. In addition, each person's height and structure of limbs differs, hence, the acceleration and rotation resulted from such differences on force and length of the limbs of a person in motion would be different, and be presented by cases of different postures. Thus, how to present body postures through skeleton system equations, and achieve an long-term physical rehabilitation, according to the different limb characteristics of each person, is a challenging research issue. This paper proposes a novel scheme named as "Intelligent Body Posture Analysis Model", which uses multiple acceleration sensors and gyroscopes to detect body motion patterns. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is proved by conducting a large number of practical experiments and tests.

  9. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyke, Jeremy; Damon Matthews, H.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO2-induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980-2012 historical CO2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5-95th percentile ranges of 0.96-4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C-8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds.

  10. A Methodology for Long-Term Analysis of Innovative Signalling Systems on Regional Rail Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D'Acierno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A rail system may be considered a useful tool for reducing vehicular flows on a road system (i.e. cars and trucks, especially in high-density contexts such as urban and metropolitan areas where greenhouse gas emissions need to be abated. In particular, since travellers maximise their own utility, variations in mobility choices can be induced only by significantly improving the level-of-service of public transport. Our specific proposal is to identify the economic and environmental effects of implementing an innovative signalling system (which would reduce passenger waiting times by performing a cost-benefit analysis based on a feasibility threshold approach. Hence, it is necessary to calculate long-term benefits and compare them with intervention costs. In this context, a key factor to be considered is travel demand estimation in current and future conditions. This approach was tested on a regional rail line in southern Italy to show the feasibility and utility of the proposed methodology.

  11. A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneke, U; Ott, M; Renberg, E Salander; Taylor, D; Stegmayr, B

    2012-09-01

    To establish whether lithium or anticonvulsant should be used for maintenance treatment for bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) if the risks of suicide and relapse were traded off against the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Decision analysis based on a systematic literature review with two main decisions: (1) use of lithium or at treatment initiation and (2) the potential discontinuation of lithium in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after 20 years of lithium treatment. The final endpoint was 30 years of treatment with five outcomes to consider: death from suicide, alive with stable or unstable BPAD, alive with or without ESRD. At the start of treatment, the model identified lithium as the treatment of choice. The risks of developing CKD or ESRD were not relevant at the starting point. Twenty years into treatment, lithium still remained treatment of choice. If CKD had occurred at this point, stopping lithium would only be an option if the likelihood of progression to ESRD exceeded 41.3% or if anticonvulsants always outperformed lithium regarding relapse prevention. At the current state of knowledge, lithium initiation and continuation even in the presence of long-term adverse renal effects should be recommended in most cases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Long-term analysis of Zostera noltei: A retrospective approach for understanding seagrasses' dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Felipe; Galván, Cristina; Silió-Calzada, Ana; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Long-term studies are necessary to establish trends and to understand seagrasses' spatial and temporal dynamic. Nevertheless, this type of research is scarce, as the required databases are often unavailable. The objectives of this study are to create a method for mapping the seagrass Zostera noltei using remote sensing techniques, and to apply it to the characterization of the meadows' extension trend and the potential drivers of change. A time series was created using a novel method based on remote sensing techniques that proved to be adequate for mapping the seagrass in the emerged intertidal. The meadows seem to have a decreasing trend between 1984 and the early 2000s, followed by an increasing tendency that represents a recovery in the extension area of the species. This 30-year analysis demonstrated the Z. noltei's recovery in the study site, similar to that in other estuaries nearby and contrary to the worldwide decreasing behavior of seagrasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-Term Use of Aldosterone-Receptor Antagonists in Uncontrolled Hypertension: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter M. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The long-term efficacy of aldosterone-receptor antagonists (ARAs as add-on treatment in uncontrolled hypertension has not yet been reported. Methods. Data from 123 patients (21 with primary aldosteronism, 102 with essential hypertension with difficult-to-treat hypertension who received an ARA between May 2005 and September 2009 were analyzed retrospectively for their blood pressure (BP and biochemical response at first followup after start with ARA and the last follow-up available. Results. Systolic BP decreased by 22±20 and diastolic BP by 9.4±12 mmHg after a median treatment duration of 25 months. In patients that received treatment >5 years, SBP was 33±20 and DBP was 16 ± 13 mmHg lower than at baseline. Multivariate analysis revealed that baseline BP and follow-up duration were positively correlated with BP response. Conclusion. Add-on ARA treatment in difficult-to-treat hypertension results in a profound and sustained BP reduction.

  14. Tree bark suber-included particles: A long-term accumulation site for elements of atmospheric origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Ayrault, Sophie; Spadini, Lorenzo; Boudouma, Omar; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Ravanel, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    The deposition of atmospheric elements on and into the bark of 4-year-old Fraxinus excelsior L. was studied. The elemental composition of the suber tissue was established through ICP-MS analysis and the presence of solid mineral particles included in this suber was established and described through SEM-EDX. Fractionation of the suber elements mixture was obtained after ashing at 550 °C through successive water (C fraction) and HNO 3 2 M (D fraction) extraction, leading to an insoluble residue mainly composed of the solid mineral particles (E fraction). The triplicated % weight of C, D and E were respectively 34.4 ± 2.7, 64.8 ± 2.7 and 0.8 ± 0.1% of the suber ashes weight. The main component of C was K, of D was Ca. Noticeable amounts of Mg were also observed in D. The E fraction, composed of insoluble particles, was mostly constituted of geogenic products, with elements such as Si, Al, K, Mg, representing primary minerals. E also contained Ca 3(PO 4) 2 and concentrated the main part of Pb and Fe. Moreover, The SEM-EDX analysis evidenced that this fraction also concentrated several types of fly ashes of industrial origin. The study of the distribution between C, D and E was analysed through ICP-MS with respect to their origin. The origin of the elements found in such bark was either geogenic (clay, micas, quartz…), anthropogenic or biogenic (for instance large amounts of solid Ca organic salts having a storage role). As opposed to the E fraction, the C fraction, mainly composed of highly soluble K+ is characteristic of a biological pool of plant origin. In fraction D, the very high amount of Ca++ corresponds to two different origins: biological or acid soluble minerals such as calcite. Furthermore, the D fraction contains the most part of pollutants of anthropic origin such as Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd. As a whole, the fractionation procedure of the suber samples allows to separate elements as a function of their origin but also gives valuable information on

  15. Statistical approach to the analysis of olive long-term pollen season trends in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mozo, H; Yaezel, L; Oteros, J; Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of long-term airborne pollen counts makes it possible not only to chart pollen-season trends but also to track changing patterns in flowering phenology. Changes in higher plant response over a long interval are considered among the most valuable bioindicators of climate change impact. Phenological-trend models can also provide information regarding crop production and pollen-allergen emission. The interest of this information makes essential the election of the statistical analysis for time series study. We analysed trends and variations in the olive flowering season over a 30-year period (1982-2011) in southern Europe (Córdoba, Spain), focussing on: annual Pollen Index (PI); Pollen Season Start (PSS), Peak Date (PD), Pollen Season End (PSE) and Pollen Season Duration (PSD). Apart from the traditional Linear Regression analysis, a Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) and an ARIMA model were performed. Linear regression results indicated a trend toward delayed PSE and earlier PSS and PD, probably influenced by the rise in temperature. These changes are provoking longer flowering periods in the study area. The use of the STL technique provided a clearer picture of phenological behaviour. Data decomposition on pollination dynamics enabled the trend toward an alternate bearing cycle to be distinguished from the influence of other stochastic fluctuations. Results pointed to show a rising trend in pollen production. With a view toward forecasting future phenological trends, ARIMA models were constructed to predict PSD, PSS and PI until 2016. Projections displayed a better goodness of fit than those derived from linear regression. Findings suggest that olive reproductive cycle is changing considerably over the last 30years due to climate change. Further conclusions are that STL improves the effectiveness of traditional linear regression in trend analysis, and ARIMA models can provide reliable trend projections for future years taking into

  16. Analysis of Long-Term Temperature Trend as an Urban Climate Change Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Subarna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature plays a major role in detecting climate change brought about by urbanisation and industrialisation. Most climatic impact studies rely on changes in the average values of meteorological variables such as temperature. This paper attempts to study the temporal changes in the mean value of the air surface temperature over Jakarta city during the last century, specifically in the period 1901–2002.The data used in this study were taken from the Jakarta Climatology Station because they are of are good quality, there are extensive records and there is little missing or blank data. Statistic descriptive methods were employed, including a description of the type of probabilistic model chosen to represent the monthly mean air surface temperature time series. The long-term change in temperature was evaluated using the Mann-Kendall trend test method and the statistical linear trend test; the results of these two tests agreed. During the last 100 years, data observations from the station indicate that the monthly mean value of the air surface temperature of Jakarta city has increased at a rate of about 0.152°C decade–1 and has not exhibited variability signals but has changed on average. Based on the linear regression model, the mean value of the air surface temperature over Jakarta city is estimated to reach around 28.5°C in 2050 and 29.23°C in 2100.

  17. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS INCIDENCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH OSSETIA-ALANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Khabalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nosocomial infections occur in 5–20% of hospitalized patients. Officially, from 50 to 60 thousand cases of nosocomial infections are annually reported in the Russian Federation. The rapid development of invasive medical techniques, inappropriate use of antibiotics, instability of the sanitary-epidemiological, socio-economic, sociopolitical and socio-demographic situations could be considered as prerequisites for the increasing of many infectious diseases, including nosocomial infections. The detailed epidemiological analysis of nosocomial infections incidence at regional level provides the most complete picture of epidemiological situation and determines the tactics of surveillance and infection control. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term dynamics of nosocomial infections incidence in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. The study of epidemic process manifestations was based on the retrospective analysis of incidence from 1993 to 2010.

  18. Long-Term Unemployment and Suicide: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There have been a number of reviews on the association+ between unemployment and suicide, but none have investigated how this relationship is influenced by duration of unemployment. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of those studies that assessed duration of unemployment as a risk factor for suicide. Studies considered as eligible for inclusion were population-based cohort or case-control designs; population-based ecological designs, or hospital based clinical cohort or case-control designs published in the year 1980 or later. Results The review identified 16 eligible studies, out of a possible 10,358 articles resulting from a search of four databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus and Proquest. While all 16 studies measured unemployment duration in different ways, a common finding was that longer duration of unemployment was related to greater risk of suicide and suicide attempt. A random effects meta-analysis on a subsample of six cohort studies indicated that the pooled relative risk of suicide in relation to average follow-up time after unemployment was 1.70 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.18). However, results also suggested a possible habituation effect to unemployment over time, with the greatest risk of suicide occurring within five years of unemployment compared to the employed population (RR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.83 to 3.17). Relative risk appeared to decline in studies of those unemployed between 12 and 16 years compared to those currently employed (RR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.33). Conclusion Findings suggest that long-term unemployment is associated with greater incidence of suicide. Results of the meta-analysis suggest that risk is greatest in the first five years, and persists at a lower but elevated level up to 16 years after unemployment. These findings are limited by the paucity of data on this topic. PMID:23341881

  19. Long-term forecasting of meteorological time series using Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis (NLCCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldesellasse, H. T.; Marpu, P. R.; Ouarda, T.

    2016-12-01

    Wind is one of the crucial renewable energy sources which is expected to bring solutions to the challenges of clean energy and the global issue of climate change. A number of linear and nonlinear multivariate techniques has been used to predict the stochastic character of wind speed. A wind forecast with good accuracy has a positive impact on the reduction of electricity system cost and is essential for the effective grid management. Over the past years, few studies have been done on the assessment of teleconnections and its possible effects on the long-term wind speed variability in the UAE region. In this study Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis (NLCCA) method is applied to study the relationship between global climate oscillation indices and meteorological variables, with a major emphasis on wind speed and wind direction, of Abu Dhabi, UAE. The wind dataset was obtained from six ground stations. The first mode of NLCCA is capable of capturing the nonlinear mode of the climate indices at different seasons, showing the symmetry between the warm states and the cool states. The strength of the nonlinear canonical correlation between the two sets of variables varies with the lead/lag time. The performance of the models is assessed by calculating error indices such as the root mean square error (RMSE) and Mean absolute error (MAE). The results indicated that NLCCA models provide more accurate information about the nonlinear intrinsic behaviour of the dataset of variables than linear CCA model in terms of the correlation and root mean square error. Key words: Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis (NLCCA), Canonical Correlation Analysis, Neural Network, Climate Indices, wind speed, wind direction

  20. Tyrosinemia type 1 in Spain: mutational analysis, treatment and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couce, Maria Luz; Dalmau, Jaime; del Toro, Mireia; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís

    2011-12-01

    Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare but treatable disease. The aim of the present study was to review the efficacy of long-term treatment of HT1 with nitisinone, expand knowledge about the clinical spectrum of the disease and assess a possible genotype-phenotype correlation. A retrospective multicenter study was carried out based on questionnaires on genotype, phenotype, therapy and outcome in 34 Spanish patients with HT1. The main manifestations that led to the diagnosis were acute liver failure (55.8%), asymptomatic hepatomegaly (44.1%) and renal tubular dysfunction (29.4%). Laboratory analysis indicated a marked increase of α-fetoprotein and coagulopathy. The most common mutation was IVS6-1(G > T; 66.6% of 24/34 patients for whom mutation analysis was available) and these patients presented less nephrocalcinosis and more hepatomegaly at diagnosis; two novel mutations (c.974C>T, c.398A>T) were found. The mean duration of treatment was 6.73 years. Dietary compliance was very good in 47.1% and good in 20.6%; nitisinone treatment adherence was very good in 85.2% of cases. Mean dose of nitisinone was 0.87 mg/kg per day with average plasma levels of 45.67 µmol/L. Only one patient required liver transplantation after nitisinone and none had hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with nitisinone has improved the prognosis of HT1, and compliance is good. In Spain, screening for HT1 by plasma tyrosine and urine succinylacetone determination may be implemented with IVS6-1(G > T) mutational analysis. A correlation between low frequency of nephrocalcinosis and IVS6-1(G > T) mutation was observed. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Prognostic Impact of Diabetes on Long-term Survival Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauriz, Marco; Mantovani, Alessandro; Bonapace, Stefano; Verlato, Giuseppe; Zoppini, Giacomo; Bonora, Enzo; Targher, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Several studies have explored the impact of diabetes on mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the extent to which diabetes may confer risk of mortality and hospitalization in this patient population remains imperfectly known. Here we examine the independent prognostic impact of diabetes on the long-term risk of mortality and hospitalization in patients with HF. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science from January 1990 to October 2016 were the data sources used. We included large ( n ≥1,000) observational registries and randomized controlled trials with a follow-up duration of at least 1 year. Eligible studies were selected according to predefined keywords and clinical outcomes. Data from selected studies were extracted, and meta-analysis was performed using random-effects modeling. A total of 31 registries and 12 clinical trials with 381,725 patients with acute and chronic HF and 102,036 all-cause deaths over a median follow-up of 3 years were included in the final analysis. Diabetes was associated with a higher risk of all-cause death (random-effects hazard ratio [HR] 1.28 [95% CI 1.21, 1.35]), cardiovascular death (1.34 [1.20, 1.49]), hospitalization (1.35 [1.20, 1.50]), and the combined end point of all-cause death or hospitalization (1.41 [1.29, 1.53]). The impact of diabetes on mortality and hospitalization was greater in patients with chronic HF than in those with acute HF. Limitations included high heterogeneity and varying degrees of confounder adjustment across individual studies. This updated meta-analysis shows that the presence of diabetes per se adversely affects long-term survival and risk of hospitalization in patients with acute and chronic HF. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Analysis of long term options in the management of closed uranium mining sites in France: a pluralistic expertise experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Yves; Barbey, Pierre; Catelinois, Olivier; Crochon, Philippe; Petitfrere, Michael; Guillaumont, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Palaiseau Public demand and new regulations call for a growing stakeholder involvement in the protection of the public and the environment. On complex technical subjects prone to controversy, a useful advise to decision making processes can be provided by the pluralistic examination of the issues by a group of institutional and non-institutional experts. The French ministers for the environment, health, and industry created in 2005 a pluralistic expert group (GEP), started in mid-2006, to focus on the remediated uranium mines in the Limousin region of France. This group, which receives public funding, brings together experts with varied skills and backgrounds (from institutions, associations and industry, including independent and foreign experts). AREVA NC (COGEMA) the mine owner for the Haute Vienne sites has provided, on request of the administration, documents to assess the situation of the sites, and the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been commissioned to produce a global expertise of this assessment. The GEP has been given the task of contributing this critical analysis and participating in the direction of the global expertise, with the aim to provide the authorities and the operator with recommendations on long-term management and monitoring options for the facilities. The group has also the duty to report to local stakeholders and to inform the general public. Work has been developed in three complementary areas: Improving the assessment of the source term and releases of transfer to the natural environment, including hydrogeological and geochemical studies as well as the characterisation of exhalations of radon; Developing a more thorough assessment of health and environmental impacts, including radiological and chemical risks. This includes, in addition to traditional methods, the first-of-a-kind application of an innovative methodology to assess radio-ecological impacts; - strengthening the

  3. Trend analysis of evapotranspiration over India: Observed from long-term satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshi, Sheshakumar; Pradhan, Rohit; Singh, Raghavendra P.; Singh, K. K.; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2017-12-01

    Owing to the lack of consistent spatial time series data on actual evapotranspiration ( ET), very few studies have been conducted on the long-term trend and variability in ET at a national scale over the Indian subcontinent. The present study uses biome specific ET data derived from NOAA satellite's advanced very high resolution radiometer to investigate the trends and variability in ET over India from 1983 to 2006. Trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test showed that the domain average ET decreased during the period at a rate of 0.22 mm year^{-1}. A strong decreasing trend (m = -1.75 mm year^{-1}, F = 17.41, P 0.01) was observed in forest regions. Seasonal analyses indicated a decreasing trend during southwest summer monsoon (m= -0.320 mm season^{-1} year^{-1}) and post-monsoon period (m= -0.188 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}). In contrast, an increasing trend was observed during northeast winter monsoon (m = 0.156 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) and pre-monsoon (m = 0.068 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) periods. Despite an overall net decline in the country, a considerable increase ( 4 mm year^{-1}) was observed over arid and semi-arid regions. Grid level correlation with various climatic parameters exhibited a strong positive correlation (r >0.5) of ET with soil moisture and precipitation over semi-arid and arid regions, whereas a negative correlation (r -0.5) occurred with temperature and insolation in dry regions of western India. The results of this analysis are useful for understanding regional ET dynamics and its relationship with various climatic parameters over India. Future studies on the effects of ET changes on the hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, and energy partitioning are needed to account for the feedbacks to the climate.

  4. Long-term logistic analysis of FBR introduction strategy: avoiding both uranium and plutonium shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1995-01-01

    Despite comfortable predictions on short to mid-term uranium resources, there is still a concern about long-term availability of competitive uranium resources. In order to achieve substantial uranium saving, early introduction of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is desirable. But it is also known that rapid introduction of FBR could result in plutonium storage. Will there be enough plutonium on a global scale to sustain fast FBR growth? is there any other way to save uranium resource? This paper concludes that multi-option strategies to achieve flexible long-term strategy to avoid both uranium and plutonium storage are desirable. (authors)

  5. Strategic Analysis the System of Long-term Management of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available he article is devoted research o f role of strategic analysis in management system of enterprise with parallel determination of change ofhim rich in contentfilling, objects, article, tasks and subjects, in the context o f development of social-economic relations. On the basis of analysis of economic literature certainly, that a strategic analysis is, at first, by independent direction of analytical research, that occupies a leading place on each of the stages of strategic management an enterprise and envisages rich in content description of economic subject, exposure o f features, tendencies, possible and impossible directions of its development for the sake of timely and adequate reaction on changes in the environment of its functioning and forming competitive edges that in a long-term prospect will provide increase o f business cost, and, secondly, informative providing, as engulfs the results of actions of all other functions o f management, is based on the facts o f their display, redoes and reproduces new state information and its place activity o f enterprise in an external environment for the sake o f construction o f strategy o f continuity o f activity of subject of menage. Differentiating o f objects, article, tasks and subjects of strategic analysis, is offered after three forms o f display as areas o f scientific knowledges, educational discipline and practical activity, and certainly, that basic setting of strategic analysis as areas of scientific knowledges are providing o f necessities of practice, that is why its article is an improvement and development of methodology. In accordance with the modern understanding of strategic analysis and for complete realization o f his functions the “tree o f tasks” o f strategic analysis activity o f subject of menage with a purpose determination of order of organization and development o f its method, construction of strategy o f development o f enterprise which will allow to form

  6. Educational intervention on physical restraint use in long-term care facilities – Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Huan Lan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available “Physical restraint” formerly used as a measure of protection for psychiatric patients is now widely used. However, existing studies showed that physical restraint not only has inadequate effect of protection but also has negative effects on residents. To analyzes the impact of educational program on the physical restraint use in long-term care facilities. Design: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Eight databases, including Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, Ovid Medline and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro, were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies were classified by intervention and accessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. Sixteen research articles were eligible in the final review; 10 randomize control trail studies were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the use of physical restraint was significantly less often in the experimental (education group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.78, p < 0.001 compared to the control group. Meta-regression revealed the period of post education would have decreased the effect of the restraint educational program (β: 0.08, p = 0.002; instead, the longer education period and more times of education would have a stronger effect of reducing the use of physical restraint (β: −0.07, p < 0.001; β: −0.04, p = 0.056. The educational program had an effect on the reduced use of physical restraint. The results of meta-regression suggest that long-term care facilities should provide a continuous education program of physical restraint for caregivers.

  7. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  8. Long term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight: updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To summarise the long term efficacy of anti-obesity drugs in reducing weight and improving health status. Design Updated meta-analysis of randomised trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane controlled trials register, the Current Science meta-register of controlled trials, and reference lists of identified articles. All data sources were searched from December 2002 (end date of last search) to December 2006. Studies reviewed Double blind randomised placebo controlled trials of approved anti-obesity dugs used in adults (age over 18) for one year or longer. Results 30 trials of one to four years’ duration met the inclusion criteria: 16 orlistat (n=10 631 participants), 10 sibutramine (n=2623), and four rimonabant (n=6365). Of these, 14 trials were new and 16 had previously been identified. Attrition rates averaged 30-40%. Compared with placebo, orlistat reduced weight by 2.9 kg (95% confidence interval 2.5 kg to 3.2 kg), sibutramine by 4.2 kg (3.6 kg to 4.7 kg), and rimonabant by 4.7 kg (4.1 kg to 5.3 kg). Patients receiving active drug treatment were significantly more likely to achieve 5% and 10% weight loss thresholds. Orlistat reduced the incidence of diabetes and improved concentrations of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glycaemic control in patients with diabetes but increased rates of gastrointestinal side effects and slightly lowered concentrations of high density lipoprotein. Sibutramine lowered concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides but raised blood pressure and pulse rate. Rimonabant improved concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, blood pressure, and glycaemic control in patients with diabetes but increased the risk of mood disorders. Conclusions Orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant modestly reduce weight, have differing effects on cardiovascular risk profiles, and have specific adverse effects. PMID:18006966

  9. Long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends and homogeneity analysis in Wainganga basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Taxak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gridded rainfall data of 0.5×0.5° resolution (CRU TS 3.21 was analysed to study long term spatial and temporal trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Central India during 1901–2012. After testing the presence of autocorrelation, Mann–Kendall (Modified Mann–Kendall test was applied to non-auto correlated (auto correlated series to detect the trends in rainfall data. Theil and Sen׳s slope estimator test was used for finding the magnitude of change over a time period. For detecting the most probable change year, Pettitt–Mann–Whitney test was applied. The Rainfall series was then divided into two partial duration series for finding changes in trends before and after the change year. Arc GIS was used to explore spatial patterns of the trends over the entire basin. Though most of the grid points shows a decreasing trend in annual rainfall, only seven grids has a significant decreasing trend during 1901–2012. On the basis of seasonal trend analysis, non-significant increasing trend is observed only in post monsoon season while seven grid points show significant decreasing trend in monsoon rainfall and non-significant in pre-monsoon and winter rainfall over the last 112 years. During the study period, overall a 8.45% decrease in annual rainfall is estimated. The most probable year of change was found to be 1948 in annual and monsoonal rainfall. There is an increasing rainfall trend in the basin during the period 1901–1948, which is reversed during the period 1949–2012 resulting in decreasing rainfall trend in the basin. Homogeneous trends in annual and seasonal rainfall over a grid points is exhibited in the basin by van Belle and Hughes׳ homogeneity trend test.

  10. Long term analysis of the Polar Front position and thermohaline characteristics in Drake Passage, Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, N.; Sprintall, J.; Mata, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have observed a consistent warming of the Southern Ocean with the migration of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the associated frontal systems southwards. This shift, is thought to be related to the predominantly positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). This study use the long term salinity and temperature measurements from the High Resolution XBT Program (HR-XBT) in Drake Passage to analyze the temporal variability of the thermohaline properties of the Polar Front (PF). The measurements span from 1996 to 2014. The analysis of the variability of the thermohaline properties along both the isobars and isopycnals in the PF was carried out using Bindoff & McDougall's (1994) method to account for warming, freshening and heaving of the water column. The main results indicate a southward migratory trend of the PF of 0.0229°/year ( 2.5km) which is consistent with a positive SAM influence. Freshening dominates changes in the Drake Passage region and heaving is the least important of all three processes. Freshening occurs throughout the water column south of the PF while that signal is limited to the surface towards the north of the PF. The most significant freshening seems to be occurring along the isopycnals 27.2 to 27.5 kg/m³, values that correspond to 100 and 400m depth, respectively. In terms of T/S anomalies with depth, the results show positive anomalies for Pure Warming and negative anomalies for Pure Freshening in both isobaric and neutral surfaces, indicating also that the region is getting fresher with time. Overall, these results endorse the hypothesis that freshening plays a major role in the observed subsurface heating signal occurring along isopycnals.

  11. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality analysis using continuous measurements in a French urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siao; Barraud, Sylvie; Castebrunet, Hélène; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-11-15

    The assessment of urban stormwater quantity and quality is important for evaluating and controlling the impact of the stormwater to natural water and environment. This study mainly addresses long-term evolution of stormwater quantity and quality in a French urban catchment using continuous measured data from 2004 to 2011. Storm event-based data series are obtained (716 rainfall events and 521 runoff events are available) from measured continuous time series. The Mann-Kendall test is applied to these event-based data series for trend detection. A lack of trend is found in rainfall and an increasing trend in runoff is detected. As a result, an increasing trend is present in the runoff coefficient, likely due to growing imperviousness of the catchment caused by urbanization. The event mean concentration of the total suspended solid (TSS) in stormwater does not present a trend, whereas the event load of TSS has an increasing tendency, which is attributed to the increasing event runoff volume. Uncertainty analysis suggests that the major uncertainty in trend detection results lies in uncertainty due to available data. A lack of events due to missing data leads to dramatically increased uncertainty in trend detection results. In contrast, measurement uncertainty in time series data plays a trivial role. The intra-event distribution of TSS is studied based on both M(V) curves and pollutant concentrations of absolute runoff volumes. The trend detection test reveals no significant change in intra-event distributions of TSS in the studied catchment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. External beam irradiation of craniopharyngiomas: long-term analysis of tumor control and morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlotto, John M.; Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lunsford, L.D.; Deutsch, Melvin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To delineate the long-term control and morbidity with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 1992, 24 craniopharyngioma patients underwent EBRT at the University of Pittsburgh. Most (19 of 24) were treated within 1-3 months after subtotal resection. The other prior surgical procedures were biopsy (n = 2) and gross total resection (n = 1); 2 patients did not undergo any surgical procedure. The median follow-up was 12.1 years. The median patient age was 29 years (range 5-69). The total radiation doses varied from 36 to 70 Gy (median 59.75). The normalized total dose (NTD, biologically equivalent dose given in 2 Gy/fraction [α/β ratio = 2]) varied from 28 to 83 Gy (median 55.35). Results: The actuarial survival rate at 10 and 20 years was 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 10 and 20 years was 89.1% and 54.0%, respectively. No local failures occurred with doses ≥60 Gy (n=12) or NTDs ≥55 Gy. The complication-free survival rate at 10 and 20 years was 80.1% and 72.1%, respectively. No complications were noted with an NTD of ≤55 Gy. The actuarial survival free from any adverse outcome (recurrence or complication) was 70.1% and 31.8% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. The adverse outcome-free survival appeared optimized (at 73%) with an NTD of 55-63 Gy. Multivariate analysis found that tumor control correlated significantly with the total dose (p=0.02), treatment complications with NTD (p=0.008), and adverse outcome with hypopituitarism on presentation (p=0.03). Conclusion: We recommend treating craniopharyngioma with 1.6-1.7-Gy dose fractions to 60 Gy to optimize outcome from EBRT

  13. Analysis of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB in postmortem matrices after long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Isenschmid, Daniel S; Hepler, Bradford R; Kanluen, Sawait

    2005-01-01

    Postmortem heart blood, peripheral blood, vitreous humor, urine, and bile specimens from 26 autopsy cases were analyzed for the presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-methyl gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (4-Me-GHB) after long-term freezer storage. Cases were selected for which exogenous GHB, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), gamma valerolactone (GVL), or 1,4-butanediol use was not suspected. One documented positive GHB case subjected to the same storage conditions was also evaluated for comparison. Specimens did not contain any preservatives or additives except heart blood, which contained sodium fluoride (2% w/v). The results of the analysis for GHB in vitreous humor (n = 26) demonstrated, with one exception, concentrations below the limit of detection for the method (5 mg/L). In the exception case, the value was determined to be 7 mg/L. Documented cases of GHB positive fatalities showed vitreous humor concentrations (n = 6) that exceeded this range by a factor of 12 or more. There was no apparent relationship between storage times and GHB concentrations. The data developed in this study demonstrate a postmortem endogenous range for GHB in vitreous humor that is less than or equal to 7 mg/L. Studies of the stored GHB-positive case demonstrated no significant change in concentration over the time period studied. None of the specimens analyzed in this study contained detectable amounts of 4-Me-GHB. This would support the contention that when 4-Me-GHB is detected, it is most likely due to the exogenous consumption of GVL.

  14. Analysis of Nerve Agent Metabolites from Hair for Long-Term Verification of Nerve Agent Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Amanda S; McDonough, John H; McMonagle, Joseph D; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-21

    Several methods for the bioanalysis of nerve agents or their metabolites have been developed for the verification of nerve agent exposure. However, parent nerve agents and known metabolites are generally rapidly excreted from biological matrixes typically used for analysis (i.e., blood, urine, and tissues), limiting the amount of time after an exposure that verification is feasible. In this study, hair was evaluated as a long-term repository of nerve agent hydrolysis products. Pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA; hydrolysis product of soman) and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA; hydrolysis product of sarin) were extracted from hair samples with N,N-dimethylformamide and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for PMPA and IMPA were 0.15 μg/kg and 7.5 μg/kg and linear ranges were 0.3-150 μg/kg and 7.5-750 μg/kg, respectively. To evaluate the applicability of the method to verify nerve agent exposure well after the exposure event, rats were exposed to soman, hair was collected after approximately 30 days, and stored for up to 3.5 years prior to initial analysis. PMPA was positively identified in 100% of the soman-exposed rats (N = 8) and was not detected in any of the saline treated animals (N = 6). The hair was reanalyzed 5.5 years after exposure and PMPA was detected in 6 of the 7 (one of the soman-exposed hair samples was completely consumed in the analysis at 3.5 years) rat hair samples (with no PMPA detected in the saline exposed animals). Although analysis of CWA metabolites from hair via this technique is not appropriate as a universal method to determine exposure (i.e., it takes time for the hair to grow above the surface of the skin and typical analysis times are >24 h), it complements existing methods and could become the preferred method for verification of exposure if 10 or more days have elapsed after a suspected exposure.

  15. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR THE LONG TERM MANAGEMENT OF EXCESS MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a systematic method for comparing options for the long-term management of surplus elemental mercury in the U.S., using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as embodied in commercially available Expert Choice software. A limited scope multi-criteria decisionan...

  16. The long-term game: an analysis of the life expectancy of national football league players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.h.; Matheson, V.; Nathan, A.; Pantano, J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Football League (NFL) has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic

  17. Why do nurses intend to leave their organization? A large scale analysis in long term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra); M. Lankhaar (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAim. To analyze the impact of six job characteristics on the intention of nurses to leave their organization, specifically focusing on long term care settings: nursing homes, care homes and home care. Background. When nurses leave their organization, this can negatively affect

  18. An empirical analysis of the German long-term interest rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Butter, F.A.G.; Jansen, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The short run and long run influences of the main determinants of the German long-term interest rate are estimated using quarterly data for the period 1982-2001. A major reason for the focus on the German interest rate is that this rate, and hence its determinants, will be dominant in explaining the

  19. Long-Term Analysis and Appropriate Metrics of Climate Change in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiyansharav, Khishigbayar

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses three important issues related to long-term climate change study in Mongolia. Mongolia is one of the biggest land-locked countries in Asia and 75--80 percent of the land is rangeland, which is highly vulnerable to climate change. Climate will affect many sectors critical to the country's economic, social, and ecological…

  20. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR THE LONG TERM MANAGEMENT OF EXCESS MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the use of a systematic method for comparing options for the long term management and retirement of surplus mercury in the U.S. The method chosen is the Analytical Hierarchy Procedure (AHP) as embodied in the Expert Choice 2000 software. The goal, criteria, ...

  1. Disparities in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma short- and long-term outcomes: Analysis from the national cancer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M; Parasher, Arjun K; Workman, Alan D; Yan, Carol H; Glicksman, Jordan T; Chen, Jinbo; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D; Newman, Jason G; Brant, Jason A

    2018-03-01

    To examine sociodemographic, hospital-specific, and disease-related characteristics in relation to outcomes in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The National Cancer Database was queried for location codes corresponding to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and histology codes representing SCC malignancy. Multivariate analyses were performed against short- and long-term outcomes (overall survival, days to discharge, 30-day readmission, and 30- and 90-day mortality). The database included 5,584 sinonasal SCC patients with an overall median survival of 53.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49.7-57.8). On multivariate analysis, uninsured, Medicaid, and Medicare were independently associated with worse overall survival compared to private insurance (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.22-1.82, P exist. An understanding of these differences may help minimize disparities in oncologic treatment. 2c. Laryngoscope, 128:560-567, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy in Resected Pancreatic Carcinoma: Long-Term Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Morganti, Alessio G.; Macchia, Gabriella; Mantini, Giovanna; Mattiucci, Gian C.; Brizi, M. Gabriella; Alfieri, Sergio; Bossola, Maurizio; Pacelli, Fabio; Sofo, Luigi; Doglietto, Giovanbattista; Cellini, Numa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The combination of external radiotherapy (RT) plus intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in patients with pancreatic cancer is still debated. This study presents long-term results (minimum follow-up, 102 months) for 26 patients undergoing integrated adjuvant RT (external RT + IORT). Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1995, a total of 17 patients with pancreatic cancer underwent IORT (10 Gy) and postoperative external RT (50.4 Gy). Preoperative 'flash' RT was included for the last 9 patients. The liver and pancreatic head received 5 Gy (two 2.5-Gy fractions) the day before surgery. In the subsequent period (1996-1998), 9 patients underwent preoperative concomitant chemoradiation (39.6 Gy) with 5-fluorouracil, IORT (10 Gy), and adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Preoperative chemoradiation was completed in all patients, whereas postoperative therapy was completed in 13 of 17 patients. All 26 patients underwent pancreatectomy (25 R0 and one R1 resections). One patient died of postoperative complications (3.8%) not related to IORT. The 9 patients undergoing concomitant chemoradiation were candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy; however, only 4 of 9 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. At last follow-up, 4 patients (15.4%) were alive and disease free. Disease recurrence was documented in 20 patients (76.9%). Sixteen patients (61.5%) showed distant metastasis, and 5 patients (19.2%) showed local recurrence. The incidence of local recurrence in R0 patients was 4 of 25 (16.0%). The overall 5-year survival rate was 15.4%. There was significant correlation with overall survival of tumor diameter (p = 0.019). Conclusions: The incidence of local recurrence in this long follow-up series (19.2%) was definitely less than that reported in other studies of adjuvant RT (∼50%), suggesting a positive impact on local control of integrated adjuvant RT (IORT + external RT)

  3. Long-term immunity to hepatitis B following vaccination in infancy: Real-world data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Gil; Chodick, Gabriel; Levy, Itzhak

    2018-04-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination has decreased the prevalence of chronic HBV infections and their sequelae. However, whether vaccination at birth provides lifelong protection is unclear. To assess long-term immunity following neonatal HBV immunization in a large population-based cohort. Using the database of a 2 million member sick fund in Israel, we identified all subjects born after introduction of universal HBV vaccination in Israel (January 1992 through December 2014), that were tested for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs Ab's). Years since vaccination were categorized into 5-year groups and linear trends in the seroprevalence of HBV immunity were calculated. Anamnestic response and presence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) were assessed. Included were 20,634 tested individuals. Mean (±SD) age at testing was 14.8 (±5.4) years. Mean anti-HBs Ab levels declined with time to 16.39 mIU/ml in the 15-20 year group (P < 0.001). The proportion of negative results increased gradually (P < 0.001) to 66.7% after 15 years. Anamnestic response assessment showed that 604 of 644 seronegative subjects (93.8%, 95% CI: 91.6-95.5%) became seropositive after a booster dose. HBs Ag was identified in 91 of the 20,634 (4.4 per 1000 study participants). Following vaccination, anti-HB's Ab's progressively decline, with only a third of the population retaining protective levels after 15 years. In adolescence, anamnestic response shows that nearly all revaccinated adolescents exhibit immunity. A low rate of Hepatitis B infection was demonstrated despite vaccination of nearly all newborns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Seismic Response Trends from Long-Term Monitoring of Two Instrumented RC Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Butt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses of the seismic responses of two reinforced concrete buildings monitored for a period of more than two years. One of the structures was a three-storey reinforced concrete (RC frame building with a shear core, while the other was a three-storey RC frame building without a core. Both buildings are part of the same large complex but are seismically separated from the rest of it. Statistical analysis of the relationships between maximum free field accelerations and responses at different points on the buildings was conducted and demonstrated strong correlation between those. System identification studies using recorded accelerations were undertaken and revealed that natural frequencies and damping ratios of the building structures vary during different earthquake excitations. This variation was statistically examined and relationships between identified natural frequencies and damping ratios, and the peak response acceleration at the roof level were developed. A general trend of decreasing modal frequencies and increasing damping ratios was observed with increased level of shaking and response. Moreover, the influence of soil structure interaction (SSI on the modal characteristics was evaluated. SSI effects decreased the modal frequencies and increased some of the damping ratios.

  5. Reducing soil phosphorus fertility brings potential long-term environmental gains: A UK analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Hodgkinson, Robin A.; Rollett, Alison; Dyer, Chris; Dils, Rachael; Collins, Adrian L.; Bilsborrow, Paul E.; Bailey, Geoff; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger

    2017-05-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) fertility arising from historic P inputs is a major driver of P mobilisation in agricultural runoff and increases the risk of aquatic eutrophication. To determine the environmental benefit of lowering soil P fertility, a meta-analysis of the relationship between soil test P (measured as Olsen-P) and P concentrations in agricultural drainflow and surface runoff in mostly UK soils was undertaken in relation to current eutrophication control targets (30-35 µg P L-1). At agronomic-optimum Olsen P (16-25 mg kg-1), concentrations of soluble reactive P (SRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP) and sediment-P (SS-P) in runoff were predicted by linear regression analysis to vary between 24 and 183 µg L-1, 38 and 315 µg L-1, 0.2 and 9.6 mg L-1, and 0.31 and 3.2 g kg-1, respectively. Concentrations of SRP and TDP in runoff were much more sensitive to changes in Olsen-P than were TP and SS-P concentrations, which confirms that separate strategies are required for mitigating the mobilisation of dissolved and particulate P forms. As the main driver of eutrophication, SRP concentrations in runoff were reduced on average by 60 µg L-1 (71%) by lowering soil Olsen-P from optimum (25 mg kg-1) to 10 mg kg-1. At Olsen-P concentrations below 12 mg kg-1, dissolved hydrolysable P (largely organic) became the dominant form of soluble P transported. We concluded that maintaining agronomic-optimum Olsen-P could still pose a eutrophication risk, and that a greater research focus on reducing critical soil test P through innovative agro-engineering of soils, crops and fertilisers would give long-term benefits in reducing the endemic eutrophication risk arising from legacy soil P. Soil P testing should become compulsory in priority catchments suffering, or sensitive to, eutrophication to ensure soil P reserves are fully accounted for as part of good fertiliser and manure management.

  6. Distinguishing patterns in the dynamics of long-term medication use by Markov analysis: beyond persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammers Jan-Willem J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to accurately distinguish gaps of varying length in drug treatment for chronic conditions from discontinuation without resuming therapy, short-term observation does not suffice. Thus, the use of inhalation corticosteroids (ICS in the long-term, during a ten-year period is investigated. To describe medication use as a continuum, taking into account the timeliness and consistency of refilling, a Markov model is proposed. Methods Patients, that filled at least one prescription in 1993, were selected from the PHARMO medical record linkage system (RLS containing >95% prescription dispensings per patient originating from community pharmacy records of 6 medium-sized cities in the Netherlands. The probabilities of continuous use, the refilling of at least one ICS prescription in each year of follow-up, and medication free periods were assessed by Markov analysis. Stratified analysis according to new use was performed. Results The transition probabilities of the refilling of at least one ICS prescription in the subsequent year of follow-up, were assessed for each year of follow-up and for the total study period. The change of transition probabilities in time was evaluated, e.g. the probability of continuing ICS use of starters in the first two years (51% of follow-up increased to more than 70% in the following years. The probabilities of different patterns of medication use were assessed: continuous use (7.7%, cumulative medication gaps (1–8 years 69.1% and discontinuing (23.2% during ten-year follow-up for new users. New users had lower probability of continuous use (7.7% and more variability in ICS refill patterns than previous users (56%. Conclusion In addition to well-established methods in epidemiology to ascertain compliance and persistence, a Markov model could be useful to further specify the variety of possible patterns of medication use within the continuum of adherence. This Markov model describes variation in

  7. The analysis of long-term changes in plant communities using large databases: the effect of stratified resampling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Question: Releves in large phytosociological databases used for analysing long-term changes in plant communities are biased towards easily accessible places and species-rich stands. How does this bias influence trend analysis of floristic composition within a priori determined vegetation types and

  8. NAEP 1999 Long-Term Trend Technical Analysis Report: Three Decades of Student Performance. NCES 2005-484

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nancy L.; McClellan, Catherine A.; Stoeckel, Joan J.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an update to the technical analysis procedures documenting the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as presented in "The NAEP 1996 Technical Report" (Allen, Carlson, and Zelenak, 1999). It describes how the 1999 long-term trend data were incorporated into the trend analyses. Since no national main…

  9. Improved analysis of long-term monitoring data demonstrates marked regional declines of bat populations in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Ingersoll; Brent J. Sewall; Sybill K. Amelon

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by...

  10. Analysis of Spanish generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold G; Simoens, Steven

    2014-06-01

    The use of generic medicines in Spain is traditionally low compared to other European countries, despite efforts of the Spanish government in the past. This paper provides a perspective on the Spanish generic medicines retail market and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. The Spanish government's focus on prices of generic medicines (e.g., mandatory price cuts, reference price set at the lowest level) have made them amongst the lowest in Europe. In our opinion, this combination of continuous pressure on prices and limited diffusion of generic medicines may undermine the long-term sustainability of the Spanish generic medicines retail market. The unique experience in Spain shows the impact of demand-side policies on the use of generic medicines. Because a sustainable generic medicines retail market is important to maintain future competition in the off-patent medicines market, this perspective paper rounds off with recommendations to increase its sustainability.

  11. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  12. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy

  13. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper.

  14. Radiocaesium in grazing sheep. A statistical analysis of variability, survey methodology and long term behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehli, H.

    1996-05-01

    Since 1987 sheep grazing in the areas of Norway that received Chernobyl-fallout have been monitored before slaughter. These monitoring data formed the basis for development of a model describing the long term behaviour of radiocesium in unimproved pasture showing that in years with good mushroom abundance 70-80% of the radiocesium concentration in sheep is due to fungi consumption. A study of sampling strategy and variability of radiocesium concentration within flocks was also performed. 55 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Yield gap analysis in long-term experiments with intensive rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureles, E.V.; Correa, T. Jr.; Buresh, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term continuous cropping experiment at IRRI is cultivated with three rice crops in a year, making it the world's most intensively cropped long-term rice experiment. The availability of comprehensive rice production records, compiled weather data, and tested crop models provides a means to evaluate long-term trends in measured and potential yields and yield gaps in this rice production system. Yield trends were assessed using the highest yielding cultivar in each cropping season from 1979 to 2005. Potential yield of the highest yielding cultivar in each season was determined using three rice models (ORYZA, TERM, and CERES) run with the actual transplanting and harvest dates for the cultivar. The yield gap was determined from the difference between the simulated potential grain yield and the measured grain yield. Measured and potential yields and the yield gap varied across seasons and years. Measured yields were higher in the dry season than in the early and late wet seasons. The yield gap tended to be higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Climatic parameters, particularly solar radiation, influenced the performance of rice cultivars. The relatively larger yield gaps in the late wet season than in the dry season were associated with increased spikelet sterility. The cumulative measured yield for the three annual rice crop was near 80 percent of the annual yield potential in years with best practices for fertilizer N and crop management. The long term trends suggest that effective timing and rates of N fertilization and effective control of diseases were critical in achieving 80 percent of the annual yield potential

  16. Radiocaesium in grazing sheep. A statistical analysis of variability, survey methodology and long term behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehli, H.

    1996-05-01

    Since 1987 sheep grazing in the areas of Norway that received Chernobyl-fallout have been monitored before slaughter. These monitoring data formed the basis for development of a model describing the long term behaviour of radiocesium in unimproved pasture showing that in years with good mushroom abundance 70-80% of the radiocesium concentration in sheep is due to fungi consumption. A study of sampling strategy and variability of radiocesium concentration within flocks was also performed. 55 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Long-term analysis of ionospheric polar patches based on CHAMP TEC data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noja, M.; Stolle, Claudia; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    Total electron content (TEC) from LEO satellites offers great possibility to sound the upper ionosphere and plasmasphere. This paper describes a method to derive absolute TEC observations aboard CHAMP considering multipath effects and receiver differential code bias. The long-term data set of 9...... that enhanced TEC at midlatitudes and low latitudes during December solstice provides a greater possibility to transport high-density plasma to the polar region through the buildup of TOIs. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved....

  18. Long-term stability analysis of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The time-dependent behavior of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station has a major influence on the normal operation and long-term safety of the hydropower station. To solve this problem, a geomechanical model containing various faults and weak structural planes is established, and numerical simulation is conducted under normal water load condition using FLAC3D, incorporating creep model proposed based on thermodynamics with internal state variables theory. The creep deformations of the left bank abutment slope are obtained, and the changes of principal stresses and deformations of the dam body are analyzed. The long-term stability of the left bank abutment slope is evaluated according to the integral curves of energy dissipation rate in domain and its derivative with respect to time, and the non-equilibrium evolution rules and the characteristic time can also be determined using these curves. Numerical results show that the left bank abutment slope tends to be stable in a global sense, and the stress concentration is released. It is also indicated that more attention should be paid to some weak regions within the slope in the long-term deformation process.

  19. Long Term Trend Analysis and Assessment of Water Quality in the Penchala River, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M. F.; Haris, H. B.; Mohd Sidek, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urban expansion produces negative impacts on the natural environment, especially river water quality. Studies assessing long term changes of water quality have been recognized as a key tool for understanding ongoing processes in watersheds and for providing an essential background for evaluation of rapid changes within industrialized and populated urban areas. Unfortunately, only limited studies are available for developing countries such as Malaysia. Thus, a long term study was conducted to evaluate water quality trends at Pencala river basin that has undergone extensive land use changes related to industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Fifteen physical and chemical variables were analysed in river water samples collected every month over a period of 13 years, between 1997 and 2009. The trend study was performed using the Mann-Kendall Seasonal test and the Sen's Slope estimator. Results revealed that most water quality parameters showed a downward trend for yearly average concentration. The water quality index (WQI) for Pencala River was improved from Class V to Class IV, according to National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia. BOD, COD, NH3-N and SS show trends toward decreasing concentrations over time. The improvements seen in water quality appear to be the result of improved wastewater treatment and other water quality improvement efforts achieved through government initiative. Continued long-term and high frequency monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for effective water resources management.

  20. Effect of BRCA1/2 mutation on short-term and long-term breast cancer survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Park, Sue K; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2010-07-01

    Reports of BRCA genetic mutations and risk of death or recurrence are inconsistent. This study aimed to compare overall and disease-free breast cancer survival rates between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers for short-term and long-term outcomes separately. We searched the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and retrieved 452 articles using keywords that included breast cancer, BRCA mutation, and survival. Seventeen articles were selected for systematic review and among them 11 were included in our meta-analysis. We used the random-effects model to calculate the summary hazard ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval. BRCA1 mutation carriers had significantly lower short-term and long-term overall survival rates (OSR) relative to non-carriers (HR = 1.92 [95% CI = 1.45-2.53]; 1.33 [1.12-1.58], respectively), while both short-term and long-term OSR of BRCA2 carriers did not differ from non-carriers (HR = 1.30 [95% CI = 0.95-1.76]; 1.12 [95% CI = 0.86-1.45], respectively). For short-term progression-free survival rate (PFSR), BRCA1 mutation carriers had a significantly lower rate than non-carriers (HR = 1.54 [95% CI = 1.12-2.12]), while BRCA2 mutation carriers had a similar PFSR (HR = 1.23 [95% CI = 0.96-1.58]). For long-term PFSRs, we found no significant results. Our results suggest that BRCA1 mutation decreases short-term and long-term OSRs and short-term PFSR, however, BRCA2 mutation does not affect either short-term or long-term survival rate, which is attributed to the different carcinogenic pathways for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  1. Long-term outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty in keratoconus:analysis of the factors associated with final visual acuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the long-term results of penetrating keratoplasty (PK in patients with keratoconus (KC and to evaluate factors that might influence the final visual outcome.METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients with clinical KC who had undergone PK by a single corneal surgeon in a single center from May 1980 to December 2005. The age of the patients, preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, corneal thickness, death to preservation time, and preservation to transplantation time were recorded. Additionally, postoperative complications such as graft rejection, development of glaucoma and specular microscopy were checked during the follow-up.RESULTS:Sixty-nine eyes from 69 patients were finally included. The follow-up period was 8.64±6.13y. Graft rejection occurred in 4 eyes of 69 cases (5.8%, and the time to graft rejection was 2.1±1.3y. A Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the estimated cumulative probability of graft rejection at 6, 13, and 17y after PK were 95.6%, 90.0%, and 78.8%, respectively. When we evaluated factors that might influence final BCVA in eyes, no disparity donor-host trephine size (same graft size as well as higher spherical equivalent, and average K-value were associated with higher final BCVA. (P=0.006, 0.051, 0.092, and 0.021 in eyes with follow-up <8y; P=0.068, 0.065, and 0.030 in eyes with follow-up ≥8y, respectively.CONCLUSION: The long-term results of PK in patients with KC were favorable with a high percentage of good BCVA. Less myopic change and low average K-reading, as well as a surgical technique using the same size donor-recipient button may provide better visual outcomes particularly in patients with KC.

  2. Climatology Analysis of Aerosol Effect on Marine Water Cloud from Long-Term Satellite Climate Data Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuepeng Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite aerosol and cloud climate data records (CDRs have been used successfully to study the aerosol indirect effect (AIE. Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR now span more than 30 years and allow these studies to be conducted from a climatology perspective. In this paper, AVHRR data are used to study the AIE on water clouds over the global oceans. Correlation analysis between aerosol optical thickness (AOT and cloud parameters, including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER, cloud optical depth (COD, cloud water path (CWP, and cloud cover fraction (CCF, is performed. For the first time from satellite observations, the long-term trend in AIE over the global oceans is also examined. Three regimes have been identified: (1 AOT < 0.08, where CDER increases with AOT; (2 0.08 < AOT < 0.3, where CDER generally decreases when AOT increases; and (3 AOT > 0.3, where CDER first increases with AOT and then levels off. AIE is easy to manifest in the CDER reduction in the second regime (named Regime 2, which is identified as the AIE sensitive/effective regime. The AIE manifested in the consistent changes of all four cloud variables (CDER, COD, CWP, and CCF together is located only in limited areas and with evident seasonal variations. The long-term trend of CDER changes due to the AIE of AOT changes is detected and falls into three scenarios: Evident CDER decreasing (increasing with significant AOT increasing (decreasing and evident CDER decreasing with limited AOT increasing but AOT values fall in the AIE sensitive Regime 2.

  3. Bifurcation analysis of a delay differential equation model associated with the induction of long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Lijie; Yang, Zhuoqin; Lei, Jinzhi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A delay differentiation equation model for CREB regulation is developed. • Increasing the time delay can generate various bifurcations. • Increasing the time delay can induce chaos by two routes. - Abstract: The ability to form long-term memories is an important function for the nervous system, and the formation process is dynamically regulated through various transcription factors, including CREB proteins. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a delay differential equation model for CREB protein activities, which involves two positive and two negative feedbacks in the regulatory network. We discuss the dynamical mechanisms underlying the induction of long-term memory, in which bistability is essential for the formation of long-term memory, while long time delay can destabilize the high level steady state to inhibit the long-term memory formation. The model displays rich dynamical response to stimuli, including monostability, bistability, and oscillations, and can transit between different states by varying the negative feedback strength. Introduction of a time delay to the model can generate various bifurcations such as Hopf bifurcation, fold limit cycle bifurcation, Neimark–Sacker bifurcation of cycles, and period-doubling bifurcation, etc. Increasing the time delay can induce chaos by two routes: quasi-periodic route and period-doubling cascade.

  4. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the “work environment hypothesis”, which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. Methods The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. Results The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Conclusions Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the

  5. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadj-Hassen, F.; Bienvenu, Y.; Noirel, J.F.; Metz, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  6. Long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends and homogeneity analysis in Wainganga basin, Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Taxak, Arun Kumar; Murumkar, A.R.; Arya, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Gridded rainfall data of 0.5×0.5° resolution (CRU TS 3.21) was analysed to study long term spatial and temporal trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Central India during 1901–2012. After testing the presence of autocorrelation, Mann–Kendall (Modified Mann–Kendall) test was applied to non-auto correlated (auto correlated) series to detect the trends in rainfall data. Theil and Sen׳s slope estimator test was used for finding the magnitude of change over a tim...

  7. A Prospective Comparison of Clinical, Radiographic, and Intraoperative Features of Hallux Rigidus: Long-Term Follow-Up and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Andrew D; Borgert, Andrew J; Roukis, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Forty-seven patients (50 feet) underwent surgical intervention for symptomatic hallux rigidus from February 1998 to April 1999. Thirty-eight patients (41 feet) returned at 1 year for a follow-up evaluation. Of these 38 patients, 20 (21 feet) returned for the 15-year follow-up evaluation. Subjective evaluations were performed using the modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgery hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal 100-point scale. Long-term postoperative objective physical examination and radiographic analysis were performed. These data were compared with the preoperative and short-term follow-up data. The subjective evaluation showed a statistically significant differing over the long term, with a mean increase of 27.6 points. The results of the physical examination and radiographic measurements were mixed. The long-term dorsal range of motion was not significant across surgery type. Radiographically, the procedure types resulted in similar changes, suggesting that neither joint preservation nor joint destructive procedures were more stable over time. Plantar transposition of the capital fragment, offsetting the longitudinal shortening of the first metatarsal, was not significant, confirming the short-term findings. For this patient population, the long-term results of surgical intervention for hallux rigidus, regardless of procedure type, provided subjective patient improvement but no statistically significant increase in first metatarsophalangeal joint function or dorsal range of motion. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors and analysis of long-term headache in sporadic vestibular schwannoma: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Tveiten, Øystein Vesterli; Driscoll, Colin L; Boes, Christopher J; Sullan, Molly J; Goplen, Frederik K; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Link, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The primary goals of this study were: 1) to examine the influence of disease and treatment on headache in patients with sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS); and 2) to identify clinical predictors of long-term headache disability. This was a cross-sectional observational study with international multicenter enrollment. Patients included those with primary sporadic Headache Disability Inventory (HDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a VS symptom questionnaire. The main outcome measures were univariate and multivariable associations with HDI total score. The overall survey response rate was 79%. Data from 538 patients with VS were analyzed. The mean age at time of survey was 64 years, 56% of patients were female, and the average duration between treatment and survey was 7.7 years. Twenty-seven percent of patients received microsurgery, 46% stereotactic radiosurgery, and 28% observation. Patients with VS who were managed with observation were more than twice as likely to have severe headache disability compared with 103 control subjects without VS. When accounting for baseline differences, there was no statistically significant difference in HDI outcome between treatment modalities at time of survey. Similarly, among the microsurgery cohort, the long-term risk of severe headache disability was not different between surgical approaches. Multivariable regression demonstrated that younger age, greater anxiety and depression, and a preexisting diagnosis of headache were the primary predictors of severe long-term headache disability, while tumor size and treatment modality had little influence. At a mean of almost 8 years following treatment, approximately half of patients with VS experience headaches of varying frequency and severity. Patient-driven factors including age, sex, mental health, and preexisting headache syndrome are the strongest predictors of long-term severe headache disability. Tumor size and treatment modality have less impact. These data

  9. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  10. Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us! Living with HD Long-Term Care Long Term Care Click here to download Long-Term Care for HD, (part of HDSA’s Family Guide ... on patient and family issues related to long-term HD care. For many caregivers of people with ...

  11. Development of analysis model for mid and long-term effects of sodium water reaction event in LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Seong O; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Eui Kwang; Wi, Myung Hwan

    2002-04-01

    The Sodium-Water Reaction(SWR) is important in the design consideration of a LMR steam generator. To develop the analysis code for long-term effects of SWR, investigation on the characteristics of various SWR analysis code and the assessment of an analysis model for long term effects were performed. In an event of SWR, pressure spikes of wave propagation occur at its initial stage and last for a very short time, and then bulk motion of fluid and reaction products is progressed and lasts for a long time. In a case SWR occurs, a number of hydrogen bubbles produced and sodium is entrained into the bubbles through the gas-liquid bubble interfaces by evaporation or diffusion. The partial pressure of the sodium in a hydrogen bubble is determined as a function of the bubble size, temperature, and pressure, and is rapidly decreased as its size increased. From this, it can be considered that the bulk motion in the later phase of SWR is an axial motion caused by expansion of a single-phase hydrogen gas bubble produced by a reaction in the vicinity of the leak site. Through this investigation, a preliminary simple analysis model for long-term effects of SWR was set up and sensitivity study using the system design parameters such as pressure and temperature of IHTS for KALIMER was performed. Also, a simpler analysis model using the cover gas pressure change related to the production of a hydrogen bubble in a steam generator was developed from the analyses results. These simple analysis models of the reaction site and the pressure behavior with hydrogen production can be used to develop the mid and long-term analysis code for SWR in the KALIMER steam generator design

  12. Comparative analysis of diagnostic significance of biomarkers’ panels in cardiac recipients in the long term period after transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform comparative analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A and ST2 in recipients with cardiac rejection in different periods after transplantation. Materials and methods. The study included 144 cardiac recipients aged from 12 to 71 (mean age 44 ± 14 years old, among those 112 were men. Venous blood plasma taken on the same day with endomyocardial biopsy was used for the study. The concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB were measured using xMAP technology. The concentrations of ST2 were measured by ELISA. Results. Men had significantly higher levels of ST2 and VEGF-A compared to women (p = 0.03. No correlation was found between the levels of biomarkers (sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A, ST2 and age, diagnosis before transplantation, presence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Comparative analysis of the biomarkers’ levels didn’t show significant difference between patients with heart transplant rejection and without it in the first month and in the first year after transplantation. The ST2 level was significantly higher in patients with heart rejection (p = 0.01 in the long term period (1–5 years after transplantation compared to patients without rejection. Relative risk of cardiac transplant rejection was significantly higher in patients with high (>22.8 ng/ml ST2 level (RR = 2.59 ± 0.33; Se – 35%, Sp – 93%. However, its combination with other biomarkers improved their diagnostic value. Relative risk for panel including ST2, VEGF-A and PDGF-BB 3.47 ± 0.55, Se – 57%, Sp – 91%; relative risk for panel including ST2, sCD40L and PDGF-BB was 3.75 ± 0.59, Se – 50%, Sp – 92%. The highest diagnostic efficacy for the heart transplant rejection was reached by a panel of biomarkers that included ST2 and PDGF-BB (RR = 5.0 ± 0.56 [95% CI 1.68–14.92], Se – 63%, Sp – 94%. Conclusion. ST2 had the biggest

  13. Long term oncological outcome of thymoma and thymic carcinoma - an analysis of 235 cases from a single institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chiang Tseng

    Full Text Available Thymoma has a variable long-term oncological outcome after surgical resection. Survival and tumor recurrence were analyzed to determine the predisposing factors for tumor recurrence.A total of 235 patients who underwent surgery for thymoma or thymic carcinoma from December 1997 to March 2013 were analyzed using Masaoka staging system and World Health Organization (WHO histological classification. Surgical intervention included extended thymothymectomy via median sternotomy and thymomectomy via thoracotomy/ video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS.The median duration of follow-up was 105 months (12-198 months. Among these 235 patients, recurrence was observed in 25 patients (10.7%. according to Masaoka stage I, IIA, IIB, III, IVA, IVB, recurrence rates were 1/65(1.5%, 8/106(7.5%, 1/32(3.1%, 6/20(30.0%, 8/10(80.0%, 1/1(100.0%, respectively. Disease or treatment-related mortality was observed in 13 patients. Overall survival rate was 94.4%. After univariate analysis, predisposing factors for tumor recurrence included Masaoka stage, WHO histologic type, tumor size, adjuvant therapy and margin status.Due to the indolent behavior of thymoma, tumor recurrence appears to be a better assessment of oncological outcome rather than survival. Factors associated with tumor recurrence include Masaoka stage, WHO histologic type, tumor size, adjuvant therapy and margin status.

  14. Long term oncological outcome of thymoma and thymic carcinoma - an analysis of 235 cases from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Tseng, Yen-Han; Kao, Hua-Lin; Hsieh, Chih-Cheng; Chou, Teh-Ying; Goan, Yih-Gang; Hsu, Wen-Hu; Hsu, Han-Shui

    2017-01-01

    Thymoma has a variable long-term oncological outcome after surgical resection. Survival and tumor recurrence were analyzed to determine the predisposing factors for tumor recurrence. A total of 235 patients who underwent surgery for thymoma or thymic carcinoma from December 1997 to March 2013 were analyzed using Masaoka staging system and World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification. Surgical intervention included extended thymothymectomy via median sternotomy and thymomectomy via thoracotomy/ video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The median duration of follow-up was 105 months (12-198 months). Among these 235 patients, recurrence was observed in 25 patients (10.7%). according to Masaoka stage I, IIA, IIB, III, IVA, IVB, recurrence rates were 1/65(1.5%), 8/106(7.5%), 1/32(3.1%), 6/20(30.0%), 8/10(80.0%), 1/1(100.0%), respectively. Disease or treatment-related mortality was observed in 13 patients. Overall survival rate was 94.4%. After univariate analysis, predisposing factors for tumor recurrence included Masaoka stage, WHO histologic type, tumor size, adjuvant therapy and margin status. Due to the indolent behavior of thymoma, tumor recurrence appears to be a better assessment of oncological outcome rather than survival. Factors associated with tumor recurrence include Masaoka stage, WHO histologic type, tumor size, adjuvant therapy and margin status.

  15. Long term oncological outcome of thymoma and thymic carcinoma – an analysis of 235 cases from a single institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Tseng, Yen-Han; Kao, Hua-Lin; Hsieh, Chih-Cheng; Chou, Teh-Ying; Goan, Yih-Gang; Hsu, Wen-Hu; Hsu, Han-Shui

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Thymoma has a variable long-term oncological outcome after surgical resection. Survival and tumor recurrence were analyzed to determine the predisposing factors for tumor recurrence. Methods A total of 235 patients who underwent surgery for thymoma or thymic carcinoma from December 1997 to March 2013 were analyzed using Masaoka staging system and World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification. Surgical intervention included extended thymothymectomy via median sternotomy and thymomectomy via thoracotomy/ video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Results The median duration of follow-up was 105 months (12–198 months). Among these 235 patients, recurrence was observed in 25 patients (10.7%). according to Masaoka stage I, IIA, IIB, III, IVA, IVB, recurrence rates were 1/65(1.5%), 8/106(7.5%), 1/32(3.1%), 6/20(30.0%), 8/10(80.0%), 1/1(100.0%), respectively. Disease or treatment-related mortality was observed in 13 patients. Overall survival rate was 94.4%. After univariate analysis, predisposing factors for tumor recurrence included Masaoka stage, WHO histologic type, tumor size, adjuvant therapy and margin status. Conclusions Due to the indolent behavior of thymoma, tumor recurrence appears to be a better assessment of oncological outcome rather than survival. Factors associated with tumor recurrence include Masaoka stage, WHO histologic type, tumor size, adjuvant therapy and margin status. PMID:28632791

  16. Creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and long-term deformation analysis of landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liangchao; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yeming

    2015-04-01

    Sliding zone soil is a special soil layer formed in the development of a landslide. Its creep behavior plays a significant role in long-term deformation of landslides. Due to rainfall infiltration and reservoir water level fluctuation, the soils in the slide zone are often in unsaturated state. Therefore, the investigation of creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils is of great importance for understanding the mechanism of the long-term deformation of a landslide in reservoir areas. In this study, the full-process creep curves of the unsaturated soils in the sliding zone in different net confining pressure, matric suctions and stress levels were obtained from a large number of laboratory triaxial creep tests. A nonlinear creep model for unsaturated soils and its three-dimensional form was then deduced based on the component model theory and unsaturated soil mechanics. This creep model was validated with laboratory creep data. The results show that this creep model can effectively and accurately describe the nonlinear creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils. In order to apply this creep model to predict the long-term deformation process of landslides, a numerical model for simulating the coupled seepage and creep deformation of unsaturated sliding zone soils was developed based on this creep model through the finite element method (FEM). By using this numerical model, we simulated the deformation process of the Shuping landslide located in the Three Gorges reservoir area, under the cycling reservoir water level fluctuation during one year. The simulation results of creep displacement were then compared with the field deformation monitoring data, showing a good agreement in trend. The results show that the creeping deformations of landslides have strong connections with the changes of reservoir water level. The creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and the findings obtained by numerical simulations in this study are conducive to

  17. Long-term risk analysis associated with nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Davis, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment and verification of previous analytic results on the long term risk of earth reentry for hazardous payloads is presented. The two areas were studied: (1) stability of nominal, near-circular storage orbits in the regions between Venus and earth and between earth and Mars, and (2) probability of earth reentry for off-nominal planet-crossing orbits resulting from deployment system failures. In the first area, numerical integrations of the equations of motion are compared with stability predications based on secular perturbation theory. The agreement is good in terms of the heliocentric distances covered and the general behavior of the orbital history, although certain near-resonance situations can lead to difficulty. In the second area, a Monte Carlo simulation of orbital evolution is used and the results compared with Opik's analytic theory of planetary encounters and collision statistics, with data verified to within a close order-of-magnitude.

  18. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koning

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.

  19. Chapel of cemetery church of all saints in Sedlec - Long-term analysis of hygrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Balík, Lukáš; Kudrnáčová, Lucie; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, long-term monitoring of hygrothermal conditions of the chapel of the cemetery church of All Saints in Sedlec, Czech Republic is presented as a practical tool for evaluation of functional problems of the researched structure. Within the performed experimental tests, interior and exterior climatic conditions were monitored over one year period. Herewith, surface temperature of the chapel wall was measured. Exterior climatic data were collected using weather station Vantage Pro2 placed in church tower. In interior, precise combined relative humidity/temperature sensors were installed. Based on the accessed hygrothermal state of the inspected chapel and identified periods of possible surface condensation, service conditions of the chapel will be optimized in order to prevent extensive damage of historically valuable finishing and furnishing materials, paintings, plasters, and architectural ornaments.

  20. Long term trend analysis of emergency power diesel generator reliability in german nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotthoff, K.; Maqua, M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with a long-term investigation on the availability of diesel generators. This investigation has been performed in two steps in 1980/81 and 1988/89. It is based on the operating experiences of a total of 110 diesel generators in 20 German NPP's. The overall probability of diesel failure during start and short-time operation amounts to about 5E-3/demand. Compared to the result of the first part of the investigation (8E-3/demand) there has been some further improvement of diesel generator performance in recent years. The upper limit calculated for the probability of common mode failures (about 6E-4/demand) is approximately one order of magnitude smaller. The influence of various parameters on the failure probability has been discussed. A statistically significant dependence could not be identified

  1. Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

    2010-12-01

    A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual δ15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual δ13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 δ13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather δ13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather δ13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

  2. Analysis of complications based on long-term outcomes after radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Shin, Masahiro; Kirino, Takaaki

    2005-01-01

    Although stereotactic radiosurgery has been recognized as an effective treatment modality for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), its long-term outcome after more than 10 years is still unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the complications arising long after radiosurgery for AVMs. Five-hundred patients with AVMs were treated with radiosurgery and were followed at the University of Tokyo hospital. The mean age was 31 years and the mean close delivered to the AVM margin was 21.0 Gy. The mean diameter of AVMs was 1.9 cm. Radiation-induced neurological complications were observed in 5.2% of patients and could be reduced with recent improvements in imaging technique. Hemorrhage during the interval between radiosurgery and obliteration was observed in 23 out of 500 patients and after confirmation in 6 out of 250 patients. After radiosurgery, the risk of hemorrhage was decreased by 54% during the interval between radiosurgery and angiographic obliteration, and a small risk of hemorrhage remained even after obliteration. Delayed cysts developed in 3 out of 6 patients at the site of previous hemorrhage. The cyst spontaneously decreased in 1 patient and increased in another, requiring surgical resection. Delayed cyst formation unrelated to hemorrhage was also observed in 2 patients, which were closely observed. Angiographic obliteration after radiosurgery for AVM is not necessarily equal to long-term cure because residual degenerated nidus might cause hemorrhage or delayed cyst formation. Radical treatments such as surgical excision of the nidus should be used for respectable lesions and cystoperitoneal shunt or placement of Ommaya reservoir should be selected for unresectable cystic lesions. (author)

  3. Analysis of short and long-term results of horizontal meniscal tears in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé de Chou, E; Pujol, N; Rochcongar, G; Cucurulo, T; Potel, J F; Dalmay, F; Ehkirch, F P; Laporte, C; Le Henaff, G; Seil, R; Lutz, C; Gunepin, F X; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2015-12-01

    Symptomatic horizontal meniscal tears are rare but worrisome lesions in young adults. These are overuse injuries not amenable to the classic arthroscopic sutures. An open meniscal repair allows the meniscal lesion to be suture vertically, perpendicular to its in the vascularized zone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short and long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of the aforementioned surgical technique. The first cohort consisted of 24 patients operated between 2009 and 2011 (6 women, 18 men; mean age 26years) having 11 lateral and 13 medial meniscal tears. The second cohort was of 10 patients operated between 2001 and 2002 (3 women, 7 men; mean age 24years) having 8 lateral and 2 medial meniscal tears. Patients were reviewed at the last follow-up using the IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS scores. Patients in the first cohort had an MRI, while those in the second cohort had X-rays. Eighteen patients in the first cohort were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 2 years (12-45 months) and 9 patients from the second cohort were reviewed after 10years (97-142 months). In the first cohort, one patient required secondary menisectomy. The mean Lysholm score was 90 and the subjective IKDC was 85. Every MRI examination found reduced extent and intensity of the hyperintense signal. In the second cohort, no patients required secondary meniscectomy. Two patients had joint space narrowing (less than 50%) on radiographs. The mean Lysholm score was 99 and the subjective IKDC was 91. Open repair of horizontal meniscal tears in young adults leads to good subjective and objective results in the short term, which are maintained in the long-term. Level IV - retrospective study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Long-term influences of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Amy; Thompson, Ellen J; Gaysina, Darya

    2017-08-15

    The prevalence of divorce in Western countries has increased in recent decades. However, there is no recent systematic review and/or meta-analysis of studies testing for long-term effects of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders. The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published since 1980 testing for the association between parental divorce and offspring depression and anxiety in adulthood. PUBMED, Science Direct, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles databases were searched for eligible studies. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to synthesize effect sizes and to test whether associations of parental divorce with offspring affective disorders differed among three publication periods (i.e., before 1996, 1996-2005, 2006-2015). In total, 29 studies were eligible for the systematic review, and 18 studies were included in the meta-analyses (depression: n=21,581; anxiety: n=2472). There was significant association between parental divorce and offspring depression (OR=1.56; 95%CI [1.31, 1.86]), but not anxiety (OR=1.16; 95%CI [0.98, 1.38]). The effect of parental divorce on offspring depression was not weaker in the reports published in more recent decades. There is limited research in relation to offspring anxiety in adulthood. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of adult offspring depression, with no indication of the effect being weaker in recent publications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-15

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO{sub 2} emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050

  6. Effect of perioperative blood transfusion on the long-term survival of patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, P R; Ziff, C; Adam, M E; Fehervari, M; Markar, S R; Hanna, G B

    2017-12-18

    Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to poorer long-term survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy, presumably due to its potential immunomodulatory effects. This review aims to summarize existing evidence relating to the influence of blood transfusion on long-term survival following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. A systematic literature search (up to February 2017) was conducted for studies reporting the effects of perioperative blood transfusion on survival following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Meta-analysis was used to summate survival outcomes. Twenty observational studies met the criteria for inclusion. Eighteen of these studies compared the outcomes of patients who received allogenic blood transfusion to patients who did not receive this intervention. Meta-analysis of outcomes revealed that allogenic blood transfusion significantly reduced long-term survival (HR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.76; P blood having lower long-term survival compared to patient who received between 0 and 2 units (HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.93; P blood transfusion showed superior survival in the latter group. Factors associated with the requirement for perioperative blood transfusion included: intraoperative blood loss; preoperative hemoglobin; operative approach; operative time, and; presences of advanced disease. These findings indicate that perioperative blood transfusion is associated with significantly worse long-term survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Autologous donation of blood, meticulous intraoperative hemostasis, and avoidance of unnecessary transfusions may prevent additional deaths attributed to this intervention. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Long-term efficacy of standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with persistent allergic rhinitis due to multiple allergens including house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Long, J; Wang, T; Xie, J; Wang, M; Tan, G

    2018-03-01

    To observe the five-year efficacy of standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy for house dust mite allergy in monosensitised and polysensitised children with persistent allergic rhinitis. From January 2007 to August 2009, 236 children with persistent allergic rhinitis were divided into 2 groups: 1 group received standardised specific subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract; the other received pharmacotherapy with intranasal corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. A total of 193 patients (106 in the immunotherapy group and 87 in the pharmacotherapy group) completed treatment. Scores for symptoms, total medication and quality of life were evaluated. The subcutaneous immunotherapy group demonstrated a significant reduction in visual analogue scale scores, Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores and total medication scores (p 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred. Standardised subcutaneous immunotherapy has long-term efficacy for children with persistent allergic rhinitis. Single-allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy was appropriate for allergic rhinitis caused by multiple allergens, including house dust mites, in the paediatric population.

  8. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting discharge to institutional long-term care following acute hospitalisation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jennifer Kirsty; Walesby, Katherine E; Hamilton, Lorna; Armstrong, Carolyn; Starr, John M; Reynish, Emma L; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Quinn, Terry J; Shenkin, Susan D

    2017-07-01

    moving into long-term institutional care is a significant life event for any individual. Predictors of institutional care admission from community-dwellers and people with dementia have been described, but those from the acute hospital setting have not been systematically reviewed. Our aim was to establish predictive factors for discharge to institutional care following acute hospitalisation. we registered and conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015023497). We searched MEDLINE; EMBASE and CINAHL Plus in September 2015. We included observational studies of patients admitted directly to long-term institutional care following acute hospitalisation where factors associated with institutionalisation were reported. from 9,176 records, we included 23 studies (n = 354,985 participants). Studies were heterogeneous, with the proportions discharged to a care home 3-77% (median 15%). Eleven studies (n = 12,642), of moderate to low quality, were included in the quantitative synthesis. The need for institutional long-term care was associated with age (pooled odds ratio (OR) 1.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00-1.04), female sex (pooled OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.92), dementia (pooled OR 2.14, 95% CI: 1.24-3.70) and functional dependency (pooled OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.58-2.69). discharge to long-term institutional care following acute hospitalisation is common, but current data do not allow prediction of who will make this transition. Potentially important predictors evaluated in community cohorts have not been examined in hospitalised cohorts. Understanding these predictors could help identify individuals at risk early in their admission, and support them in this transition or potentially intervene to reduce their risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  10. The impact of integration of dental services on oral health in long-term care: qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkleman, Gary I; Lawrence, Herenia P; Glogauer, Michael

    2012-06-01

    To qualitatively analyse how integration of dental service in long-term care (LTC) impacts residents and their oral health. Few studies have attempted to merge inductive and deductive data to clarify the significance of the complex psychosocial environment in LTC facilities. Understanding the subjective oral health experience of LTC residents in their social setting is key to uncovering behavioural patterns that may be limiting the oral care provided to LTC residents. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 61 residents in three Ontario LTC facilities. Observations and reflective notes were recorded during open-ended interviews using a structured questionnaire to stimulate conversation topics. This ensured that each resident received the same prompting during the interview process. Inductive analysis was used to identify common patterns and themes within field notes and transcriptions. The major themes identified included oral hygiene, oral discomfort, general health, appearance, dental access, and denture related issues. Oral hygiene and discomfort were the dominating categories within the facilities. Two of the three LTC centres identified in this study failed to provide appropriate oral care for their residents. Future research needs to be directed at prospective studies assessing the effect of oral health education and mandatory dental examinations o entry within LTC centres utilising qualitative and quantitative analyses. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitive functioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services

  12. A long-term risk-benefit analysis of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Chen; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Yu, Fang-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Wu, Tzung-Shiun; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-02-01

    The long-term risk-benefit effect of occasional and regular use of low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg per day) in primary prevention of vascular diseases and cancers was calculated. One representative database of 1 000 000 participants from Taiwan's National Health Insurance scheme in 1997-2000 was used. The potential study subjects were those aged 30-95 years, were found not to have been prescribed aspirin before 1 January 2000, but to have first been prescribed low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg per day) after that date and were followed up to 31 December 2009. Participants prescribed low-dose aspirin risk. A total of 1720 pairs were analysed. During the study period, haemorrhage and ischaemia occurred in 25 (1·45%) and 67 participants (3·90%) in occasional users and 69 (4·01%) and 100 participants (5·81%) in regular users, whereas cancer occurred in 32 participants (1·86%) in occasional users and 26 participants (1·51%) in regular users. The crude and adjusted net clinical risks of low-dose aspirin use between the two frequency of users (≥ 80% vs. prevention against major vascular diseases and cancer. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  13. Pancreatic small cells: Analysis of quiescence, long-term maintenance and insulin expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petropavlovskaia, M.; Bodnar, C.A.; Behie, L.A.; Rosenberg, L.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously identified a novel population of small cells in human and canine pancreas characterized by immature morphology, quiescence, and a glucose-responsive insulin secretion. Based on their immature phenotype and predominant presence in small islets, we have hypothesized that small cells serve as islet progenitors. This hypothesis remains untested, however, due to persistent quiescence and scarcity of small cells in vitro. We have recently developed a culture medium that allowed for modest small cell proliferation. In this study we characterized the expression of genes potentially involved in small cell growth regulation by Q-RT-PCR. Our results suggest that quiescence of small cells correlates with up-regulation of Cdk inhibitors p27 Kip1 , p16 INK4a and p21 CIP1 , PTEN, Hep27 and Foxo1a and with down-regulation of c-Myc and the receptors for EGF, FGF2 and HGF. The exit from quiescence correlates with activation of EGFR expression and down-regulation of p27 Kip1 and p16 INK4a . We also report here that small cells can be maintained in long-term non-adherent cultures preserving insulin and glucagon production for up to 208 days. Therefore, expansion of small cells in vitro may have a significant potential for the treatment of diabetes. This study is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in small cell growth regulation, which is required to fully evaluate their functional potential

  14. Analysis of Long-term Energy and Carbon Emission Scenarios for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, N.; Kapshe, M.; Shukla, P.R.; Garg, A.; Rana, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the coming years India faces great challenges in energy and environment. The path of development chosen by India, upon which lies the future growth of energy and emission trajectories, would be greatly influenced by technological developments both within and outside the country, economic cooperation between countries, and global cooperation in limiting greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the integrated modeling system used for developing and analyzing the long-term trajectories and presents results for the scenarios developed. In the context of ongoing market reforms two scenarios - accelerated and decelerated reforms - are developed depicting fast and slow progress in energy sector reforms compared to expectations in the baseline scenario. Accelerated market reforms would spur improvements in technological efficiencies. Reforms would lower investment risks in India, thereby stimulating increased levels of foreign direct investment. On the other hand in decelerated reform scenario economic growth is lower than that in the base case, there is low access to capital, and technological improvements lag behind those in the base case. In another scenario we assume specific policy interventions for penetration of renewable technologies over the baseline scenario, for promotion and accelerated deployment of renewable energy technologies over and above the baseline assumptions. A scenario with carbon (c) constraints has also been developed and the results discussed

  15. Long term climate change and a deep geological repository in the Canadian Shield: issues and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    For the past million years of Earth history, the Canadian Shield has experienced a continuous process of glaciation and deglaciation, events that have significantly altered the landscape of the northern half of the North American continent. This sequence of events, ultimately due to small changes in received solar radiation due to the influence of gravitational many body effects upon the earths orbit around the sun, should they continue, constitute an important phenomena with respect to developing an understanding of groundwater flow system evolution in Shield terrain as it may influence the long-term performance of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel. In this paper a description is provided of the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model, which is being applied to yield geophysically constrained predictions of the last Laurentide (North American) glacial event. In particular, the GSM is providing unique insight into the time rate of change, magnitude and uncertainty of surface boundary conditions and permafrost occurrence at a hypothetical Shield repository site. These predictive estimates of boreal, peri-glacial and ice-sheet history are offering an innovative and reasoned basis to explore flow system characteristics and attributes that govern hydrodynamic and geochemical stability within deep-seated Shield flow domains. (author)

  16. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Arbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were 8.4±6.4 times, 5.6±5.8 times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, P>0.05. Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, P=0.046 and 89.9% versus 109.6%, P=0.0004, resp.. % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, P=0.05. Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.

  17. Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth – Isolation, Long Term Cultivation and Phenotypical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Suchánek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, to cultivate them in vitro and to investigate their basic biological properties, phenotype and to compare our findings with dental pulp stem cells (DPSC isolated from permanent teeth. Methods: Dental pulp was gently evacuated from exfoliated teeth. After enzymatic dissociation of dental pulp, SHED were cultivated in modified cultivation media for mesenchymal adult progenitor cells containing 2 % FCS and supplemented with growth factors and insulin, transferrin, sodium (ITS supplement. Cell viability and other biological properties were examined using a Vi-Cell analyzer and a Z2-Counter. DNA analyses and phenotyping were performed with flow cytometry. Results: We were able to cultivate SHED over 45 population doublings. Our results showed that SHED cultivated under same conditions as DPSC had longer average population doubling time (41.3 hrs for SHED vs. 24.5 hrs for DPSC. Phenotypic comparison of cultivated SHED to that of cultivated DPSC showed differential expression CD29, CD44, CD71, CD117, CD166. During long-term cultivation, SHED did not showed any signs of degeneration or spontaneous differentiation. Conclusions: We isolated stem cells from exfoliated teeth. In comparison to DPSC, SHED proliferation rate was about 50% slower, and SHED showed slightly different phenotype. These cells may be extremely useful for stem cell tissue banking, further stem cell research and future therapeutic applications.

  18. Long-Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Air Temperature for Kentucky, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsubhra Chattopadhyay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation in quantities such as precipitation and temperature is often assessed by detecting and characterizing trends in available meteorological data. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term trends in annual precipitation and mean annual air temperature for the state of Kentucky. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied to homogenized and (as needed pre-whitened annual series of precipitation and mean air temperature during 1950–2010. Significant trends in annual precipitation were detected (both positive, averaging 4.1 mm/year for only two of the 60 precipitation-homogenous weather stations (Calloway and Carlisle counties in rural western Kentucky. Only three of the 42 temperature-homogenous stations demonstrated trends (all positive, averaging 0.01 °C/year in mean annual temperature: Calloway County, Allen County in southern-central Kentucky, and urbanized Jefferson County in northern-central Kentucky. In view of the locations of the stations demonstrating positive trends, similar work in adjacent states will be required to better understand the processes responsible for those trends and to properly place them in their larger context, if any.

  19. Decision analysis to support development of the Glen Canyon Dam long-term experimental and management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; LaGory, Kirk E.; Russell, Kendra; Balsom, Janet R.; Butler, R. Alan; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Grantz, Katrina A.; Hayse, John; Hlohowskyj, Ihor; Korman, Josh; May, James E.; O'Rourke, Daniel J.; Poch, Leslie A.; Prairie, James R.; VanKuiken, Jack C.; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A.; Varyu, David R.; Verhaaren, Bruce T.; Veselka, Thomas D.; Williams, Nicholas T.; Wuthrich, Kelsey K.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Billerbeck, Robert P.; Knowles, Glen W.

    2016-01-07

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, National Park Service, and Argonne National Laboratory, completed a decision analysis to use in the evaluation of alternatives in the Environmental Impact Statement concerning the long-term management of water releases from Glen Canyon Dam and associated management activities. Two primary decision analysis methods, multicriteria decision analysis and the expected value of information, were used to evaluate the alternative strategies against the resource goals and to evaluate the influence of uncertainty.

  20. Long-term heat stress induces the inflammatory response in dairy cows revealed by plasma proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Shengguo; Cheng, Jianbo; Yang, Yongxin; Zhang, Yangdong; Yang, Hongjian; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-04

    In this work we employed a comparative proteomic approach to evaluate seasonal heat stress and investigate proteomic alterations in plasma of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows were used and the treatments were: heat stress (n = 6) in hot summer (at the beginning of the moderate heat stress) and no heat stress (n = 6) in spring natural ambient environment, respectively. Subsequently, heat stress treatment lasted 23 days (at the end of the moderate heat stress) to investigate the alterations of plasma proteins, which might be employed as long-term moderate heat stress response in dairy cows. Changes in plasma proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the properties of the identified proteins revealed that the alterations of plasma proteins were related to inflammation in long-term moderate heat stress. Furthermore, the increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) directly demonstrated that long-term moderate heat stress caused an inflammatory response in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  2. Discrepancy between short-term and long-term effects of bone marrow-derived cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Heui Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow-derived cell therapy has been used to treat acute myocardial infarction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of this approach remains controversial. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate short-term and long-term effectiveness of bone marrow-derived therapy. Methods We searched eight databases (Ovid-Medline, Ovid-EMBASE, Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMBASE, KISS, RISS, and KisTi up to December 2014. Demographic characteristics, clinical outcomes, and adverse events were analyzed. We identified 5534 potentially relevant studies; 405 were subjected to a full-text review. Forty-three studies with 2635 patients were included in this review. Results No safety issues related to cell injection were reported during follow-up. At 6 months, cell-injected patients showed modest improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF compared with the control group. However, there were no differences between groups at other time points. In the cardiac MRI analysis, there were no significant differences in infarct size reduction between groups. Interestingly, mortality tended to be reduced at the 3-year follow-up, and at the 5-year follow-up, cell injection significantly decreased all-cause mortality. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated discrepancies between short-term LV functional improvement and long-term all-cause mortality. Future clinical trials should include long-term follow-up outcomes to validate the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy.

  3. [Regional inequalities of health status of pregnant women in Hungary - Long-term series analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Kósa, Zsigmond; Gyulai, Anikó; Jávorné Erdei, Renáta; Kósa, Karolina

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring the health status of populations is essential for good health policy decisions. This is particularly true in maternal and child health where targeted and timely interventions may have long-term consequences. Our objective was to describe changes in the health status of pregnant women at the national and county level during the period of 1997-2012. Data were extracted from the mandatory annual reports of district nurses responsible for primary maternal care. Information on the smoking status of expecting mothers, special care during pregnancy, pregnant women entering into maternity care after 28 weeks of pregnancy, borne woman without district nurse care were analysed using Microsoft Excel and STATA 13.0. The mean prevalence of smoking was 13.8% among pregnant women during the investigation period. The ratio of smoking pregnant women was higher (p<0.01) in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Nógrád, Heves, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, and Somogy counties. The ratio of pregnants requiring special care was higher (p<0.01) than the national average in Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Nógrád counties. More, than 1% of the pregnant women entered into care only after the 28th week of the pregnancy. Women who were registered by district nurses and gave birth less than 1% did not participate in pregnant nursing. National data hide significant regional disparities within the country which should be amended by targeted interventions, taking into account the large regional inequalities in the country. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1131-1142.

  4. Declining scaup populations: A retrospective analysis of long-term population and harvest survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afton, A.D.; Anderson, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    We examined long-term databases concerning population status of scaup (lesser [Aythya affinis] and greater scaup [A. marila] combined) and harvest statistics of lesser scaup to identify factors potentially limiting population growth. Specifically, we explored evidence for and against the general hypotheses that scaup populations have declined in association with declining recruitment and/or female survival. We examined geographic heterogeneity in scaup demographic patterns that could yield evidence about potential limiting factors. Several biases exist in survey methodology used to estimate scaup populations and harvest statistics; however, none of these biases likely accounted for our major findings that (1) the continental scaup breeding population has declined over the last 20 years, with widespread and consistent declines within surveyed areas of the Canadian western boreal forest where most lesser scaup breed; (2) sex ratios of lesser scaup in the U.S. harvest have increased (more males now relative to females); and (3) age ratios of lesser scaup in the U.S. harvest have declined (fewer immatures now relative to adults), especially in the midcontinent region. We interpreted these major findings as evidence that (1) recruitment of lesser scaup has declined over the last 20 years, particularly in the Canadian western boreal forest; and (2) survival of female lesser scaup has declined relative to that of males. We found little evidence that harvest was associated with the scaup population decline. Our findings underscore the need for both improvements and changes to population survey procedures and new research to discriminate among various hypotheses explaining the recent scaup population decline.

  5. [Menus offered in long-term care homes: quality of meal service and nutritional analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rejón, Ana Isabel; Ruiz López, María Dolores; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Puerta, Antonio; Zuñiga, Antonia; Artacho, Reyes

    2017-06-05

    Institutionalization is a risk factor for malnutrition. Low energy intake and/or nutrient deficiencies are considered to be the main causes. To evaluate the quality of meals and meal service as well as the nutritional value of the main menus (regular menu, menu for diabetics, and pureed menu) offered in three long-term care (LTC) homes located in the metropolitan area of Granada (Spain). Cross-sectional study. A validated "quality of meals and meal service" set of indicators was applied. The menus were assessed by weighed food records on 14 consecutive days. The results were compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) and the recommended number of servings. Important deficiencies in the quality of meals and meal service have been reported. Average energy varies from 1,788 to 2,124 kcal/day in the regular menus, from 1,687 to 1,924 kcal/day in the menus for diabetics, and from 1,518 to 1,639 kcal/day in the pureed menus. Average protein varied from 71.4 to 75.4 g/day, from 72.6 to 76.1 g/day, and from 50.5 to 54.7 g/day, respectively. None of the menus complied with the recommendations for fiber, potassium, magnesium, iodine, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate, nor for vegetables, fruit, milk products, olive oil, legumes, or nuts. It is necessary to ensure the implementation of regular routines for controlling the quality of meals and meal service as well as the nutritional value of the menus offered in LTC homes.

  6. Surviving the Holocaust: a meta-analysis of the long-term sequelae of a genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Efrat; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-09-01

    The current set of meta-analyses elucidates the long-term psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical consequences of the Holocaust for survivors. In 71 samples with 12,746 participants Holocaust survivors were compared with their counterparts (with no Holocaust background) on physical health, psychological well-being, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychopathological symptomatology, cognitive functioning, and stress-related physiology. Holocaust survivors were less well adjusted, as apparent from studies on nonselected samples (trimmed combined effect size d = 0.22, 95% CI [0.13, 0.31], N = 9,803) and from studies on selected samples (d = 0.45, 95% CI [0.32, 0.59], N = 2,943). In particular, they showed substantially more posttraumatic stress symptoms (nonselect studies: d = 0.72, 95% CI [0.46, 0.98], N = 1,763). They did not lag, however, much behind their comparisons in several other domains of functioning (i.e., physical health, stress-related physical measures, and cognitive functioning) and showed remarkable resilience. The coexistence of stress-related symptoms and good adaptation in some other areas of functioning may be explained by the unique characteristics of the symptoms of Holocaust survivors, who combine resilience with the use of defensive mechanisms. In most domains of functioning no differences were found between Israeli samples and samples from other countries. The exception was psychological well-being: For this domain it was found that living in Israel rather than elsewhere can serve as a protective factor. A biopsychological stress-diathesis model is used to interpret the findings, and future directions for research and social policy are discussed.

  7. Analysis of long-term ionizing radiation effects in bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    The ionizing radiation effects of electrons on bipolar transistors have been analyzed using the data base from the Voyager project. The data were subjected to statistical analysis, leading to a quantitative characterization of the product and to data on confidence limits which will be useful for circuit design purposes. These newly-developed methods may form the basis for a radiation hardness assurance system. In addition, an attempt was made to identify the causes of the large variations in the sensitivity observed on different product lines. This included a limited construction analysis and a determination of significant design and processes variables, as well as suggested remedies for improving the tolerance of the devices to radiation.

  8. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  9. Perioperative predictors of permanent pacing and long-term dependence following tricuspid valve surgery: a multicentre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Philip L; Angus, Christopher R; Kabra, Rajesh; Migliore, Christopher K; Goswami, Rohan; John, Leah A; Tu, Yixi; Gopinathannair, Rakesh

    2017-12-01

    Permanent pacemaker placement (PPM) is often required after valvular surgery and is especially common following tricuspid valve surgery [tricuspid valve repair or replacement (TVR)]. Literature suggests that surgical intervention for isolated tricuspid valve disease is becoming more prevalent. Predictors of PPM dependency following TVR are currently unknown and would be clinically useful from a prognostication standpoint. We conducted a multicentre, retrospective study to assess perioperative factors of TVR that predispose to PPM placement and long-term PPM dependency from 2008 to 2014. Regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PPM implantation. A total of 237 patients (age 66 ± 15 years, 29% male) were studied, and the incidence of PPM placement following TVR was 27% (65/237). No significant differences were observed between those who received PPM and those who did not in age (P = 0.092), gender (P = 0.359), and co-morbidities. Regression analysis identified cross-clamp time >60 min (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.3-12.9, P = 0.015) and concomitant mitral valve surgery (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.2, P = 0.026) as independent risk factors for PPM following TVR. Long-term PPM dependency data were only available in 28 patients who received PPM with 14 of these patients developing long-term dependence. The only statistically significant difference noted was an increased frequency of coronary artery disease in the long-term dependent group vs. the non-dependent group (64% vs. 14%, P = 0.018). Cross-clamp time >60 min and concomitant mitral valve surgery were independent predictors of PPM implantation following TVR. Long-term PPM dependency is more prevalent after TVR than other types of valvular surgery. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3 ), aerosol scattering coefficient (σ sp ), aerosol number concentration (NC asl ), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on atmospheric composition in the Arctic. We

  12. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-07-01

    The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), aerosol scattering coefficient ({sigma}{sub sp}), aerosol number concentration (NC{sub asl}), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on

  13. Analysis of risk factors of long-term complications in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single institution's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Takayasu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients who developed short-term complications seemed to be at risk of long-term complications. Therefore, to minimize long-term morbidities in CDH survivors, the prevention of short-term complications might be important.

  14. Regional Analysis of Long-term Local and Synoptic Effects on Wind Velocity and Energy Patterns in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, R.; Koracin, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Investments in renewable energy are justified in both environmental and economic terms. Climate change risks call for mitigation strategies aimed to reduce pollutant emissions, while the energy supply is facing high uncertainty by the current or future global economic and political contexts. Wind energy is playing a strategic role in the efforts of any country for sustainable development and energy supply security. Wind energy is a weather and climate-dependent resource, having a natural spatio-temporal variability at time scales ranging from fraction of seconds to seasons and years, while at spatial scales is strongly affected by the topography and vegetation. Main objective of the study is to investigate spatio-temporal characteristics of the wind velocity in the Southwest U.S., that are relevant to wind energy assessment, analysis, development, operation, and grid integration, by using long-term multiple meteorological tower observations. Wind velocity data and other meteorological parameters from five towers, located near Tonopah, Nevada, operated between 2003 to 2008, and from three towers are located in Carson Valley, Nevada, operated between 2006 and 2014 were used in this study. Multi-annual wind speed data collected did not show significant increase trends with increasing elevation; the differences are mainly governed by the topographic complexity, including local atmospheric circulations. Auto- and cross-correlations show a strong coherence between the wind speed and direction with slowly decreasing amplitude of the multi-day periodicity with increasing lag periods. Besides pronounced diurnal periodicity at all locations, detrended fluctuation analysis also showed significant seasonal and annual periodicities, and long-memory persistence with similar characteristics. In spite of significant differences in mean wind speeds among the towers, due to location specifics, the relatively high auto- and cross-correlation coefficients among the towers indicate

  15. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity daily time series using singular spectrum analysis and fuzzy descriptor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmomeni, M.; Kamaliha, E.; Shafiee, M.; Lucas, C.

    2009-09-01

    Of the various conditions that affect space weather, Sun-driven phenomena are the most dominant. Cyclic solar activity has a significant effect on the Earth, its climate, satellites, and space missions. In recent years, space weather hazards have become a major area of investigation, especially due to the advent of satellite technology. As such, the design of reliable alerting and warning systems is of utmost importance, and international collaboration is needed to develop accurate short-term and long-term prediction methodologies. Several methods have been proposed and implemented for the prediction of solar and geomagnetic activity indices, but problems in predicting the exact time and magnitude of such catastrophic events still remain. There are, however, descriptor systems that describe a wider class of systems, including physical models and non-dynamic constraints. It is well known that the descriptor system is much tighter than the state-space expression for representing real independent parametric perturbations. In addition, the fuzzy descriptor models as a generalization of the locally linear neurofuzzy models are general forms that can be trained by constructive intuitive learning algorithms. Here, we propose a combined model based on fuzzy descriptor models and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) (FD/SSA) to forecast a number of geomagnetic activity indices in a manner that optimizes a fuzzy descriptor model for each of the principal components obtained from singular spectrum analysis and recombines the predicted values so as to transform the geomagnetic activity time series into natural chaotic phenomena. The method has been applied to predict two solar and geomagnetic activity indices: geomagnetic aa and solar wind speed (SWS) of the solar wind index. The results demonstrate the higher power of the proposed method-- compared to other methods -- for predicting solar activity.

  17. Long-term Short Implants Performance: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Essential Assessment Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Bortolini, Sergio; Martinolli, Matteo; Alfenas, Bruna Fernandes Moreira; Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Natali, Alfredo; Berzaghi, Andrea; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Lack of standard criteria in the outcome assessment makes it difficult to draw conclusions on the clinical performance of short implants and, under these circumstances, determine the reasons for implant failure. This study evaluated, through a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis, the essential parameters required to assess the long-term clinical performance of short and extra-short implants. Electronic databases (Pubmed-MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Database, Embase, and Lilacs) were searched by two independent reviewers, without language limitation, to identify eligible papers. References from the selected articles were also reviewed. The review included clinical trials involving short dental implants placed in humans, published between January 2000 and March 2014, which described the parameters applied for outcome's measurements and provided data on survival rates. Thirteen methodologically acceptable studies were selected and 24 parameters were identified. The most frequent parameters assessed were the marginal bone loss and the cumulative implant survival rate, followed by implant failure rate and biological complications such as bleeding on probing and probing pocket depths. Only cumulative implant survival rate data allows meta-analysis revealing a positive effect size (from 0.052 (fixed) to 0.042 (random)), which means that short implant appears to be a successful treatment option. Mechanical complications and crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio measurement were also commonly described, however, considering the available evidence; no strong conclusions could be drawn since different methods were used to assess each parameter. By means of this literature review, a standard evaluation scheme is proposed, being helpful to regiment further investigations and comparisons on future studies.

  18. Nuclear Radiation Fields on the Mars Surface: Risk Analysis for Long-term Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Nealy, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Mars, our nearest planet outward from the sun, has been targeted for several decades as a prospective site for expanded human habitation. Background space radiation exposures on Mars are expected to be orders of magnitude higher than on Earth. Recent risk analysis procedures based on detailed dosimetric techniques applicable to sensitive human organs have been developed along with experimental data regarding cell mutation rates resulting from exposures to a broad range of particle types and energy spectra. In this context, simulated exposure and subsequent risk for humans in residence on Mars are examined. A conceptual habitat structure, CAD-modeled with duly considered inherent shielding properties, has been implemented. Body self-shielding is evaluated using NASA standard computerized male and female models. The background environment is taken to consist not only of exposure from incident cosmic ray ions and their secondaries, but also include the contribution from secondary neutron fields produced in the tenuous atmosphere and the underlying regolith.

  19. Modeling and analysis of long term energy demands in residential sector of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, T.; Sahir, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Residential sector is the core among the energy demand sectors in Pakistan. Currently, various techniques are being used worldwide to assess future energy demands including integrated system modeling (ISM). Therefore, the current study is focused on implementation of ISM approach for future energy demand analysis of Pakistan's residential sector in terms of increase in population, rapid urbanization, household size and type, and increase/decrease in GDP. A detailed business-as-usual (BAU) model is formulated in TIMES energy modeling framework using different factors like growth in future energy services, end-use technology characterization, and restricted fuel supplies. Additionally, the developed model is capable to compare the projected energy demand under different scenarios e.g. strong economy, weak economy and energy efficiency. The implementation of ISM proved a viable approach to predict the future energy demands of Pakistan's residential sector. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the energy consumption in the residential sector would be 46.5 Mtoe (Million Ton of Oil Equivalent) in 2040 compared to 23 Mtoe of the base year (2007) along with 600% increase in electricity demands. The study further maps the potential residential energy policies to congregate the future demands. (author)

  20. A Quantitative Analysis of Factors That Influence Participation in Continuing Education among Nurses Employed in Long-Term Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rhoda R.

    2013-01-01

    As the American population ages, the need for more long-term care services will increase. The elderly who are afflicted with a number of chronic illnesses predominantly use long-term care services. By 2020, 12 million older Americans will need long-term care services, and those 65 and older have a 40% chance of entering some type of long-term care…

  1. Analysis of the potential impact of capillarity on long-term geochemical processes in sulphidic waste-rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Lassin, Arnault; Beckie, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Capillarity may affect geochemical reactions generating acid-rock drainage. • We studied its impact in a simplified, synthetic WRD. • Capillarity mainly affects the formation of secondary minerals. • It can strongly control long-term formation of gypsum and in turn sulfate release. • Capillarity can be also important for the analysis of calcite passivation. - Abstract: Assessing long-term production of acid rock drainage (ARD) from waste-rock dumps (WRDs) requires a careful analysis of the processes controlling acid-generating geochemical reactions under unsaturated conditions. In this work, we focus on the potential control of capillarity on these reactions, as previous studies showed that capillarity affects the activity of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone through the pore water pressure. We used capillarity-corrected thermodynamic databases and compared calculated speciation and solubility results with those from databases that do not account for capillarity. We developed a simple dynamic model with reduced geochemical components to analyze in detail the effect of capillarity. Results indicate that under low pH conditions simulations with capillarity-controlled reactions generate relatively larger dissolved sulfate concentrations from the WRDs over longer time scales, when compared against simulations without capillarity control. This occurs because capillarity strongly controls the formation of secondary sulfate-bearing minerals such as gypsum. When sufficient oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures are maintained within WRDs (such as in well-ventilated systems) and calcite content is insufficient to buffer acidity, the amount of secondary gypsum was calculated to be much larger in capillarity-corrected models. No appreciable effects of capillarity were observed under conditions where gypsum was not generated. Model results are also insensitive to temperature changes in typical climatic ranges. These results indicate some of

  2. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  3. Perioperative hyperoxia - Long-term impact on cardiovascular complications after abdominal surgery, a post hoc analysis of the PROXI trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, Siv; Gogenur, Ismail; Sondergaard, Edith Smed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased long-term mortality was found in patients exposed to perioperative hyperoxia in the PROXI trial, where patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to 80% versus 30% oxygen during and after surgery. This post hoc follow-up study assessed the impact of perioperative hyperoxia...... included myocardial infarction, other heart disease, and acute coronary syndrome or death. Data were analysed in the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The primary outcome, acute coronary syndrome, occurred in 2.5% versus 1.3% in the 80% versus 30% oxygen group; HR 2.15 (95% CI 0.96-4.84). Patients...

  4. [Long-term analysis of disability pensions in survivors of the Holocaust: somatic and psychiatric diagnoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, T; Sperling, W; Müller, H; Schütz, P; Kornhuber, J; Reulbach, U

    2010-12-01

    Survivors of the Holocaust are known to suffer more often from mental as well as somatic consequential illness. The assessment of the degree of disability and invalidity due to the persecution complies with the interaction of directly Holocaust-related mental and somatic primary injuries as well as physical, psychical and psychosocial disadvantages and illnesses acquired later on. The presented descriptive as well as multivariate analyses included complete reports (expertise, medical records, physicians' assessments, witnessed hand-written notes of the patients) of 56 survivors of the Holocaust (36 women and 20 men). The disability pension reports of 56 Holocaust survivors (36 women and 20 men) were analysed referring to the diagnostic groups and socio-demographic aspects. In 92.3 % a psychiatric illness could be diagnosed within the first year after liberation. In a separate analysis of somatic diagnoses, gastrointestinal diseases were statistically significant more often in Holocaust survivors with a degree of disability of more than 30 % (chi-square χ (2) = 4.0; df = 1; p = 0.046). The question of an aggravation of psychiatrically relevant and persecution-associated symptomatology is mainly the objective of the expert opinion taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors such as so-called life events. Above all, newly acquired somatic diseases seem to be responsible for an aggravation of persecution-associated psychiatric symptoms, at least in the presented sample of Holocaust survivors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Quantifying long-term human impact in contrasting environments: Statistical analysis of modern and fossil pollen records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broothaerts, Nils; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Verstraeten, Gert

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing and quantifying human impact is an important step to understand human-environment interactions in the past. Quantitative measures of human impact on the landscape are needed to fully understand long-term influence of anthropogenic land cover changes on the global climate, ecosystems and geomorphic processes. Nevertheless, quantifying past human impact is not straightforward. Recently, multivariate statistical analysis of fossil pollen records have been proposed to characterize vegetation changes and to get insights in past human impact. Although statistical analysis of fossil pollen data can provide useful insights in anthropogenic driven vegetation changes, still it cannot be used as an absolute quantification of past human impact. To overcome this shortcoming, in this study fossil pollen records were included in a multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS)) together with modern pollen data and modern vegetation data. The information on the modern pollen and vegetation dataset can be used to get a better interpretation of the representativeness of the fossil pollen records, and can result in a full quantification of human impact in the past. This methodology was applied in two contrasting environments: SW Turkey and Central Spain. For each region, fossil pollen data from different study sites were integrated, together with modern pollen data and information on modern vegetation. In this way, arboreal cover, grazing pressure and agricultural activities in the past were reconstructed and quantified. The data from SW Turkey provides new integrated information on changing human impact through time in the Sagalassos territory, and shows that human impact was most intense during the Hellenistic and Roman Period (ca. 2200-1750 cal a BP) and decreased and changed in nature afterwards. The data from central Spain shows for several sites that arboreal cover decreases bellow 5% from the Feudal period

  6. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Scholten

    Full Text Available We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA-or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT-to integrated assessment (IA models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability, desirability (value, and distinguishability (value range of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water

  7. Incontinence surgery in obese women: comparative analysis of short- and long-term outcomes with a transobturator sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Inês; Valentim-Lourenço, Alexandre; Castro, Catarina; Martins, Inês; Henriques, Alexandra; Ribeirinho, Ana Luísa

    2016-02-01

    Midurethral slings (MUS) are still discussed in complex incontinence situations, such as obesity, lacking sustained efficacy validation in this particular sub-population. We hypothesized that the outcomes of a transobturator MUS, such as TVT-O, do not differ according to body mass index (BMI) over a 4-year period. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 281 women who underwent TVT-O at our institution, between 2004 and 2012. Patients were stratified into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) or non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)). We compared preoperative and postoperative parameters, including objective cure (negative stress test), complications, and quality of life scores. Data were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 months. We used Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t test or the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. Baseline characteristics of the obese (n = 122) and non-obese groups (n = 159) were similar. We found no significant differences between groups in terms of objective cure rates at all follow-up evaluations, with 95.8 % and 95 % at 48 months in the non-obese and obese groups respectively. There were no significant differences in the cumulative complication rates of both groups. Quality of life assessment also showed no significant differences between groups at all follow-up visits. At 48 months our follow-up rate was 59 % (n = 96) and 60.4 % (n = 72) in the non-obese and obese group respectively (p = 0.9). The TVT-O procedure is effective and safe in the long term for stress incontinence treatment, regardless of BMI.

  8. Damage estimates from long-term structural analysis of a wind turbine in a US wind farm environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sutherland, H.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Time-domain simulations of the loads on wind energy conversion systems have been hampered in the past by the relatively long computational times for nonlinear structural analysis codes. However, recent advances in both the level of sophistication and computational efficiency of available computer hardware and the codes themselves now permit long-term simulations to be conducted in reasonable times. Thus, these codes provide a unique capability to evaluate the spectral content of the fatigue loads on a turbine. To demonstrate these capabilities, a Micon 65/13 turbine is analyzed using the YawDyn and the ADAMS dynamic analysis codes. The SNLWIND-3D simulator and measured boundary conditions are used to simulate the inflow environment that can be expected during a single, 24-hour period by a turbine residing in Row 41 of a wind farm located in San Gorgonio Pass, California. Also, long-term simulations (up to 8 hours of simulated time) with constant average inflow velocities are used to better define the characteristics of the fatigue load on the turbine. Damage calculations, using the LIFE2 fatigue analysis code and the MSU/DOE fatigue data base for composite materials, are then used to determine minimum simulation times for consistent estimates of service lifetimes.

  9. Long-term outcomes of limbal relaxing incisions during cataract surgery: aberrometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaspare Monaco, Antonio ScialdoneDepartment of Ophthalmology, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Milan, ItalyPurpose: To compare the final changes in corneal wavefront aberration by limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs after cataract surgery.Methods: This prospective cumulative interventional nonrandomized case study included cataract and astigmatic patients undergoing LRIs and phaco with intraocular lens implantation. LRIs were planned using Donnenfeld nomogram. The root mean square of corneal wave aberration for total Z(n,i(1≤n≤8, astigmatism Z(2,±1, coma Z(3–5–7,±1, trefoil Z(3–5–7,±2, spherical Z(4–6–8,0, and higher-order aberration (HOA Z(3≤n≤8 was examined before and 3 years after surgery (optical path difference-Scan II [OPD-Scan II]. Uncorrected distance visual acuity and best-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA for distance, keratometric cylinder, and variations in average corneal power were also analyzed.Results: Sixty-four eyes of 48 patients were included in the study. Age ranged from 42 to 92 years (70.6±8.4 years. After LRIs, uncorrected distance visual acuity and best-corrected distance visual acuity improved statistically (P<0.01. The keratometric cylinder value decreased by 40.1%, but analysis of KP90 and KP135 polar values did not show any decrease that could be statistically confirmed (P=0.22 and P=0.24. No significant changes were detected in root mean square of total (P=0.61 and HOAs (P=0.13 aberrations. LRIs did not induce alteration in central corneal power confirming a 1:1 coupling ratio.Conclusion: LRIs determined a nonsignificant alteration of corneal HOA. Therefore, LRIs can be still considered a qualitatively viable mean in those cases where toric intraocular lenses are contraindicated or not available. Yet, the authors raise the question of nonpersonalized nomograms, as in the present study, LRIs did not reach the preset target cylinder. Keywords: astigmatism, ocular wavefront, intraocular

  10. Long term analysis of the columnar and surface aerosol relationship at an urban European coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, S.; Estellés, V.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous PM2.5, PM10 and columnar (ground and satellite based) AOD measurements have been analyzed at Burjassot site in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain) during the period 2007-2016. The site is representative of a south European city in the Western Mediterranean coastal area, influenced by local urban pollution but also from frequent Saharan dust events. First, multiannual statistics were performed to characterize the main aerosol burden characteristics. The averages and standard deviations resulted 18 ± 9 μg m-3, 25 ± 19 μg m-3, 0.15 ± 0.11, 0.23 ± 0.17, 0.19 ± 0.15 and 1.2 ± 0.3 for PM2.5, PM10, AERONET AOD, MODIS Terra AOD, MODIS Aqua AOD, and AERONET Ångström exponent AE, respectively. The AOD is always referred to 550 nm. PM10 and AOD showed seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minima in winter. However, PM2.5 and AE did not show such an evident seasonality. The relationship between surface and columnar measurements show a poor correlation (r down to 0.30) for daily values, although the correlation increases to r up to 0.90 for yearly averages. The relationship between PM and AOD becomes more consistent when the databases are binned in intervals of 0.05 AOD. Results for AERONET and MODIS AOD are very similar, although for daily averages is slightly worse for satellite than ground based measurements. In order to explain some seasonality effects found, the mixing layer height has been included in the analysis. Results show that the correlation is maximum when PM2.5 is used and the mixing layer height is greater than 1 000 m (r > 0.90).

  11. Retrospective analysis of anthropometric and fitness characteristics associated with long-term career progression in Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Morley, David; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-05-01

    The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Retrospective design. Former junior rugby league players (N=580) selected to a TID programme were grouped according to their career progression level. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds), maturational and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed and estimated V̇O2max) assessments were conducted at 13-15 years. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analyzed differences between career progression levels controlling for chronological age. 57.1% and 12.1% of players selected to the TID programme progressed to academy and professional levels in rugby league, respectively. Sum of four skinfolds (η(2)=0.03), vertical jump (η(2)=0.02), 10 m (η(2)=0.02), 20 m (η(2)=0.02), 30 m (η(2)=0.02), and 60 m (η(2)=0.03) speed, agility 505 left (η(2)=0.06), agility 505 right (η(2)=0.05) and estimated V̇O2max (η(2)=0.03) were superior within junior players who progressed to professional compared to amateur levels. No significant differences were identified between future academy and professional players for any measure. Findings suggest that lower sum of four skinfolds and advanced fitness characteristics within junior (13-15 years) rugby league players may partially contribute to long-term career progression. Therefore, TID programmes within rugby league should aim to assess and develop body composition and fitness characteristics, especially change of direction speed. However, TID programmes should also consider technical, tactical and psycho-social characteristics of junior rugby league players that may be important for long-term career progression. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Long-term Sustainability of Diabetes Prevention Approaches: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, J Sonya; Galaviz, Karla I; Straus, Audrey N; Kowalski, Alysse J; Magee, Matthew J; Weber, Mary Beth; Wei, Jingkai; Narayan, K M Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes prevention is imperative to slow worldwide growth of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Yet the long-term efficacy of prevention strategies remains unknown. To estimate aggregate long-term effects of different diabetes prevention strategies on diabetes incidence. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. The initial search was conducted on January 14, 2014, and was updated on February 20, 2015. Search terms included prediabetes, primary prevention, and risk reduction. Eligible randomized clinical trials evaluated lifestyle modification (LSM) and medication interventions (>6 months) for diabetes prevention in adults (age ≥18 years) at risk for diabetes, reporting between-group differences in diabetes incidence, published between January 1, 1990, and January 1, 2015. Studies testing alternative therapies and bariatric surgery, as well as those involving participants with gestational diabetes, type 1 or 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, were excluded. Reviewers extracted the number of diabetes cases at the end of active intervention in treatment and control groups. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to obtain pooled relative risks (RRs), and reported incidence rates were used to compute pooled risk differences (RDs). The main outcome was aggregate RRs of diabetes in treatment vs control participants. Treatment subtypes (ie, LSM components, medication classes) were stratified. To estimate sustainability, post-washout and follow-up RRs for medications and LSM interventions, respectively, were examined. Forty-three studies were included and pooled in meta-analysis (49 029 participants; mean [SD] age, 57.3 [8.7] years; 48.0% [n = 23 549] men): 19 tested medications; 19 evaluated LSM, and 5 tested combined medications and LSM. At the end of the active intervention (range, 0.5-6.3 years), LSM was associated with an RR reduction of 39% (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.54-0.68), and medications were associated

  13. Long-term pain relief with optimized medical treatment including antioxidants and step-up interventional therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalimar; Midha, Shallu; Hasan, Ajmal; Dhingra, Rajan; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal pain is difficult to treat in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Medical therapy including antioxidants has been shown to relieve pain of CP in the short-term. Our aim was to study the long-term results of optimized medical and interventional therapy for pain relief in patients with CP with a step-up approach. All consecutive patients with CP were included prospectively in the study. They were treated medically with a well-balanced diet, pancreatic enzymes, and antioxidants (9000 IU beta-carotene, 0.54 g vitamin C, 270 IU vitamin E, 600 µg organic selenium, and 2 g methionine). Endoscopic therapy and/or surgery were offered if medical therapy failed. Pain relief was the primary outcome measure. A total of 313 patients (mean age 26.16 ± 12.17; 244 males) with CP were included; 288 (92%) patients had abdominal pain. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 224 (71.6%) and alcohol in 82 (26.2%). At 1-year follow-up, significant pain relief was achieved in 84.7% of patients: 52.1% with medical therapy, 16.7% with endoscopic therapy, 7.6% with surgery, and 8.3% spontaneously. The mean pain score decreased from 6.36 ± 1.92 to 1.62 ± 2.10 (P pain free at those follow-up periods. Significant pain relief is achieved in the majority of patients with optimized medical and interventional treatment. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of the long-term energy analysis program used for the 1978 EIA Administrator's Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, R. W.; Weisbin, C. R.; Alsmiller, Jr., R. G.

    1981-10-01

    An evaluation of the Long-Term Energy Analysis Program (LEAP), a computer model of the energy portion of the US economy that was used for the 1995-2020 projections in its 1978 Annual Report to Congress, is presented. An overview of the 1978 version, LEAP Model 22C, is followed by an analysis of the important results needed by its users. The model is then evaluated on the basis of: (1) the adequacy of its documentation; (2) the local experience in operating the model; (3) the adequacy of the numerical techniques used; (4) the soundness of the economic and technical foundations of the model equations; and (5) the degree to which the computer program has been verified. To show which parameters strongly influence the results and to approach the question of whether the model can project important results with sufficient accuracy to support qualitative conclusions, the numerical sensitivities of some important results to model input parameters are described. The input data are categorized and discussed, and uncertainties are given for some parameters as examples. From this background and from the relation of LEAP to other available approaches for long-term energy modeling, an overall evaluation is given of the model's suitability for use by the EIA.

  15. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM RESULTS OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH SEVERE CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. T. Kotsoeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: study was analysis of long-term results of medical and surgical treatment of patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF.Materials and methods. We studied 90 patients with CHF III–IV functional class (FC of NYHA, treated in A.N. Bakulev Scientific Center for Cardiovascular Surgery in 2007. All patients were divided into 3 groups: 30 patients who underwent conventional medical therapy (MT; 30 patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT; 30 patients extremely severe category, which was performed orthotopic heart transplantation. Patients were followed up for 5 years to assess long-term results of treatment of CHF.Results. In patients with severe CHF, CRT (with respect to MT significantly reduces the 5-year risk of total mortality, death from progressive heart failure, rehospitalization for heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, need for heart transplantation, as well as helping to reduce FC of CHF, and an increase in ejection fraction the left ventricle.Conclusion. Surgical treatment of patients with severe CHF demonstrated a significant advantage over conventional MT in terms of improving the 5-year forecast.

  16. Conversation Analysis of Veterinarians' Proposals for Long-Term Dietary Change in Companion Animal Practice in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Clare; Wheat, Hannah C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L

    2018-02-02

    Nutritional changes recommended by veterinarians to clients can have a major role in animal-patient health. Although there is literature on best practices that can inform veterinary communication training, little is known specifically about how veterinarians communicate their recommendations to clients in real-life interactions. This study used the qualitative research method of conversation analysis to investigate the form and content of veterinarian-initiated proposals for long-term dietary change in canine and feline patients to further inform veterinary communication training. We analyzed the characteristics and design of veterinarian-initiated proposals for long-term nutritional modification as well as the appointment phases during which they occurred, in a subsample of 42 videotaped segments drawn from 35 companion animal appointments in eastern Ontario, Canada. Analyses indicated that veterinarians initiated proposals at various points during the consultations rather than as a predictable part of treatment planning at the end. While some proposals were worded strongly (e.g., "She should be on…"), most proposals avoided the presumption that dietary change would inevitably occur. Such proposals described dietary items as options (e.g., "There are also special diets…") or used mitigating language (e.g., "you may want to try…"). These findings seem to reflect delicate veterinarian-client dynamics associated with dietary advice-giving in veterinary medicine that can impact adherence and limit shared decision-making. Our analyses offer guidance for communication training in veterinary education related to dietary treatment decision-making.

  17. Students' Self-Identified Long-Term Leadership Development Goals: An Analysis by Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Boyd, Barry L.; Duran, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Leadership development goal statements of 92 undergraduate students enrolled in a multi-year self-directed leadership development program were analyzed using content and thematic analyses to investigate patterns of similarities and differences across gender and race. This qualitative analysis utilized a theoretical framework that approached…

  18. XMM-Newton Science Analysis System (SAS): medium and long term strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.

    2017-10-01

    The Science Analysis System (SAS) is so far the only analysis software able to process the data taken with all the scientific instruments on board the XMM-Newton satellite. It also represents the core of the Pipeline Processing System (PPS), the system used to reduce all XMM-Newton observations for providing final calibrated products to the observers, and to populate the XMM-Newton Scientific Archive (XSA), as the source of data for the whole community. While maintaining and extending SAS, recognised as a fundamental component of optimising the mission's science output, we are in the process of simplifying it, modernising its code, and maximising its longevity for post-mission times.

  19. Regional Substance Flow Analysis for Assessment of Long-term Phosphorus Accumulation in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zabrodina, Marina Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a non-renewable resource that is essential for food production. At the same time, phosphorus may cause environmental problems because excess phosphorus in agricultural soil often leads to eutrophication. For rational and sound phosphorus management in order to mitigate resource scarcity and eutrophication problems, reliable estimates of phosphorus pools and flows and the understanding of phosphorus soil dynamics are needed. Studies in Material Flow Analysis that consider soil ph...

  20. Ankle arthrodesis. Long-term follow-up with gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J M; Schwartz, E; Simon, S R

    1979-10-01

    A functional assessment of twelve patients after ankle arthrodesis for post-traumatic arthritis was carried out by means of an extensive clinical evaluation and gait analysis after an average follow-up of eight years. A weighted point system was developed to grade ankle function clinically. The data on gait analysis were examined to determine the effect of arthrodesis of the ankle on the over-all pattern of walking. Under conditions of normal daily living while wearing shoes, all patients functioned well after arthrodesis. The gait-analysis data obtained with the patients wearing shoes showed excellent gait characteristics, and the ankle motion that had been lost was compensated for by: (1) motion of the small joints of the ipsilateral foot; (2) altered motion of the ankle in the contralateral limb; and (3) appropriate footwear. While the patients were walking barefooted, some adverse effects of fusion of the ankle were evident. Velocity of gait was slowed and the length of stride was shortened in all twelve patients. One patient whose ankle had been fused in an equinus position had a back-knee deformity during stance phase, and another walked only on his toes when he was without shoes. The gait patterns of all patients were markedly improved when they were wearing shoes with appropriate heel heights.

  1. Local degradation analysis of a real long-term operated DMFC stack MEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2012-12-01

    Understanding degradation of the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is important technically and scientifically for the advancement of this technology. In this work, we carry out a spatially resolved investigation of the degradation of an MEA, which has been degraded through its operation lifetime. The MEA has an active area of 320 cm2 and has been used in operation of a DMFC stack for more than 3000 h to power a lift truck. The analysis of degradation with respect to the local position of the flow field pattern was carried out by cutting the MEA into small pieces that are characterized in a 1 cm2 sized test cell with a reference electrode setup. The characterization techniques involved measurement of anode and cathode polarization curves, electrode potential relaxation curves after current interruption, MeOH-stripping voltammograms, cyclic voltammetry and SEM/EDX analysis. The MEA pieces were prepared by Laser ablation technique to realize the reference electrodes. The analysis yielded an independence of performance from the local position of the MEAs within the stack in terms of the anode and cathode flow fields.

  2. An analysis of the long-term stability of the particle dynamics in hadron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, O.S.

    1994-05-01

    This thesis extends the stability analysis of the particle motion in a storage ring and estimates the diffusion rates well inside the dynamic aperture. The calculation of the drift and diffusion coefficients focuses on an application to the proton storage ring in HERA, where the proton beam lifetime drops considerably after the proton and electron beams are brought to collision. The analysis shows that the combined effect of slow and fast modulation frequencies leads to an increased emittance growth in the storage ring. HERA the slow frequency components are caused by ground motion in the HERA tunnel and the fast frequency components by ripples in the power supplies. The thesis provides upper limits for the modultion depths of a fast tune modulation which result in tolerable growth rates for the proton emittance. The analytically calculated drift coefficients agree numerical simulations for the particle dynamics. A comparison of the calculated drift coefficients with those measured in the HERA proton storage ring shows that the analyzed mechanism can lead to growth rates of the same order of magnitude as the ones measured during the luminosity operation in the HERA storage ring. Analytical estimates for the proton growth rates predict a high sensitivity to the particle diffusion on the frequency components of the fast fast tune modulation. This prediction was confirmed by a subsequent modulation experiment in the proton storage ring of HERA, where an external tune modulation with fast frequency components led to a drastic increase in the growth rates

  3. Long Term Analysis of Deformations in Salt Mines: Kłodawa Salt Mine Case Study, Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Antoni; Andrusikiewicz, Wacław; Kowalski, Michał; Kolano, Malwina; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka; Cyran, Katarzyna; Jakóbczyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    (pre-mining) conditions. The long-term deformation analysis of the Kłodawa salt mine for year 2014 revealed that stability conditions were fulfilled. Local disturbances indicated in the numerical analysis were connected with high chambers included in the mining field no 1 and complex geological structure in the vicinity of mine workings located in the mining fields no 2 and 3. Moreover, numerical simulations that projected the future extraction progress (till year 2052) showed positive performance. Local weakness zones in the mining field no 7 are associated with occurrence of carnallite layers and intensive mining which are planned in the mining field no 6 at the end of rock salt extraction.

  4. Analysis of Long-Term Performance of Initial Public Offerings in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Elaine Moreira Teixeira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n33p79 This paper describes the results of a twofold study that compared the performance of Initial Public Offering (IPOs in the Brazilian stock market with that of incorporated company in 2004 and 2005 and also checked if these IPOs were included in the Bovespa Index (IBOV in this period. We first collected data on stock price variations every year subsequent to the public offering. Thereafter, we compared the IPOs’ rates with those of the public corporations. The results show that 81.25% of the IPOs had positive returns in the first and the second years of anniversary, and only 50% of them had positive return in the third year. The youngest companies had the highest returns, and 45% of them were included in the IBOV in the period under scrutiny. The comparison of the ratios showed that IPOs of any age are more valued than the comparison companies. As a conclusion, we can say that the IPOs’ performance was significantly better than that of the comparison companies in the period studied.

  5. A wearable cardiac monitor for long-term data acquisition and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Eric S; Delano, Maggie K; Sodini, Charles G

    2013-01-01

    A low-power wearable ECG monitoring system has been developed entirely from discrete electronic components and a custom PCB. This device removes all loose wires from the system and minimizes the footprint on the user. The monitor consists of five electrodes, which allow a cardiologist to choose from a variety of possible projections. Clinical tests to compare our wearable monitor with a commercial clinical ECG recorder are conducted on ten healthy adults under different ambulatory conditions, with nine of the datasets used for analysis. Data from both monitors were synchronized and annotated with PhysioNet's waveform viewer WAVE (physionet.org) [1]. All gold standard annotations are compared to the results of the WQRS detection algorithm [2] provided by PhysioNet. QRS sensitivity and QRS positive predictability are extracted from both monitors to validate the wearable monitor.

  6. Long Term Analysis of Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform Power and Battery Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T.; Bowman, J. R.; Clauer, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Operation of the Autonomous Adaptive Low-Power Instrument Platform (AAL-PIP) by the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Science Team (MIST) at Virginia Tech has been ongoing for about 10 years. These instrument platforms are deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau in remote locations that are difficult to access regularly. The systems have been designed to operate unattended for at least 5 years. During the Austral summer, the systems charge batteries using solar panels and power is provided by the batteries during the winter months. If the voltage goes below a critical level, the systems go into hibernation and wait for voltage from the solar panels to initiate a restart sequence to begin operation and battery charging. Our first system was deployed on the East Antarctic Plateau in 2008 and we report here on an analysis of the power and battery performance over multiple years and provide an estimate for how long these systems can operate before major battery maintenance must be performed.

  7. Stormwater Pollutant Process Analysis with Long-Term Online Monitoring Data at Micro-Scale Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Leutnant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff quality was measured with online turbidity sensors at four common types of small urban subcatchments: (i a flat roof; (ii a parking lot; (iii a residential catchment; and (iv a high-traffic street. Samples were taken to estimate site-specific correlations between total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity. Continuous TSS time series were derived from online turbidity measurements and were used to estimate event loads and event mean concentrations. Rainfall runoff event characteristics were subjected to correlation analysis to TSS loads. Significant correlations were found for rainfall intensities at sites with high imperviousness and decrease with increasing catchment size. Antecedent dry weather periods are only correlated at the parking lot site. Intra-event TSS load distributions were studied with M (V-curves. M (V-curves are grouped at runoff quantiles and statistically described with boxplots. All sites show, in general, a more pronounced first-flush effect. While wash-off of the flat roof tends to be source-limited, the parking lot and high-traffic street sites show a more transport-limited behavior. Wash-off process of the residential catchment appears to be influenced by a composition of different subcatchments.

  8. Long-term culture and analysis of cashmere goat Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huimin; Luo, Fenhua; Bao, Jiajing; Wu, Sachula; Zhang, Xueming; Zhang, Yan; Duo, Shuguang; Wu, Yingji

    2014-12-01

    Sertoli cells have important functions in the testis for spermatogenesis. Thus, Sertoli cell culture systems have been established in many animals, such as rat, mouse, human, dog, cow, and pig, but a goat culture has not been reported. This study describes the isolation and culture of Sertoli cells from 3- to 4-month-old cashmere goat (Capra hircus) testes. These proliferative cells were expanded for 20 passages and repeatedly cryopreserved in vitro, in contrast to previous study in human, of which maintain steady growth for up to seven passages and only passages 1 to 5 could be refrozen. The microstructure and ultrastructure of the culture were typical of Sertoli cells, bearing irregular nuclei and a cytoplasm that was rich in smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi, lysosomes, lipid drops, and glycogenosomes. By immunofluorescence analysis, the all cells expressed SRY-related HMG box gene 9 (Sox9). Growth curves and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were used to analyze the proliferation of the cultured cells. With increasing passage times, the proliferation of the Sertoli cells declined, but the transcription of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), stem cell factor (SCF), and β1-integrin was constant. By flow cytometry, the cells retained the ability to proliferate after 5 yr of cryopreservation. Thus, cashmere goat Sertoli cells have significant proliferative potential in vitro, expressing germ cell regulatory factors and have important applications in studying Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, spermatogenesis, reproductive toxicology, and male infertility.

  9. Long term Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has recently finallized their reprocessing campaign, using all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1995 to 2014. This re-processed dataset will provide high quality estimates of land motions, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodeticstudies. Several of the individual TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) have completed processing the full history of GPS observations recorded by the IGS global network, as well as, many other GPS stationsat or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA data centre at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org). The TAC solutions contain a total of over 700 stations. Following the recentimprovements in processing models and strategies, this is the first complete reprocessing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series. The TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) atthe University of Luxembourg (UL) has computed a first multi-year weekly combined solution using two independent combination software packages: CATREF and GLOBK. These combinations allow anevaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC contributions and their influences on the combined solution. In this study we will present the first UL TIGA multi-yearcombination results and discuss these in terms of geocentric sea level changes.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of long-term evolutionary domestication in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark A; Long, Anthony D; Greenspan, Zachary S; Greer, Lee F; Burke, Molly K; Villeponteau, Bryant; Matsagas, Kennedy C; Rizza, Cristina L; Mueller, Laurence D; Rose, Michael R

    2016-12-22

    Experimental evolutionary genomics now allows biologists to test fundamental theories concerning the genetic basis of adaptation. We have conducted one of the longest laboratory evolution experiments with any sexually-reproducing metazoan, Drosophila melanogaster. We used next-generation resequencing data from this experiment to examine genome-wide patterns of genetic variation over an evolutionary time-scale that approaches 1,000 generations. We also compared measures of variation within and differentiation between our populations to simulations based on a variety of evolutionary scenarios. Our analysis yielded no clear evidence of hard selective sweeps, whereby natural selection acts to increase the frequency of a newly-arising mutation in a population until it becomes fixed. We do find evidence for selection acting on standing genetic variation, as independent replicate populations exhibit similar population-genetic dynamics, without obvious fixation of candidate alleles under selection. A hidden-Markov model test for selection also found widespread evidence for selection. We found more genetic variation genome-wide, and less differentiation between replicate populations genome-wide, than arose in any of our simulated evolutionary scenarios.

  11. Proton minibeam radiation therapy spares normal rat brain: Long-Term Clinical, Radiological and Histopathological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezado, Yolanda; Jouvion, Gregory; Hardy, David; Patriarca, Annalisa; Nauraye, Catherine; Bergs, Judith; González, Wilfredo; Guardiola, Consuelo; Juchaux, Marjorie; Labiod, Dalila; Dendale, Remi; Jourdain, Laurène; Sebrie, Catherine; Pouzoulet, Frederic

    2017-10-31

    Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a novel strategy for minimizing normal tissue damage resulting from radiotherapy treatments. This strategy partners the inherent advantages of protons for radiotherapy with the gain in normal tissue preservation observed upon irradiation with narrow, spatially fractionated beams. In this study, whole brains (excluding the olfactory bulb) of Fischer 344 rats (n = 16) were irradiated at the Orsay Proton Therapy Center. Half of the animals received standard proton irradiation, while the other half were irradiated with pMBRT at the same average dose (25 Gy in one fraction). The animals were followed-up for 6 months. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study using a 7-T small-animal MRI scanner was performed along with a histological analysis. Rats treated with conventional proton irradiation exhibited severe moist desquamation, permanent epilation and substantial brain damage. In contrast, rats in the pMBRT group exhibited no skin damage, reversible epilation and significantly reduced brain damage; some brain damage was observed in only one out of the eight irradiated rats. These results demonstrate that pMBRT leads to an increase in normal tissue resistance. This net gain in normal tissue sparing can lead to the efficient treatment of very radio-resistant tumours, which are currently mostly treated palliatively.

  12. Geoscientific long-term prognosis. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben; Geowissenschaftliche Langzeitprognose. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 2. Vorlaeufige Sicherheitsanalyse fuer den Standort Gorleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrugalla, Sabine [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The preliminary safety analysis of the site Gorleben includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Aim and content of the geoscientific long-term prognosis for the site Gorleben; (3) Boundary conditions at the site Gorleben: climate; geomorphology; overlying rocks and adjoining rocks; hydrogeology; salt deposit Gorleben. (4) Probable future geological developments at the site Gorleben: supraregional developments with effects on the site Gorleben; glacial period developments; developments of the geomorphology, overlying and adjoining rocks; future developments of the hydrological systems at the site Gorleben; future saliniferous specific developments of the salt deposit Gorleben. (5) Commentary on the unlikely or excludable developments of the site Gorleben.

  13. Long-term effect of whole body vibration training on jump height: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

    2014-06-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is widely promoted as a means of improving muscle strength, but the evidence of a performance benefit is unclear with some reporting improvements and others finding none. The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the effectiveness of WBV on jump height. We included randomized controlled trials or matched design studies comparing the effect of WBV training on countermovement and squat jump (SJ) height, which were gathered from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Sciencedirect, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training (from the 15 studies included) compared with having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardized mean difference of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.99). The effect of WBV training on SJ height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (>30 Hz, 0.86, 0.62-1.10), higher amplitude (>3 mm, 0.84, 0.52-1.17), longer exposure duration (>10 minutes per session, 0.92, 0.48-1.36), longer training period (>12 weeks, 0.87, 0.56-1.19) and among nonathletes (0.96, 0.63-1.30) had greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (≤ 30 Hz, 0.56, 0.13-0.99), lower amplitude (≤ 3 mm, 0.66, 0.35-0.98), shorter exposure duration (≤ 10 minutes per session, 0.68, 0.45-0.92), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks, 0.72, 0.35-1.09), shorter training period (effect of WBV training compared with a standard cardiovascular-type exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). In conclusion, WBV training produces a moderate-to-large effect on jump height. Vibration training protocols with higher frequencies, higher amplitudes, longer exposures per session, and longer training periods are more likely to enhance muscle power.

  14. Inpatient tube weaning in children with long-term feeding tube dependency: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabi, Thomas; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite; Kratky, Elisabeth; Beckenbach, Hannes; Scheer, Peter J

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates the outcome of an intervention program to establish oral feeding after prolonged tube feeding in children. The intervention is based on supervised reduction of enteral formula within a few days supported by a 3-week program of speech therapy, occupational therapy, psychoanalytically based eating therapy, physical therapy, psychodynamic coaching, and nutritional counseling of the infant and his or her parents. Two hundred twenty-one cases were included in this study. All patients had been severely ill or were handicapped and had been exclusively fed by tube for most of their lives. The major outcome variable was complete discontinuation of tube feeding with sufficient oral feeding after treatment, defined as the child's ability to sustain stable body weight by self-motivated oral feeding. Two hundred three patients (92%) were completely fed orally after treatment. Tube feeding was discontinued completely within 8 days in mean, and mean in-patient treatment time was 21.6 days. The current method can be used by a trained and experienced team to wean tube-dependent children from prolonged tube feeding. Tube weaning should be addressed from the beginning of tube feeding in all children who are expected to restore oral feeding after the phase of nutritional stabilization. Since successful programs are rare, we were motivated to present our results of this elaborate program in this article. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Hyperspectral signature analysis of three plant species to long-term hydrocarbon and heavy metal exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Guillaume; Credoz, Anthony; Fabre, Sophie; Hédacq, Rémy; Dubucq, Dominique; Elger, Arnaud

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies aim to exploit vegetation hyperspectral signature as an indicator of pipeline leakages and natural oil seepages by detecting changes in reflectance induced by oil exposure. In order to assess the feasibility of the method at larger spatial scale, a study has been carried out in a greenhouse on two tropical (Cenchrus alopecuroides and Panicum virgatum) and a temperate (Rubus fruticosus) species. Plants were grown on contaminated soil during 130 days, with concentrations up to 4.5 and 36 g.kg-1 for heavy metals and C10-C40 hydrocarbons respectively. Reflectance data (350-2500 nm) were acquired under artificial light from 1 to 60 days. All species showed an increase of reflectance in the visible (VIS, 400-750 nm) and short-wave infrared (SWIR, 1300-2500 nm) under experimental contaminants exposure. However, the responses were contrasted in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-1300 nm). 47 normalized vegetation indices were compared between treatments, and the most sensitive to contamination were retained. Same indices showed significant differences between treatments at leaf and plant scales. Indices related to plant pigments, plant water content and red-edge reflectance were particularly sensitive to soil contamination. In order to validate the selection of indices, hyperspectral measurements were performed outdoor at plant scale at the end of the experiment (130 days). Leaf samples were also collected for pigment analysis. Index selected at day 60 were still sensitive to soil contamination after 130 days. Significant changes in plant pigment composition were also observed. This study demonstrates the interest of hyperspectral data for oil exploration and environmental diagnosis.

  16. Long-term changes in blood pressure following orlistat and sibutramine treatment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K; Sundström, J; Neovius, K; Rössner, S; Neovius, M

    2010-11-01

    Previous meta-analyses investigating blood pressure effects of anti-obesity drugs have included studies using non-licensed doses, but not data from head-to-head studies. Furthermore, although diabetes is an important comorbidity in obesity, variation in blood pressure effects across diabetes status has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects on systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of orlistat and sibutramine. Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane controlled trials register and reference lists of identified articles from 1990 to February 2009 were searched. All placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of 12-month duration or randomized head-to-head studies of any duration on adults using standard doses were included. Studies/study arms were excluded if they only evaluated weight maintenance after weight loss. Randomized controlled trials were identified, subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and reviewed. Random effects models were used for assessment of weighted mean differences. Eighteen placebo-controlled (12 orlistat, 5540 patients; 6 sibutramine, 1495 patients) and four head-to-head trials (348 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three orlistat and three sibutramine studies examined overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), as did two head-to-head trials. Mean baseline SBP ranged from 119 to 153 mmHg, and mean DBP from 69 to 98 mmHg. Overall, the placebo-controlled SBP change was -1.9 (95% CI; -2.7, -1.1) mmHg for orlistat, and 0.5 (-1.1, 2.1) mmHg for sibutramine. The corresponding values for DBP were -1.5 (-2.2, -0.8) and 1.7 (0.7, 2.6). Compared with patients without diabetes, diabetic patients treated with orlistat experienced smaller and non-significant reductions of SBP (-0.9; -2.6, 0.7 vs. -2.2; -3.0, -1.3) and DBP (-1.0; -2.4, 0.3 vs. -1.6; -2.4, -0.8). For sibutramine, higher on-treatment elevations in SBP (1.6; -1.3, 4.5 vs. 0.1; -1.8, 2.0) and DBP (2.4; 0.6, 4.1 vs. 1.4; 0.3, 2

  17. Ovarian sertoli-leydig cell tumors: A multicenter long-term clinicopathological analysis of 27 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Levent; Ertas, Ibrahim Egemen; Gokcu, Mehmet; Terek, Mustafa Cosan; Sanci, Muzaffer; Sanli, Ulus Ali; Zekioglu, Osman; Ozsaran, Ahmet Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Information on the clinical behavior of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) as well as its prognostic factors and optimal management is limited due to a substantially low incidence of the disease. Also, limited data is available regarding the role of chemotherapy in the management of SLCTs. The aim of the study is to evaluate clinicopathological features and outcome of patients with ovarian SLCTs. Twenty-seven patients with SLCT treated at two centers were reviewed retrospectively during 21 years. The median age was 45 years (range, 16-81) and the mean follow-up time was 86 months (range, 16-181). Twenty-three patients had stage IA, three patients had IC, and one patient had stage II disease. Eleven tumors (41%) were well-differentiated and 16 (59%) tumors were intermediately differentiated. Nine patients underwent unilateral salpino-oophorectomy and one patient, with a history of infertility, underwent cystectomy for fertility preservation. Eight patients with intermediately differentiated types of SLCT received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy including the combination bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). Recurrence occurred in one patient with intermediated differentiated type SLCT with heterologous elements. She received four cycles of BEP chemotherapy. Twelve months later, she underwent cytoreductive surgery and received six cycles of cisplatin plus carboplatin. She died 24 months after the initial diagnosis. SLCTs of the ovary are usually in early stage, unilateral, and benign. Fertility-sparing surgery is the preferred option in young women. In the adjuvant treatment setting, although information about chemotherapy is limited, BEP is a commonly used regimen. The degree of differentiation and the presence of heterologous elements relate to a poor prognosis.

  18. Cardiovascular effects and safety of long-term colchicine treatment: Cochrane review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemkens, Lars G; Ewald, Hannah; Gloy, Viktoria L; Arpagaus, Armon; Olu, Kelechi K; Nidorf, Mark; Glinz, Dominik; Nordmann, Alain J; Briel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Colchicine is an old anti-inflammatory drug that has shown substantial cardiovascular benefits in recent trials. We systematically reviewed cardiovascular benefits and harms of colchicine in any population and specifically in patients with high cardiovascular risk. We evaluated randomised controlled trials comparing colchicine over at least 6 months versus any control in any adult population. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction and adverse events. Cardiovascular mortality was a secondary outcome. We included 39 trials with 4992 patients. The quality of evidence for mortality outcomes and myocardial infarction was moderate but lower for adverse events. Colchicine had no effect on all-cause mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.09; I(2)=27%; 30 trials). Cardiovascular mortality was reduced in some but not all meta-analytical models (random-effects RR 0.34, 0.09 to 1.21, I(2)=9%; Peto's OR 0.24, 0.09 to 0.64, I(2)=15%; Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect RR 0.20, 0.06 to 0.68, I(2)=0%; 7 trials). The risk for myocardial infarction was reduced (RR 0.20, 0.07 to 0.57; 2 trials). There was no effect on total adverse events (RR 1.52, 0.93 to 2.46, I(2)=45%; 11 trials) but gastrointestinal intolerance was increased (RR 1.83, 1.03 to 3.26, I(2)=74%; 11 trials). Reporting of serious adverse events was inconsistent; no event occurred over 824 patient-years (4 trials). Effects in high cardiovascular risk populations were similar (4 trials; 1230 patients). We found no evidence supporting colchicine doses above 1 mg/day. Colchicine may have substantial cardiovascular benefits; however, there is sufficient uncertainty about its benefit and harm to indicate the need for large-scale trials to further evaluate this inexpensive, promising treatment in cardiovascular disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. A Meta-Analysis of the Long-Term Effects of Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, and Reading Comprehension Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about short-term--but very little about the long-term--effects of reading interventions. To rectify this, a detailed analysis of follow-up effects as a function of intervention, sample, and methodological variables was conducted. A total of 71 intervention-control groups were selected (N = 8,161 at posttest) from studies reporting posttest and follow-up data (M = 11.17 months) for previously established reading interventions. The posttest effect sizes indicated effects (dw = 0.37) that decreased to follow-up (dw = 0.22). Overall, comprehension and phonemic awareness interventions showed good maintenance of effect that transferred to nontargeted skills, whereas phonics and fluency interventions, and those for preschool and kindergarten children, tended not to. Several methodological features also related to effect sizes at follow-up, namely experimental design and dosage, and sample attrition, risk status, and gender balance. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  20. Comparison and statistical analysis of long-term overheating indices applied on energy renovated dwellings in temperate climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Stakeholders, researchers and designers apply different overheating metrics because they follow different comfort theories or comply with different regulations and standards. As a result, there is no common ground for generalization, intercomparison and final concordance of their conclusions....... Correlation of indices would simplify the analysis being conducted during the design (optimization process) or operational (comfort assessment) phase of buildings. This research compares and statistically correlates results of seven widely used long-term overheating indices on four ‘free......-running’ representative dwellings and characteristic climatic conditions of central Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, Austria and France). Different renovation steps and passive cooling strategies were applied on these case studies creating 66 variants for comfort assessment. The analyses were conducted with the use...

  1. A 3D Lumped Thermal Network Model for Long-term Load Profiles Analysis in High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Ghimire, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    The conventional RC lumped thermal networks are widely used to estimate the temperature of power devices, but they are lack of accuracy in addressing detailed thermal behaviors/couplings in different locations and layers of the high power IGBT modules. On the other hand, Finite Element (FE......)-based simulation is another method which is often used to analyze the steady-state thermal distribution of IGBT modules, but it is not possible to be used for long-term analysis of load profiles of power converter, which is needed for reliability assessments and better thermal design. This paper proposes a novel...... enables both accurate and fast temperature estimation of high power IGBT modules in the real loading conditions of the converter; meanwhile the critical details of the thermal dynamics and thermal distribution are also maintained. The proposed thermal model is verified by both FEM simulation...

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM RESULTS OF SURGICAL AND COMBINATION THERAPY FOR DIFFERENTIATED ADENOCARCINOMA AND UNDIFFERENTIATED GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Davtyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of long-term results of surgical and combined modality treatment for differentiated adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated gastric carcinoma (UGC has been presented. Treatment outcomes of patients with differentiated adenocarcinoma were shownto be significantly superior to those of patients with UGC (р=0,001. Intensive preoperative radiation therapy at a total dose of 20–27 Gy resulted in a significant improvement of treatment outcomes in patients with UGC, showing no any improvement of treatment outcomes in patients with differentiated adenocarcinoma. The benefits of combination treatment for patients with UGC were observed in cases with tumors not spreading through the serosa (рТ1–3 and with no evidence of regional lymph nodes involvement (N0.

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  4. Long-term congestion management by investment in gas-turbine generators : a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, L.A.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2007-01-01

    Load management is one of the most important tasks in the operation of an electric power system. Transmission congestion occurs whenever the grid has one or more violations of the physical, operation, or policy constraints under which it normally operates. In a deregulated electricity market, the independent system operator (ISO) must ensure that contracted power transactions are carried out reliably. Several schemes of congestion management run the risk of increasing electricity prices due to the market power of local generators in congested areas. An alternative is to manage congestion through the installation of reserve gas turbine generators which can be brought online to the system within a short time. The use of gas turbines at different buses in the system can enhance the system in ways of transmission relief during emergency events. This paper proposed a framework for the evaluation of long-term investment by the ISO on gas-turbine generators as a tool for providing transmission congestion relief in the dispatch stage based on cost-benefit analysis. The objective of the framework is to optimally decide the locations and sizes of the generators at different buses in the network in order to minimize the total cost of investment of gas turbines and to minimize total system congestion. A bus-wise cost-benefit analysis was carried out by solving the DC optimal power flow (dc-OPF) model. The CIGRE 32-Bus system was used for the case study. It was shown that network overloading can be significantly reduced with the support of gas turbines at selected buses. The long-term decision of the investment on gas-turbine would depend on the opportunity cost of the gas-turbine with respect to the congestion problem. The gas turbines could also reduce the amount of unserved energy during peak load conditions. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Chemotherapy increases long-term survival in patients with adult medulloblastoma--a literature-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocakaya, Selin; Beier, Christoph Patrick; Beier, Dagmar

    2016-03-01

    Adult medulloblastoma is a potentially curable malignant entity with an incidence of 0.5-1 per million. Valid data on prognosis, treatment, and demographics are lacking, as most current knowledge stems from retrospective studies. Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy are accepted parts of treatment regimes; however, established prognostic factors and data clarifying the role of chemotherapy are missing. We investigated 227 publications from 1969-2013, with 907 identifiable, individual patients being available for meta-analysis. Demographic data, risk stratification, and treatment of these patients were similar to previous cohorts. The median overall survival (mOS) was 65 months (95% CI: 54.6-75.3) , the 5-year overall survival was 50.9% with 16% of the patients dying more than 5 years after diagnosis. Incomplete resection, clinical and radiological signs for brainstem infiltration, and abstinence from radiotherapy were predictive of worse outcome. Metastatic disease at tumor recurrence was identified as a new prognostic factor, while neither metastasis at initial diagnosis nor desmoplastic/classic histology was correlated with survival. Patients receiving chemotherapy first-line survived significantly longer (mOS: 108 mo, 95% CI: 68.6-148.4) than patients treated with radiation alone (mOS: 57 mo, 95% CI: 39.6-74.4) or patients who received chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. This effect was not biased by tumor stage or decade of treatment. Importantly, (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy also significantly increased the chance for long-term survival (>5 y) compared with radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. This meta-analysis clarifies relevant prognostic factors and suggests that chemotherapy as part of first-line therapy improves overall survival and increases the proportion of patients with long-term survival. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions

  6. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, 99 Tc and 129 I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10 -12 /year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of 99 Tc and 129 I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration

  7. A Performance Analysis of Long-term Acute-Care Hospitals Owned by Large, Multistate Investor-Owned Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Preethy; Liu, Xinliang; McCue, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a descriptive assessment of the operating performance of for-profit long-term acute-care hospitals owned by multistate, investor-owned companies (large FP LTCHs) compared with FP LTCHs owned by smaller FP companies (small FP LTCHs) and nonprofit LTCHs (NP LTCHs). The study used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services cost report data for 290 LTCHs from 2010 through 2012 to compare the financial performance of large and small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs. The study found that the median operating profit margin for large FP LTCHs was 8.06%, which was twice as high as that of the small FP LTCHs and NP LTCHs (4.78% and 2.80%, respectively). Larger size, serving a greater proportion of private pay and more complex patients and incurring lower operating expenses, including salary expenses, may account for the higher operating margin of the large FP LTCHs.

  8. Long-term benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Sørensen, J; Søgaard, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years.......The aim was to estimate long-term mortality benefits and cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 64-73 years....

  9. When do people with dementia die peacefully? An analysis of data collected prospectively in long-term care settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Roo, M.L.A.; van der Steen, J.T.; Galindo Garre, F.; Den Noortgate, N.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Deliens, L.; Francke, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about dying peacefully with dementia in long-term care facilities. Dying peacefully may be influenced by characteristics of the palliative care provided and characteristics of the long-term care setting. If so, dying peacefully may serve as a quality indicator for

  10. [Analysis on long-term compliance of anticoagulation treatment and demands of disease management in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui-juan; Su, Jiang-lian; Lin, Yun; Zeng, Zhe-chun; Wang, Jin-wen

    2010-08-24

    To analyze the long-term compliance of oral anticoagulant therapy and the demands of disease management in patient with atrial fibrillation (AF). Inpatients with AF taking warfarin were collected from Department of Internal Medicine from January 1 to December 31, 2008. Inpatients from departments of surgery, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dermatology and pediatrics and those on a previous warfarin therapy were excluded. The data of patient profiles, medical history and anticoagulant treatment were collected from electronic medical record. And the status of anticoagulant treatment one year later and demands of disease management were inquired by telephone. A total of 268 AF patients received a telephone survey. Among them, 145 patients (54.1%) continued taking warfarin. Gender, age, type of AF, duration of AF and history of ischemic stroke was not significantly associated with the compliance of anticoagulant treatment. The odds ratio was 1.74 (95%CI: 0.67-4.47), 0.87 (95%CI: 0.30-2.53), 1.59 (95%CI: 0.35-1.09), 1.09 (95%CI: 0.61-1.93) and 0.44 (95%CI: 0.12-1.60) respectively. Among patients on warfarin, INR was monitored monthly in 88 patients (60.7%) and 70 patients (48.3%) had an INR value of 2.0-3.0. Among 123 withdrawal patients, 88 patients (71.5%) terminated treatment within 6 month. The common reasons included patient ignorance about long-term anticoagulant treatment (35.0%) and switching to aspirin because of a poor effect (24.4%). About 80% of patients wished to obtain instructions about INR monitoring and adjustment of drug dosage. Among them, 196/268 patients (73.1%) wished for a regular follow-up. And 176/196 patients (89.8%) opted for a telephone follow-up and 150/176 patients (85.2%) wanted to receive monthly instructions. The compliance of anticoagulation treatment and the target-meeting proportion of INR value are relative low. And the common reasons of withdrawal are patient ignorance about long-term anticoagulant treatment and switching to

  11. Preoperative chemoradiation with or without induction oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil in locally advanced rectal cancer. Long-term outcome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, F.A.; Sole, C.V.; Serrano, J.; Valle, E. del; Rodriguez, M.; Munoz-Calero, A.; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L.; Garcia-Alfonso, P.; Peligros, I.; Alvarez, E.

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously reported that a short FOLFOX-4 induction significantly improves pathologic complete response in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation (CRT). In a larger and updated patient series, we analyzed FOLFOX-4 efficacy in terms of sphincter preservation and long-term outcomes. From January 1995 to December 2010, 335 LARC patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiation (4500-5040 cGy). Starting in May 2001, 207 consecutive patients additionally received induction FOLFOX-4. Surgery was performed 6 weeks (range 3-12 weeks) after chemoradiation. Incidence of total tumor (63 vs. 54 %, p = 0.02) and nodal downstaging (60 vs. 43 %, p = 0.002) was significantly increased by induction FOLFOX-4. In an analysis of tumors located below 5 cm from the anal verge (n = 114, 34 %), sphincter preservation was feasible in 30 % in the FOLFOX-4 versus 13 % in the upfront CRT group (p = 0.04). Median follow-up time for the entire cohort of patients was 72.6 months (range 4-205 months). FOLFOX-4 was not associated with superior locoregional control (HR 0.88, p = 0.78), disease-free survival (HR 0.83, p = 0.55), distant metastases-free survival (HR 0.94, p = 0.81), or cancer-specific survival (HR 0.70, p = 0.15). Short-intense induction FOLFOX-4 significantly improves downstaging and sphincter preservation in low rectal tumors. Long-term outcomes were not improved in the FOLFOX-4 group of patients. (orig.) [de

  12. Summary of preliminary step-trend analysis from the Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-termMonitoring Program—2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Kristin; Shanahan, Erin; Daley, Rob; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In mixed and dominant stands, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) occurs in over two million acres within the six national forests and two national parks that comprise the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Currently, whitebark pine, an ecologically important species, is impacted by multiple ecological disturbances; white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), wildfire, and climate change all pose significant threats to the persistence of whitebark pine populations. Substantial declines in whitebark pine populations have been documented throughout its range.Under the auspices of the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (GYCC), several agencies began a collaborative, long-term monitoring program to track and document the status of whitebark pine across the GYE. This alliance resulted in the formation of the Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group (GYWPMWG), which consists of representatives from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Montana State University (MSU). This groundbased monitoring program was initiated in 2004 and follows a peer-reviewed protocol (GYWPMWG 2011). The program is led by the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network (GRYN) of the National Park Service in coordination with multiple agencies. More information about this monitoring effort is available at: http://science. nature.nps.gov/im/units/gryn/monitor/whitebark_pine.cfm. The purpose of this report is to provide a draft summary of the first step-trend analysis for the interagency, long-term monitoring of whitebark pine health to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) as part of a synthesis of the state of whitebark pine in the GYE. Due to the various stages of the analyses and reporting, this is the most efficient way to provide these results to the IGBST.

  13. Development of a long term macro econometric model for strategic analysis and cost assessments in nuclear R and D fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Shigeki.

    1985-11-01

    A Long Term Macro Econometric Model (LTMEMO) has been developed for the purpose of generating economic scenarios for strategic analysis and for cost assessments of technologies in the field of nuclear research and development. The program system of the model is composed of such sub-programs as related social and economic statistic data base and its treatment program, identification and estimation programs of various econometric functions, simulation programs for future projections, and a reference econometric model program. The reference econometric model in the program system would be improved and modified easily by using data base and other sub-programs as the purpose of data retrieval, application of economic hypothesis, and scenario generation. The reference model belongs to a category of such standard types as macro-econometric, deterministic, and descriptive one, however, it was deviated based on the combination of Keynesian theories and Neo-classical theories and was modified by system engineering aspects. The model obtained good performances in such various econometric tests as statistical examinations in parameter estimation of each functions and so called partial tests, total tests, and final tests. Macro economic scenarios α and β, long term projections through 2030 of macro economy in our country were evaluated appropriately by this model. This report describes the process in the development of the model from needs of econometric model in nuclear fields to examples of economic scenarios generated by this model. Some consideration are taken into descriptions on the deviation of each functions and on the application of economic theories for practical use of this program system at the time of modification and improvements of the reference model. (author)

  14. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  15. Postnuclear disaster evacuation and chronic health in adults in Fukushima, Japan: a long-term retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Blangiardo, Marta; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Morita, Tomohiro; Hodgson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Japan's 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant incident required the evacuation of over a million people, creating a large displaced population with potentially increased vulnerability in terms of chronic health conditions. We assessed the long-term impact of evacuation on diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Participants We considered participants in annual public health check-ups from 2008 to 2014, administrated by Minamisoma City and Soma City, located about 10–50 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Methods Disease risks, measured in terms of pre-incident and post-incident relative risks, were examined and compared between evacuees and non-evacuees/temporary-evacuees. We also constructed logistic regression models to assess the impact of evacuation on the disease risks adjusted for covariates. Results Data from a total of 6406 individuals aged 40–74 years who participated in the check-ups both at baseline (2008–2010) and in one or more post-incident years were analysed. Regardless of evacuation, significant post-incident increases in risk were observed for diabetes and hyperlipidaemia (relative risk: 1.27–1.60 and 1.12–1.30, respectively, depending on evacuation status and post-incident year). After adjustment for covariates, the increase in hyperlipidaemia was significantly greater among evacuees than among non-evacuees/temporary-evacuees (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.32, pdisaster was found to be associated with a small increase in long-term hyperlipidaemia risk in adults. Our findings help identify discussion points on disaster planning, including preparedness, response and recovery measures, applicable to future disasters requiring mass evacuation. PMID:26846896

  16. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  17. Quantitative and experimental analysis of investment incentive mechanisms in electricity markets: short- and long-term analysis of actors' strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalfallah, Mohamed Haikel

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we deal with the question of reliability of electricity system and particularly the problem of generation capacity adequacy in electricity markets, characterized by uncertain and volatile demand. This question is currently the object of many politics and economics debates in the European Commission of energy. It occurs within the context of de-regulations and reforms of liberalization operated in western countries. This deregulation was caused many shortages and crisis in many electricity markets in the world. Failures are caused by several factors such as, the presence of uncertainties on future demand and fuel prices, the risk-averse behavior of investors and the market power exercised by existing generators. They had led to high spot market prices and a fundamental imbalance between the steadily growing demand for power and the limited increases, due to the lack of investments, in generation capacities. Many mechanisms, additional to the energy market, that ensure an adequate incentive for investments and a stable and socially acceptable electricity prices have been proposed. In this work, we compare different investment incentive mechanisms, in terms of long-term capacity adequacy in an uncertain environment, cost effectiveness and the ability of reducing market power. In the literature, the problem of long-term system reliability has been largely studied in qualitative terms. A few works attempt to model the quantitative effects of those market designs. The contribution of this work is to propose a quantitative analysis based on dynamics models. Competition is considered by using the principles of game theory. Stochastic dynamic programming is used to deal with the stochastic environment of the market and mixed complementarity problem and variational inequality formulations are employed to find Nash equilibrium. In addition to the analytic analysis, an experimental study is carried out in order to include a larger diversity of strategy. The

  18. [Effect of native aortic valve sparing aortic root reconstruction surgery on short- and long-term prognosis in Marfan syndrome patients:a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhiwei; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Hongbing; Zhou, Zhen

    2014-05-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze the effect of preserving the native aortic valve on short- and long-term prognosis post aortic root reconstruction surgery for patients with Marfan syndrome. Database including Pubmed,Embase, Cochrane library, CNKI, Wanfang,VIP and CBM were searched to collect studies comparing clinical results of valve sparing surgery with composite valve graft surgery for patients with Marfan syndrome. Study quality was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of the funnel plot together with Egger test. Clinical outcomes data was extracted from the manuscripts and analyzed with Revman 5.0 supplied by Cochrane collaboration. Seven clinical trials with 690 patients were included. Meta- analysis demonstrated that valve sparing surgery was associated with a lower incidence of re-exploration (RR = 0.51, 95%CI:0.29- 0.90, P 0.05). Valve sparing aortic root reconstruction surgery is a superior procedure to composite valve graft surgery in term of improving the short- and long-term prognosis for patients with Marfan syndrome.

  19. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  20. Smart ECG Monitoring Patch with Built-in R-Peak Detection for Long-Term HRV Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W K; Yoon, H; Park, K S

    2016-07-01

    Since heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is widely used to evaluate the physiological status of the human body, devices specifically designed for such applications are needed. To this end, we developed a smart electrocardiography (ECG) patch. The smart patch measures ECG using three electrodes integrated into the patch, filters the measured signals to minimize noise, performs analog-to-digital conversion, and detects R-peaks. The measured raw ECG data and the interval between the detected R-peaks can be recorded to enable long-term HRV analysis. Experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of the built-in R-wave detection, robustness of the device under motion, and applicability to the evaluation of mental stress. The R-peak detection results obtained with the device exhibited a sensitivity of 99.29%, a positive predictive value of 100.00%, and an error of 0.71%. The device also exhibited less motional noise than conventional ECG recording, being stable up to a walking speed of 5 km/h. When applied to mental stress analysis, the device evaluated the variation in HRV parameters in the same way as a normal ECG, with very little difference. This device can help users better understand their state of health and provide physicians with more reliable data for objective diagnosis.

  1. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Image Analysis since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated through the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated...

  2. Topical report on release scenario analysis of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.W.; Landstrom, D.K.; Blair, S.C.; Howes, B.W.; Robkin, M.A.; Benson, G.L.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Walters, W.H.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1980-11-01

    Potential release scenarios for the defense high-level waste (HLW) on the Hanford Site are presented. Presented in this report are the three components necessary for evaluating the various alternatives under consideration for long-term management of Hanford defense HLW: identification of scenarios and events which might directly or indirectly disrupt radionuclide containment barriers; geotransport calculations of waste migration through the site media; and consequence (dose) analyses based on groundwater and air pathways calculations. The scenarios described in this report provide the necessary parameters for radionuclide transport and consequence analysis. Scenarios are categorized as either bounding or nonbounding. Bounding scenarios consider worst case or what if situations where an actual and significant release of waste material to the environment would happen if the scenario were to occur. Bounding scenarios include both near-term and long-term scenarios. Near-term scenarios are events which occur at 100 years from 1990. Long term scenarios are potential events considered to occur at 1000 and 10,000 years from 1990. Nonbounding scenarios consider events which result in insignificant releases or no release at all to the environment. Three release mechanisms are described in this report: (1) direct exposure of waste to the biosphere by a defined sequence of events (scenario) such as human intrusion by drilling; (2) radionuclides contacting an unconfined aquifer through downward percolation of groundwater or a rising water table; and (3) cataclysmic or explosive release of radionuclides by such mechanisms as meteorite impact, fire and explosion, criticality, or seismic events. Scenarios in this report present ways in which these release mechanisms could occur at a waste management facility. The scenarios are applied to the two in-tank waste management alternatives: in-situ disposal and continued present action.

  3. Topical report on release scenario analysis of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.W.; Landstrom, D.K.; Blair, S.C.; Howes, B.W.; Robkin, M.A.; Benson, G.L.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Walters, W.H.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1980-11-01

    Potential release scenarios for the defense high-level waste (HLW) on the Hanford Site are presented. Presented in this report are the three components necessary for evaluating the various alternatives under consideration for long-term management of Hanford defense HLW: identification of scenarios and events which might directly or indirectly disrupt radionuclide containment barriers; geotransport calculations of waste migration through the site media; and consequence (dose) analyses based on groundwater and air pathways calculations. The scenarios described in this report provide the necessary parameters for radionuclide transport and consequence analysis. Scenarios are categorized as either bounding or nonbounding. Bounding scenarios consider worst case or what if situations where an actual and significant release of waste material to the environment would happen if the scenario were to occur. Bounding scenarios include both near-term and long-term scenarios. Near-term scenarios are events which occur at 100 years from 1990. Long term scenarios are potential events considered to occur at 1000 and 10,000 years from 1990. Nonbounding scenarios consider events which result in insignificant releases or no release at all to the environment. Three release mechanisms are described in this report: (1) direct exposure of waste to the biosphere by a defined sequence of events (scenario) such as human intrusion by drilling; (2) radionuclides contacting an unconfined aquifer through downward percolation of groundwater or a rising water table; and (3) cataclysmic or explosive release of radionuclides by such mechanisms as meteorite impact, fire and explosion, criticality, or seismic events. Scenarios in this report present ways in which these release mechanisms could occur at a waste management facility. The scenarios are applied to the two in-tank waste management alternatives: in-situ disposal and continued present action

  4. Short- and long-term outcomes of metformin compared with insulin alone in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butalia, S; Gutierrez, L; Lodha, A; Aitken, E; Zakariasen, A; Donovan, L

    2017-01-01

    To assess the short- and long-term maternal and fetal impact of metformin in pregnancy compared with insulin. We performed a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ClinicalTrials.gov. Eligible studies were randomized control trials (RCTs) or follow-up of an RCT that: (1) compared metformin with insulin in pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus or Type 2 diabetes; and (2) reported maternal or fetal outcomes of interest. Two reviewers extracted the data, evaluated study quality and calculated pooled estimates. Sixteen studies (n = 2165 in quantitative analysis) were included. Metformin lowered the risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia [risk ratio (RR) = 0.63; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.45 to 0.87], large for gestational age babies (RR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.99), pregnancy-induced hypertension (RR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.85) and total maternal pregnancy weight gain [mean difference (MD) -2.07; 95% CI -2.88 to -1.27]. Metformin did not increase preterm delivery (RR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.67 to 2.07), small for gestational age babies (RR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.14), perinatal mortality (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.17 to 3.92) or Caesarean section (RR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.19). Long-term outcome information is limited. Our review found that metformin had no short-term adverse effects on pregnancy, potential benefits in the neonatal period, but limited long-term follow-up information. Prior to routine use, we recommend further follow-up studies of offspring exposed to metformin in utero. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  5. Micropatterning Facilitates the Long-Term Growth and Analysis of iPSC-Derived Individual Human Neurons and Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbulla, Lena F; Beaumont, Kristin G; Mrksich, Milan; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their application to patient-specific disease models offers new opportunities for studying the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. However, current methods for culturing iPSC-derived neuronal cells result in clustering of neurons, which precludes the analysis of individual neurons and defined neuronal networks. To address this challenge, cultures of human neurons on micropatterned surfaces are developed that promote neuronal survival over extended periods of time. This approach facilitates studies of neuronal development, cellular trafficking, and related mechanisms that require assessment of individual neurons and specific network connections. Importantly, micropatterns support the long-term stability of cultured neurons, which enables time-dependent analysis of cellular processes in living neurons. The approach described in this paper allows mechanistic studies of human neurons, both in terms of normal neuronal development and function, as well as time-dependent pathological processes, and provides a platform for testing of new therapeutics in neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Manage Short-term Flood Events and Long-term Water Needs via Reservoir Operation: A Risk Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.; Hsu, N.; Wei, C.; Cheng, W.

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a methodology to assess the risk of the water shortage during a drought period and the risk of the downstream over-levee flows during a flood period based on the reservoir operation rules for flood control. These rules are defined by upper limits (or flood control storage zone).Through a Monte Carlo simulation, a series of hydrographs are generated to represent the reservoir inflow during a flood period based on historic typhoon events. This series of generated hydrographs are then applied to a reservoir flood operation simulation model. The simulation model calculates the water levels of reservoir at the end of a flood period and the reservoir release during the typhoon the events. Reservoir release is used to calculate the water level at downstream control locations for evaluation of a short-term over-levee risk. The ending water level of the reservoir is used as the initial condition for a water distribution optimization model that evaluates drought conditions for long-term water supply. By applying risk analysis, an assessment is made on the risk of both the water shortage during a drought and over-levee flows during flooding seasons. Based on the results of the risk analysis, we evaluate the relationship among upper-limit sets, shortage risk, and over-levee risk and also provide reservoir operation suggestions based on the risk evaluation.

  7. A systematic review and analysis of long-term outcomes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of treatment and non-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Monica; Hodgkins, Paul; Caci, Hervé; Young, Susan; Kahle, Jennifer; Woods, Alisa G; Arnold, L Eugene

    2012-09-04

    In childhood, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattentiveness/disorganization, hyperactivity/impulsiveness, or a combination thereof. Although the criteria for ADHD are well defined, the long-term consequences in adults and children need to be more comprehensively understood and quantified. We conducted a systematic review evaluating the long-term outcomes (defined as 2 years or more) of ADHD with the goal of identifying long-term outcomes and the impact that any treatment (pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multimodal) has on ADHD long-term outcomes. Studies were identified using predefined search criteria and 12 databases. Studies included were peer-reviewed, primary studies of ADHD long-term outcomes published between January 1980 to December 2010. Inclusion was agreed on by two independent researchers on review of abstracts or full text. Published statistical comparison of outcome results were summarized as poorer than, similar to, or improved versus comparators, and quantified as percentage comparisons of these categories. Outcomes from 351 studies were grouped into 9 major categories: academic, antisocial behavior, driving, non-medicinal drug use/addictive behavior, obesity, occupation, services use, self-esteem, and social function outcomes. The following broad trends emerged: (1) without treatment, people with ADHD had poorer long-term outcomes in all categories compared with people without ADHD, and (2) treatment for ADHD improved long-term outcomes compared with untreated ADHD, although not usually to normal levels. Only English-language papers were searched and databases may have omitted relevant studies. This systematic review provides a synthesis of studies of ADHD long-term outcomes. Current treatments may reduce the negative impact that untreated ADHD has on life functioning, but does not usually 'normalize' the recipients.

  8. A systematic review and analysis of long-term outcomes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of treatment and non-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Monica

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In childhood, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattentiveness/disorganization, hyperactivity/impulsiveness, or a combination thereof. Although the criteria for ADHD are well defined, the long-term consequences in adults and children need to be more comprehensively understood and quantified. We conducted a systematic review evaluating the long-term outcomes (defined as 2 years or more of ADHD with the goal of identifying long-term outcomes and the impact that any treatment (pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multimodal has on ADHD long-term outcomes. Methods Studies were identified using predefined search criteria and 12 databases. Studies included were peer-reviewed, primary studies of ADHD long-term outcomes published between January 1980 to December 2010. Inclusion was agreed on by two independent researchers on review of abstracts or full text. Published statistical comparison of outcome results were summarized as poorer than, similar to, or improved versus comparators, and quantified as percentage comparisons of these categories. Results Outcomes from 351 studies were grouped into 9 major categories: academic, antisocial behavior, driving, non-medicinal drug use/addictive behavior, obesity, occupation, services use, self-esteem, and social function outcomes. The following broad trends emerged: (1 without treatment, people with ADHD had poorer long-term outcomes in all categories compared with people without ADHD, and (2 treatment for ADHD improved long-term outcomes compared with untreated ADHD, although not usually to normal levels. Only English-language papers were searched and databases may have omitted relevant studies. Conclusions This systematic review provides a synthesis of studies of ADHD long-term outcomes. Current treatments may reduce the negative impact that untreated ADHD has on life functioning, but does not usually 'normalize' the

  9. A qualitative analysis of the role of emotions in different patterns of long-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, John Spencer; Zizzi, Sam

    2018-04-04

    To explore participant perspectives of the impact emotions have on weight loss. A qualitative design gathered data through semi-structured interviews with participants in a weight management programme. The interview addresses the following research questions: (1) how do individuals working to lose weight perceive the impact emotions have on their long-term success, and (2) what strategies do more or less successful participants use to regulate their emotions? Researchers conducted and transcribed the interviews then completed content analysis to create and organise themes. Two broad themes emerged through the interviews with 21 participants: emotional impact and emotional regulation. Further subthemes captured emotions blocking action toward goals, strategies for regulating emotions (e.g. exercise, food) and the need for new strategies to regulate emotions. Themes were also split in to three groups based on weight outcomes: regainer, moderate success (3-6% loss) and large success (>7% loss). More successful participants, compared to regainers, shared being aware of the impact of their emotions and made efforts to develop healthy regulation strategies. Emotional awareness and regulation play an important role in participant's weight management experience. Taking time to build emotional awareness and strategies to manage emotions is important to participants in weight management.

  10. Identification of Appropriate Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Long-term Hypoxia-treated Kidney Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Shiva; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Abedi, Maryam; Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hosein; Gheisari, Yousof

    2017-01-01

    Selection of stably expressing housekeeping genes (HKGs) is a crucial step in gene expression analysis. However, there are no universal HKGs for all experiments, and they should be determined by each biologic condition. The aim of this study was to detect appropriate HKGs for kidney cells cultured in long-term hypoxia. Based on a screening step using a microarray data available from gene expression omnibus database, a set of candidate HKGs were chosen to be assessed in human kidney cells cultured in hypoxic or normoxic conditions for about 2 weeks in a time course manner. The stability of gene expression was assessed by refFinder, a web-based tool that integrates four computational programs (geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔΔCt method). GAPDH and ACTB were the most stable genes in hypoxia treated cells whereas, B2M and ACTB were the best HKGs in cells cultured in normoxia. When both hypoxia and normoxia treated cells from all time points were evaluated together, GAPDH and ACTB equally showed the most stability. As in relative quantification of real-time polymerase chain reaction data, the same HKGs should be selected for all groups, we believe that GAPDH and ACTB are suitable HKGs for studies on the effect of hypoxia on cultured kidney cells.

  11. Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Survival Data From Phase II and Phase III Trials of Ipilimumab in Unresectable or Metastatic Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadendorf, Dirk; Hodi, F. Stephen; Robert, Caroline; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Margolin, Kim; Hamid, Omid; Patt, Debra; Chen, Tai-Tsang; Berman, David M.; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide a more precise estimate of long-term survival observed for ipilimumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma, we performed a pooled analysis of overall survival (OS) data from multiple studies. Methods The primary analysis pooled OS data for 1,861 patients from 10 prospective and two retrospective studies of ipilimumab, including two phase III trials. Patients were previously treated (n = 1,257) or treatment naive (n = 604), and the majority of patients received ipilimumab 3 mg/kg (n = 965) or 10 mg/kg (n = 706). We also conducted a secondary analysis of OS data (n = 4,846) with an additional 2,985 patients from an expanded access program. OS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Among 1,861 patients, median OS was 11.4 months (95% CI, 10.7 to 12.1 months), which included 254 patients with at least 3 years of survival follow-up. The survival curve began to plateau around year 3, with follow-up of up to 10 years. Three-year survival rates were 22%, 26%, and 20% for all patients, treatment-naive patients, and previously treated patients, respectively. Including data from the expanded access program, median OS was 9.5 months (95% CI, 9.0 to 10.0 months), with a plateau at 21% in the survival curve beginning around year 3. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the largest analysis of OS to date for ipilimumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma. We observed a plateau in the survival curve, beginning at approximately 3 years, which was independent of prior therapy or ipilimumab dose. These data add to the evidence supporting the durability of long-term survival in ipilimumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:25667295

  12. Digital gene expression analysis in the gills of Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to short- and long-term exposures of ammonia nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Cao, Tengfei; Lv, Jiasen; Wang, Qing; Ji, Chenglong; Li, Chenghua; Zhao, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    Previous study revealed severe toxic effects of ammonia nitrogen on Ruditapes philippinarum including lysosomal instability, disturbed metabolic profiles, gill tissues with damaged structure, and variation of neurotransmitter concentrations. However, the underlying molecular mechanism was not fully understood yet. In the present study, digital gene expression technology (DGE) was applied to globally screen the key genes and pathways involved in the responses to short- and long-term exposures of ammonia nitrogen. Results of DGE analysis indicated that short-term duration of ammonia exposure affected pathways in Dorso-ventral axis formation, Notch signaling, thyroid hormone signaling and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. The long-term exposure led to DEGs significantly enriched in gap junction, immunity, signal and hormone transduction, as well as key substance metabolism pathways. Functional research of significantly changed DEGs suggested that the immunity of R. philippinarum was weakened heavily by toxic effects of ammonia nitrogen, as well as neuro-transduction and metabolism of important substances. Taken together, the present study provides a molecular support for the previous results of the detrimental toxicity of ammonia exposure in R. philippinarum, further work will be performed to investigate the specific genes and their certain functions involved in ammonia toxicity to molluscs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical analysis of modal properties of a cable-stayed bridge through long-term structural health monitoring with wireless smart sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Parisa; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of complex structures such as long-span bridges requires dense deployment of sensors. Traditional wired sensor systems are generally expensive and time-consuming to install due to cabling. With wireless communication and on-board computation capabilities, wireless smart sensor networks have the advantages of being low cost, easy to deploy and maintain and therefore facilitate dense instrumentation for structural health monitoring. A long-term monitoring project was recently carried out for a cable-stayed bridge in South Korea with a dense array of 113 smart sensors, which feature the world's largest wireless smart sensor network for civil structural monitoring. This paper presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of the modal properties including natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the monitored cable-stayed bridge. Data analyzed in this paper is composed of structural vibration signals monitored during a 12-month period under ambient excitations. The correlation between environmental temperature and the modal frequencies is also investigated. The results showed the long-term statistical structural behavior of the bridge, which serves as the basis for Bayesian statistical updating for the numerical model.

  14. Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Young Adults Treated for Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip, Alveolus, and Palate by a Treatment Protocol Including Two-Stage Palatoplasty: Speech Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, Isabelle Francisca Petronella Maria; Bittermann, Dirk; Janssen, Laura; Bittermann, Gerhard Koendert Pieter; Boonacker, Chantal; Haverkamp, Sarah; de Wilde, Hester; Van Der Heul, Marise; Specken, Tom Fjmc; Koole, Ron; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan Cornelis; Mink van der Molen, Aebele Barber

    2017-05-01

    No consensus exists on the optimal treatment protocol for orofacial clefts or the optimal timing of cleft palate closure. This study investigated factors influencing speech outcomes after two-stage palate repair in adults with a non-syndromal complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). This was a retrospective analysis of adult patients with a UCLP who underwent two-stage palate closure and were treated at our tertiary cleft centre. Patients ≥17 years of age were invited for a final speech assessment. Their medical history was obtained from their medical files, and speech outcomes were assessed by a speech pathologist during the follow-up consultation. Forty-eight patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 21 years (standard deviation, 3.4 years). Their mean age at the time of hard and soft palate closure was 3 years and 8.0 months, respectively. In 40% of the patients, a pharyngoplasty was performed. On a 5-point intelligibility scale, 84.4% received a score of 1 or 2; meaning that their speech was intelligible. We observed a significant correlation between intelligibility scores and the incidence of articulation errors (Pspeech assessment, and 11%-17% of the patients exhibited increased nasalance scores, assessed through nasometry. The present study describes long-term speech outcomes after two-stage palatoplasty with hard palate closure at a mean age of 3 years old. We observed moderate long-term intelligibility scores, a relatively high incidence of persistent hypernasality, and a high pharyngoplasty incidence.

  15. [Comparative analysis of a new human cell line 4BL karyotype at long-term cultivation. Ploidy of chromosomal set].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, H R; Huleiuk, N L; Kushniruk, V O; Mykytenko, D O; Iatsyshyna, A P; Lukash, L L

    2013-01-01

    Long-term cultivation of human cells, including stem cells, can lead to substantial transformation of the karyotype and occurrence of genetic instability. The aim of this research was a comparative cytogenetic study of the karyotype of a new human stem cell line 4BL at 160 and 205 passages. The absence of 10 and 13 pairs of chromosomes and the monosomy of chromosomes 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, X were observed; also six regular marker chromosomes were detected. Chromosomes 1, 15 and 21 are involved in translocations t(l;11), t(5;15), t(12; 15), t(16;21). Modal class of the karyotype is within 41-43 chromosomes at both 160 and 205 passages. The frequency of polyploid cells have been increased from 2.8% at 160 passage up to 36% at 205 passage. Cells with a near-haploid karyotype were not detected at 205 passage (in contrast to 24.6% at 160 passages) and a decline of the level of premature separation of chromatids was observed. We assume stabilization of karyotype of the cell line 4BL at 205 passage and consider that further research is needed to predict the direction of karyotypic evolution of these cells in vitro.

  16. Model analysis of check dam impacts on long-term sediment and water budgets in southeast Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Niraula, Rewati

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of check dam infrastructure on soil and water conservation at the catchment scale using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). This paired watershed study includes a watershed treated with over 2000 check dams and a Control watershed which has none, in the West Turkey Creek watershed, Southeast Arizona, USA. SWAT was calibrated for streamflow using discharge documented during the summer of 2013 at the Control site. Model results depict the necessity to eliminate lateral flow from SWAT models of aridland environments, the urgency to standardize geospatial soils data, and the care for which modelers must document altering parameters when presenting findings. Performance was assessed using the percent bias (PBIAS), with values of ±2.34%. The calibrated model was then used to examine the impacts of check dams at the Treated watershed. Approximately 630 tons of sediment is estimated to be stored behind check dams in the Treated watershed over the 3-year simulation, increasing water quality for fish habitat. A minimum precipitation event of 15 mm was necessary to instigate the detachment of soil, sediments, or rock from the study area, which occurred 2% of the time. The resulting watershed model is useful as a predictive framework and decision-support tool to consider long-term impacts of restoration and potential for future restoration.

  17. Vaccinations and malaria prophylaxis for long-term travellers travelling from Greece: a prospective, questionnaire-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Smeti, Paraskevi; Spilioti, Athina; Silvestros, Chrysovalantis; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, questionnaire-based study is to assess pre-travel vaccinations and malaria prophylaxis for long-term travellers who receive pre-travel advice in Greece. A total of 4721 travellers were studied from January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2012. Travellers sought pre-travel advice at a mean of 19.7 days (range: 0-349 days) before departure. Long-term travellers (≥ 1 month) accounted for 2205 (46.7%) of all travellers. Long-term travellers had a mean age of 34.5 years. The majority of them were men (79.8%). In terms of destinations, 84% were visiting malaria-endemic countries and sub-Saharan Africa was the most common destination (17.7%). Most long-term travellers pursued trips for work purposes (70%), visited urban areas (79.6%) and stayed in hotels (29.2%). Yellow fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and tetanus/diphtheria vaccines were administered to 1647 (74.7%), 741 (33.6%), 652 (29.5%), and 589 (26.7%) travellers, respectively. Yellow fever vaccine was administered to 339 (87%) and 132 (71%) of long-term travellers to sub-Saharan Africa and South America respectively, whereas typhoid vaccine to 119 (90.8%) and 330 (84.6%) of those travelling to the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa respectively. Rabies vaccine was administered to 14 (0.6%) of them. Malaria prophylaxis was recommended to 446 (20%) of long-term travellers. Mefloquine was the most commonly (49%) prescribed agent, and was prescribed to 26.7% of long-term travellers to sub-Sahara Africa. In conclusion, this study revealed that recommendations for vaccine and malaria prophylaxis for long-term travellers to developing countries should be more selective, based on the assessment of all travellers' and travel characteristics, in order to provide adequate pre-travel preparation for this high risk group of travellers. More focused studies are suggested in order to understand the particular needs of long-term travellers. Increasing awareness of travellers and travel

  18. When do people with dementia die peacefully? An analysis of data collected prospectively in long-term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Maaike L; van der Steen, Jenny T; Galindo Garre, Francisca; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Deliens, Luc; Francke, Anneke L

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about dying peacefully with dementia in long-term care facilities. Dying peacefully may be influenced by characteristics of the palliative care provided and characteristics of the long-term care setting. If so, dying peacefully may serve as a quality indicator for palliative care in dementia. This study aims to describe whether residents with dementia in Dutch long-term care facilities die peacefully and to assess which characteristics of the resident, the palliative care provided and the facilities are associated with dying peacefully. We analysed existing data from the Dutch End of Life in Dementia study, collected between January 2007 and July 2010 in 34 long-term care facilities in the Netherlands. We used descriptive statistics and Generalised Estimating Equation models. The sample consisted of 233 residents with dementia. Family members indicated that the resident died peacefully in 56% of cases. This percentage ranged from 17% to 80% across facilities. Residents were more likely to die peacefully if they had an optimistic attitude, if family found that there were enough nurses available and if residents died in facilities with a moderate (versus no) perceived influence of religious affiliation on end-of-life decision-making policies. Only half of the residents with dementia in Dutch long-term care facilities die peacefully, as perceived by relatives. In addition to residents' optimistic attitude, facility characteristics are associated with dying peacefully, which suggests that 'the percentage of relatives who indicate that the patient died peacefully' can function as a quality indicator.

  19. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  20. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Reactive Oxygen Species Gene Network in Mizuna Plants Grown in Long-Term Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Gusev, Oleg; Wheeler, Raymond; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Bingham, Gail; Hummerick, Mary; Oono, Youko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yazawa, Takayuki

    We have developed a plant growth system, namely Lada, which was installed in ISS to study and grow plants, including vegetables in a spaceflight environment. We have succeeded in cultivating Mizuna, tomato, pea, radish, wheat, rice, and barley in long-term spaceflight. Transcription levels of superoxide dismutase, glutamyl transferase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were increased in the barley germinated and grown for 26 days in Lada, though the whole-plant growth and development of the barley in spaceflight were the same as in the ground control barley. In this study, we investigated the response of the ROS gene network in Mizuna, Brassica rapa var. nipposinica, cultivated under spaceflight condition. Seeds of Mizuna were sown in the root module of LADA aboard the Zvezda module of ISS and the seedlings were grown under 24h lighting in the leaf chamber. After 27 days of cultivation, the plants were harvested and stored at -80(°) C in MELFI aboard the Destiny module, and were transported to the ground at < -20(°) C in GLACIER aboard Space Shuttle. Ground control cultivation was carried out under the same conditions in LADA. Total RNA isolated from leaves was subjected to mRNA-Seq using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. A total of 20 in 32 ROS oxidative marker genes were up-regulated, including high expression of four hallmarks, and preferentially expressed genes associated with ROS-scavenging including thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, and alternative oxidase genes. In the transcription factors of the ROS gene network, MEKK1-MKK4-MPK3, OXI1-MKK4-MPK3, and OXI1-MPK3 of MAP cascades, induction of WRKY22 by MEKK1-MKK4-MPK3 cascade, induction of WRKY25 and repression of Zat7 by Zat12 were suggested. These results revealed that the spaceflight environment induced oxidative stress and the ROS gene network activation in the space-grown Mizuna.

  1. Long-term outcomes of TOT and TVT procedures for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico; Soligo, Marco; Li Marzi, Vincenzo; Digesu, Alex; Serati, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    One of the most relevant topics in the field of pelvic floor dysfunction treatment is the long-term efficacy of surgical procedures, in particular, the use of prosthesis. Hence, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of midurethral sling (MUS) procedures for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), as reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies. This systematic review is based on material searched and obtained via PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library between January 2000 and October 2016. Peer-reviewed, English-language journal articles evaluating the long-term (≥5 years) efficacy and safety of MUS in women affected by SUI were included. A total of 5,592 articles were found after the search, and excluding duplicate publications, 1,998 articles were available for the review process. Among these studies, 11 RCTs (0.6%) and 5 non-RCTs (0.3%) could be included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. Objective and subjective cumulative cure rates for retropubic technique (TVT) and transobturator tape (TOT; both out-in and in-out) were 61.6% (95% CI: 58.5-64.8%) and 76.5% (95% CI: 73.8-79.2%), and 64.4% (95% CI: 61.4-67.4%) and 81.3% (95% CI: 78.9-83.7%) respectively. When considering TOT using the out-in technique (TOT-OI) and TOT using the in-out technique (TVT-O) the objective and subjective cumulative cure rates were 57.2% (95% CI: 53.7-60.7%) and 81.6% (95% CI: 78.8-84.4%), and 68.8% (95% CI: 64.9-72.7%) and 81.3% (95% CI: 77.9-84.7%) respectively. Furthermore, this article demonstrates that both TVT and TOT are associated with similar long-term objectives (OR: 0.87 [95% CI: 0.49-1.53], I 2  = 67%, p = 0.62) and subjective (OR: 0.84 [95% CI: 0.46-1.55], I 2  = 68%, p = 0.58) cure rates. Similarly, no significant difference has been observed between TTOT-OI and TVT-O) in objective (OR: 3.03 [95% CI: 0.97-9.51], I 2  = 76%, p = 0

  2. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Radioactive analysis of samples from spent fuel leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geckeis, H.; Degering, D.; Goertzen, A.; Geyer, F.W.; Dressler, P.

    1995-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term performance of spent fuel during direct disposal, high burnup fuel (50 MWd/kg U) has been exposed to non-buffered brine solutions and to deionized water under static anaerobic conditions at 25 C. The leaching behaviour of several radionuclides has been observed over periods of approximately 500 d. Currently used radiometric methods (α-, β-, γ-spectrometry) were applied to the analysis of sample solutions. Due to its low specific activity, uranium was determined using ICP-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) or laser induced fluorescence spectrometry (LFS). In order to determine radionuclide concentrations without interferences a preceeding radiochemical separation by ion-exchange, solvent-extraction or extraction chromatography was necessary in most cases. The Sc-isotopes 134/137, which are present in a high excess over other γ-emitting nuclides, were separated using the inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdato phosphate (AMP). This step allowed the subsequent γ-spectrometric determination of Am-241, Ag-110m, Ru-106, Sb-125 and Eu-154/155. Activity concentrations of pure β-emitters like Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129 and Pu-241 were determined by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after selective separation using extraction chromatography or solvent extraction. The actinides Am-241, Cm-242/244, Pu-238/239/240 and Np-237 were analysed by α-spectrometry again after selective separation. The direct analysis of uranium by LFS or ICP-MS was hampered by high salt concentrations. Therefore a separation by extraction chromatography turned out to be necessary, too. The analytical procedures used throughout this work are described in detail. (orig.) [de

  3. Long term measurements of submicrometer urban aerosols: statistical analysis for correlations with meteorological conditions and trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wehner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term measurements (over 4 years of particle number size distributions (submicrometer particles, 3-800 nm in diameter, trace gases (NO, NO2, and O3, and meteorological parameters (global radiation, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, etc. were taken in a moderately polluted site in the city of Leipzig (Germany. The resulting complex data set was analyzed with respect to seasonal, weekly, and diurnal variation of the submicrometer aerosol. Car traffic produced a peak in the number size distribution at around 20 nm particle diameter during morning rush hour on weekdays. A second peak at 10-15 nm particle diameter occurred around noon during summer, confirmed by high correlation between concentration of particles less than 20 nm and the global radiation. This new-particle formation at noon was correlated with the amount of global radiation. A high concentration of accumulation mode particles (between 100 and 800 nm, which are associated with large particle-surface area, might prevent this formation. Such high particle concentration in the ultrafine region (particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter was not detected in the particle mass, and thus, particle mass concentration is not suitable for determining the diurnal patterns of particles. In summer, statistical time series analysis showed a cyclic pattern of ultrafine particles with a period of one day and confirmed the correlation with global radiation. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed a strong correlation between the particle concentration for 20-800 nm particles and the NO- and NO2-concentrations, indicating the influence of combustion processes on this broad size range, in particular during winter. In addition, PCA also revealed that particle concentration depended on meteorological conditions such as wind speed and wind direction, although the dependence differed with particle size class.

  4. Spatio-temporal long-term (1950-2009) temperature trend analysis in North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Jha, Manoj K.; Mekonnen, Ademe

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzed long-term (1950-2009) annual and seasonal time series data of maximum and minimum temperature from 249 uniformly distributed stations across the State of North Carolina, United States. The Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen approach were applied to quantify the significance and magnitude of trend, respectively. A pre-whitening technique was applied to eliminate the effect of lag-1 serial correlation. For most stations over the period of the past 60 years, the difference between minimum and maximum temperatures was found decreasing with an overall increasing trend in the mean temperature. However, significant trends (confidence level ≥ 95 %) in the mean temperature analysis were detected only in 20, 3, 23, and 20 % of the stations in summer, winter, autumn, and spring, respectively. The magnitude of the highest warming trend in minimum temperature and the highest cooling trend in maximum temperature was +0.073 °C/year in the autumn season and -0.12 °C/year in the summer season, respectively. Additional analysis in mean temperature trend was conducted on three regions of North Carolina (mountain, piedmont, and coastal). The results revealed a warming trend for the coastal zone, a cooling trend for the mountain zone, and no distinct trend for the piedmont zone. The Sequential Mann-Kendall test results indicated that the significant increasing trends in minimum temperature and decreasing trend in maximum temperature had begun around 1970 and 1960 (change point), respectively, in most of the stations. Finally, the comparison between mean surface air temperature (SAT) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) concluded that the variability and trend in SAT can be explained partially by the NAO index for North Carolina.

  5. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...... which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...

  6. Comment 2 on workshop in economics - issues in benefit-cost analysis: Amplification channels and discounting long-term environmental damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Many environmental problems have long-term effects. Acid rain has long-term effects on soils, forests, and exposed materials. Global climate change has even longer-term effects. This difference in timing - between the near-term cost of environmental protection and the long-term environmental effects - makes it difficult to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of any program designed to abate environmental damages. The rate at which to discount long-term environmental damages becomes a key question in comparisons of benefits and costs. This comment points out an important facet of the discounting issue. The discount rate for calculating the present value of future environmental benefits may be much lower than the rate of return on investment. Cost-benefit analysis is a framework in which to evaluate policies and decisions. Because global climate change is a complex problem, extensions of cost-benefit theory can be expected to add additional insights, particularly in the following areas: distinguishing distributional effects among nations, over time, and among generations; determining the rate of discount that is appropriate for long-term environmental damages and separating risk aspects from the rate of discount; and assessing amplification effects when policies involve large expenditures relative to the economy or when affected sectors are significant sectors of the economy

  7. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  8. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  9. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  10. Applying of Decision Tree Analysis to Risk Factors Associated with Pressure Ulcers in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Mikyung; Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use decision tree analysis to explore the factors associated with pressure ulcers (PUs) among elderly people admitted to Korean long-term care facilities. The data were extracted from the 2014 National Inpatient Sample (NIS)-data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). A MapReduce-based program was implemented to join and filter 5 tables of the NIS. The outcome predicted by the decision tree model was the prevalence of PUs as defined by the Korean Standard Classification of Disease-7 (KCD-7; code L89 * ). Using R 3.3.1, a decision tree was generated with the finalized 15,856 cases and 830 variables. The decision tree displayed 15 subgroups with 8 variables showing 0.804 accuracy, 0.820 sensitivity, and 0.787 specificity. The most significant primary predictor of PUs was length of stay less than 0.5 day. Other predictors were the presence of an infectious wound dressing, followed by having diagnoses numbering less than 3.5 and the presence of a simple dressing. Among diagnoses, "injuries to the hip and thigh" was the top predictor ranking 5th overall. Total hospital cost exceeding 2,200,000 Korean won (US $2,000) rounded out the top 7. These results support previous studies that showed length of stay, comorbidity, and total hospital cost were associated with PUs. Moreover, wound dressings were commonly used to treat PUs. They also show that machine learning, such as a decision tree, could effectively predict PUs using big data.

  11. [Long term biochemical recurrence free survival after radical prostatectomy for cancer: comparative analysis according to surgical approach and clinicopathological stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, J; Ouzzane, A; Flamand, V; Fantoni, J-C; Puech, P; Leroy, X; Villers, A

    2015-03-01

    To assess long term biochemical recurrence free survival after radical prostatectomy according to open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical approach and clinicopathological stage. A cohort study of 1313 consecutive patients treated by radical prostatectomy for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer between 2000 and 2013. Open surgery (63.7%), laparoscopy (10%) and robot-assisted laparoscopy (26.4%) were performed. Biochemical recurrence was defined by PSA>0,1ng/mL. The biochemical recurrence free survival was described by Kaplan Meier method and prognostic factors were analysed by multivariable Cox regression. Median follow-up was 57 months (IQR: 31-90). Ten years biochemical recurrence free survival was 88.5%, 71.6% and 53.5% respectively for low, intermediate and high-risk D'Amico groups. On multivariable analysis, the worse prognostic factor was Gleason score (P<0.001). Positive surgical margins rate was 53% in pT3 tumours and 24% in pT2 tumours (P<0.001). Biochemical recurrence free survival (P=0.06) and positive surgical margins rate (P=0.87) were not statistically different between the three surgical approaches. Biochemical recurrence free survival in our study does not differ according to surgical approach and is similar to published series. Ten years biochemical recurrence free survival for high-risk tumours without hormone therapy is 54% justifying the role of surgery in the therapeutic conversations in this group of tumours. 3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, F.; Rietman, B.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Brink, van den P.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Jarzembowska, M.; Laurinonyte, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and

  13. Long-Term Effects of Child Death on Parents' Health-Related Quality of Life: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Floyd, Frank J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of child death on bereaved parents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we compared 233 bereaved couples and 229 comparison couples (mean age = 65.11 years) and examined the life course effects of child death on parents' HRQoL. Variations in bereavement…

  14. Barriers to and Facilitators of Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance in Adult UK People: A Thematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Adult obesity and overweight is affecting every region of the world and is described as one of today's most significant and neglected public health problems. The problem has taken the shape of an epidemic not only because the prevalence of obesity has witnessed a dramatic progress in a short period of time, but also because obesity has paved the way for increased risks for morbidity and mortality associated with it. It has been predicted that about half of the adult men and more than a quarter of adult women would be obese by 2030 in the UK and this figure could rise up to 50% in 2050 for whole of the adult UK population. Although a modest 5–10% weight loss maintained in the long term can significantly decrease health risk, few people engage in weight loss activities. Against this background, this review paper aims to investigate the reasons helping and/or hindering adults in the UK maintain weight loss in the long term; using online and organizational data sources and thematically analyzing the data. Self-body perception, enhanced self-confidence, social support, self-motivation, incentives and rewards, increased physical activity levels and healthy eating habits facilitated people in maintaining weight loss in the long term and overall quality of life. Extreme weather conditions, natural phenomena such as accidents, injuries and ill-health, work commitments, inability for time management and to resist the temptation for food constrained the successful long-term weight loss maintenance. PMID:25709786

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of intrauterine adhesions after miscarriage: prevalence, risk factors and long-term reproductive outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooker, A.B.; Lemmers, M.; Thurkow, A.L.; Heijmans, M.W.; Opmeer, B.C.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Mol, B.W.; Huirne, J.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    background: Approximately 15-20% of all clinically confirmed pregnancies end in a miscarriage. Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) are a possible complication after miscarriage, but their prevalence and the contribution of possible risk factors have not been elucidated yet. In addition, the long-term

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of intrauterine adhesions after miscarriage: prevalence, risk factors and long-term reproductive outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooker, Angelo B.; Lemmers, Marike; Thurkow, Andreas L.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Brölmann, Hans A. M.; Mol, Ben W.; Huirne, Judith A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 15-20% of all clinically confirmed pregnancies end in a miscarriage. Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) are a possible complication after miscarriage, but their prevalence and the contribution of possible risk factors have not been elucidated yet. In addition, the long-term reproductive

  17. 75 FR 34530 - Analysis by the President's Working Group on Financial Markets on the Long-Term Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... affect the availability and affordability of terrorism risk insurance in the long-term? Coverage 7. What changes and improvements have taken place with regard to the types of terrorism risk insurance coverage...? 10. What are the differences in availability and affordability of terrorism risk insurance coverage...

  18. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsker, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and has fit initial spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has completed generation of the artificial data that will be used for model development and testing. In order to generate the artificial data a detailed groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed based upon characteristics of the 317/319 site. The model covers a multi-year time horizon that includes both before and after planting of the trees. As described in the proposal, the artificial data is created by adding ''measurement'' error to the ''true'' value from the numerical model. To date, only simple white noise error models have been considered. He is now reviewing the literature and beginning to develop a hierarchical modeling approach for the artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, is implementing learning models for learning users preferences in an interactive genetic algorithm for solving the inverse problem. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has been improving the user interface for the interactive genetic algorithm and preparing a long-term monitoring design problem for testing the approach. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected substantial data from the 317/319 phytoremediation site at Argonne and has begun learning approaches for modeling these data

  19. Preoperative chemoradiation with or without induction oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil in locally advanced rectal cancer. Long-term outcome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F.A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria, Madrid (Spain); Sole, C.V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Radiomedicina, Service of Radiation Oncology, Santiago (Chile); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria, Madrid (Spain); Serrano, J. [Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Valle, E. del; Rodriguez, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery I, Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Calero, A.; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery I, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alfonso, P. [Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Medical Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria, Madrid (Spain); Peligros, I. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pahology, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, E. [Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pahology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    It has been previously reported that a short FOLFOX-4 induction significantly improves pathologic complete response in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation (CRT). In a larger and updated patient series, we analyzed FOLFOX-4 efficacy in terms of sphincter preservation and long-term outcomes. From January 1995 to December 2010, 335 LARC patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiation (4500-5040 cGy). Starting in May 2001, 207 consecutive patients additionally received induction FOLFOX-4. Surgery was performed 6 weeks (range 3-12 weeks) after chemoradiation. Incidence of total tumor (63 vs. 54 %, p = 0.02) and nodal downstaging (60 vs. 43 %, p = 0.002) was significantly increased by induction FOLFOX-4. In an analysis of tumors located below 5 cm from the anal verge (n = 114, 34 %), sphincter preservation was feasible in 30 % in the FOLFOX-4 versus 13 % in the upfront CRT group (p = 0.04). Median follow-up time for the entire cohort of patients was 72.6 months (range 4-205 months). FOLFOX-4 was not associated with superior locoregional control (HR 0.88, p = 0.78), disease-free survival (HR 0.83, p = 0.55), distant metastases-free survival (HR 0.94, p = 0.81), or cancer-specific survival (HR 0.70, p = 0.15). Short-intense induction FOLFOX-4 significantly improves downstaging and sphincter preservation in low rectal tumors. Long-term outcomes were not improved in the FOLFOX-4 group of patients. (orig.) [German] Es wurde bereits berichtet, dass eine kurze FOLFOX-4-Induktion das gesamte pathologische Ansprechen bei Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenem Rektumkarzinom (LARC), die praeoperativ mittels Strahlenchemotherapie (CRT) behandelt wurden, signifikant verbessert. In einer groesseren und aktualisierten Patientengruppe analysierten wir die FOLFOX-4-Wirksamkeit hinsichtlich Sphinktererhalt und Langzeitergebnissen. Von Januar 1995 bis Dezember 2010 wurden 335 LARC-Patienten praeoperativ mit einer

  20. Chemical and Morphological Changes of Primary Teeth Irradiated with Nd:YAG Laser: An Ex Vivo Long-Term Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci Neto, Walter; Lepri, Cesar Penazzo; Faraoni Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; de Castro Raucci, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Bachmann, Luciano; Dibb, Regina Guenka Palma

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess any long-term chemical and morphological Nd:YAG laser modifications on irradiated primary enamel. Previous studies on irradiated primary human enamel employed methodologies that evaluated the short-term effects only. One hundred and eighty-six irradiated (with and/or without fluoride) primary enamel teeth from high-caries-risk children, which were exfoliated over a 1-year period, were collected, and the sample surface area was submitted for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The subsurface was analyzed by Knoop microhardness and light microscopy (LM). Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05) and Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey tests (α=0.05). FTIR analysis revealed a higher concentration of phosphate and carbonate in the irradiated (0.987±0.064) and lower concentration in the control groups (1.477±0.310). SEM analysis showed that the control samples exhibited a slightly smoother surface than the irradiated groups. The EDS analysis did not show any differences in the amount of calcium, phosphorus, or fluoride among the groups. The microhardness analysis revealed that sealant (249.86±7.15) and laser irradiation (262.44±22.69) led to higher hardness values than the negative control group (128.35±25.19). LM indicated significantly reduced caries formation in the laser (5.35±5.38%) and the laser plus acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) groups (10.35±0.88%) compared with the negative control group (72.56±12.86%). Even with the limitations of the present study, these results suggest that Nd:YAG irradiation clinically modified the chemical composition of the enamel surface regardless of fluoride concentration, which successfully inhibited demineralization of primary tooth enamel over a 1-year period without significant morphological changes.

  1. Long-term outcome of one-piece implants. Part I: implant characteristics and loading protocols. A systematic literature review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina-Diez, Jose M; Tashkandi, Esam; Stampf, Susanne; Att, Wael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of one-piece implants. An electronic MEDLINE search complemented by a manual search was conducted to identify randomized and prospective cohort studies on one-piece implants. Additional inclusion criteria were: a mean follow-up period of at least 5 years and an inception cohort where more than 80% of the enrolled patients remained in the study at the 5- or 10-year observation point. Sixty-six studies from an initial yield of 597 titles were selected, and the data were extracted. Of the full-text articles examined, 46 were excluded from the final analysis. A total of 20 articles were finally selected. All studies were published between 1995 and 2011. Two different study designs were included: 4 randomized controlled trials and 16 prospective cohort studies. The studies were analyzed and classified according to the follow-up period, the type of implant surface, the type of edentulism, the type of loading protocol, and the type of setting. The meta-analysis of the included studies showed an implant survival rate for one-piece, one-part implants of 96.79% (95% CI: 94.04% to 98.71%) after 5 years. In one-piece, two-part implants, the survival rate was slightly higher: 98.16% (95% CI: 96.48% to 99.31%) after 5 years and 96.83% (95% CI: 93.12% to 99.24%) after 10 years. Within the limits of this systematic review, it can be concluded that high long-term survival rates can be observed with one-piece implants. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to provide more information about the outcome of different variables associated with one-piece implants.

  2. The long-term efficacy of cryoballoon vs irrigated radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaocheng; Hu, Qiongwen; Zhou, Changyue; Liu, Lin Qiong; Chen, Tong; Liu, Zengzhang; Tang, Xuewen

    2015-02-15

    The main purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the long-term efficacy of cryoballoon ablation (CBA) with irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). The Medline, Cochrane Library and Embase Database were searched for clinical studies published up to October 2014. Studies that fulfilled our predefined inclusion criteria were included. The primary clinical outcome was the proportion of patients free from AF (follow-up≥3months), and the secondary clinical outcomes included acute pulmonary vein (PV) isolated rate, fluoroscopy time, procedure time and complications. After a literature search in the major databases, three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and eight retrospective trials with a total of 1216 patients were identified. Pool-analysis demonstrated that, as compared RFCA, CBA was associated with a similar proportion of patients free from AF at a mean 16.5months follow-up (66.9% vs 65.1%; relative risk [RR]: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.07, P=0.87). Acute PV isolation rate (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.03) and fluoroscopy time (weighted mean difference WMD: -8.60; 95% CI: -18.29 to 3.69) were not statistically significant difference. The procedure time was shorter in CBA group ([WMD]: -31.94; 95% CI: -60.43 to -3.45). Transient phrenic nerve palsy was uniquely observed in the CBA group (5.4%, P<0.00001) and resolved in all during the follow-up period, total complication was similar in both groups (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.85). CBA was as effective as RFCA for the treatment of atrial fibrillation during long-term follow-up with comparable procedural features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Symmetry Stability Following Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction and Contralateral Management in 582 Patients with Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M; Cogliandro, A; Signoretti, M; Persichetti, P

    2018-01-22

    This study aimed to analyse the long-term outcomes following breast reconstruction and contralateral management to evaluate the stability of breast symmetry and patient satisfaction. The study population consisted of women who had undergone implant-based monolateral breast reconstruction and contralateral management. Patients answered the BREAST-Q reconstruction module. Two reviewers analysed the post-operative outcomes of the patients included and compiled the Kroll Scale. Patients were divided into three groups: implant-based contralateral management, breast reduction and mastopexy. The Fisher's exact test was applied to the results. From the BREAST-Q analysis, the group of patients undergoing contralateral breast augmentation achieved significantly better results regarding the ability to wear clothing (p ≪ 0.001), symmetry (p ≪ 0.001), psychosocial well-being (p ≪ 0.001) and physical well-being (p ≪ 0.001). From the analysis of the Kroll Scale, the group of implant-based contralateral management received the highest score for symmetry (p ≪ 0.001), shape (p ≪ 0.001) and aesthetic result overall (p ≪ 0.001). This study was the first to use BREAST-Q to analyse the stability of breast symmetry following breast reconstruction with long-term results. The implant-based contralateral management was the most effective procedure for achieving a stable and lasting result to obtain the high satisfaction of patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm reduces overall mortality in men. A meta-analysis of the mid- and long-term effects of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Norman, P

    2008-01-01

    Four randomised controlled trials of screening older men for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have been completed. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the pooled effects of screening on both mid- and long-term AAA-related and total mortality, and operations for AAA....

  5. Mechanical dyssynchrony evaluated by tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis is associated with long-term survival in patients after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Williams, Eric S; Khouri, Michel G

    2013-01-01

    Aims Pre-implant assessment of longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony using cross-correlation analysis (XCA) was tested for association with long-term survival and compared with other tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived indices. Methods and results In 131 patients referred for cardiac resynchroniz...

  6. Risk of Symptomatic Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Cohort Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M. [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sieswerda, Elske [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dalen, Elvira C. van; Ronckers, Cécile M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of late adverse effects, including stroke. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of clinically validated symptomatic stroke (transient ischemic attack [TIA], cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) and to quantify dose-effect relationships for cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Our single-center study cohort included 1362 survivors of childhood cancer that were diagnosed between 1966 and 1996. Prescribed CRT and SDRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the EQD{sub 2} and stroke. Results: After a median latency time of 24.9 years and at a median age of 31.2 years, 28 survivors had experienced a first stroke: TIA (n=5), infarction (n=13), and ICH (n=10). At an attained age of 45 years, the estimated cumulative incidences, with death as competing risk, among survivors treated with CRT only, SDRT only, both CRT and SDRT, and neither CRT nor SDRT were, respectively, 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-17.0%), 5.4% (95% CI, 0%-17.0%), 12.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-18.9%), and 0.1% (95% CI, 0%-0.4%). Radiation at both locations significantly increased the risk of stroke in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios: HR{sub CRT} 1.02 Gy{sup −1}; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03, and HR{sub SDRT} 1.04 Gy{sup −1}; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05). Conclusions: Childhood cancer survivors treated with CRT, SDRT, or both have a high stroke risk. One in 8 survivors treated at both locations will have experienced a symptomatic stroke at an attained age of 45 years. Further research on the pathophysiologic processes involved in stroke in this specific group of patients is needed to enable the development of tailored secondary prevention strategies.

  7. Risk of Symptomatic Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Cohort Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van; Pal, Helena J.H. van der; Os, Rob M. van; Roos, Yvo B.W.E.M.; Sieswerda, Elske; Dalen, Elvira C. van; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Caron, Huib N.; Koning, Caro C.E.; Kremer, Leontien C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of late adverse effects, including stroke. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of clinically validated symptomatic stroke (transient ischemic attack [TIA], cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) and to quantify dose-effect relationships for cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy (SDRT). Methods and Materials: Our single-center study cohort included 1362 survivors of childhood cancer that were diagnosed between 1966 and 1996. Prescribed CRT and SDRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ). Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationship between the EQD 2 and stroke. Results: After a median latency time of 24.9 years and at a median age of 31.2 years, 28 survivors had experienced a first stroke: TIA (n=5), infarction (n=13), and ICH (n=10). At an attained age of 45 years, the estimated cumulative incidences, with death as competing risk, among survivors treated with CRT only, SDRT only, both CRT and SDRT, and neither CRT nor SDRT were, respectively, 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5%-17.0%), 5.4% (95% CI, 0%-17.0%), 12.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-18.9%), and 0.1% (95% CI, 0%-0.4%). Radiation at both locations significantly increased the risk of stroke in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios: HR CRT 1.02 Gy −1 ; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03, and HR SDRT 1.04 Gy −1 ; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05). Conclusions: Childhood cancer survivors treated with CRT, SDRT, or both have a high stroke risk. One in 8 survivors treated at both locations will have experienced a symptomatic stroke at an attained age of 45 years. Further research on the pathophysiologic processes involved in stroke in this specific group of patients is needed to enable the development of tailored secondary prevention strategies.

  8. Psychometric analysis of common mental disorders -- Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of the present study for Common Mental Disorders - Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: It is validity tested in a well-defined Danish population comprising all persons on continuous sickness absence just exceeding eight weeks. CMD-SQ is composed of SCL-SOM (somatization), Whiteley-7 (illness worry...... and conviction), SCL-ANX4 (anxiety), SCL-DEP6 (depression), SCL-8 (emotional disorder), and CAGE (alcohol dependency). RESULTS: Of 2,414 incident persons on long-term sickness absence within one year, 1,121 participated in the study by filling in CMD-SQ and a subsample of 337 was diagnosed by a psychiatric......AIMS: Mental disorders often go undetected in primary care, for persons awarded disability pension, and in sick-leave certificates. No validity tests of instruments for detection and measurement of mental disorders have been performed in long-term sickness absence (LSA). This is the aim...

  9. Automated analysis of long-term grooming behavior in Drosophila using a k-nearest neighbors classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria W; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi

    2018-01-01

    Despite being pervasive, the control of programmed grooming is poorly understood. We addressed this gap by developing a high-throughput platform that allows long-term detection of grooming in Drosophila melanogaster. In our method, a k-nearest neighbors algorithm automatically classifies fly behavior and finds grooming events with over 90% accuracy in diverse genotypes. Our data show that flies spend ~13% of their waking time grooming, driven largely by two major internal programs. One of these programs regulates the timing of grooming and involves the core circadian clock components cycle, clock, and period. The second program regulates the duration of grooming and, while dependent on cycle and clock, appears to be independent of period. This emerging dual control model in which one program controls timing and another controls duration, resembles the two-process regulatory model of sleep. Together, our quantitative approach presents the opportunity for further dissection of mechanisms controlling long-term grooming in Drosophila. PMID:29485401

  10. Survival analysis of increases in care needs associated with dementia and living alone among older long-term care service users in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Ru; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2017-08-15

    Japan is known for its long life expectancy and rapidly aging society that there are various demands of older adults need to be fulfilled with, and one of them is long-term care needs. Therefore, Japan implemented the Long-Term Care Insurance in year 2000 for citizens who are above 65-year old and citizens who are above 40-year old in needs of long-term care services. This study was undertaken to longitudinally examine the influence of dementia and living alone on care needs increases among older long-term care insurance service users in Japan. Long-term care insurance claims data were used to identify enrollees who applied for long-term care services between October 2010 and September 2011, and subjects were tracked until March 2015. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted to examine increases in care needs over time in months. Cox regression models were used to examine the effects of dementia and living alone on care needs increases. The cumulative survival rates before care needs increased over the 4.5-year observation period were 17.6% in the dementia group and 31.9% in the non-dementia group. After adjusting for age, sex, care needs level, and status of living alone, the risk of care needs increases was found to be 1.5 times higher in the dementia group. Living alone was not a significant risk factor of care needs increases, but people with dementia who lived alone had a higher risk of care needs increases than those without dementia. Dementia, older age, the female sex, and lower care needs levels were associated with a higher risk of care needs increases over the study period. Among these variables, dementia had the strongest impact on care needs increases, especially in persons who lived alone.

  11. A prospective analysis of long-term quality of life after permanent I-125 brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, Dan; Bottomley, David; Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Carey, Brendan; Gould, Kath; Henry, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To prospectively evaluate long-term urinary, bowel and sexual function after I-125 brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer using patient administered validated Quality of Life (QoL) instruments. Materials and methods: Between March 1995 and March 2004, 673 men underwent brachytherapy and recorded urinary symptoms prospectively using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). In addition, in a subgroup of 116 patients, the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) was used to record QoL information on urinary, bowel and sexual function before treatment and at regular time intervals for at least two years. Results: Initially, there was a sharp rise in urinary symptoms which was most marked within the first three months. Scores then resolved slowly and returned to within one or two units of pre-treatment level at one year. Subsequently, there was no significant deterioration in urinary symptoms up to nine years following brachytherapy. Few had significant bowel symptoms. Sexual function deteriorated initially and then improved but failed to return to pre-treatment levels by two years. Patients requiring neo-adjuvant hormones experienced significantly more dysfunction. Conclusions: After an initial period of mild to moderate urinary symptoms prostate brachytherapy is well tolerated with relatively little deterioration in long-term quality of life. Long-term reduction in sexual function may be seen particularly in those requiring hormones

  12. Model-Based Analysis of the Long-Term Effects of Fertilization Management on Cropland Soil Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mufan; de Vries, Wim; Bonten, Luc T C; Zhu, Qichao; Hao, Tianxiang; Liu, Xuejun; Xu, Minggang; Shi, Xiaojun; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2017-04-04

    Agricultural soil acidification in China is known to be caused by the over-application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, but the long-term impacts of different fertilization practices on intensive cropland soil acidification are largely unknown. Here, we further developed the soil acidification model VSD+ for intensive agricultural systems and validated it against observed data from three long-term fertilization experiments in China. The model simulated well the changes in soil pH and base saturation over the last 20 years. The validated model was adopted to quantify the contribution of N and base cation (BC) fluxes to soil acidification. The net NO 3 - leaching and NO 4 + input accounted for 80% of the proton production under N application, whereas one-third of acid was produced by BC uptake when N was not applied. The simulated long-term (1990-2050) effects of different fertilizations on soil acidification showed that balanced N application combined with manure application avoids reduction of both soil pH and base saturation, while application of calcium nitrate and liming increases these two soil properties. Reducing NH 4 + input and NO 3 - leaching by optimizing N management and increasing BC inputs by manure application thus already seem to be effective approaches to mitigating soil acidification in intensive cropland systems.

  13. Peritonitis before Peritoneal Dialysis Training: Analysis of Causative Organisms, Clinical Outcomes, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; Chow, Kai Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Pang, Wing Fai; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Peritonitis before peritoneal dialysis (PD) training (pretraining peritonitis [PTP]) is an uncommon event. The study aim was to examine the causative organisms, clinical outcomes, risk factors, and long-term consequences of PTP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single–center, retrospective, observational study involving all incident patients on PD who developed PTP between 1998 and 2012, we examined the causative organisms, primary response rate, complete cure rate, risk factors, and associations of PTP with peritoneal equilibration test (PET) and patient survival. For each patient in the PTP group, the patients who underwent catheter insertion immediately before and after the index case were identified as controls. Results Among 1252 incident patients on PD, 52 (4.2%) patients developed PTP, and 104 patients were identified as controls. The two groups were similar in age, sex distribution, comorbidities, and residual renal function, but the PTP group had significantly lower hemoglobin and serum albumin. Patients were followed up for a median of 37.5 months (interquartile range [IQR], 16.3–62.2 months). The most common causative organisms of PTP were Staphylococcus aureus (30.8%) and polymicrobial (21.2%); 25% had negative growth. The primary response and complete cure rates were 82.7% and 78.8%, respectively. In the PTP group, 7.7% of patients died, 9.6% of patients required catheter removal, and PD training was significantly delayed (median =42.0; IQR, 26.0–65.8 days versus 27.5; IQR, 23.0–35.0 days; P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum albumin was the only predictor of PTP (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 per 1-g/dl increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.97). There were no differences in PET results and dialysis adequacy (measured around 1 month after PD training). The PTP group had significantly worse patient survival (median =41.2; IQR, 21.8–60.5 months versus 55.8; IQR

  14. Long-Term Safety of Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stents: Evidence From a Comprehensive Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerini, Tullio; Benedetto, Umberto; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Della Riva, Diego; Bacchi-Reggiani, Letizia; Smits, Pieter C; Vlachojannis, Georgios J; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Christiansen, Evald H; Berencsi, Klára; Valgimigli, Marco; Orlandi, Carlotta; Petrou, Mario; Rapezzi, Claudio; Stone, Gregg W

    2015-06-16

    Previous meta-analyses have investigated the relative safety and efficacy profiles of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS); however, most prior trials in these meta-analyses reported follow-up to only 1 year, and as such, the relative long-term safety and efficacy of these devices are unknown. Many recent studies have now reported extended follow-up data. This study sought to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of durable polymer-based DES, bioabsorbable polymer-based biolimus-eluting stents (BES), and BMS by means of network meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials comparing DES to each other or to BMS were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and proceedings of international meetings. Information on study design, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample characteristics, and clinical outcomes was extracted. Fifty-one trials that included a total of 52,158 randomized patients with follow-up duration ≥3 years were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 3.8 years, cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (EES) were associated with lower rates of mortality, definite stent thrombosis (ST), and myocardial infarction than BMS, paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and less ST than BES. Phosphorylcholine-based zotarolimus-eluting stents had lower rates of definite ST than SES and lower rates of myocardial infarction than BMS and PES. The late rates of target-vessel revascularization were reduced with all DES compared with BMS, with cobalt-chromium EES, platinum chromium-EES, SES, and BES also having lower target-vessel revascularization rates than PES. After a median follow-up of 3.8 years, all DES demonstrated superior efficacy compared with BMS. Among DES, second-generation devices have substantially improved long-term safety and efficacy outcomes compared with first-generation devices. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  15. Long-term data archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  16. Long-term meteorologically independent trend analysis of ozone air quality at an urban site in the greater Houston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botlaguduru, Venkata S V; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Huque, Ziaul

    2018-04-19

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas has a history of ozone exceedances and is currently classified under moderate nonattainment status for the 2008 8-hr ozone standard of 75 ppb. The HGB area is characterized by intense solar radiation, high temperature, and humidity, which influence day-to-day variations in ozone concentrations. Long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influence need to be constructed for ascertaining the effectiveness of air quality management in this area. The Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter technique used to separate different scales of motion in a time series, is applied in the current study for maximum daily 8-hr (MDA8) ozone concentrations at an urban site (EPA AQS Site ID: 48-201-0024, Aldine) in the HGB area. This site located within 10 miles of downtown Houston and the George Bush Intercontinental Airport, was selected for developing long-term meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone trends for the years 1990-2016. Results from this study indicate a consistent decrease in meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone between 2000-2016. This pattern could be partially attributed to a reduction in underlying NO X emissions, particularly that of lowering nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels, and a decrease in the release of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC). Results also suggest solar radiation to be most strongly correlated to ozone, with temperature being the secondary meteorological control variable. Relative humidity and wind speed have tertiary influence at this site. This study observed that meteorological variability accounts for a high of 61% variability in baseline ozone (low-frequency component, sum of long-term and seasonal components), while 64% of the change in long-term MDA8 ozone post-2000 could be attributed to NO X emissions reduction. Long-term MDA8 ozone trend component was estimated to be decreasing at a linear rate of 0.412 ± 0.007 ppb/yr for the years 2000-2016, and 0.155

  17. Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Deirdre K; Chen, Mu; Manson, JoAnn E; Ludwig, David S; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of low-fat diets for long-term weight loss has been debated for decades, with many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and recent reviews giving mixed results. We aimed to summarise the large body of evidence from RCTs to determine whether low-fat diets contribute to greater weight loss than participants' usual diet, low-carbohydrate diets, and other higher-fat dietary interventions. We did a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of RCTs comparing the long-term effect (≥1 year) of low-fat and higher-fat dietary interventions on weight loss by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify eligible trials published from database inception up until July 31, 2014. We excluded trials if one intervention group included a non-dietary weight loss component but the other did not, and trials of dietary supplements or meal replacement drink interventions. Data including the main outcome measure of mean difference in weight change between interventions, and whether interventions were intended to lead to weight loss, weight maintenance, or neither, were extracted from published reports. We estimated the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with a DerSimonian and Laird random effects method. 3517 citations were identified by the search and 53 studies met our inclusion criteria, including 68 128 participants (69 comparisons). In weight loss trials, low-carbohydrate interventions led to significantly greater weight loss than did low-fat interventions (18 comparisons; WMD 1·15 kg [95% CI 0·52 to 1·79]; I(2)=10%). Low-fat interventions did not lead to differences in weight change compared with other higher-fat weight loss interventions (19 comparisons; WMD 0·36 kg [-0·66 to 1·37; I(2)=82%), and led to a greater weight decrease only when compared with a usual diet (eight comparisons; -5·41 kg [-7·29 to -3·54]; I(2)=68%). Similarly, results of non

  18. Long-term effect on symptoms and quality of life of maintenance therapy with esomeprazole 20 mg daily: a post hoc analysis of the LOTUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Lars; Hatlebakk, Jan; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Attwood, Stephen E; Ell, Christian; Fiocca, Roberto; Persson, Tore; Nagy, Péter; Eklund, Stefan; Lind, Tore

    2015-01-01

    To assess the long-term effect on symptoms and quality of life of esomeprazole 20 mg once daily, a recommended dose for maintenance therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a post hoc analysis of 5 year data from patients in the LOTUS trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00251927) who were randomized to esomeprazole 20 mg once daily. All participants had chronic, symptomatic GERD responsive to treatment. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by physicians and by using patient-reported outcome instruments. Investigations included gastrointestinal endoscopy (with biopsy sampling), 24 hour esophageal pH monitoring and laboratory measurements. In total, 157 of 256 patients randomized to esomeprazole 20 mg once daily remained on this dose until the end of follow-up or study discontinuation, whereas 99 patients had their dose increased because of inadequate symptom control (of these, 29 subsequently returned to the allocated dose). On logistic regression, a long objectively defined GERD history, smoking, female sex, absence of Helicobacter pylori infection and high supine baseline acid reflux into the esophagus were associated with an increased likelihood of requiring dose escalation to esomeprazole 40 mg daily (all p esomeprazole 20 mg once daily, with no more than mild symptom severity, and mean (standard deviation) percentage time with intraesophageal pH Esomeprazole at a maintenance dose of 20 mg once daily offers effective long-term treatment for chronic GERD in patients initially responsive to the medication, with durable symptom control and sustained reductions in intraesophageal acid exposure.

  19. Target and non-target analysis of migrants from PVC-coated cans using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS: evaluation of long-term migration testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavikova, Marta; Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Vaclavik, Lukas; Noonan, Gregory O; DeVries, Jonathan; Begley, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method for analyzing multi-target and non-target additives in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food can coatings using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbital ion-trap mass spectrometry was developed. This procedure was used to study the behaviour of a cross-linking agent, benzoguanamine (BGA), two slip agents, oleamide and erucamide, and 18 other commonly used plasticisers including phthalates, adipates, sebacates, acetyl tributyl citrate and epoxidised soybean or linseed oils. This optimised method was used to detect these analytes in food simulants (water and 3% acetic acid) in a long-term migration test of PVC-coated food cans for a period ranging from 1 day to 1.5 years at 40°C. Although very low detection limits (5 ng ml(-1)) were obtained for the majority of compounds, none of the monitored plasticisers and slip agents was detected in simulants extracted from cans over the period of the test. However, the presence of BGA in both aqueous food simulants was confirmed based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, product ion spectra and analysis of a reference standard. The BGA concentration in both simulants continued to increase with storage time: after 1.5 years storage in aqueous food simulants at 40°C, BGA was detected at concentrations up to 84 µg dm(-2). We believe this is the first study describing the long-term migration capacity of BGA from any vinyl coating material intended for use in PVC-coated food cans. Our results may have implications for migration test protocols for food cans that will be stored for extended time periods.

  20. Effect of educational and support interventions on long-term breastfeeding rates in primiparous women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meedya, Shahla; Fernandez, Ritin; Fahy, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Long-term breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for six months and continuation of breastfeeding with complementary food until two years of age, has been recommended by the World Health Organization. However, despite the clear benefits of long-term breastfeeding (six months and beyond), the rates of breastfeeding still continue to remain low. Although there are some individual interventional studies that aimed to increase prolonged breastfeeding rates among both multiparous and primiparous women, there is no systematic review or meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of those interventions among primiparous women who had no previous breastfeeding experience. The aim of this review was to identify the effects of professional educational and support interventions on breastfeeding rates at six months and up to two years postpartum compared to the standard care among primiparous women. Studies that included primiparous women aged 18 and over who intended to breastfeed. Studies that investigated the effect of educational and support interventions provided by health professionals during the antenatal, postnatal period or both. Randomized controlled trials. Studies with reported breastfeeding rates at six months or up to two years postpartum. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The search was conducted in Cochrane, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Only trials that met the inclusion criteria and published in English were considered for this review. Databases were searched from their commencement year to May 2016. Two independent reviewers selected the papers using the standardized critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data was extracted using the standardized Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction instrument. Quantitative data were, where possible, pooled in statistical meta-analysis using RevMan v5.3 (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane). In the absence of trials comparing the same outcomes, meta-analysis

  1. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  2. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  3. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  4. Long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K A; Kintsch, W

    1995-04-01

    To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary storage must be extended to include working memory based on storage in long-term memory. In the proposed theoretical framework cognitive processes are viewed as a sequence of stable states representing end products of processing. In skilled activities, acquired memory skills allow these end products to be stored in long-term memory and kept directly accessible by means of retrieval cues in short-term memory, as proposed by skilled memory theory. These theoretical claims are supported by a review of evidence on memory in text comprehension and expert performance in such domains as mental calculation, medical diagnosis, and chess.

  5. Analysis of the Syrian long-term energy and electricity demand projection using the end-use methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Seif-Eldin, M.K.; Almoustafa, S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the possible future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand covering the period 1999-2030 is presented. The analysis was conducted using the IAEA's model MAED, which relies upon the end-use approach. This model has been validated during the last two decades through the successful application in many developing countries, even those having partial market economy and energy subsidy. Starting from the base year, final energy consumption distributed by energy forms and consumption sectors, the future energy and electricity demand has been projected according to three different scenarios reflecting the possible future demographic, socio-economic and technological development of the country. These scenarios are constructed to cover a plausible range, in which future evolution factors affecting energy demand are expected to lie. The first is a high economy scenario (HS) representing the reference case, which is characterized by high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate (average annual about 6%) and moderate improved technologies in the various consumption sectors. The second is an energy efficiency scenario (ES), which is identical to HS in all main parameters except these relating to the efficiency improvement and conservation measures. Here, high technology improvement and more effective conservation measures in all consumption sectors are proposed and the role of solar to substitute fossil energy for heating purposes is considered effectively. The third is a low economy scenario (LS) with low GDP growth rate (average annual about 3.5%) and less technology improvement in the consumption sectors. As a consequence, the improvement in the energy efficiency is low and the influence of conservation measures is less effective. Starting from about 10.5mtoe final energy in the base year, the analysis shows that the projected energy demand will grow annually at average rates of 5%, 4.5% and 3% for the HS, ES and LS

  6. Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Micek, Agnieszka; Pajak, Andrzej; Sciacca, Salvatore; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. PMID:28817085

  7. Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.

  8. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L Bourbonnais

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife

  9. Long-term results of laparoscopy-assisted radical right hemicolectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy: clinical analysis with 177 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ding-Pei; Lu, Ai-Guo; Feng, Hao; Wang, Pu-Xiong-Zhi; Cao, Qi-Feng; Zong, Ya-Ping; Feng, Bo; Zheng, Min-Hua

    2013-05-01

    To study the feasibility, safety, and short-/long-term outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted right hemicolectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy for colon cancer. The clinical data of 177 cases that underwent laparoscopy-assisted radical right hemicolectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy for colon cancer between Jun 2003 and Sep 2010 was collected; the safety of operation, status of recovery, complication, oncological outcomes, and results of short-/long-term follow-up were analyzed. No case died in this study; five cases (2.82 %) were converted to open surgery. Four cases (2.26 %) underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. The average operation time was 133 ± 36 min, and the blood loss was 94 ± 34 ml. The average time for passage of flatus, liquid food eating, and hospitalization were 2.1 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.5, and 10.4 ± 2.7 day, respectively. The total number of lymph nodes removed was 15.2 ± 10.1. Postoperative complications were observed in 23 of 177 patients (12.99 %). The median follow-up period was 54 months; port-site recurrence was observed in one patient; local recurrence was found in five cases (2.82 %); distant metastasis was found in 21 cases (11.86 %). The cumulative overall survival of all stages at 12, 36, 60, and 72 months was 97.18 %, 83.73 %, 70.37 %, and 68.99 %, respectively. The cancer-specific survival was 98.73 % (12 months), 87.81 % (36 months), and 80.17 % (60 months). Laparoscopy-assisted right hemicolectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy can be successfully performed for right colon cancer with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. Moreover, the results implied appropriate short- and long-term outcomes.

  10. Long-term outcomes of different ablation strategies for ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, David F; Romero, Jorge; Villablanca, Pedro A; Londoño, Alejandra; Diaz, Juan C; Maraj, Ilir; Batul, Syeda Atiqa; Madan, Nidhi; Patel, Jignesh; Jagannath, Anand; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Prasant; Gianni, Carola; Della Rocca, Domenico; Sabri, Ahlam; Kim, Soo G; Natale, Andrea; Di Biase, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    To compare the long-term outcomes of standard ablation of stable ventricular tachycardia (VT) vs. substrate modification, and of complete vs. incomplete substrate modification in patients with structural heart disease (SHD) presenting with VT. An electronic search was performed using major databases. The main outcomes were a composite of long-term ventricular arrhythmia (VA) recurrence and all-cause mortality of standard ablation of stable VT vs. substrate modification, and long-term VA recurrence in complete vs. incomplete substrate modification. Six studies were included for the comparison of standard ablation of stable VT vs. substrate modification, with a total of 396 patients (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 87% males), and seven studies were included to assess the impact of extensive substrate modification, with a total of 391 patients (mean age 64 ± years, 90% males). More than 70% of all the patients included had ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Substrate modification was associated with decreased composite VA recurrence/all-cause mortality compared to standard ablation of stable VTs [risk ratio (RR) 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.81]. Complete substrate modification was associated with decreased VA recurrence as compared to incomplete substrate modification (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27-0.58). In patients with SHD who had VT related mainly to ischaemic substrates, there was a significantly lower risk of the composite primary outcome of long-term VA recurrence and all-cause mortality among those undergoing substrate modification compared to standard ablation. Long-term success is improved when performing complete substrate modification. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure in Spanish continental climate conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre Bergés, Santiago; Kichou, Sofiane; Guglielminotti, Letizia; Nofuentes Garrido, Gustavo; Alonso Abella, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the degradation of thin film photovoltaic modules corresponding to four technologies: a-Si:H, a-Si:H/µc-Si:H, CIS and CdTe, under 5 years of outdoor long term exposure in Leganés, Spain. The period of outdoor exposure ranges from January 2011 to December 2015. The degradation rate and the stabilization period are analysed by using two different techniques. Moreover, the evolution of the fill factor and performance ratio is assessed. The CdTe module was found to hav...

  12. Psychometric analysis of common mental disorders -- Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Mental disorders often go undetected in primary care, for persons awarded disability pension, and in sick-leave certificates. No validity tests of instruments for detection and measurement of mental disorders have been performed in long-term sickness absence (LSA). This is the aim...... of the present study for Common Mental Disorders - Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ). METHODS: It is validity tested in a well-defined Danish population comprising all persons on continuous sickness absence just exceeding eight weeks. CMD-SQ is composed of SCL-SOM (somatization), Whiteley-7 (illness worry...

  13. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Doi

    Full Text Available Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1 trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2 the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  14. The effect of hospital mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees: a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjekshus, Lars Erik; Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Dahl, Espen; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2014-02-03

    Hospitals are merging to become more cost-effective. Mergers are often complex and difficult processes with variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence among hospital employees. Long-term sickness absence was analyzed among hospital employees (N = 107 209) in 57 hospitals involved in 23 mergers in Norway between 2000 and 2009. Variation in long-term sickness absence was explained through a fixed effects multivariate regression analysis using panel data with years-since-merger as the independent variable. We found a significant but modest effect of mergers on long-term sickness absence in the year of the merger, and in years 2, 3 and 4; analyzed by gender there was a significant effect for women, also for these years, but only in year 4 for men. However, men are less represented among the hospital workforce; this could explain the lack of significance. Mergers has a significant effect on employee health that should be taken into consideration when deciding to merge hospitals. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing the effects of mergers over several years and the need for more detailed analyses of merger processes and of the changes that may occur as a result of such mergers.

  15. Numerical analysis for long-term stability of disposal facility considering thermal and hydraulic effect. Uncoupled analysis for long-term deformation of rock and buffer material and for transport of heat and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsumi; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2004-01-01

    For the early realization of HLW geological repository and for its rational and economical design and safety assessment, it is important to evaluate the stability of repository facilities in deep underground, where high temperature, earth pressure and underground water flow affect the stability. This report discusses the numerical approaches that are useful for attaining these objectives. One of the efficient approaches is to develop models capable of simulating coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes. Several T-H-M coupled simulation codes have been proposed and the international cooperative research project DECOVALEX has been held from 1991 in order to develop and validate the T-H-M coupled simulations. But mechanical models adopted in these simulation codes are too simple to be applied to the evaluation of long-term interaction of materials that show nonlinear mechanical behavior (especially in the case that surrounding rock is soft sedimentary rock). Before simulating the long-term and coupled phenomena, uncoupled simulations for four phenomena (creep behavior of surrounding rock mass, consolidation and deformation behavior of buffer material, transport of water, and transport of heat) are conducted using various parameters and boundary condition sets. From the results of those simulations, following conclusions are obtained: (1) swelling property of buffer material is important to evaluate mechanical behavior of barrier materials, (2) hydraulic properties of natural barrier can be more important than that of buffer material because suction effect of buffer material is so strong that transport of water in the buffer material is fast, (3) change of thermal properties and filling of gaps caused by water saturation of buffer material have a strong effect on the temperature field. On the next stage, we will develop a T-H-M coupled simulation code to evaluate the mechanical interaction between barrier materials based on the above study. (author)

  16. Assessment of impact of climate change on water resources: a long term analysis of the Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. McBean

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the threshold of the appearance of global warming from theory to reality, extensive research has focused on predicting the impact of potential climate change on water resources using results from Global Circulation Models (GCMs. This research carries this further by statistical analyses of long term meteorological and hydrological data. Seventy years of historical trends in precipitation, temperature, and streamflows in the Great Lakes of North America are developed using long term regression analyses and Mann-Kendall statistics. The results generated by the two statistical procedures are in agreement and demonstrate that many of these variables are experiencing statistically significant increases over a seven-decade period. The trend lines of streamflows in the three rivers of St. Clair, Niagara and St. Lawrence, and precipitation levels over four of the five Great Lakes, show statistically significant increases in flows and precipitation. Further, precipitation rates as predicted using fitted regression lines are compared with scenarios from GCMs and demonstrate similar forecast predictions for Lake Superior. Trend projections from historical data are higher than GCM predictions for Lakes Michigan/Huron. Significant variability in predictions, as developed from alternative GCMs, is noted.

    Given the general agreement as derived from very different procedures, predictions extrapolated from historical trends and from GCMs, there is evidence that hydrologic changes particularly for the precipitation in the Great Lakes Basin may be demonstrating influences arising from global warming and climate change.

  17. Measurement of long-term land subsidence by combination of InSAR and time series analysis - Application study to Kanto Plains of Japan -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T.; Rokugawa, S.; Matsushima, J.

    2009-04-01

    InSAR is an application technique of synthetic aperture radars and is now drawing attention as a methodology capable of measuring subtle surface deformation over a wide area with a high spatial resolution. In this study, the authors applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by combining InSAR and time series analysis to Kanto Plains of Japan using 28 images of ENVISAT/ASAR data. In this measuring method, the value of land deformation is set as an unknown parameter and the optimal solution to the land deformation amount is derived by applying a smoothness-constrained inversion algorithm. The vicinity of the Kanto Plain started to subside in the 1910s, and became exposed to extreme land subsidence supposedly in accordance with the reconstruction efforts after the Second World War and the economic development activities. The main causes of the land subsidence include the intake of underground water for the use in industries, agriculture, waterworks, and other fields. In the Kujukuri area, the exploitation of soluble natural gas also counts. The Ministry of Environment reported in its documents created in fiscal 2006 that a total of 214 km2 in Tokyo and the six prefectures around the Plain had undergone a subsidence of 1 cm or more per a year. As a result of long-term land subsidence over approximately five and a half years from 13th January, 2003, to 30th June, 2008, unambiguous land deformation was detected in six areas: (i) Haneda Airport, (ii) Urayasu City, (iii) Kasukabe-Koshigaya, (iv) Southern Kanagawa, (v) Toride-Ryugasaki, and (vi) Kujukuri in Chiba Prefecture. In particular, the results for the Kujukuri area were compared with the leveling data taken around the same area to verify the measuring accuracy. The comparative study revealed that the regression formula between the results obtained by time series analysis and those by the leveling can be expressed as a straight line with a gradient of approximately 1, though including a bias of about

  18. Long-term and midterm outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoar, Saeed; Saber, Alan A

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare midterm and long-term weight loss and resolution of co-morbidity with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). LRYGB and LSG are the most common procedures performed in bariatric surgery. However, their weight loss efficacy in the midterm and long-term has not been well compared. A meta-analysis was performed by systematically identifying comparative studies conducted until the end of June 2016 that investigated weight loss outcome and resolution of co-morbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obstructive sleep apnea) with LRYGB and LSG in the midterm (3-5 years) and long term (≥5 years). The primary endpoint was weight loss after LRYGB versus LSG. The secondary endpoint was resolution of co-morbidities after these procedures. Fourteen studies comprising 5264 patients were eligible. Follow-up ranged from 36 months to 75.8±8.4 months. The pooled result for weight loss outcomes did not show any significant difference in midterm weight loss (standardized mean difference = -0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.38-.33; P = .88) but a significant difference in the long-term weight loss outcome favoring LRYGB (standardized mean difference = .17; 95% CI, .05-.28; P= .005). The pooled results demonstrated no significant difference for resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Despite the insignificant difference between LRYGB and LSG in midterm weight loss, LRYGB produced better weight loss in the long-term. There was no significant difference between the 2 procedures for co-morbidity resolution. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reorganization increases long-term sickness absence at all levels of hospital staff: panel data analysis of employees of Norwegian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelsrud, Mari H

    2014-09-19

    The Norwegian specialist health service has undergone many processes of reorganization during the last three decades. Changes are mainly initiated to increase the efficiency and quality of health care serving an ageing population under the condition of a diminishing labour supply. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of reorganization on long-term sickness absence among different levels of hospital staff. The study draws on panel data on employees of Norwegian public hospitals in 2005 and 2007 (N = 106,715). National register data on individual employees' days of medically certified long-term (>16 days) sickness absence were linked with survey measures of actual reorganization executed at each hospital in each year. The surveys, answered by hospital administration staff, measured five types of reorganization: merging units, splitting up units, creating new units, shutting down units and reallocation of employees. The variation in sickness absence days was analysed using random and fixed effects Poisson regression with level of reorganization as the main explanatory variable. The fixed effects analysis shows that increasing the degree of organizational change at a hospital from a low to a moderate or high degree leads to an increase in the number of days of long-term sickness absence of respectively 9% (95% CI: 1.03-1.15) and 8% (95% CI: 1.02-1.15). There are few significant differences between employees in different education categories. Only physicians have a significantly higher relative increase in days of long-term sickness absence than the control group with lower tertiary education. Increased long-term sickness absence is a risk following reorganization. This risk affects all levels of hospital staff.

  20. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  1. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  2. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  3. Long-term outcomes of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, Kirsty E.; Houssami, Nehmat; Taylor, Richard; Hayen, Andrew; Boyages, John

    2015-01-01

    To summarize data on long-term ipsilateral local recurrence (LR) and breast cancer death rate (BCDR) for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who received different treatments. Systematic review and study-level meta-analysis of prospective (n = 5) and retrospective (n = 21) studies of patients with pure DCIS and with median or mean follow-up time of ≥10 years. Meta-regression was performed to assess and adjust for effects of potential confounders – the average age of women, period of initial treatment, and of bias – follow-up duration on recurrence- and death-rates in each treatment group. LR and BCDR rates by local treatment used were reported. Outside of randomized trials, remaining studies were likely to have tailored patient treatment according to the clinical situation. Nine thousand four hundred and four DCIS cases in 9391 patients with 10-year follow-up were included. The adjusted meta-regression LR rate for mastectomy was 2.6 % (95 % CI, 0.8–4.5); breast-conserving surgery with radiotherapy (RT), 13.6 % (95 % CI, 9.8–17.4); breast-conserving surgery without RT, 25.5 % (95 % CI, 18.1–32.9); and biopsy-only (residual predominately low-grade DCIS following inadequate excision), 27.8 % (95 % CI, 8.4–47.1). RT + tamoxifen (TAM) in conservation surgery (CS) patients resulted in lower LR compared to one or no adjuvant treatments: LR rate for CS + RT + TAM, 9.7 %; CS + RT(no TAM), 14.1 %; CS + TAM(no RT), 24.7 %; CS(alone), 25.1 % (linear trend for treatment P < 0.0001). Compared to CS + RT + TAM, a significantly higher invasive LR was observed for CS(alone), odds ratio (OR) 2.61 (P < 0.0001); CS + TAM(no RT), OR 2.52 (P = 0.001); CS + RT(no TAM), OR 1.59 (P = 0.022). BCDR was similar for mastectomy, breast-conserving surgery with or without RT (1.3–2.0 %) and non-significantly higher for biopsy-only (2.7 %). Additionally, the 15-year follow-up was reported where all like-studies had ≥ 15-year data sets; the biopsy-only patients had a

  4. Seismic response trends evaluation via long term monitoring and finite element model updating of an RC building including soil-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, F.; Omenzetter, P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response trends evaluation and finite element model updating of a reinforced concrete building monitored for a period of more than two years. The three storey reinforced concrete building is instrumented with five tri-axial accelerometers and a free-field tri-axial accelerometer. The time domain N4SID system identification technique was used to obtain the frequencies and damping ratios considering flexible base models taking into account the soil-structure-interaction (SSI) using 50 earthquakes. Trends of variation of seismic response were developed by correlating the peak response acceleration at the roof level with identified frequencies and damping ratios. A general trend of decreasing frequencies was observed with increased level of shaking. To simulate the behavior of the building, a three dimensional finite element model (FEM) was developed. To incorporate real in-situ conditions, soil underneath the foundation and around the building was modeled using spring elements and non-structural components (claddings and partitions) were also included. The developed FEM was then calibrated using a sensitivity based model updating technique taking into account soil flexibility and non-structural components as updating parameters. It was concluded from the investigation that knowledge of the variation of seismic response of buildings is necessary to better understand their behavior during earthquakes, and also that the participation of soil and non-structural components is significant towards the seismic response of the building and these should be considered in models to simulate the real behavior.

  5. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  6. Time-dependent Toxicity in Long-term Analysis of Luminescence Inhibition with Recombinant Escherichia Coli Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yudina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of streptomycin simultaneously on the luminescence and the growth of bacteria of luminescent recombinant Escherichia coli stain with the operon luxCDABE from Vibrio fischeri. Experiments were performed to determine the toxicity in the 30-minute experiment and in the chronic 24-hour variant. The level of toxicity in the tested concentration range was determined judging by the change of intensity of bioluminescence and by the growth of cells in the presence of antibiotic. Toxicity parameter ЕС50 was 26.44 mg / l at 30 min exposure, and 0.30 mg / l during 8 hours of growth of bacteria. Dynamics of changes in toxicity, depending on the concentration of streptomycin in the long-term experiment, shows the difficulty in the choice of the end point of the experiment.

  7. [Association between efficiency and quality of health care in South Korea long-term care hospitals: using the data envelopment analysis and matrix analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Choi, Mankyu

    2014-08-01

    Objectives of this study were to investigate the association between efficiency and quality of health care in Long-term Care Hospitals (LTCH) and determine related factors that would enable achievement of both high efficiency and high quality at the same time. Major data sources were the "2012 Korean Assessment of Propriety by Long-term Care Hospitals" obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Cost variables were supplemented by a National Tax Service accounting document. First, data envelopment analysis was performed by generating efficiency scores for each LTCH. Second, matrix analysis was conducted to ascertain association between efficiency and quality. Lastly, kruskal-wallis and mann-whitney tests were conducted to identify related factors. First, efficiency and quality of care are not in a relationship of trade-offs; thus, LTCH can be confident that high efficiency-high quality can be achieved. Second, LTCH with a large number of beds, longer tenure of medical personnel, and adequate levels of investment were more likely to have improved quality as well as efficiency. It is essential to enforce legal standards appropriate to the facilities, reduce turnover of nursing staff, and invest properly in human resources. These consequences will help LTCH to maintain the balance of high efficiency-high quality in the long-run.

  8. Influence of long-term wearing of unstable shoes on compensatory control of posture: an electromyography-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia S P; Silva, Andreia; Macedo, Rui; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of long-term wearing of unstable shoes (WUS) on compensatory postural adjustments (CPA) to an external perturbation. Participants were divided into two groups: one wore unstable shoes while the other wore conventional shoes for 8 weeks. The ground reaction force signal was used to calculate the anterior-posterior (AP) displacement of the centre of pressure (CoP) and the electromyographic signal of gastrocnemius medialis (GM), tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was used to assess individual muscle activity, antagonist co-activation and reciprocal activation at the joint (TA/GM and RF/(BF+GM) pairs) and muscle group levels (ventral (TA+RF)/dorsal (GM+BF) pair) within time intervals typical for CPA. The electromyographic signal was also used to assess muscle latency. The variables described were evaluated before and after the 8-week period while wearing the unstable shoes and barefoot. Long-term WUS led to: an increase of BF activity in both conditions (barefoot and wearing the unstable shoes); a decrease of GM activity; an increase of antagonist co-activation and a decrease of reciprocal activation level at the TA/GM and ventral/dorsal pairs in the unstable shoe condition. Additionally, WUS led to a decrease in CoP displacement. However, no differences were observed in muscle onset and offset. Results suggest that the prolonged use of unstable shoes leads to increased ankle and muscle groups' antagonist co-activation levels and higher performance by the postural control system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensional facial analysis in acromegaly: a novel tool to quantify craniofacial characteristics after long-term remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, M A E M; Roerink, S H P P; Maal, T J J; Pelleboer, R H; Smit, J W A; Hermus, A R M M; Bergé, S J; Netea-Maier, R T; Xi, T

    2015-02-01

    The exact quantification of craniofacial characteristics in patients with acromegaly is important because it provides insight in the pathophysiology of the disease and offers a tool to evaluate the effects of treatment on tissue specific endpoints. However, until recently this was not feasible due to limitations of available cephalometric methods. The new technique of three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry enables the accurate quantification of facial anatomical characteristics of both soft tissue and bone. This is the first study that uses 3D cephalometry to analyze craniofacial disproportions in patients in long-term remission of acromegaly. Sixteen patients in remission of acromegaly for over 24 months (50% male, mean age 56.0 ± 10.7 years, mean body mass index 29.3 ± 5.5 kg/m(2)) were compared to 16 matched control subjects. A 3D cone beam computed tomography scan and 3D stereophotograph of each individual were acquired and analyzed using 3D cephalometry. In addition to an accurate quantification of the classical craniofacial characteristics, 3D cephalometry, shows that many typical soft tissue deformities persist, even after long-term remission. Furthermore, we found that, compared to controls, the patients in remission of acromegaly have a wider face at the level of the zygoma and longer maxilla (p cephalometry is an attractive novel imaging modality to accurately investigate craniofacial disproportions of both soft tissue and bony parts of the face in patients with acromegaly, which makes it a promising technique for future research purposes and clinical practice.

  10. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  11. Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long-term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key microinvertebrates, 1994 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  12. Year 2000 status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key micro invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  13. 2002 Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  14. The bariatric surgery and weight losing: a meta-analysis in the long- and very long-term effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzarand, Mahdieh; Toolabi, Karamollah; Farid, Roya

    2017-11-01

    Several studies have been investigated to find the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss; nevertheless, a meta-analysis can detailedly demonstrate the effect of bariatric surgery on weight in morbidly obese patients. This study aimed to assess the long- and very long-term effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on weight loss in adults. An electronic search using PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar databases was performed for all English-language articles up to May 15, 2016 with no publication date restriction. Outcome was long-term (≥5-10 years) and very long-term (≥10 years) weight reduction that reported as the mean %EWL and changes in BMI from baseline. Eighty articles with 87 arms were included in this meta-analysis. The excess weight loss percentage (%EWL) was 47.94% and 47.43% after LAGB at ≥5 and ≥10 years, respectively. After LRYGB the %EWL was 62.58% at ≥5 years and 63.52% at ≥10 years. It was 53.25% at ≥5 years after LSG. Results of subgroup analyses have indicated that LRYGB leads to higher %EWL in America and Asia compared with Europe. Meta-regression analyses have shown that there is no significant association between %EWL and baseline age, BMI and length of follow-up after three procedures. However, there is a positive association between gender and %EWL after LRYGB (β = 1.24). No publication bias was found. These findings suggest that LRYGB is an effective procedure in morbidly obese patients that leads to sustainable weight loss over the long- and very long-term periods in compared with LAGB and LSG.

  15. Transcriptome analysis on the inflammatory cell infiltration of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in bama minipigs induced by a long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Xia

    Full Text Available Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD for 23 months. The pigs exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome and developed steatohepatitis with greatly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes (2.27-fold, P<0.05, Kupffer cells (2.59-fold, P<0.05, eosinophils (1.42-fold, P<0.05 and neutrophils (2.77-fold, P<0.05. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to explore the systemic transcriptome of the pig liver during inflammation. Approximately 18.2 gigabases of raw sequence data were generated, and over 303 million high-quality reads were assembled into 21,126 unigenes. RNA-seq data analysis showed that 822 genes were differentially expressed in liver (P<0.05 between the HFHSD and control groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that the process of inflammation involved the inflammatory signal transduction-related toll-like receptor, MAPK, and PPAR signaling pathways; the cytokine-related chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL12 signaling pathways; the leukocyte receptor signaling-related T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell signaling pathways; inflammatory cell migration and invasion- related pathways; and other pathways. Moreover, we identified several differentially expressed inflammation-related genes between the two groups, including FOS, JUN, TLR7, MYC, PIK3CD, VAV3, IL2RB and IL4R, that could be potential targets for further investigation. Our study suggested that long-term HFHSD induced obesity and liver inflammation, providing basic insight into the molecular mechanism of this condition and

  16. Long-term benefit of sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Latin America: retrospective analysis of patient clinical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaletz O

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oren Smaletz,1 Matias Chacón,2 Ludmila de Oliveira Koch,1 Daniela R de Carvalho Rocha,1 Fernanda C Cardoso1 1Department of Oncology, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Medical Oncology Department, Alexander Fleming Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of Latin American patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC who experienced a progression-free survival (PFS for at least 15 months following treatment with sunitinib. Patients and methods: In this retrospective analysis, mRCC patients in two institutions in Latin America received sunitinib at a starting dose of either 50 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off treatment (Schedule 4/2 in repeated 6-week cycles or sunitinib 37.5 mg on a continuous daily dosing schedule. Clinical characteristics, tolerability, and PFS data were collected. Results: Twenty-nine patients with long-term clinical benefit from sunitinib were identified between September 2005 and August 2009. Median PFS was 23 months (range: 15–54 months. Two of the 29 patients with prolonged PFS achieved a complete response and additional eleven had a partial response. Most patients were aged <60 years, had good performance status, favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center prognostic risk, and disease limited to one or two sites. Dose reduction was necessary in all patients who started sunitinib at 50 mg/day administered on Schedule 4/2. Adverse events leading to dose reduction included grade 3 hand–foot syndrome, mucositis, fatigue, and hypertension. At the time of data cutoff, four patients were still receiving sunitinib treatment. Conclusion: Extended PFS can be achieved in Latin American patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib. Although the small sample size and retrospective nature of this evaluation preclude the identification of pretreatment predictive factors contributing to this benefit, the current analysis warrants

  17. Analysis of costs to dispense prescriptions in independently owned, closed-door long-term care pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Norman V; Rupp, Michael T; Holdford, David A

    2014-03-01

    The need for accurate calculation of long-term care (LTC) pharmacies' costs to dispense (CTD) has become more important as payers have moved toward reimbursement models based on pharmacies' actual acquisition cost for drug products and the Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) has implemented requirements that LTC pharmacies must dispense prescriptions for certain branded drugs in 14-day-or-less quantities. To (a) calculate the average cost that the typical independently owned, closed-door LTC pharmacy currently incurs to dispense and deliver a prescription to the resident of a client LTC facility and (b) estimate how CMS-mandated changes to a 14-day-or-less dispensing cycle would affect the typical LTC pharmacy's average CTD. The data requirements and measurement model were developed by academic researchers in consultation with an industry advisory committee of independent LTC pharmacy owners. A survey instrument was constructed to collect financial and operating data required to calculate the CTD. Surveys were distributed via 3 dissemination channels to approximately 1,000 independently owned, closed-door LTC pharmacies. The National Community Pharmacists Association mailed surveys to their LTC members; 3 major national wholesalers distributed surveys to their LTC customers through their newsletters; and 3 LTC group purchasing organizations distributed the surveys to their members through emails, newsletters, mailings, and/or regional meetings. Each pharmacy's CTD was calculated by dividing total LTC dispensing-related 
costs by the total number of prescriptions dispensed. Dispensing-related costs included costs incurred to physically dispense and deliver prescriptions (e.g., dispensing pharmacists' and technicians' salaries and costs of medication containers) and costs incurred to support the dispensing function (e.g., salaries of delivery and medical records personnel). A model based on dispensing-related fixed, variable, and semivariable costs was

  18. Ethical implications of digital communication for the patient-clinician relationship: analysis of interviews with clinicians and young adults with long term conditions (the LYNC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Elder, Patrick; Bryce, Carol; Hamilton, Kathryn; Huxley, Caroline; Forjaz, Vera; Sturt, Jackie; Griffiths, Frances

    2018-02-23

    Digital communication between a patient and their clinician offers the potential for improved patient care, particularly for young people with long term conditions who are at risk of service disengagement. However, its use raises a number of ethical questions which have not been explored in empirical studies. The objective of this study was to examine, from the patient and clinician perspective, the ethical implications of the use of digital clinical communication in the context of young people living with long-term conditions. A total of 129 semi-structured interviews, 59 with young people and 70 with healthcare professionals, from 20 United Kingdom (UK)-based specialist clinics were conducted as part of the LYNC study. Transcripts from five sites (cancer, liver, renal, cystic fibrosis and mental health) were read by a core team to identify explicit and implicit ethical issues and develop descriptive ethical codes. Our subsequent thematic analysis was developed iteratively with reference to professional and ethical norms. Clinician participants saw digital clinical communication as potentially increasing patient empowerment and autonomy; improving trust between patient and healthcare professional; and reducing harm because of rapid access to clinical advice. However, they also described ethical challenges, including: difficulty with defining and maintaining boundaries of confidentiality; uncertainty regarding the level of consent required; and blurring of the limits of a clinician's duty of care when unlimited access is possible. Paradoxically, the use of digital clinical communication can create dependence rather than promote autonomy in some patients. Patient participants varied in their understanding of, and concern about, confidentiality in the context of digital communication. An overarching theme emerging from the data was a shifting of the boundaries of the patient-clinician relationship and the professional duty of care in the context of use of clinical

  19. A quantitative analysis of 2-D gels identifies proteins in which labeling is increased following long-term sensitization in Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellucci, V.F.; Kennedy, T.E.; Kandel, E.R.; Goelet, P.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term memory for sensitization of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, produced by 4 days of training, is associated with increased synaptic efficacy of the connection between the sensory and motor neurons. This training is also accompanied by neuronal growth; there is an increase in the number of synaptic varicosities per sensory neuron and in the number of active zones. Such structural changes may be due to changes in the rates of synthesis of certain proteins. We have searched for proteins in which the rates of [ 35 S]methionine labeling are altered during the maintenance phase of long-term memory for sensitization by using computer-assisted quantitative 2-D gel analysis. This method has allowed us to detect 4 proteins in which labeling is altered after 4 days of sensitization training

  20. Genome-wide functional analysis of CREB/long-term memory-dependent transcription reveals distinct basal and memory gene expression programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-01-21

    Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term outcome of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds for the treatment of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Alberto; Anadol, Remzi; Münzel, Thomas; Indolfi, Ciro; De Rosa, Salvatore; Gori, Tommaso

    2017-06-07

    Coronary bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) were developed to overcome the limitations of standard metallic stents, especially to address late events after percutaneous coronary interventions. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BRS, compared with Everolimus-eluting stents (EES), using the data available from randomized trials, with a focus on long-term outcomes. Published randomized trials comparing BRS to EES for the treatment of coronary artery disease were searched for within PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus electronic databases up to April 4th 2017. The summary measure used was odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 5 studies were eligible, including 5219 patients. At 2 years, BRS was associated with higher rates of target lesion failure (9.4% vs 7.2%; OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.63; p = 0.008) and device thrombosis (2.3% vs 0.7%; OR = 3.22; 95% CI 1.86 to 5.57; p 1 year, 0.6% vs 0.1%, OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.37 to 11.82; p = 0.01) was higher with BRS compared with EES. BRS may be associated with worse two-years clinical outcomes compared with EES in patients with coronary artery disease.

  2. Assessing groundwater availability and the response of the groundwater system to intensive exploitation in the North China Plain by analysis of long-term isotopic tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Cheng, Zhongshuang; Wei, Wen; Chen, Zongyu

    2018-03-01

    The use of isotope tracers as a tool for assessing aquifer responses to intensive exploitation is demonstrated and used to attain a better understanding of the sustainability of intensively exploited aquifers in the North China Plain. Eleven well sites were selected that have long-term (years 1985-2014) analysis data of isotopic tracers. The stable isotopes δ18O and δ2H and hydrochemistry were used to understand the hydrodynamic responses of the aquifer system, including unconfined and confined aquifers, to groundwater abstraction. The time series data of 14C activity were also used to assess groundwater age, thereby contributing to an understanding of groundwater sustainability and aquifer depletion. Enrichment of the heavy oxygen isotope (18O) and elevated concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate were found in groundwater abstracted from the unconfined aquifer, which suggests that intensive exploitation might induce the potential for aquifer contamination. The time series data of 14C activity showed an increase of groundwater age with exploitation of the confined parts of the aquifer system, which indicates that a larger fraction of old water has been exploited over time, and that the groundwater from the deep aquifer has been mined. The current water demand exceeds the sustainable production capabilities of the aquifer system in the North China Plain. Some measures must be taken to ensure major cuts in groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers after a long period of depletion.

  3. Impact of prosthetic material on mid- and long-term outcome of dental implants supporting single crowns and fixed partial dentures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Ayash, Samir; Strasding, Malin; Rücker, Gerta; Att, Wael

    The impact of prosthetic material selection on implant survival is not clear. The current criteria for choosing a prosthetic material seem to be based on clinician preferences. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of restorative materials on the mid- and long-term survival of implants supporting single crowns and fixed partial dentures. Hand and MEDLINE searches were performed to identify relevant literature for single crowns (SC) and fixed partial dentures (FPD). Further inclusion criteria were a mean follow-up period of at least 3 years, the inclusion of at least 10 patients in a relevant study cohort, and a clear description of prosthesis type and prosthetic material. A total of 63 studies for the SC group and 11 studies for the FPD group were included. Full arch restorations were not included. The materials utilised in the SC group were metal-ceramic (precious and non-precious), lithium-disilicate, veneered zirconia, veneered alumina, and nanoceramics. The materials used in the FPD group were metal-ceramic (precious), veneered titanium, metal-resin (precious), and veneered zirconia. No significant impact on the prosthetic material relating to mid- or long-term implant survival was identified. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between the survival rates of the dental prostheses made from different materials (SC and FPD group). Single crowns made of nanoceramics showed a higher risk for decementation relative to other materials (0.80, 95% CI [0.67; 0.89]; P prosthetic material selection has no influence on mid- and long-term survival of implants restored with single crowns and fixed partial dentures. Similarly, the prosthetic material seems to have no significant impact on prosthetic survival rates. Further research is required to provide more evidence regarding the impact of the prosthetic material on long-term outcome. Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  4. Long-term outcome of one-piece implants. Part II: Prosthetic outcomes. A systematic literature review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina-Díez, José M; Tashkandi, Esam; Stampf, Susanne; Att, Wael

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term clinical performance of prosthetic reconstructions on one-piece implants, with a focus on technical and biological complications. An electronic MEDLINE search complemented by a manual search was conducted to identify randomized and prospective controlled clinical trials on one-piece implants. Additional inclusion criteria were a mean follow-up period of at least 5 years and an inception cohort where more than 80% of the enrolled patients remained in the study at the 5- or 10-year observation point. Sixty-six studies from an initial yield of 597 titles were selected, and the data were extracted. Of the full-text articles examined, 46 were excluded and a total of 20 articles were finally selected. All studies were published between 1995 and 2011. Two different study designs were identified: 4 randomized controlled trials and 16 prospective cohort studies. The studies were analyzed and classified according to study type, patient characteristics, prosthetic characteristics, and biologic and technical complications after 5 and 10 years. The meta-analysis of the included studies showed a prosthetic survival rate for one-piece, one-part implants of 82.81% after 5 years and 97.85% and 98.24% in two-part implants after 5 and 10 years, respectively. Although the prosthetic survival rates were high, complications were frequent: complications of the suprastructure (18.44% to 18.75%), screw loosening/fracture (7.64%), soft-tissue complications (4.69% to 8.25%), sensory disturbances (0.36% to 6.25%), implant loss before loading (0% to 0.23%) and during function (1.10% to 3.21%), and implant fracture (0.0004%). Within the limits of this systematic review, it can be concluded that despite high long-term prosthetic survival rates, technical and biologic complications are frequent in one-piece implants, both in one-part and two-part designs. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to provide more information about the outcome of different variables

  5. Long-Term Effect of Exercise Therapy and Patient Education on Impairments and Activity Limitations in People With Hip Osteoarthritis: Secondary Outcome Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svege, Ida; Fernandes, Linda; Nordsletten, Lars; Holm, Inger; Risberg, May Arna

    2016-06-01

    The effect of exercise on specific impairments and activity limitations in people with hip osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The study objective was to evaluate the long-term effect of exercise therapy and patient education on range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, physical fitness, walking capacity, and pain during walking in people with hip OA. This was a secondary outcome analysis of a randomized clinical trial. The setting was a university hospital. One hundred nine people with clinically and radiographically evident hip OA were randomly allocated to receive both exercise therapy and patient education (exercise group) or patient education only (control group). All participants attended a patient education program consisting of 3 group meetings led by 2 physical therapists. Two other physical therapists were responsible for providing the exercise therapy program, consisting of 2 or 3 weekly sessions of strengthening, functional, and stretching exercises over 12 weeks. Both interventions were conducted at a sports medicine clinic. Outcome measures included ROM, isokinetic muscle strength, predicted maximal oxygen consumption determined with the Astrand bicycle ergometer test, and distance and pain during the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Follow-up assessments were conducted 4, 10, and 29 months after enrollment by 5 physical therapists who were unaware of group allocations. No significant group differences were found for ROM, muscle strength, predicted maximal oxygen consumption, or distance during the 6MWT over the follow-up period, but the exercise group had less pain during the 6MWT than the control group at 10 months (mean difference=-8.5 mm; 95% confidence interval=-16.1, -0.9) and 29 months (mean difference=-9.3 mm; 95% confidence interval=-18.1, -0.6). Limitations of the study were reduced statistical power and 53% rate of adherence to the exercise therapy program. The previously described effect of exercise on self-reported function was not reflected by

  6. Preventable long-term complications of suprapubic cystostomy after spinal cord injury: Root cause analysis in a representative case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurpreet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although complications related to suprapubic cystostomies are well documented, there is scarcity of literature on safety issues involved in long-term care of suprapubic cystostomy in spinal cord injury patients. Case Presentation A 23-year-old female patient with tetraplegia underwent suprapubic cystostomy. During the next decade, this patient developed several catheter-related complications, as listed below: (1 Suprapubic catheter came out requiring reoperation. (2 The suprapubic catheter migrated to urethra through a patulous bladder neck, which led to leakage of urine per urethra. (3 Following change of catheter, the balloon of suprapubic catheter was found to be lying under the skin on two separate occasions. (4 Subsequently, this patient developed persistent, seropurulent discharge from suprapubic cystostomy site as well as from under-surface of pubis. (5 Repeated misplacement of catheter outside the bladder led to chronic leakage of urine along suprapubic tract, which in turn predisposed to inflammation and infection of suprapubic tract, abdominal wall fat, osteomyelitis of pubis, and abscess at the insertion of adductor longus muscle Conclusion Suprapubic catheter should be anchored securely to prevent migration of the tip of catheter into urethra and accidental dislodgment of catheter. While changing the suprapubic catheter, correct placement of Foley catheter inside the urinary bladder must be ensured. In case of difficulty, it is advisable to perform exchange of catheter over a guide wire. Ultrasound examination of urinary bladder is useful to check the position of the balloon of Foley catheter.

  7. Preventing and controlling human noroviruses in South Carolina long-term care facilities: An analysis of institutional policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Lalani; Leone, Cortney M; Sharp, Julia; Fraser, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) facilities are the number one setting for human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks in the United States (60%). We aimed to determine alignment of policies and procedures in LTC facilities in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations and to determine readability based on Federal Plain Language Guidelines and Microsoft Word readability statistics. Most facilities (n = 21) had procedures for hand hygiene, but recommendations for handwashing events and duration varied greatly. Less than half (n = 11) had separate procedures devoted to HuNoV outbreak control. Fifteen required disinfection of bodily fluids. Seven had procedures for exclusion of sick staff during an outbreak. Both hand hygiene and bodily fluid cleanup procedures had low mean scores for readability. Mean Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level for both procedures were in the range of difficult to understand. Most LTC policies and procedures were not consistent with CDC recommendations for HuNoV. Moreover, readability of all procedures is needed so LTC workers can easily understand and implement prevention and control procedures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Comparison of the Long-Term Outcomes of Mechanical and Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves - A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Kenji; Tanaka, Shiro; Tamura, Nobushige; Yanagi, Shigeki; Ohkawa, Yohei; Okonogi, Shuichi; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Usui, Akihiko; Abe, Tomonobu; Shimamoto, Mitsuomi; Takahara, Yoshiharu; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Yaku, Hitoshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2017-07-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes of aortic valve replacement (AVR) with either mechanical or bioprosthetic valves according to age at operation.Methods and Results:A total of 1,002 patients (527 mechanical valves and 475 bioprosthetic valves) undergoing first-time AVR were categorized according to age at operation: group Y, age mechanical and bioprosthetic valves for all age groups. Valve-related mortality was significantly higher for mechanical valves in group O (HR, 2.53; P=0.02). Reoperation rate was significantly lower for mechanical valves in group Y (HR, 0.16; Pmechanical valves). Although the rate of thromboembolic events was higher in mechanical valves in group Y (no events for tissue valves) and group M (HR, 9.05; P=0.03), there were no significant differences in bleeding events between all age groups. The type of prosthetic valve used in AVR does not significantly influence overall mortality.

  9. Molecular analysis of long-term biofilm formation on PVC and cast iron surfaces in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruyin; Zhu, Junge; Yu, Zhisheng; Joshi, DevRaj; Zhang, Hongxun; Lin, Wenfang; Yang, Min

    2014-04-01

    To understand the impacts of different plumbing materials on long-term biofilm formation in water supply system, we analyzed microbial community compositions in the bulk water and biofilms on faucets with two different materials-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cast iron, which have been frequently used for more than10 years. Pyrosequencing was employed to describe both bacterial and eukaryotic microbial compositions. Bacterial communities in the bulk water and biofilm samples were significantly different from each other. Specific bacterial populations colonized on the surface of different materials. Hyphomicrobia and corrosion associated bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus spp., Aquabacterium spp., Limnobacter thiooxidans, and Thiocapsa spp., were the most dominant bacteria identified in the PVC and cast iron biofilms, respectively, suggesting that bacterial colonization on the material surfaces was selective. Mycobacteria and Legionella spp. were common potential pathogenic bacteria occurred in the biofilm samples, but their abundance was different in the two biofilm bacterial communities. In contrast, the biofilm samples showed more similar eukaryotic communities than the bulk water. Notably, potential pathogenic fungi, i.e., Aspergillus spp. and Candida parapsilosis, occurred in similar abundance in both biofilms. These results indicated that microbial community, especially bacterial composition was remarkably affected by the different pipe materials (PVC and cast iron). Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2018-03-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  11. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2017-10-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  12. Long-term analysis of turbidity patterns in Danube Delta coastal area based on MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Sorin; Constantinescu, Ștefan; Doxaran, David

    2017-06-01

    The monitoring of coastal areas is becoming an urgent necessity in the context of increased pressure over these ecosystems due to climate change and human activities. Long term evaluation of specific parameters regarding water quality can now be achieved, thanks to the increased number of archived Earth Observation satellite data, now covering decades. Within this study, 12 years of MODIS information were used to compute surface water turbidity products that were further temporal binned into composite datasets (e.g. monthly, annual). A regional algorithm, based on local in situ measurements, was used in order to inverse remote sensing reflectance values into turbidity units. The interpretation of the final maps revealed important characteristics of the processes that play a major role in the regional turbidity dynamics. Observations were made regarding the relation between surface water turbidity and Danube River's discharge rates, winds, currents and also the bottom sedimentary characteristics of the shelf area. We discuss how different regions are affected by various external factors, depending on their geographical location, and we reinforce the idea that the river solid input is not the only parameter controlling water clarity in the Danube Delta coastal area, resuspension processes playing also an important role.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the acute and long-term CD4(+) T-cell response to a persistent gammaherpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Doherty, P C

    1999-01-01

    in the mediastinal lymph nodes and then in the cervical lymph nodes and the spleen. The numbers of MHV-68-specific CD4(+) T cells generated in congenic mice homozygous for disruption of the beta2-microglobulin gene tended to be higher, indicating that the absence of the CD8(+) set in this group resulted......The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, where it establishes a persistent, latent infection limited predominantly to B lymphocytes. The virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell response in C57BL/6 mice challenged intranasally with MHV-68 is detected first...... in a compensatory response. The peak frequency within the splenic CD4(+) T-cell population may reach 1:50 in the acute response; it then drops to 1:400 to 1:500 within 4 months and stays at that level in the very long term. Sorting for L-selectin (CD62L) expression established that all virus-specific CD4(+) T cells...

  14. Analysis on Japan's long-term energy outlook considering massive deployment of variable renewable energy under nuclear energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates Japan's long-term energy outlook to 2050 considering massive deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) system and wind power generation under nuclear energy scenario. The extensive introduction of PV system and wind power system are expected to play an important role in enhancing electricity supply security after Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident which has increased the uncertainty of future additional construction of nuclear power plant in Japan. On these backgrounds, we develop integrated energy assessment model comprised of both econometric energy demand and supply model and optimal power generation mix model. The latter model is able to explicitly analyze the impact of output fluctuation in variable renewable in detailed time resolution at 10 minutes on consecutive 365 days, incorporating the role of stationary battery technology. Simulation results reveal that intermittent fluctuation derived from high penetration level of those renewables is controlled by quick load following operation by natural gas combined cycle power plant, pumped-storage hydro power, stationary battery technology and the output suppression of PV and wind power. The results show as well that massive penetration of the renewables does not necessarily require the comparable scale of stationary battery capacity. Additionally, on the scenario which assumes the decommissioning of nuclear power plants which lifetime are over 40 years, required PV capacity in 2050 amounts to more than double of PV installment potential in both building and abandoned farmland area. (author)

  15. Analysis of long-term performance and microbial community structure in bio-cathode microbial desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huichao; Wen, Qinxue; An, Zhongyi; Chen, Zhiqiang; Nan, Jun

    2016-03-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) could desalinate salt water without energy consumption and simultaneously generate bioenergy. Compared with an abiotic cathode MDC, an aerobic bio-cathode MDC is more sustainable and is less expensive to operate. In this study, the long-term operation (5500 h) performance of a bio-cathode MDC was investigated in which the power density, Coulombic efficiency, and salt removal rate were decreased by 71, 44, and 27 %, respectively. The primary reason for the system performance decrease was biofouling on the membranes, which increased internal resistance and reduced the ionic transfer and energy conversion efficiency. Changing membranes was an effective method to recover the MDC performance. The microbial community diversity in the MDC anode was low compared with that of the reported microbial fuel cell (MFC), while the abundance of Proteobacteria was 30 % higher. The content of Planctomycetes in the cathode biofilm sample was much higher than that in biofouling on the cation exchange membrane (CEM), indicating that Planctomycetes were relevant to cathode oxygen reduction.

  16. In-Situ Strain Analysis of Potential Habitat Composites Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

    2010-01-01

    NASA is studying the effects of long-term space radiation on potential multifunctional composite materials for habitats to better determine their characteristics in the harsh space environment. Two composite materials were selected for the study and were placed in a test stand that simulated the stresses of a pressure vessel wall on the material. The samples in the test stand were exposed to radiation at either a fast dose rate or a slow dose rate, and their strain and temperature was recorded during the exposure. It was found that during a fast dose rate exposure the materials saw a decreased strain with time, or a shrinking of the materials. Given previous radiation studies of polymers, this is believed to be a result of crosslinking occurring in the matrix material. However, with a slow dose rate, the materials saw an increase in strain with time, or a stretching of the materials. This result is consistent with scission or degradation of the matrix occurring, possibly due to oxidative degradation.

  17. Off-hours presentation is associated with short-term mortality but not with long-term mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjian Wang

    Full Text Available The association between off-hours presentation and mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of off-hours presentation on short- and long-term mortality among STEMI patients.We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to 10 July 2016. Studies were eligible if they evaluated the relationship of off-hours (weekend and/or night presentation with short- and/or long-term mortality.A total of 30 studies with 33 cohorts involving 192,658 STEMI patients were included. Off-hours presentation was associated with short-term mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.12, P = 0.004 but not with long-term mortality (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.07, P = 0.979. No significant heterogeneity was observed. The outcomes remained the same after sensitivity analyses and trim and fill analyses. Subgroup analyses showed that STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention do not have a higher risk of short-term mortality (OR 1.061, 95% CI 0.993-1.151. In addition, higher mortality was observed only during hospitalization (OR 1.072, 95% CI 1.022-1.125, not at the 30-day, 1-year or long-term follow-ups.Off-hours presentation was associated with an increase in short-term mortality, but not long-term mortality, among STEMI patients. Clinical approaches to decrease short-term mortality regardless of the time of presentation should be evaluated in future studies.

  18. Colorectal cancer liver metastases: long-term survival and progression-free survival after thermal ablation using magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in 594 patients: analysis of prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas J; Dommermuth, Alena; Heinle, Britta; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A; Lehnert, Thomas; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan; Bechstein, Wolf O; Naguib, Nagy N N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of prognostic factors for long-term survival and progression-free survival (PFS) after treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases with magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced interstital thermotherapy (LITT). We included 594 patients (mean age, 61.2 years) with CRC liver metastases who were treated with LITT. The statistical analysis of the long-term survival and PFS were based on the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model tested different parameters that could be of prognostic value. The tested prognostic factors were the following: sex, age, the location of primary tumor, the number of metastases, the maximal diameter and total volume of metastases and necroses, the quotient of total volumes of metastases and necroses, the time of appearance of liver metastases and location in the liver, the TNM classification of CRC, extrahepatic metastases, and neoadjuvant treatments. The median survival was 25 months starting from the date of the first LITT. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 78%, 50.1%, 28%, 16.4%, and 7.8%, respectively. The median PFS was 13 months. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year PFS rates were 51.3%, 35.4%, 30.7%, 25.4%, and 22.3%, respectively. The number of metastases and their maximal diameter were the most important prognostic factors for both long-term survival and PFS. Long-term survival was also highly influenced by the initial involvement of the lymph nodes. For patients treated with LITT for CRC liver metastases, the number and size of metastases, together with the initial lymph node status, are significant prognostic factors for long-term survival.

  19. Reforming long-term care in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa-i-Font, Joan

    2011-01-01

    .... Offers the very latest analysis of long-term care reform agendas in Europe. Compares countries comparatively less studied with the experiences of reform in Germany, the UK, Netherlands and Sweden...

  20. Survival analysis, long-term outcomes, and percentage of recovery up to 8 years post-infection among the Houston West Nile virus cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy O Murray

    Full Text Available In 2012, we witnessed a resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in the United States, with the largest outbreak of human cases reported since 2003. WNV is now endemic and will continue to produce epidemics over time, therefore defining the long-term consequences of WNV infection is critical. Over a period of eight years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 157 WNV-infected subjects in the Houston metropolitan area to observe recovery over time and define the long-term clinical outcomes. We used survival analysis techniques to determine percentage of recovery over time and the effects of demographic and co-morbid conditions on recovery. We found that 40% of study participants continued to experience symptoms related to their WNV infection up to 8 years later. Having a clinical presentation of encephalitis and being over age 50 were significantly associated with prolonged or poor recovery over time. Since the health and economic impact as a result of prolonged recovery, continued morbidity, and related disability is likely substantial in those infected with WNV, future research should be aimed at developing effective vaccines to prevent illness and novel therapeutics to minimize morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications from infection.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Short- and Long-Term Results of Randomized Controlled Trials That Compared Laparoscopy-Assisted and Conventional Open Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohtani, Yutaka Tamamori, Yuichi Arimoto, Yukio Nishiguchi, Kiyoshi Maeda, Kosei Hirakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCRS and conventional open surgery (OCRS for colorectal cancer (CRC.Methods: We searched relevant papers published between January 1990 and May 2011. We analyzed the outcomes of each type of surgery over the short- and long-term periods.Results: In the short-term period, we found no significant differences in overall perioperative complications and anastomotic leakage between LCRS and OCRS groups. We found no significant differences in overall, distant, local and wound-site recurrence, overall mortality, 3 and 5 year disease-free survival rate, and cancer-related mortality between the 2 groups.Conclusions: LCRS has the benefits of reducing intraoperative blood loss, earlier resumption of oral intake, and shorter duration of hospital stay in the short-term. The long-term outcomes of LCRS seem to be similar to those of OCRS.

  2. Improving quality of care in people with Type 2 diabetes through the Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative: a long-term cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, C B; Nicolucci, A; Pellegrini, F; Kristiansen, C K; Hunt, B; Valentine, W J; Vespasiani, G

    2014-05-01

    The Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative is a physician-led quality-of-care improvement scheme that has been shown to improve HbA1c concentration, blood pressure, lipid profiles and BMI in enrolled people with Type 2 diabetes. The present analysis investigated the long-term cost-effectiveness of enrolling people with Type 2 diabetes in the Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative compared with conventional management. Long-term projections of clinical outcomes and direct costs (in 2010 Euros) were made using a published and validated model of Type 2 diabetes in people with Type 2 diabetes who were either enrolled in the Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative or who were receiving conventional management. Treatment effects were based on mean changes from baseline seen at 5 years after enrolment in the scheme. Costs and clinical outcomes were discounted at 3% per annum. The Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative was associated with improvements in mean discounted life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy of 0.55 years (95% CI 0.54-0.57) years and 0.48 quality-adjusted life years (95% CI 0.46-0.49), respectively, compared with conventional management. Whilst treatment costs were higher in the Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals arm, this was offset by savings as a result of the reduced incidence and treatment of diabetes-related complications. The Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative was found to be cost-saving over patient lifetimes compared with conventional management [€ 37,289 (95% CI 37,205-37,372) vs € 41,075 (95% CI 40,956-41,155)]. Long-term projections indicate that the physician-led Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative represents a cost-saving method of improving long-term clinical outcomes compared with conventional management of people with Type 2 diabetes in Italy. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  3. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Florian

    2014-10-01

    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretreatment was limited to 10μm pore size cartridge filtration and antiscalant dosage (2-2.5mgL-1) only. Membrane performance parameters normalized pressure drop (NPD), normalized specific water permeability (Kw) and salt retention generally were found stable over extended periods of operation (>6 months). Standard acid-base cleanings (once per year or less) were found to be sufficient to maintain satisfying operation during direct NF of the described iron rich (≤8.4mgL-1) anoxic groundwaters. Extensive autopsies of eight NF membrane elements, which had been in service since the plant startup (6-10 years), were performed to characterize and quantify the material accumulated in the membrane elements. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements revealed a complex mixture of organic, biological and inorganic materials. The fouling layers that developed during half to one year of operation without chemical cleaning were very thin (<2. μm). Most bio(organic) accumulates were found in the lead elements of the installations while inorganic precipitates/deposits (aluminosilicates and iron(II)sulfides) were found in all autopsied membrane elements. The high solubility of reduced metal ions and the very slow biofilm development under anoxic conditions prevented rapid fouling during direct NF of the studied groundwaters. When compared to oxic NF and RO systems in general (e.g. aerated ground waters or surface waters), the operation and performance of the described anoxic installations (with minimal pretreatment) can be described as very stable. © 2014

  4. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  5. Analysis and description of the long-term creep behaviour of high-temperature gas turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    On a series of standard high-temperature gas turbine materials, creep tests were accomplished with the aim to obtain improved data on the long-term creep behaviour. The tests were carried out in the range of the main application temperatures of the materials and in the range of low stresses and elongations similar to operation conditions. They lasted about 5000 to 16000 h at maximum. At all important temperatures additional annealing tests lasting up to about 10000 h were carried out for the determination of a material-induced structure contraction. Thermal tension tests were effected for the description of elastoplastic short-time behaviour. As typical selection of materials the nickel investment casting alloys IN-738 LC, IN-939 and Udimet 500 for industrial turbine blades, IN-100 for aviation turbine blades and IN-713 C for integrally cast wheels of exhaust gas turbochargers were investigated, and also the nickel forge alloy Inconel 718 for industrial and aviation turbine disks and Nimonic 101 for industrial turbine blades and finally the cobalt alloy FSC 414 for guide blades and heat accumulation segments of industrial gas turbines. The creep tests were started on long-period individual creep testing machines with high strain measuring accuracy and economically continued on long-period multispecimen creep testing machines with long duration of test. The test results of this mixed test method were first subjected to a conventional evaluation in logarithmic time yield and creep diagrams which besides creep strength curves provided creep stress limit curves down to 0.2% residual strain. (orig./MM) [de

  6. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...... proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO2 quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies...

  7. Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Satija, Ambika; van Dam, Rob M; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    Background Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the dose-response relationship of long-term coffee consumption with CVD risk. Methods and Results Pubmed and EMBASE were searched for prospective cohort studies of the relationship between coffee consumption and CVD risk, which included coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and CVD mortality. Thirty-six studies were included with 1,279,804 participants and 36,352 CVD cases. A non-linear relationship of coffee consumption with CVD risk was identified (P for heterogeneity = 0.09, P for trend coffee consumption (median: 0 cups/d), the relative risk of CVD was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.03) for the highest (median: 5 cups/d) category, 0.85 (0.80 to 0.90) for the second highest (median: 3.5 cups/d), and 0.89 (0.84 to 0.94) for the third highest category (median: 1.5 cups/d). Looking at separate outcomes, coffee consumption was non-linearly associated with both CHD (P for heterogeneity = 0.001, P for trend 0.05). Conclusions A non-linear association between coffee consumption with CVD risk was observed in this meta-analysis. Moderate coffee consumption was inversely significantly associated with CVD risk, with the lowest CVD risk at 3 to 5 cups/d, and heavy coffee consumption was not associated with elevated CVD risk. PMID:24201300

  8. Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geller Alfred I

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (~99% of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase, or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days. These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. Results A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Conclusion Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve

  9. Improved long-term expression from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors packaged using combinations of mutated HSV-1 proteins that include the UL13 protein kinase and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Xiaodan; Geller, Alfred I

    2009-06-16

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) gene expression is thought to shut off recombinant gene expression from HSV-1 vectors; however, in a helper virus-free HSV-1 vector system, a number of promoters support only short-term expression. These results raise the paradox that recombinant gene expression remains short-term even in the absence of almost all (approximately 99%) of the HSV-1 genome, HSV-1 genes, and HSV-1 gene expression. To resolve this paradox, we hypothesized that specific proteins in the HSV-1 virus particle shut off recombinant gene expression. In two earlier studies, we examined the effects on recombinant gene expression of packaging vectors using specific mutated HSV-1 proteins. We found that vectors packaged using mutated UL13 (a protein kinase), or VP16, or UL46 and/or UL47 (components of the VP16 transcriptional complex) supported improved long-term expression, and vectors packaged using mutated UL46 and/or UL47 also supported improved gene transfer (numbers of cells at 4 days). These results suggested the hypothesis that specific proteins in the HSV-1 particle act by multiple pathways to reduce recombinant gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined combinations of mutated proteins that included both UL13 and specific components of the VP16 transcriptional complex. A HSV-1 vector containing a neuronal-specific promoter was packaged using specific combinations of mutated proteins, and the resulting vector stocks were tested in the rat striatum. For supporting long-term expression, the preferred combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins was mutated UL13, UL46, and UL47. Vectors packaged using this combination of mutated proteins supported a higher efficiency of gene transfer and high levels expression for 3 months, the longest time examined. Vector particles containing this combination of mutated HSV-1 proteins improve recombinant gene expression. Implications of these results for strategies to further improve long-term expression are discussed

  10. Long-term survival of dental implants placed in the grafted maxillary sinus: systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Duttenhoefer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A prevalent modality to increase the amount of available bone prior to implantation is grafting of the maxillary sinus. Multiple factors such as the surgical technique, moment of implant placement as well as grafting materials and membranes are known to affect implant survival. However, the role of different factor combinations and associated reciprocal effects remain unclear. Conventional statistical methods do not consider inconsistency of study designs and do not take covariables into account. Hence, a systematic research and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of various treatment modalities on implant survival in the grafted maxillary sinus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles published from 1980 through January 2013 were electronically and manually searched in MEDLINE (Ovid, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, the Database of Abstracts of Effects, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Clinical reports on single intervention sinus augmentation with root-form implants, a minimum of 10 patients and 6 months of loading were eligible for inclusion if implant survival was stated or calculable. Results were calculated by non-parametric univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and Bayesian multivariate interval-censored Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 122 publications on 16268 endosseous implants placed in grafted maxillary sinus were included. The treatment parameters surgical approach, grafting material and implant type showed no selective preference. However, application of membranes showed a significantly reduced hazard-ratio, independent of other co-factors. CONCLUSIONS: The use of membranes is the most significant factor to achieve long-term implant survival in sinus augmentation procedures. More data exceeding 3 years follow-up are needed to address prospective confounding and improve clinical evidence.

  11. Long-term oncologic outcomes after laparoscopic vs. open colon cancer resection: a high-quality population-based analysis in a Southern German district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Vinzenz; Draeger, Teresa; Gerken, Michael; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika; Fürst, Alois

    2018-03-30

    Over 20 years after the introduction of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer, many surgeons still prefer the open approach. Whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have proven the oncologic safety of laparoscopy, long-term data depicting daily clinical routine are scarce. This population-based cohort study compares 5-year overall, relative, and recurrence-free survival rates after laparoscopic and open colon carcinoma surgery. Data derive from an independent German cancer registry encompassing all tumor patients within a political district of 1.1 million inhabitants. The final analysis included 2669 patients with major elective resection of primary non-metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013. Survival rates were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses, relative survival models, and multivariate Cox regression. Sensitivity analysis quantified selection bias. The proportion of laparoscopic procedures increased from 9.7 to 25.8% in 2011 and dropped again to 15.8% at the end of observation period. Laparoscopy patients were younger, had a lower tumor stage, and were more likely to receive postoperative chemotherapy. Overall, relative, and recurrence-free survival was significantly superior or equivalent in Kaplan-Meier analysis (5-year overall survival rate open vs. laparoscopic: 69.0 vs. 80.2%, p < 0.001). The superiority of laparoscopy mostly remained stable after adjusting for confounders, although significance was only reached in T1-3 patients without lymph node metastases (overall survival: hazard ratio (HR) 0.654; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.446-0.958; p = 0.029). Laparoscopy is a safe and promising alternative to the open approach in daily clinic practice. These favorable outcomes require future confirmation by high-quality studies outside the setting of RTCs.

  12. Gait Event Detection in Real-World Environment for Long-Term Applications: Incorporating Domain Knowledge Into Time-Frequency Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Siddhartha; Wickstrom, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Detecting gait events is the key to many gait analysis applications that would benefit from continuous monitoring or long-term analysis. Most gait event detection algorithms using wearable sensors that offer a potential for use in daily living have been developed from data collected in controlled indoor experiments. However, for real-word applications, it is essential that the analysis is carried out in humans' natural environment; that involves different gait speeds, changing walking terrains, varying surface inclinations and regular turns among other factors. Existing domain knowledge in the form of principles or underlying fundamental gait relationships can be utilized to drive and support the data analysis in order to develop robust algorithms that can tackle real-world challenges in gait analysis. This paper presents a novel approach that exhibits how domain knowledge about human gait can be incorporated into time-frequency analysis to detect gait events from long-term accelerometer signals. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm are validated by experiments done in indoor and outdoor environments with approximately 93 600 gait events in total. The proposed algorithm exhibits consistently high performance scores across all datasets in both, indoor and outdoor environments.

  13. Clinical analysis of long-term outcomes of re-intervention of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuquan; Yue Zhendong; Zhao Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety,effectiveness and clinical factors of re-intervention of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: A retrospective study of safety and long-term outcomes of TIPS was made in 771 patients from August 1994 to August 2010. The 625 patients had follow-up data.The patients who received TIPS once, twice, and more than twice were divided into group 1, group 2 and group 3, respectively. Clinical symptoms, survival rate and restenosis rate of each group were analyzed. Clinical influencing factors of re-intervention effect were discussed. Results: The success rate of first intervention was 98.2% (757/771), the death rate was 0.7% (5/757) and severe complication rate was 2.5% (19/757). The success rate of re-intervention was 98.7% (457/463), no death and severe complications occurred. The restenosis rate in group 3 decreased significantly than group 1 (χ 2 =7.908, P<0.05) in the first year of TIPS. The restenosis rates in group 2 and group 3 were lower than group 1 from 2 to 5 years of TIPS (χ2 values were 27.046, 25.724, 37.002 and 19.046, respectively, P<0.05). The survival rate in group 3 was higher than group 1 (χ 2 =9.114, P<0.05)and group 2 was higher than group 1 (χ 2 =4.929, P<0.05) in the first year of TIPS, while there was no statistical difference between group 2 and group 3 (χ 2 =2.678, P>0.05). The patients in group 2 and group 3 also had higher survival rates than group 1 from 2 to 5 years of TIPS (χ 2 value were 41.314, 26.920, 13.692 and 6.713, respectively, P<0.05). 19.4% (79/406) of patients who received re-intervention had symptom recurrence and shunt stenosis or occlusion. 11.6% (47/406) of patients had symptom recurrence with portal hypertension signs, 62.8% (255/406) had shunt stenosis or occlusion with portal hypertension signs. Conclusions: Restenosis or occlusion of TIPS, symptom recurrence and portal hypertension signs were important factors for re-intervention. Re-intervention of TIPS was

  14. Long-term trends and survival analysis of esophageal and gastric cancer in Yangzhong, 1991-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolai Hua

    Full Text Available To describe the long-term trends of the incidence, mortality and survival of upper digestive tract cancers in a high-risk area of China.We extracted esophageal and gastric cancer cases diagnosed from 1991 to 2013 through the Yangzhong Cancer Registry and calculated the crude and age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Cancer trends were calculated using the Joinpoint Regression Program and were reported using the annual percentage change (APC. The cancer-specific survival rates were evaluated and compared between groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.The age-standardized incidence rate of esophageal cancer declined from 107.06 per 100,000 person-years (male: 118.05 per 100,000 person-years; female: 97.42 per 100,000 person-years in 1991 to 37.04 per 100,000 person-years (male: 46.43 per 100,000 person-years; female: 27.26 per 100,000 person-years in 2013, with an APC of -2.5% (95% confidence interval (CI: -3.4%, -1.5% for males and -4.9% (95% CI:-5.8%, -3.9% for females. The age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer was 165.11 per 100,000 person-years (male: 225.39 per 100,000 person-years; female: 113.34 per 100,000 person-years in 1991 and 53.46 per 100,000 person-years (male: 76.51 per 100,000 person-years; female: 32.43 per 100,000 person-years in 2013, with the APC of -3.6% (95% CI: -4.5%, -2.7% for males and -4.8% (95% CI: -5.7%, -3.9% for females. The median survival time was 3.0 years for patients with esophageal or gastric cancer. Cancer cases detected after 2004 had a better prognosis.The age-standardized incidence rates of both esophageal and gastric cancer continuously decreased since 1991 through 2013, whereas the mortality rate remained stable before 2004 and significantly declined following the massive endoscopic screening program initiated in 2004. The survival probability of patients with esophageal and gastric cancer has improved obviously in recent decades.

  15. Laparoscopic vs open approach for transverse colon cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis of short and long term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Christos D; Robinson, Jonathan; Yiasemidou, Marina; Lockwood, Sonia; Markides, Georgios A

    2017-05-01

    Transverse colon malignancies have been excluded from all randomized controlled trials comparing laparoscopic against open colectomies, potentially due to the advanced laparoscopic skills required for dissecting around the middle colic vessels and the associated morbidity. Concerns have been expressed that the laparoscopic approach may compromise the oncological clearance in transverse colon cancer. This study aimed to comprehensively compare the laparoscopic (LPA) to the open (OPA) approach by performing a meta-analysis of long and short term outcomes. Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases were interrogated. Selected studies were critically appraised and the short-term morbidity and long term oncological outcomes were meta-analyzed. Sensitivity analysis according to the quality of the study, type of procedure (laparoscopic vs laparoscopically assisted) and level of lymphadenectomy was performed. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were also investigated. Eleven case control trials (1415 patients) were included in the study. There was no difference between the LPA and the OPA in overall survival [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.83 (0.56, 1.22); P = 0.34], disease free survival (p = 0.20), local recurrence (p = 0.81) or distant metastases (p = 0.24). LPA was found to have longer operative time [Weighted mean difference (WMD) = 45.00 (29.48, 60.52); P transverse colon cancer. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of an analysis system of `Long-Term Deep Seafloor Observatory off Muroto Peninsula`; Kochiken Murotomisakioki `kaitei jishin sogo kansoku system` data no kaiseki system no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Machiyama, H.; Hattori, M.; Kaneda, Y. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Introduced is a data analysis system for Long-Term Deep Seafloor Observatory established off Muroto Point by Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), from which observatory data collected by seismograph and tsunami-meter are transmitted real time. JAMSTEC Long-Term Deep Seafloor Observatory Project Team has begun constructing an analysis system for disposing of events in the data and for locating the hypocenter. The analysis system is composed of a data converting unit that converts the forwarded data into the Win format; a data storage/time-dependent data integration unit that keeps the data in a hard disk for a specified period of time, performs disposition and analysis of events in the data, and forwards the data after disposition and analysis to a data recording unit; a data recording unit that stores selected data of seismic events in a recording medium; and a real-time monitor/NTP server unit that displays real time the observed seismic waveform data. 2 figs.

  17. Analysis of long-term groundwater dispersal of contaminants from proposed Jabiluka Mine tailing repositories. Supervising Scientist report 143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalf, F.; Dudgeon, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Jabiluka project area lies within a 73 km 2 mining lease near the edge of Kakadu National Park, a World Heritage area of approximately 19 800 km 2 . Existing approvals require all tailings to be disposed of underground. The current proposal is to add cement to the partially dewatered tailings to form a paste which would be deposited and allowed to set in the underground mine voids and specially excavated underground silos. Fears have been expressed that the park will suffer long term adverse effects as a result of the mining operation. Contamination of groundwater is one possibility to be considered. This report describes and gives the results of an investigation into the movement of the potential contaminants, magnesium sulphate, manganese, radium and uranium from mine tailings by groundwater flow towards the park after disposal of tailings underground in the mine voids and silos. The proposed silos would be constructed to hold the balance of the tailings which could not be accommodated in the mine workings. The tops of the silos would be approximately 100 m below ground surface. Tailings stored in mine voids would have an even greater average cover, with a minimum of approximately 90 m. Groundwater flow in the vicinity of the mine is topographically controlled. Groundwater flow and consequent contaminant transport from the mine site towards the Magela floodplain has been modelled to predict the concentrations of contaminants to be expected along the flow paths. The availability of data on aquifer properties and the nature of the drainage pattern led to the use of a two dimensional finite element numerical model of flow along the paths described above. A three dimensional numerical solute transport model applied in a single layer was used to predict relative concentrations along the flow paths of contaminants leached from the tailings repositories. An analytical contaminant transport model was used in conjunction with a numerical model to determine the effects

  18. MONITORING TREE POPULATION DYNAMICS IN ARID ZONE THROUGH MULTIPLE TEMPORAL SCALES: INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS, CHANGE DETECTION AND FIELD LONG TERM MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Isaacson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1 individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2 spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  19. Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedia, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bedia@idaea.csic.es; Dalmau, Núria, E-mail: nuria.dalmau@idaea.csic.es; Jaumot, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.jaumot@idaea.csic.es; Tauler, Romà, E-mail: roma.tauler@idaea.csic.es

    2015-07-15

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs. - Highlights: • Aldrin, aroclor and chlorpyrifos induced an aggressive phenotype in DU145 cells. • An untargeted lipidomic analysis has been performed on chronic exposed cells. • Lipidomic results showed changes in specific lipid species under chronic exposure. • These lipids may have a role in the

  20. Safety and efficacy of ipragliflozin in elderly versus non-elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a subgroup analysis of the STELLA-LONG TERM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegawa, Hiroshi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Nakamura, Ichiro; Uno, Satoshi

    2018-03-01

    This subgroup analysis of STELLA-LONG TERM interim data explored the long-term safety and efficacy of ipragliflozin in non-elderly vs. elderly Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. STELLA-LONG TERM is an ongoing 3-year prospective surveillance study of Japanese T2DM patients receiving ipragliflozin 50 mg once daily. In this subgroup analysis, patient characteristics, laboratory variables, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were compared between non-elderly (<65 years) and elderly (≥65 years) patients. Non-elderly patients had significantly higher body mass index and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than elderly patients (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <8.0% was significantly higher among elderly patients (P < 0.001). HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and body weight significantly decreased from baseline to 3 and 12 months in both groups (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline). The ADR incidence was 10.83% vs. 10.42% in non-elderly and elderly patients. The incidence of skin complications was 0.98% vs. 1.65% and that of renal disorder was 0.47% vs. 0.95% in non-elderly and elderly patients (both P = 0.003). Ipragliflozin was effective in non-elderly and elderly Japanese T2DM patients in a real-world clinical setting. The incidence of renal disorder and skin complications was significantly higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients.

  1. Providing long-term trend and gravimetric factor at Chandler period from superconducting gravimeter records by using Singular Spectrum Analysis along with its multivariate extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszczynska, M.; Rosat, S.; Klos, A.; Bogusz, J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) along with its multivariate extension MSSA (Multichannel SSA) were used to estimate long-term trend and gravimetric factor at the Chandler wobble frequency from superconducting gravimeter (SG) records. We have used data from seven stations located worldwide and contributing to the International Geodynamics and Earth Tides Service (IGETS). The timespan ranged from 15 to 19 years. Before applying SSA and MSSA, we had removed local tides, atmospheric (ECMWF data), hydrological (MERRA2 products) loadings and non-tidal ocean loading (ECCO2 products) effects. In the first part of analysis, we used the SSA approach in order to estimate the long-term trends from SG observations. We use the technique based on the classical Karhunen-Loève spectral decomposition of time series into long-term trend, oscillations and noise. In the second part, we present the determination of common time-varying pole tide (annual and Chandler wobble) to estimate gravimetric factor from SG time series using the MSSA approach. The presented method takes advantage over traditional methods like Least Squares Estimation by determining common modes of variability which reflect common geophysical field. We adopted a 6-year lag-window as the optimal length to extract common seasonal signals and the Chandler components of the Earth polar motion. The signals characterized by annual and Chandler wobble account for approximately 62% of the total variance of residual SG data. Then, we estimated the amplitude factors and phase lags of Chandler wobble with respect to the IERS (International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service) polar motion observations. The resulting gravimetric factors at the Chandler Wobble period are finally compared with previously estimates. A robust estimate of the gravimetric Earth response to the Chandlerian component of the polar motion is required to better constrain the mantle anelasticity at this frequency and hence the

  2. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  3. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  4. Myringoplasty in simple chronic otitis media: critical analysis of long-term results in a 1,000-adult patient series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Massimiliano; Sommerville, Ryan; Bowman, James; Danesi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Investigate the recurrence of chronic otitis media after primary and revision myringoplasty, compare long-term anatomic and audiologic results of underlay and overlay myringoplasty, and examine the prognostic factors. Retrospective study. Approximately 1,040 adult patients with chronic simple otitis media undergoing a myringoplasty (overlay and underlay) by different surgeons at a single institution (ENT Department of Bergamo Ospedali Riuniti) between May 1999 and March 2009. The cumulative recurrence rate of chronic otitis media during 10-year follow-up period was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate different prognostic factors based on long-term outcome in myringoplasty. The overall 10-year graft success rate was 78% in 1,040 patients. The 10-year recurrence rate of chronic otitis media was 15% in overlay myringoplasty and 26% using the underlay technique (p technique showed a better success rate than underlay (p techniques (p = 0.1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the underlay myringoplasty technique, a pathologic contralateral ear and an anterior or subtotal perforation, using a perichondrial graft or age of surgery younger than 40 years were statistically significant (p media occurred using overlay myringoplasty, although there were more minor postoperative complications. Both clinical and technical variables affected the success rate of myringoplasty.

  5. Long-term donor-site morbidity after vascularized free fibula flap harvesting: Clinical and gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuvrier, Damien; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Béliard, Samuel; Pauchot, Julien; Decavel, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical morbidity and changes in gait temporal spatial parameters after harvesting of a vascularized free fibula flap. This study included 11 patients (mean age: 52 ± 17 years) and 11 healthy controls (mean age: 50 ± 14 years). The patients were assessed between 5 and 104 months post surgery. The study consisted of a subjective functional evaluation with two validated clinical scores (Kitaoka Score and Point Evaluation System (PES) score), clinical and neurological examination of the legs, and evaluation of gait temporal spatial parameters while walking at a comfortable speed. The mean functional Kitaoka score was 78/100, and the mean PES score of 12.18 was considered average. At the time of the review, five patients had sensory disorders, two had toe deformities, and eight had pain at the donor site. The gait analysis showed that the patient's comfortable walking speed was significantly lower in comparison to that of the controls, and that stride length and cadence were reduced. In addition, most of the gait-specific parameters were significantly different. The donor leg displayed greater variability during walking. To reduce the risk of falling, this study revealed that the patients' gait pattern had changed as they took a more cautious approach during walking. Early rehabilitation is expected to help improve and/or restore the physical abilities of patients after harvesting of the vascularized free fibula flap. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonagh E Keag

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016 reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death.Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017, supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs and large (more than 1,000 participants prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%. One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies. Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies. Pregnancy after cesarean delivery was associated with

  7. Long-term risks and benefits associated with cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keag, Oonagh E.; Stock, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016) reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death. Methods and findings Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017), supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and large (more than 1,000 participants) prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%). One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries) were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR) 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies) and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies). Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies) and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies). Pregnancy after cesarean

  8. Implant rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla including immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting: a review of 1-year outcome data from a long-term prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljanic, Joseph A; Baer, Russell A; Ekstrand, Karl; Thor, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The literature suggests that predictable integration can be achieved when dental implant placement is combined with immediate fixed provisional restoration in a variety of clinical situations. Fewer data are available, however, regarding outcomes for immediate provisional restoration of implants in the edentulous maxilla. This report presents 1-year data acquired from a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to assess outcomes following the immediate provisional fixed restoration of implants in the atrophic edentulous maxilla without the use of bone augmentation. Fifty-one subjects diagnosed with an atrophic edentulous maxilla received a total of 306 implants (six implants per subject) followed by fixed provisional restoration within 24 hours of implant placement. No subjects underwent grafting to enhance bone volume in preparation for implant treatment. Data acquired included bone quantity and quality, implant dimensions, implant locations, and implant placement stability. Subjects returned for 1-year follow-up examinations to assess implant integration and restoration function. Periapical radiographs were obtained and compared to baseline images to assess marginal bone height maintenance. At the 3-month follow-up examination, 294 of 306 implants placed in 51 subjects were found to be integrated. This represents a cumulative implant survival rate of 96%. At the 1-year follow-up examination, mean marginal bone loss of 0.5 mm was noted, with no further loss of implants. These results support the contention that predictable long-term outcomes may be obtained for the atrophic edentulous maxilla when treated with an implant rehabilitation protocol that includes immediate fixed provisional restoration without the use of bone grafting. This strategy offers a promising treatment alternative for the patient with an atrophic edentulous maxilla.

  9. Long-term air pollution and traffic noise exposures and cognitive function:A cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna; Sugiri, Dorothee; Schikowski, Tamara; Jakobs, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weimar, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of adverse effects of air pollution (AP) and ambient noise on cognitive functions are apparently scarce, and findings seem to be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with cognitive performance. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (2006-2008), cognitive performance was evaluated in 4086 participants. Long-term residential exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with land use regression, to and traffic noise (weighted 24-h (L DEN ) and nighttime (L NIGHT ) means), was assessed according to the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC. Multiple regression models were calculated for the relationship of environmental exposures with a global cognitive score (GCS) and in five cognitive subtests, using single- and two-exposure models. In fully adjusted models, several AP metrics were negatively associated with four of five subtests and with GCS. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 was correlated with verbal fluency, labyrinth test, and immediate and delayed verbal recall. A 10 dB(A) elevation in L DEN and L NIGHT was associated with GCS. Similar but not significant associations were found for the cognitive subtests. In two-exposure models including noise and air pollution simultaneously, the associations did not change markedly for air pollution, but attenuated numerically for noise. Long-term exposures to AP and traffic noise are negatively correlated with subtests related to memory and executive functions. There appears to be little evidence for mutual confounding.

  10. Analysis of Short- and Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Surgically Treated Left-sided Infective Endocarditis: A 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, Oksana; Cole, Holy; Hiebert, Brett; Lo, Evelyn; Keynan, Yoav; Tam, James; Shaikh, Nasir; Menkis, Alan H; Arora, Rakesh C; Shah, Pallav

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze survival, repeat hospitalization, and risk factors for surgically treated left-sided endocarditis. Retrospective review of all 166 (114 native and 52 prosthetic) patients operated between January 2004 and March 2015 was performed. Long-term survival and repeat hospitalization data for 134 of 166 patients were obtained via linked clinical databases with the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival and hospital readmission and Cox multivariable regression analysis of factors influencing outcomes were performed. Survival at 1 and 5 years was 91% and 80%, respectively, and major adverse prosthesis-related event repeat hospitalization rates were 12% and 21%, respectively. Repeat hospitalization because of endocarditis was 7% and 11% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Survival and repeat hospitalization were similar for aortic and mitral valves. Survival after surgically treated endocarditis was similar to survival for age-, sex-, and valve-matched surgical valve replacements for noninfectious indications (P = 0.53). Viridans Streptococci was the most common organism in native valve endocarditis, and culture negative endocarditis was most common in prosthetic valves. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (P hospital mortality and major postoperative adverse events. Diabetes and renal dysfunction were associated with poor long-term survival, functional survival, and repeat hospitalization. This analysis suggests that surgery remains a very effective tool in management of these complex patients in terms of survival and major adverse prosthesis-related event repeat hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic volcanism is largely dominated by basaltic magma. Nevertheless the presence of glaciers over many Icelandic volcanic systems results in frequent phreatomagmatic eruptions and associated tephra production, making explosive eruptions the most common type of volcanic activity. Jökulhlaups are commonly considered as major volcanic hazard in Iceland for their high frequency and potentially very devastating local impact. Tephra fallout is also frequent and can impact larger areas. It is driven by the wind direction that can change with both altitude and season, making impossible to predict a priori where the tephra will be deposited during the next eruptions. Most of the volcanic activity in Iceland occurs in the central eastern part, over 100 km to the east of the main population centre around the capital Reykjavík. Therefore, the hazard from tephra fallout in Reykjavík is expected to be smaller than for communities settled near the main volcanic systems. However, within the framework of quantitative hazard and risk analyses, less frequent and/or less intense phenomena should not be neglected, since their risk evaluation depends on the effects suffered by the selected target. This is particularly true if the target is highly vulnerable, as large urban areas or important infrastructures. In this work we present the preliminary analysis aiming to perform a Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout focused on the target area which includes the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík international airport. This approach reverts the more common perspective where the hazard analysis is focused on the source (the volcanic system) and it follows a multi-source approach: indeed, the idea is to quantify, homogeneously, the hazard due to the main hazardous volcanoes that could pose a tephra fallout threat for the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík airport. PVHA for each volcanic system is calculated independently and the results

  12. Long-term stability of the BDNPF/BDNPA nitroplaticizer system: an MMR analysis. Progress report, October--December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clink, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    NMR analysis of the BDNPF/BDNPA eutectic system reaffirms the molecular integrity of the constituents, the stability of their molar ratios, and the effective retardant effect of the phenyl-beta-napthylamine antioxidant. Additional work on the analysis of the PBX 9501 system is underway at the present time

  13. Automated time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for improved process analysis and long-term monitoring of frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Christian; Hilbich, Christin; Fuss, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Determining the subsurface ice and unfrozen water content in cold regions are important tasks in all kind of cryospheric studies, but especially on perennial (permafrost) or seasonal frozen ground, where little insights can be gained from direct observations at the surface. In the absence of boreholes, geophysical methods are often the only possibility for visualising and quantifying the subsurface characteristics. Their successful applications in recent years lead to more and more sophisticated approaches including 2- and 3-dimensional monitoring and even quantifying the ice and unfrozen water content evolution within the subsurface. Due to the strong sensitivity of electrical resistivity to the phase change between unfrozen water and ice, the application of electrical and electromagnetic techniques has been especially successful. Within these methods, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is often favoured due to its comparatively easy and fast data processing, its robustness against ambient noise and its good performance even in harsh, cold and heterogeneous environments. Numerous recent studies have shown that ERT is principally suitable to spatially delineate ground ice, differentiate between ice-poor and ice-rich occurrences, monitor freezing, thawing and infiltration processes. However, resistivity surveys have still to be made manually, which poses large constraints concerning the comparability of measurements at specific time instances, e.g. the choice of the date for end-of-summer measurements, and/or the possibility for measurements during winter, when many locations are inaccessible. Furthermore, many climate studies require the analysis of statistically meaningful properties, such as maximum/minimum values and monthly or annual mean values, which cannot be determined using temporally sparse and irregularly spaced measurements. As a new system for future automated measurements with regular time interval (e.g. 1 measurement per day), an automated ERT

  14. Long-term adjustment to unmet parenthood goals following ART: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia; Finnigan, Amy

    2017-05-01

    Fertility treatment is not guaranteed to succeed and around 30% of patients do not achieve parenthood. Failed treatment represents the loss of parenthood and often triggers intense and prolonged grief reactions. There is an increasing awareness of the need to support patients in the aftermath of failed treatment; however, there are no effective interventions for the effect. This need for support is expected to increase as the number of people delaying parenthood increases and therefore so does the number for whom assisted reproduction will not offer a solution. This mixed-methods review aims at investigating if patients with failed fertility treatment experience significant psychosocial adjustment difficulties that warrant the provision of psychosocial support, and at developing a comprehensive model of adjustment to unmet parenthood goals that can be used to assist the design of theory led psychosocial interventions. Five databases were systematically searched between 1978 and December 2015. Search terms were variations of fertility treatment AND psychosocial adjustment AND post-treatment. Quantitative studies had to include group mean comparisons on psychosocial adjustment (mental-health and well-being) between patients who had failed treatment and a control group. Qualitative studies had to focus on experiences of psychosocial adjustment after failed treatment. Screening, data extraction and critical appraisal were carried out independently by the authors using predefined protocols. Two meta-analyses were performed on mental-health and well-being with a random effect model. The primary outcome was Hedge's g. Publication bias was checked with visual inspection of funnel plots, Egger's test and the trim-and-fill method. A three-stage thematic analysis of results reported in primary qualitative papers was implemented. First-order descriptive and second-order interpretative themes were extracted. Nine quantitative (9052 individuals, 8 countries) and 9 qualitative

  15. Long-term outcomes of patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the chest wall: Analysis of the prognostic significance of microscopic margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Kamran; Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Bohm, Jens; Niggemann, Hiltrud; Joneidi-Jafari, Hamid; Stricker, Ingo; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien

    2018-02-01

    Data on prognostic factors and treatment outcomes for chest wall soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are sparse. Wide resections with negative margins are the mainstay of therapy, but the prognostic impact of surgical margins remains controversial. The purpose of the present study was to determine the significance of microscopic margins through a long-term follow-up. The associations between local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), overall survival (OS) and potential prognostic factors were retrospectively assessed in a consecutive series of 110 patients who were suitable for surgical treatment with curative intent. Potential prognostic factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The median follow-up time following primary diagnosis was 9.6 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.2-10.5]. In the entire cohort, the 5-year estimates of the OS and LRFS rates were 66.0% (95% CI, 55.9-74.3) and 60.6% (95% CI, 50.3-69.4), respectively. A total of 27 patients (24.5%) developed distant metastases with a median survival time of 0.9 years following the diagnosis of metastasis. Surgical margins attained at the initial resection and eventual re-excisions significantly influenced OS in univariate analysis (5-year OS, R0 69.9% vs. R1/R2 38.5%; P=0.046), but this failed to reach statistical significance in the multivariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, significant adverse prognostic features of LRFS included angiosarcoma subtype, G2 and G3 histology. For OS, the only independent significant predictors were age >50 years, tumor size >5 cm, angiosarcoma subtype and G3 histology. The results of the present study suggest that tumor biology, as reflected by the histological grade, influences the final outcome in patients with chest wall STS. Surgical margins failed to reach statistical significance in multivariate analysis as they demonstrated a dependency towards the independent predictors of OS. Subsequently, a positive margin status may be a result rather than a

  16. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Investigative Group. 2016. Long-term air pollution and traffic noise exposures and mild cognitive impairment in older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1361-1368; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509824.

  17. A meta-analysis and meta-regression of long-term outcomes of transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Pedro A; Mathew, Verghese; Thourani, Vinod H; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bangalore, Sripal; Makkiya, Mohammed; Vlismas, Peter; Briceno, David F; Slovut, David P; Taub, Cynthia C; McCarthy, Patrick M; Augoustides, John G; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-12-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an alternative to surgical aortic-valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) who are at high operative risk. We sought to determine the long-term (≥1year follow-up) safety and efficacy TAVR compared with SAVR in patients with severe AS. A comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and relevant Web sites from inception through 10 April 2016. Fifty studies enrolling 44,247 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean duration follow-up was 21.4months. No difference was found in long-term all-cause mortality (risk ratios (RR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.22). There was a significant difference favoring TAVR in the incidence of stroke (RR, 0.82; 95% CI 0.71-0.94), atrial fibrillation (RR, 0.43; 95% CI 0.33-0.54), acute kidney injury (RR, 0.70; 95% CI 0.53-0.92), and major bleeding (RR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.81). TAVR had significant higher incidence of vascular complications (RR, 2.90; 95% CI 1.87-4.49), aortic regurgitation (RR, 7.00; 95% CI 5.27-9.30), and pacemaker implantation (PPM) (RR, 2.02; 95% CI 1.51-2.68). TAVR demonstrated significantly lower stroke risk compared to SAVR in high-risk patients (RR, 1.49; 95% CI 1.06-2.10); no differences in PPM implantation were observed in intermediate-risk patients (RR, 1.68; 95% CI 0.94-3.00). In a meta-regression analysis, the effect of TAVR baseline clinical features did not affect the long-term all-cause mortality outcome. TAVR and SAVR showed similar long-term survival in patients with severe AS; with important differences in treatment-associated morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long term radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    A major issue to secure the development of nuclear energy in future is the radioactive waste minimization, both inside the fuel cycle and in a deep geological storage. The aim of this paper is to establish the physical principles which provide an inherent minimization of the radioactive wastes. A new concept is introduced to characterize the radiotoxicity associated to various nuclei families in equilibrium state. The analysis shows the potential of evolutionary nuclear systems, mostly based on known technologies and the potential of more futuristic systems, like accelerator-driven systems and Th-fuel cycle. Several groups of the toxicity sources are object of the studies: Actinides as a part of the nuclear fuel which is remaining unusable after irradiation in nuclear power plants; long-lived fission products as the inevitable result of nuclear energy production; Lanthanides as an important part of fission products which separation from Actinides is technologically difficult because of similar chemical properties

  19. Influence of advancing age on clinical presentation, treatment efficacy and safety, and long-term outcome of inducible paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia without pre-excitation syndromes: A cohort study of 1960 patients included over 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Sellal, Jean Marc; Olivier, Arnaud; Villemin, Thibaut; Beurrier, Daniel; Vincent, Julie; Manenti, Vladimir; de Chillou, Christian; Bozec, Erwan

    2018-01-01

    Aim To investigate the influence of increasing age on clinical presentation, treatment and long-term outcome in patients with inducible paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) without pre-excitation syndromes. Methods Clinical and electrophysiological study (EPS) data, as well as long-term clinical outcome (mean follow-up 2.4±4.0 years) were collected in patients referred for regular tachycardia with inducible SVT during EPS without pre-excitation. Results Among 1960 referred patients, 301 patients (15.4%) were aged ≥70 (70–97). In this subset, anticoagulants were prescribed in 49 patients following an erroneous diagnosis of atrial tachycardia and 14 were previously erroneously diagnosed with ventricular tachycardia because of wide QRS. Ablation was performed more frequently in patients ≥70 despite more frequent failure and complications. During follow-up, higher risks of AF, stroke, pacemaker implantation and death were observed in patients ≥70 whereas SVT recurrences were similar in both age groups. In multivariable analysis, age ≥70 was independently associated with higher risks of SVT-related adverse events prior to ablation (OR = 1.93, 1.41–2.62, pSVT without pre-excitation syndromes are elderly. These patients exhibit higher risks of erroneous tachycardia diagnosis prior to EPS as well as failure and/or complication of ablation, but similar risk of SVT recurrence. These results support performing transesophageal EPS in most patients and intracardiac EPS in selected patients. EPS may furthermore prove useful in elderly patients with regular tachycardia, mainly by avoiding treatment based on an erroneous diagnosis. PMID:29304037

  20. The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Background Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. Methods and Findings A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16–2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43–3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61–2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67–2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11–1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17–5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44–4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13–3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50–2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49–2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39–1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these

  1. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana E Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]; drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]; suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]; and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of the evidence

  2. Analysis of Justification of Long Term Operation of Russian NPP with VVER in Aspect of Pressure Vessel Radiation Embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodkin, P.G.; Borodkin, G.I.; Khrennikov, N.N.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is one of the most key components of equipment of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with VVER type reactors. The issue of the plant lifetime extension is actual especially in aspect of RPV embrittlement. An analysis of influence of RPV embrittlement on the evaluation of RPV lifetime and by means of that on an opportunity of operation extension beyond the design life within the framework of the expert analysis. The Regulatory Standards Base, existing in Russia and guiding a process of justification of RPV lifetime, is surveyed. The results of expert analysis performed in SEC NRS particularly towards the application of the first generation of VVER-440 reactors are presented. On the basis of such analyses, the priority issues, solution of which considerably increases a confidence of justification of VVER-440 and VVER-1000 RPV lifetime, are assigned. (author)

  3. Heart Rate Variability Density Analysis (Dyx) and Prediction of Long-Term Mortality after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Mørch; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Levitan, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The density HRV parameter Dyx is a new heart rate variability (HRV) measure based on multipole analysis of the Poincaré plot obtained from RR interval time series, deriving information from both the time and frequency domain. Preliminary results have suggested that the parameter may provide...... of mortality (P = 0.02). Reduced Dyx also predicted cardiovascular death (P cardiovascular death (P = 0.05). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, Dyx significantly predicted mortality in patients both with and without impaired left ventricular systolic function (P

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Mitochondria-associated ER Membrane (MAM) in a Long-term Type 2 Diabetic Rodent Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jacey Hongjie; Shen, Shichen; Wang, Joshua J; He, Zhanwen; Poon, Amanda; Li, Jun; Qu, Jun; Zhang, Sarah X

    2017-05-18

    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a critical role in cellular energetics and calcium homeostasis; however, how MAM is affected under diabetic condition remains elusive. This study presented a comprehensive proteome profiling of isolated brain MAM from long-term type 2 diabetic mice vs. non-diabetic controls. MAM protein was extracted efficiently by a surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet digestion (SOD) method, and MAM proteome was quantified by an ion-current-based MS1 method combined with nanoLC-MS/MS. A total of 1,313 non-redundant proteins of MAM were identified, among which 144 proteins were found significantly altered by diabetes. In-depth IPA analysis identified multiple disease-relevant signaling pathways associated with the MAM proteome changes in diabetes, most significantly the unfolded protein response (UPR), p53, hypoxia-related transcription factors, and methyl CpG binding protein 2. Using immunofluorescence labeling we confirmed the activation of three UPR branches and increased ERp29 and calreticulin in diabetic retinas. Moreover, we found GRP75, a key MAM tethering protein, was drastically reduced by long-term diabetes. In vitro, acute high glucose treatment reduces ER-mitochondrial contact in retinal endothelial cells. This study provides first insight into the significant alterations in MAM proteome associated with activation of the UPR in diabetes, which may serve as novel benchmarks for the future studies of diabetic complications.

  5. Multi-capillary column-ion mobility spectrometer (MCC-IMS) breath analysis in ventilated rats: a model with the feasibility of long-term measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A; Baumbach, J I; Kleber, A; Maurer, F; Maddula, S; Favrod, P; Jang, M; Fink, T; Volk, T; Kreuer, S

    2014-03-01

    Rats are commonly used in medical research as they enable a high grade of standardization. The exhalome of ventilated rats has not as yet been investigated using an ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a multi-capillary column (MCC-IMS). As a first step, a rat model has to be established to measure potential biomarkers in the exhale with long-term settings, allowing constant and continuous analysis of exhaled air in time series. Therefore, eight animals were anaesthetized, prepared and ventilated for 1 h. A total of 73 peaks were directly detected with the IMS chromatogram. Thirty five of them were assigned to the ventilator system and 38 to the animals. Peak intensity varied within three measurements. The intensity of analytes of individual rats varied by a factor of up to 18. This new model will also enable continuous measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from rat's breath in long-term experiments. It is hoped that, in the future, variability and progression of VOCs can be monitored in different models of diseases using this set-up.

  6. Impact of donor-recipient sex match on long-term survival after heart transplantation in children: An analysis of 5797 pediatric heart transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemna, Mariska; Albers, Erin; Bradford, Miranda C; Law, Sabrina; Permut, Lester; McMullan, D Mike; Law, Yuk

    2016-03-01

    The effect of donor-recipient sex matching on long-term survival in pediatric heart transplantation is not well known. Adult data have shown worse survival when male recipients receive a sex-mismatched heart, with conflicting results in female recipients. We analyzed 5795 heart transplant recipients ≤ 18 yr in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (1990-2012). Recipients were stratified based on donor and recipient sex, creating four groups: MM (N = 1888), FM (N = 1384), FF (N = 1082), and MF (N = 1441). Males receiving sex-matched donor hearts had increased unadjusted allograft survival at five yr (73.2 vs. 71%, p = 0.01). However, this survival advantage disappeared with longer follow-up and when adjusted for additional risk factors by multivariable Cox regression analysis. In contrast, for females, receiving a sex-mismatched heart was associated with an 18% higher risk of allograft loss over time compared to receiving a sex-matched heart (HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38) and a 26% higher risk compared to sex-matched male recipients (HR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.45). Females who receive a heart from a male donor appear to have a distinct long-term survival disadvantage compared to all other groups. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 77 FR 57545 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Public Meeting on Monitoring Data Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Public Meeting on Monitoring Data Analysis, Occurrence Forecasts, Binning, and the... solicit public input on data and information related to several topics. The first topic is the results of... Review process. EPA will consider the data and/or information discussed at this meeting during the agency...

  8. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A'Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey.

  9. Genomic analysis of HIV type 1 strains derived from a mother and child pair of long-term nonprogressors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Weiser, B.; Kuiken, C.; Dong, T.; Lang, D.; Nachman, S.; Zhang, Y.; Rowland-Jones, S.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2007), s. 309-315 ISSN 0889-2229 Grant - others:U.S. National Institue of Allergy and Infectious Disease(US) RO1-AI-42555; Fogarty International Center, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute(US) D43 TW000233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HIV-1 * genomic analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2007

  10. Prognostic factors for long-term outcome after percutaneous thermal ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a survival analysis of 137 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.-X.; Lu, M.-D.; Xie, X.-Y.; Yin, X.-Y.; Kuang, M.; Chen, J.-W.; Xu, Z.-F.; Liu, G.-J.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To identify prognostic factors for long-term outcome for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after percutaneous microwave or radiofrequency ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 137 consecutive patients with HCC underwent microwave or radiofrequency ablation with curative intent; 16 possible prognostic factors were evaluated for their association with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median OS and DFS were 27.0 months and 8.2 months, respectively. OS rates for all patients at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 73.9%, 52.1%, 42.8%, 26.2% and 20.1%, respectively. DFS rates at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years were 38.1%, 21.9%, 18.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. Pretreatment serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >200 ng/ml, pretreatment serum albumin ≤35 g/dl, liver function Child's class C and incomplete ablation were found to be significant predictors for OS by univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, incomplete ablation was identified to be the most significant independent predictor for OS. Other independent predictors for OS were serum albumin level, serum AFP level and Child-Pugh classification. Recurrence after hepatectomy and prothrombin time >14 s were identified to be significant predictors for DFS by univariate analysis, and the former was the only independent predictor for DFS by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Prognosis for patients with HCC after thermal ablation with curative intent was determined by treatment response to ablation, pretreatment serum AFP, and liver function reserve. Tumour response to treatment was the most predictive factor for long-term survival and was related to tumour size, thus careful selection of patients for ablation therapy is recommended

  11. Analysis on long-term perspective of nuclear energy in the global energy system in terms of CO2 mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Uotani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The value of nuclear energy is analyzed for prevention of global warming and climate change by means of a global energy model, which finds the cost minimum energy system over the time range of 2000 - 2100. Six scenarios are examined in this analysis, considering two scenarios of economic growth rate, two scenarios of electrification rate, and FBR introduction or not. The results indicate that progress of electricity generation is the key to reduce the global CO 2 emission, and the role of FBRs with its nuclear fuel cycle is very robust against any economic conditions. (author)

  12. Updated interim efficacy analysis and long-term safety of abiraterone acetate in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients without prior chemotherapy (COU-AA-302).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana E; Smith, Matthew R; de Bono, Johann S; Logothetis, Christopher J; Shore, Neal D; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mulders, Peter F A; Mainwaring, Paul; Hainsworth, John D; Beer, Tomasz M; North, Scott; Fradet, Yves; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Carles, Joan; Flaig, Thomas W; Efstathiou, Eleni; Yu, Evan Y; Higano, Celestia S; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Griffin, Thomas W; Todd, Mary B; Yu, Margaret K; Park, Youn C; Kheoh, Thian; Small, Eric J; Scher, Howard I; Molina, Arturo; Ryan, Charles J; Saad, Fred

    2014-11-01

    Abiraterone acetate (an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor) plus prednisone is approved for treating patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Study COU-AA-302 evaluated abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with progressive mCRPC without prior chemotherapy. Report the prespecified third interim analysis (IA) of efficacy and safety outcomes in study COU-AA-302. Study COU-AA-302, a double-blind placebo-controlled study, enrolled patients with mCRPC from April 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1088 patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1). Patients were randomised 1:1 to abiraterone 1000mg plus prednisone 5mg twice daily by mouth versus prednisone. Co-primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS). Median times to event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using the Cox model, and treatment comparison used the log-rank test. The O'Brien-Fleming Lan-DeMets α-spending function was used for OS. Adverse events were summarised descriptively. With a median follow-up duration of 27.1 mo, improvement in rPFS was statistically significant with abiraterone treatment versus prednisone (median: 16.5 vs 8.2 mo; HR: 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45-0.61]; ppatient-reported outcomes improved. While the post hoc nature of the long-term safety analysis is a limitation, the safety profile with longer treatment exposure was consistent with prior reports. The updated IA of study COU-AA-302 in patients with mCRPC without prior chemotherapy confirms that abiraterone delays disease progression, pain, and functional deterioration and has clinical benefit with a favourable safety profile, including in patients treated for ≥24 mo. Study COU-AA-302, ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00887198. The updated results of this ongoing study

  13. Long-term drug survival and predictor analysis of the whole psoriatic patient population on biological therapy in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogácsás, Lilla; Borsi, András; Takács, Péter; Remenyik, Éva; Kemény, Lajos; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Holló, Péter; Wikonkál, Norbert; Gyulai, Rolland; Károlyi, Zsuzsanna; Rakonczai, Pál; Balázs, Tamás; Szegedi, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Persistence is an important component of therapeutic success, which depends on a variety of factors. Persistence measured under optimal conditions during clinical trials does not necessarily coincide with persistence observed in the real-world settings. The aim of the present study was to compare persistence rate of TNF-alpha inhibitors and interleukin 12/23 inhibitor in all psoriasis patients in Hungary, as well as to analyze the predictors of persistence. Data collected from 1263 patients over a period of 46 months were subjected to a retrospective analysis. Drug survival rate has been calculated according to Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression was used to study the predictors. The overall persistence rate for the four biologicals exceeded 60% after 3 years. The persistence rate of ustekinumab at 3 years was 67.83%, which was superior compared to that of the TNF-alpha inhibitors, where the mean persistence rate was shown to be 50.76% (p < .05). Male patients showed significantly higher persistence than females (HR = .76, p < .05 CI: 0.63, 0.92). Age, therapy-naïve status and use of concomitant MTX did not have significant effect on drug survival. Persistence rate of ustekinumab was significantly higher than that of TNF-alpha inhibitors, and among predictors, only male gender influenced persistence significantly.

  14. Long-term outcomes of dental implants placed in elderly patients: a retrospective clinical and radiographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Chul; Baek, Won-Sun; Choi, Seong-Ho; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Jung, Ui-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical and the radiographic outcomes of dental implants placed in elderly people older than 65 years. In total, 902 implants in 346 patients (age: 65-89 years) were followed up for 2-17 years following the implant surgery. The survival rate of these implants was recorded and analyzed. Changes in marginal bone levels were also analyzed in serial radiographs, and Cox regression analysis for implant loss was performed. The survival rates were 95.39% and 99.98% in the implant- and patient-based analyses, respectively (involving a total of 29 implant failures), and the marginal bone loss at the implants was 0.17 ± 0.71 mm (mean ± SD). The number of failures was greatest in patients aged 65-69 years. The Cox regression with shared frailty analysis showed that implant loss was significantly greater in those aged 65-69 years than in those aged 70-74 years (P implant systems. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, it was concluded that implant therapy can be successfully provided to elderly patients and that age alone does not seem to affect the implant survival rate. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pyroclastic Flow Deposits and InSAR: Analysis of Long-Term Subsidence at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. McAlpin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformation of pyroclastic flow deposits begins almost immediately after emplacement, and continues thereafter for months or years. This study analyzes the extent, volume, thickness, and variability in pyroclastic flow deposits (PFDs on Augustine Volcano from measuring their deformation rates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR. To conduct this analysis, we obtained 48 SAR images of Augustine Volcano acquired between 1992 and 2010, spanning its most recent eruption in 2006. The data were processed using d-InSAR time-series analysis to measure the thickness of the Augustine PFDs, as well as their surface deformation behavior. Because much of the 2006 PFDs overlie those from the previous eruption in 1986, geophysical models were derived to decompose deformation contributions from the 1986 deposits underlying the measured 2006 deposits. To accomplish this, we introduce an inversion approach to estimate geophysical parameters for both 1986 and 2006 PFDs. Our analyses estimate the expanded volume of pyroclastic flow material deposited during the 2006 eruption to be 3.3 × 107 m3 ± 0.11 × 107 m3, and that PFDs in the northeastern part of Augustine Island reached a maximum thickness of ~31 m with a mean of ~5 m. Similarly, we estimate the expanded volume of PFDs from the 1986 eruption at 4.6 × 107 m3 ± 0.62 × 107 m3, with a maximum thickness of ~31 m, and a mean of ~7 m.

  16. Long-term climate dynamics in the extra-tropics of the South Pacific revealed from sedimentary charcoal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Michela; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn

    2017-10-01

    We synthesized 13 high-resolution charcoal records located within the current zone of strongest correlation between the southern westerly winds (SWW) and rainfall on Earth in an attempt to assess how shifts in the SWW drive climatic change in this region. High regional charcoal influx values are found during the early Holocene (12-8 ka), progressively decreasing and reaching a minimum during the mid-Holocene (∼5 ka). Wavelet coherence analysis between regional charcoal influxes from southern South America (SSA) and western Tasmania (WTAS) shows a tight periodicity coherence from 12 to ∼6 ka, supporting synchronous SWW-driven climatic change in these areas. The same analysis between the regional Tasmania charcoal influx and an ENSO proxy suggests a coherent pattern of frequency variability between these records since ∼6 ka, highlighting the importance of ENSO in altering fire regimes in this region. Our data also provides insights into the non-stationarity of the climate system in space and time and highlights the potential limitations of modern climatic relationships for informing our understanding of the global climate system.

  17. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term contracts. (a..., building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract under section 460 and what...

  18. Long-term analysis of aerosol optical depth over Northeast Asia using a satellite-based measurement: MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Yoon, Jongmin; Chung, Chu-Yong; Chung, Sung-Rae

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the Korean geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite, the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), was launched including the Meteorological Imager (MI). The MI measures atmospheric condition over Northeast Asia (NEA) using a single visible channel centered at 0.675 μm and four IR channels at 3.75, 6.75, 10.8, 12.0 μm. The visible measurement can also be utilized for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties (AOPs). Since the GEO satellite measurement has an advantage for continuous monitoring of AOPs, we can analyze the spatiotemporal variation of the aerosol using the MI observations over NEA. Therefore, we developed an algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using the visible observation of MI, and named as MI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (YAER). In this study, we investigated the accuracy of MI YAER AOD by comparing the values with the long-term products of AERONET sun-photometer. The result showed that the MI AODs were significantly overestimated than the AERONET values over bright surface in low AOD case. Because the MI visible channel centered at red color range, contribution of aerosol signal to the measured reflectance is relatively lower than the surface contribution. Therefore, the AOD error in low AOD case over bright surface can be a fundamental limitation of the algorithm. Meanwhile, an assumption of background aerosol optical depth (BAOD) could result in the retrieval uncertainty, also. To estimate the surface reflectance by considering polluted air condition over the NEA, we estimated the BAOD from the MODIS dark target (DT) aerosol products by pixel. The satellite-based AOD retrieval, however, largely depends on the accuracy of the surface reflectance estimation especially in low AOD case, and thus, the BAOD could include the uncertainty in surface reflectance estimation of the satellite-based retrieval. Therefore, we re-estimated the BAOD using the ground-based sun-photometer measurement, and

  19. a long-term study

    OpenAIRE

    Petereit, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The hospital mortality rate of renal transplant patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) is considered to be significantly higher compared to general ICU patients. Data concerning the long term outcomes of these patients is lacking. Furthermore, little data exists to guide the management of immunosuppression (IS) in critically ill patients on ICU. The author hypothesizes that a reduced IS on ICU will not lead to significantly increased long-term mortality, rejections and transplant fai...

  20. A decision analysis framework to support long-term planning for nuclear fuel cycle technology research, development, demonstration and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowder, A.G.; Machiels, A.J.; Dykes, A.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    To address challenges and gaps in nuclear fuel cycle option assessment and to support research, develop and demonstration programs oriented toward commercial deployment, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) is seeking to develop and maintain an independent analysis and assessment capability by building a suite of assessment tools based on a platform of software, simplified relationships, and explicit decision-making and evaluation guidelines. As a demonstration of the decision-support framework, EPRI examines a relatively near-term fuel cycle option, i.e., use of reactor-grade mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) in U.S. light water reactors. The results appear as a list of significant concerns (like cooling of spent fuels, criticality risk...) that have to be taken into account for the final decision

  1. A benefit-cost analysis of a long-term intervention on social and emotional learning in compulsory school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Klapp

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that social and emotional skills can be taught to students in school and teaching these skills can have a positive effect on later outcomes, such as better mental health and less drug use. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of a longitudinal social and emotional learning intervention in Sweden, using data for 663 students participating in the evaluation. Intervention costs are compared against treatment impact on self-reported drug use. Pre-test and post-test data are available. Since follow-up data for the participants´ drug use as adults is not available, informed projections have been made. Net present monetary values are calculated for the general public and society. The results show that students in the treatment group report decreasing use of drugs over the five year long intervention, the value of which easily outweighs the intervention costs.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  3. Identifying Pre-Seismic TIR Anomalies: A Long Term (2004-2015) Of RST Analysis Over Turkish Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, A.; Tramutoli, V.; Corrado, A.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since eighties, fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, measured by satellite sensors operating in the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range (i.e. 10-12 µm), have been associated with the complex process of preparation of earthquakes. Several theories have been proposed to explain their origin and their space-time evolution. In this paper, the Earth's emitted radiation in the Thermal Infra-Red spectral region is considered for its possible correlation with M≥4 earthquakes occurred in Turkey in between 2004 and 2015. Robust Satellite Technique (RST) and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to preliminarily define, and then to identify, Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) in the period 1 April 2004- 31 October 2015 (12 years) of daily TIR images acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The performed analysis shows that more than 67% of all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around the occurrence time and location of earthquakes (M≥4), with a false positive rate smaller than 33%. Moreover, Molchan error diagram analysis gave a clear indication of non-casualty of such a correlation, in comparison with the random guess function. Notwithstanding the huge amount of missed events due to frequent space/time data gaps produced by the presence of clouds over the scene the achieved results, and particularly the low rate of false positives registered on a so long testing period, seems sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST approach and RETIRA index) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  4. Long-Term Restoration of Anterior Shoulder Stability: A Retrospective Analysis of Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Versus Open Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Stefan M; Scheyerer, Max J; Farshad, Mazda; Catanzaro, Sabrina; Rahm, Stefan; Gerber, Christian

    2016-12-07

    Various operative techniques are used for treating recurrent anterior shoulder instability, and good mid-term results have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder stability after treatment with the 2 commonly performed procedures, the arthroscopic Bankart soft-tissue repair and the open coracoid transfer according to Latarjet. A comparative, retrospective case-cohort analysis of 360 patients (364 shoulders) who had primary repair for recurrent anterior shoulder instability between 1998 and 2007 was performed. The minimum duration of follow-up was 6 years. Reoperations, overt recurrent instability (defined as recurrent dislocation or subluxation), apprehension, the subjective shoulder value (SSV), sports participation, and overall satisfaction were recorded. An open Latarjet procedure was performed in 93 shoulders, and an arthroscopic Bankart repair was done in 271 shoulders. Instability or apprehension persisted or recurred after 11% (10) of the 93 Latarjet procedures and after 41.7% (113) of the 271 arthroscopic Bankart procedures. Overt instability recurred after 3% of the Latarjet procedures and after 28.4% (77) of the Bankart procedures. In the Latarjet group, 3.2% of the patients were not satisfied with their result compared with 13.2% in the Bankart group (p = 0.007). Kaplan-Meier analysis of survivorship, with apprehension (p Latarjet procedure and the decreasing effectiveness of the arthroscopic Bankart repair over time. Twenty percent of the first recurrences after arthroscopic Bankart occurred no earlier than 91 months postoperatively, as opposed to the rare recurrences after osseous reconstruction, which occurred in the early postoperative period, with only rare late failures. In this retrospective cohort study, the arthroscopic Bankart procedure was inferior to the open Latarjet procedure for repair of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The difference between the 2 procedures with respect to the quality of outcomes

  5. Analysis of resource potential for China’s unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Mohr, Steve; Feng, Lianyong; Liu, Huihui; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    China is vigorously promoting the development of its unconventional gas resources because natural gas is viewed as a lower-carbon energy source and because China has relatively little conventional natural gas supply. In this paper, we first evaluate how much unconventional gas might be available based on an analysis of technically recoverable resources for three types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas. We then develop three alternative scenarios of how this extraction might proceed, using the Geologic Resources Supply Demand Model. Based on our analysis, the medium scenario, which we would consider to be our best estimate, shows a resource peak of 176.1 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2068. Depending on economic conditions and advance in extraction techniques, production could vary greatly from this. If economic conditions are adverse, unconventional natural gas production could perhaps be as low as 70.1 bcm, peaking in 2021. Under the extremely optimistic assumption that all of the resources that appear to be technologically available can actually be recovered, unconventional production could amount to as much as 469.7 bcm, with peak production in 2069. Even if this high scenario is achieved, China’s total gas production will only be sufficient to meet China’s lowest demand forecast. If production instead matches our best estimate, significant amounts of natural gas imports are likely to be needed. - Highlights: • A comprehensive investigation on China’s unconventional gas resources is presented. • China’s unconventional gas production is forecast under different scenarios. • Unconventional gas production will increase rapidly in high scenario. • Achieving the projected production in high scenario faces many challenges. • The increase of China’s unconventional gas production cannot solve its gas shortage.

  6. Esophageal reconstruction by colon interposition after esophagectomy for cancer analysis of current indications, operative outcomes, and long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslinger, Vincent; Tranchart, Hadrien; D'Annunzio, Elsa; Poghosyan, Tigran; Quero, Laurent; Munoz-Bongrand, Nicolas; Corte, Helene; Sarfati, Emile; Cattan, Pierre; Chirica, Mircea

    2016-02-01

    Colon interposition is an alternative solution for esophageal reconstruction if the stomach cannot be used. The study reviews current indications and results of coloplasty for cancer. Patients who underwent colon interposition for gastro-esophageal malignancy were included. Primary coloplasty was defined as upfront colon interposition. Salvage coloplasty was defined as colon interposition after primary reconstruction failure. Mortality, morbidity, function, and survival were evaluated. We included 28 patients (24 men, median age 61 years). Ten (36%) patients underwent primary coloplasty due to previous gastrectomy (n = 5), conduit gastric cancer (n = 2), extensive gastroesophageal involvement (n = 2), and gastric cancer recurrence (n = 1). Salvage coloplasty was performed in 18 (64%) patients for postoperative graft necrosis (n = 5) and intractable strictures (n = 3). Operative mortality, morbidity, and graft necrosis rates were 14% (4/28), 86% (24/28), and 14% (4/28), respectively; there were no significant differences between primary and salvage coloplasty. Survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5 years were 81%, 51%, and 38%, respectively. Survival was decreased after primary coloplasty when compared to salvage coloplasty (P = 0.03). Nine patients experienced tumor recurrence (primary: n = 6, salvage: n = 3) after coloplasty and eight of them died. Colon interposition after esophagectomy is a useful but morbid endeavor. Colon interposition as salvage therapy is associated with improved survival compared to its use as primary esophageal replacement, and colon interposition in the latter cohort should be used with caution due to poor cancer-specific survival in this patient population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term stability analysis and effect evaluation of energy supply and demand in asia and pacific regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.R. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The competition in the supply of energy in Northeast Asian countries including Korea is forecasted to be intensively unfolded because of the soaring energy consumption the region. It is because the consumption of coal in Asia will be curtailed due to heightened global attention to environment, the import of Middle Eastern crude oil will be largely increasing since crude oil production in China and Indonesia is experiencing a slow-down. Therefore, close international cooperation is requested for the smooth supply of crude oil and natural gas to back up the economic growth. This study checked the energy supply and demand status in the Asian region that is changing since the 1990s, and analyzed the pressure factors in the energy supply sector. It needs to develop the Far Eastern region of Russia intensively as the energy supply base together with the Middle Eastern oil- producing regions as the plan to alleviate the energy competition within the region and seek economic development concurrently. Since this region requires large- scale investment as an never-expedited area, multilateral cooperation including neighboring countries that need energy and international enterprises who are interested in the profitability of the business are urgently required. Therefore, it is necessary to form and operate Northeast Asia Energy Forum (NAEF) which is a centripetal point that will actually carry out the resources development of Northeast Asia. Korea who is at the centripetal point of Northeast Asian tension should actively participate and support in the formation of this organization within the region in order to utilize it as the cornerstone of national north and south unification. 41 refs., 7 figs., 53 tabs.

  8. MRI analysis of structural changes in skeletal muscles and surrounding tissues following long-term walking exercise with training equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Ryusuke; Azuma, Takashi; Sudo, Mai; Urayama, Shin-Ichi; Takizawa, Osamu; Tsutsumi, Sadami

    2008-09-01

    Muscular recovery after exercise is an important topic in sports medicine, and accurate and quantitative measurements of changes in muscle are required to assess muscular recovery. In the present study, we report a new analytical method to measure muscular changes quantitatively. The technique consists of three independent methods: image processing of two-dimensional MR images, morphological analysis using three-dimensional MR images, and diffusion tensor MRI. Using this method, we investigated changes in the quadriceps and biceps femoris and gluteus maximus muscles and surrounding tissues before and after 1 mo of exercise wearing training equipment. The subjects were 21 healthy adult female volunteers, 14 of whom wore training equipment and 7 who wore normal equipment. The percentage of adipose tissue in muscle after exercise in subjects who wore training equipment was on average 4.4% (P muscular fiber tissues. This noninvasive measurement approach may allow quantitation of the athletic ability of the muscles, which is not measured conventionally, and is an effective method for analyzing skeletal muscles.

  9. Retrospective analysis of implant survival and the influence of periodontal disease and immediate placement on long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evian, Cyril I; Emling, Robert; Rosenberg, Edwin S; Waasdorp, Jonathan A; Halpern, Wendy; Shah, Shalin; Garcia, Marela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative survival rates of dental implants placed in a private periodontal practice and the effects of periodontal disease and immediate placement on implant survival. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 149 consecutive patients. Each patient had a single implant placed. For the purpose of analysis, patients were divided into 2 groups: those who were periodontally healthy and those who had periodontal disease. Implants were placed into available bone either immediately or after a healing period. All failed implants were removed and recorded. The effects of periodontal status and placement time on implant survival were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression and log-rank tests. Of the 149 implants in the study, 22 failed during the observation period. The 127 censored cases (i.e., implants that had not failed at the end of the observational period) were observed for a mean of 943 days (SD 932, range 35 to 4,030). Failed implants were observed for a mean of 722 days (SD 1,026, range 18 to 3,548). The presence of periodontal disease appeared to be associated with a greater failure rate, but there was no observed effect associated with time of placement. The percentages of censored immediate placement cases and delayed placement cases were nearly identical. Among the 77 implants associated with periodontal disease, placement time was not strongly associated with percentage censored. Forty-three of the 55 immediately placed implants (78.18%) and 18 of the 22 implants (81.18%) whose placement was delayed were censored. Both Cox proportional hazards regression and log-rank tests established that survival was adversely affected by periodontal disease (P .50). The lower 1-sided 95% confidence limit for median survival time was 3,548 days for patients without periodontal disease and 1,799 days for patients with disease. Implant survival was compromised by a history of periodontitis but not affected by

  10. Long-Term Survival Outcomes of Cancer-Directed Surgery for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Rice, David C; Niu, Jiangong; Atay, Scott; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Antonoff, Mara; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Walsh, Garrett L; Swisher, Stephen G; Roth, Jack A; Tsao, Anne; Gomez, Daniel; Giordano, Sharon H; Mehran, Reza; Sepesi, Boris

    2017-10-10

    Purpose Small observational studies have shown a survival advantage to undergoing cancer-directed surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM); however, it is unclear if these results are generalizable. Our purpose was to evaluate survival after treatment of MPM with cancer-directed surgery and to explore the effect surgery interaction with chemotherapy or radiation therapy on survival by using the National Cancer Database. Patients and Methods Patients with microscopically proven MPM were identified within the National Cancer Database (2004 to 2014). Propensity score matching was performed 1:2 and among this cohort, a Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify predictors of survival. Median survival was calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 20,561 patients with MPM, 6,645 were identified in the matched cohort, among whom 2,166 underwent no therapy, 2,015 underwent chemotherapy alone, 850 underwent cancer-directed surgery alone, 988 underwent surgery with chemotherapy, and 274 underwent trimodality therapy. The remaining 352 patients underwent another combination of surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Thirty-day and 90-day mortality rates were 6.3% and 15.5%. Cancer-directed surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were independently associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.77, 0.74, and 0.88, respectively). Stratified analysis revealed that surgery-based multimodality therapy demonstrated an improved survival compared with surgery alone, with no significant difference between surgery-based multimodality therapies; however, the largest estimated effect was when cancer-directed surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were combined (hazard ratio, 0.52). For patients with the epithelial subtype who underwent trimodality therapy, median survival was extended from 14.5 months to 23.4 months. Conclusion MPM is an aggressive and rapidly fatal disease. Surgery-based multimodality therapy was associated with

  11. Long term strategy for electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia – Analysis of cost and carbon footprint using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairuz, S.M.C.; Sulaiman, M.Y.; Lim, C.H.; Mat, S.; Ali, B.; Saadatian, O.; Ruslan, M.H.; Salleh, E.; Sopian, K.

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia envisages becoming a developed nation by 2020. To sustain industrial expansion and attract investments Malaysia must introduce new energy strategies. These strategies should also moderate carbon footprint. The new energy strategies introduced by the government are (i) installation of nuclear power plant by 2021, (ii) import of Sarawak hydropower from 2015 and (iii) enhancement of use of renewable energy from 2015. In this paper we analyze the cost and resulting carbon footprint of energy expansion for 12 energy scenes (inclusive of new strategies) to produce electricity for Peninsular Malaysia for the period 2009–2030. We use a computer model MESSAGE to provide optimization. The best strategy is for the following accumulated percentage of energy resource in the fuel mix: 49.3% (natural gas), 28.4% (coal), 4.06% (nuclear), 2.98% (hydropower), 4.45% (renewable), 10.82% (import hydropower). The minimum cost of expanding this strategy from 2009 until 2030 is USD6.090B. The CO 2 emission index of this strategy is 0.329 t/MWh. The accumulated carbon dioxide emission for this period is 1825.96 Mton CO 2 eq. -- Highlights: •We analyzed the cost of energy expansion and resulting carbon emission using software MESSAGE. •We studied the energy situation for the next 20 years beginning 2009 for Peninsular Malaysia. •We maintained the present energy resources of natural gas, coal and internal hydropower. •We included nuclear, hydropower import and renewable energy as new strategies

  12. Analysis of Bending Strength of Resin Mortars That Are at Risk of Long-Term Exposure to Environmental Corrosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Bernardeta; Licholai, Lech

    2017-12-01

    The results of the article are part of an extensive research on new building materials including cement-free polymer composites where the binder is epoxy resin modified with glycolyzates obtained from poly (ethylene terephthalate) waste (PET). The investigation conducted con-firmed that there is a possibility of using waste materials in the production of mortar. Since they have always been an environmental problem, their utilization will help to apply the principles of sustainable development in the processes of obtaining new materials. The article discusses the results of a study of flexural strength of polymer mortars. Mortar specimens modified with propylene glycol and PET waste based glycolyzate were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and their strength parameters were then examined after one month, six months and twelve months of immersion in this aggressive medium. The same characteristics were also determined for specimens that were not exposed to the NaCl solution. The results were presented as the trend function. The sections of the curve corresponding to the particular periods of exposure in aggressive medium vary in shape. Due to this, an attempt was made to adjust the spline function to the experimental data. The composites obtained show a deterioration in their strength properties which grows with the extension of their exposure to a corrosive medium. However, the chemical corrosion resistance of the mortars under investigation can be considered very good as it is still much higher than that of conventional cement mortars. Even after a year exposure to a corrosive substance, the mortars obtained still show high mean flexural strength values which equal about 30 MPa.

  13. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  14. Long-Term Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth over the Huaihai Economic Region (HER: Possible Causes and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of air is increasingly affecting regional climate and human activity. Collection 6 aerosol products retrieved from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS onboard the Terra satellite were validated based on CE-318 sun photometric data to analyze their applicability in the Huaihai economic region (HER at the Xuzhou and Shouxian sites. The spatio-temporal variations of aerosol optical depth (AOD were also analyzed over HER from 2000 to 2016, with analyses of the correlation with potential driving factors, including meteorology, vegetation and human factors. HER is an economic cooperation organization with multiple industrial structures, containing coal resource-based cities, a national transportation hub and agricultural and high-altitude areas, which shows regional differences in AOD. The results suggest that MODIS Terra AOD products show good agreement with ground observations, with correlation coefficients of above 0.84 in HER, and the main pollutants for high AOD values are fine particles (the mean Ångström exponent was 1.16. The average annual change in AOD varied with a weak growth trend over the past 17 years, while a transition in 2012 made the tendency change from upward to downward due to the extensive cooperation of cities in the joint prevention and control of the deterioration of the ecological environment. The largest monthly mean AOD value appeared in June, which resulted from significant agricultural residue burning. The spatial distribution of multi-year average AOD occurred with a banded high-value center, extending from the north-west to the south-east. The high aerosol loadings were located in resource-based cities, and industrially developed and south-eastern coastal areas, whereas the regions with relatively low AOD in HER were distributed in the southern agricultural and northern high-altitude areas. The AOD value in the western, northern, and eastern coastal areas of HER showed a significant

  15. Estimation of the radionuclide inventory in LWR spent fuel assembly structural materials for long-term safety analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radionuclide inventory of materials irradiated in a reactor depends on the initial material composition, irradiation history and on the magnitude and spectrum of the neutron flux. The material composition of a fuel assembly structure includes various alloys of Zircaloy, Inconel and stainless steel. The existing impurities in these materials are very important for accurate determination of the activation of all nuclides with a view to assessing the radiological consequences of their geological disposal. In fact, the safety assessments of geological repositories require the average and maximum (in the sense of very conservative inventories of the very long-lived nuclides as input. The purpose of the present work is to describe the methodology applied for determining the activation of these nuclides in fuel assembly structural materials by means of coupled depletion/activation calculations and also to crosscheck the results obtained from two approaches. UO2 and MOX PWR fuels have been simulated using SCALE/TRITON, simultaneously irradiating the fuel region in POWER mode and the cladding region in FLUX mode and aiming to produce binary macro cross-section libraries by applying accurate local neutron spectra in the cladding region as a function of irradiation history that are suitable for activation calculations. The developed activation libraries have been re-employed in a second run using the ORIGEN-S program for a dedicated activation calculation. The axial variation of the neutron flux along the fuel assembly length has also been considered. The SCALE calculations were performed using a 238-group cross-section library, according to the ENDF/B-VII. The results obtained with the ORIGEN-S activation calculations are compared with the results obtained from TRITON via direct irradiation of the cladding, as allowed by the FLUX mode. It is shown that an agreement on the total calculated activities can be found within 55% for MOX and within 22% for

  16. Disability, support and long-term social care of an elderly Spanish population, 2008-2009: an epidemiologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Isla, J; Comín-Comín, M; Alcalde-Cabero, E; Ruiz, C; Franco, E; Magallón, R; Damián, J; de Pedro-Cuesta, J; Larrosa-Montañes, L A

    2017-01-09

    Though poorly known, relationships between disability, need of help (dependency) and use of social services are crucial aspects of public health. The objective of this study was to describe the links between disability, officially assessed dependency, and social service use by an industrial population, and identify areas of inequity. We took advantage of a door-to-door survey conducted in the Cinco Villas district, Spain, in 2008-2009, which provided data on disability, morbidity, and service use among 1216 residents aged ≥50 years, and officially assessed dependency under the 2006 Dependency Act (OAD). Using logistic regression, we combined data collected at homes/residences on 625 disability screened-positive participants, and administrative information on degree of OAD and benefits at date of visit. Based on 163 disabled persons, the prevalence of residential/community-care users was 13.4% overall, with 6.0% being market-provided, 2.5% supported by the 2006 Act, and 4.9% supported by other public funds. Of 111 OAD applicants, 30 had been assigned an OAD degree; in 29 cases this was the highest OAD degree, wi