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Sample records for analysis identifies driver

  1. Integration of multiple networks and pathways identifies cancer driver genes in pan-cancer analysis.

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    Cava, Claudia; Bertoli, Gloria; Colaprico, Antonio; Olsen, Catharina; Bontempi, Gianluca; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2018-01-06

    Modern high-throughput genomic technologies represent a comprehensive hallmark of molecular changes in pan-cancer studies. Although different cancer gene signatures have been revealed, the mechanism of tumourigenesis has yet to be completely understood. Pathways and networks are important tools to explain the role of genes in functional genomic studies. However, few methods consider the functional non-equal roles of genes in pathways and the complex gene-gene interactions in a network. We present a novel method in pan-cancer analysis that identifies de-regulated genes with a functional role by integrating pathway and network data. A pan-cancer analysis of 7158 tumour/normal samples from 16 cancer types identified 895 genes with a central role in pathways and de-regulated in cancer. Comparing our approach with 15 current tools that identify cancer driver genes, we found that 35.6% of the 895 genes identified by our method have been found as cancer driver genes with at least 2/15 tools. Finally, we applied a machine learning algorithm on 16 independent GEO cancer datasets to validate the diagnostic role of cancer driver genes for each cancer. We obtained a list of the top-ten cancer driver genes for each cancer considered in this study. Our analysis 1) confirmed that there are several known cancer driver genes in common among different types of cancer, 2) highlighted that cancer driver genes are able to regulate crucial pathways.

  2. An Integrative Analysis to Identify Driver Genes in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Genta Sawada

    Full Text Available Few driver genes have been well established in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Identification of the genomic aberrations that contribute to changes in gene expression profiles can be used to predict driver genes.We searched for driver genes in ESCC by integrative analysis of gene expression microarray profiles and copy number data. To narrow down candidate genes, we performed survival analysis on expression data and tested the genetic vulnerability of each genes using public RNAi screening data. We confirmed the results by performing RNAi experiments and evaluating the clinical relevance of candidate genes in an independent ESCC cohort.We found 10 significantly recurrent copy number alterations accompanying gene expression changes, including loci 11q13.2, 7p11.2, 3q26.33, and 17q12, which harbored CCND1, EGFR, SOX2, and ERBB2, respectively. Analysis of survival data and RNAi screening data suggested that GRB7, located on 17q12, was a driver gene in ESCC. In ESCC cell lines harboring 17q12 amplification, knockdown of GRB7 reduced the proliferation, migration, and invasion capacities of cells. Moreover, siRNA targeting GRB7 had a synergistic inhibitory effect when combined with trastuzumab, an anti-ERBB2 antibody. Survival analysis of the independent cohort also showed that high GRB7 expression was associated with poor prognosis in ESCC.Our integrative analysis provided important insights into ESCC pathogenesis. We identified GRB7 as a novel ESCC driver gene and potential new therapeutic target.

  3. Domain-restricted mutation analysis to identify novel driver events in human cancer

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    Sanket Desai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of mutational spectra across various cancer types has given valuable insights into tumorigenesis. Different approaches have been used to identify novel drivers from the set of somatic mutations, including the methods which use sequence conservation, geometric localization and pathway information. Recent computational methods suggest use of protein domain information for analysis and understanding of the functional consequence of non-synonymous mutations. Similarly, evidence suggests recurrence at specific position in proteins is robust indicators of its functional impact. Building on this, we performed a systematic analysis of TCGA exome derived somatic mutations across 6089 PFAM domains and significantly mutated domains were identified using randomization approach. Multiple alignment of individual domain allowed us to prioritize for conserved residues mutated at analogous positions across different proteins in a statistically disciplined manner. In addition to the known frequently mutated genes, this analysis independently identifies low frequency Meprin and TRAF-Homology (MATH domain in Speckle Type BTB/POZ (SPOP protein, in prostate adenocarcinoma. Results from this analysis will help generate hypotheses about the downstream molecular mechanism resulting in cancer phenotypes.

  4. Preferential Allele Expression Analysis Identifies Shared Germline and Somatic Driver Genes in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

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    Halabi, Najeeb M.; Martinez, Alejandra; Al-Farsi, Halema; Mery, Eliane; Puydenus, Laurence; Pujol, Pascal; Khalak, Hanif G.; McLurcan, Cameron; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Al-Azwani, Iman; Al-Dous, Eman; Mohamoud, Yasmin A.; Malek, Joel A.; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genes where a variant allele is preferentially expressed in tumors could lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and optimization of targeted therapy. However, tumor sample heterogeneity complicates standard approaches for detecting preferential allele expression. We therefore developed a novel approach combining genome and transcriptome sequencing data from the same sample that corrects for sample heterogeneity and identifies significant preferentially expressed alleles. We applied this analysis to epithelial ovarian cancer samples consisting of matched primary ovary and peritoneum and lymph node metastasis. We find that preferentially expressed variant alleles include germline and somatic variants, are shared at a relatively high frequency between patients, and are in gene networks known to be involved in cancer processes. Analysis at a patient level identifies patient-specific preferentially expressed alleles in genes that are targets for known drugs. Analysis at a site level identifies patterns of site specific preferential allele expression with similar pathways being impacted in the primary and metastasis sites. We conclude that genes with preferentially expressed variant alleles can act as cancer drivers and that targeting those genes could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26735499

  5. Gene dosage, expression, and ontology analysis identifies driver genes in the carcinogenesis and chemoradioresistance of cervical cancer.

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    Malin Lando

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrative analysis of gene dosage, expression, and ontology (GO data was performed to discover driver genes in the carcinogenesis and chemoradioresistance of cervical cancers. Gene dosage and expression profiles of 102 locally advanced cervical cancers were generated by microarray techniques. Fifty-two of these patients were also analyzed with the Illumina expression method to confirm the gene expression results. An independent cohort of 41 patients was used for validation of gene expressions associated with clinical outcome. Statistical analysis identified 29 recurrent gains and losses and 3 losses (on 3p, 13q, 21q associated with poor outcome after chemoradiotherapy. The intratumor heterogeneity, assessed from the gene dosage profiles, was low for these alterations, showing that they had emerged prior to many other alterations and probably were early events in carcinogenesis. Integration of the alterations with gene expression and GO data identified genes that were regulated by the alterations and revealed five biological processes that were significantly overrepresented among the affected genes: apoptosis, metabolism, macromolecule localization, translation, and transcription. Four genes on 3p (RYBP, GBE1 and 13q (FAM48A, MED4 correlated with outcome at both the gene dosage and expression level and were satisfactorily validated in the independent cohort. These integrated analyses yielded 57 candidate drivers of 24 genetic events, including novel loci responsible for chemoradioresistance. Further mapping of the connections among genetic events, drivers, and biological processes suggested that each individual event stimulates specific processes in carcinogenesis through the coordinated control of multiple genes. The present results may provide novel therapeutic opportunities of both early and advanced stage cervical cancers.

  6. Services Acquisition in the Department of Defense: Analysis of Operational and Performance Data to Identify Drivers of Success

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    2015-03-24

    improving the disclosure of CPARS program office Audit results (Black et al., 2014, pp. 48–49). Acquisition Research Program Graduate School of...improving the disclosure of CPARS program office audit results (Black et al., 2014, pp. 44–49). Recommendations Based on our conclusions, we identified...Fitzsimmons, J. A., & Fitzsimmons, M. J. (2006). Service management: Operations, strategy, and information technology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw -Hill

  7. Gene expression analysis in human osteoblasts exposed to dexamethasone identifies altered developmental pathways as putative drivers of osteoporosis

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    Sadlier Denise M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a disease of decreased bone mineral density represents a significant and growing burden in the western world. Aging population structure and therapeutic use of glucocorticoids have contributed in no small way to the increase in the incidence of this disease. Despite substantial investigative efforts over the last number of years the exact molecular mechanism underpinning the initiation and progression of osteoporosis remain to be elucidated. This has meant that no significant advances in therapeutic strategies have emerged, with joint replacement surgery being the mainstay of treatment. Methods In this study we have used an integrated genomics profiling and computational biology based strategy to identify the key osteoblast genes and gene clusters whose expression is altered in response to dexamethasone exposure. Primary human osteoblasts were exposed to dexamethasone in vitro and microarray based transcriptome profiling completed. Results These studies identified approximately 500 osteoblast genes whose expression was altered. Functional characterization of the transcriptome identified developmental networks as being reactivated with 106 development associated genes found to be differentially regulated. Pathway reconstruction revealed coordinate alteration of members of the WNT signaling pathway, including frizzled-2, frizzled-7, DKK1 and WNT5B, whose differential expression in this setting was confirmed by real time PCR. Conclusion The WNT pathway is a key regulator of skeletogenesis as well as differentiation of bone cells. Reactivation of this pathway may lead to altered osteoblast activity resulting in decreased bone mineral density, the pathological hallmark of osteoporosis. The data herein lend weight to the hypothesis that alterations in developmental pathways drive the initiation and progression of osteoporosis.

  8. The valuation of nursing begins with identifying value drivers.

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    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2010-03-01

    Adequate investment in a profession links to its ability to define and document its value. This requires identifying those elements or value drivers that demonstrate its worth. To completely identify nursing's value drivers requires meshing the economic, technical, and caring aspects of its profession. Nursing's valuation includes assessing nursing's tangible and intangible assets and documenting these assets. This information communicates nursing's worth and ensures adequate economic investment in its services.

  9. Identifying Cancer Driver Genes Using Replication-Incompetent Retroviral Vectors

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    Victor M. Bii

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations. They can also be used for almost any human cancer due to the broad tropism of the vectors. Replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have the ability to dysregulate nearby cancer genes via several mechanisms including enhancer-mediated activation of gene promoters. The integrated provirus acts as a unique molecular tag for nearby candidate driver genes which can be rapidly identified using well established methods that utilize next generation sequencing and bioinformatics programs. Recently, retroviral vector screens have been used to efficiently identify candidate driver genes in prostate, breast, liver and pancreatic cancers. Validated driver genes can be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In this review, we describe the emergence of retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors as a novel tool to identify cancer driver genes in different cancer types.

  10. The Integrative Method Based on the Module-Network for Identifying Driver Genes in Cancer Subtypes

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    Xinguo Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in next-generation sequencing(NGS technologies, a large number of multiple types of high-throughput genomics data are available. A great challenge in exploring cancer progression is to identify the driver genes from the variant genes by analyzing and integrating multi-types genomics data. Breast cancer is known as a heterogeneous disease. The identification of subtype-specific driver genes is critical to guide the diagnosis, assessment of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. We developed an integrated frame based on gene expression profiles and copy number variation (CNV data to identify breast cancer subtype-specific driver genes. In this frame, we employed statistical machine-learning method to select gene subsets and utilized an module-network analysis method to identify potential candidate driver genes. The final subtype-specific driver genes were acquired by paired-wise comparison in subtypes. To validate specificity of the driver genes, the gene expression data of these genes were applied to classify the patient samples with 10-fold cross validation and the enrichment analysis were also conducted on the identified driver genes. The experimental results show that the proposed integrative method can identify the potential driver genes and the classifier with these genes acquired better performance than with genes identified by other methods.

  11. Identifying candidate driver genes by integrative ovarian cancer genomics data

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    Lu, Xinguo; Lu, Jibo

    2017-08-01

    Integrative analysis of molecular mechanics underlying cancer can distinguish interactions that cannot be revealed based on one kind of data for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. Tumor samples exhibit heterogeneity in omics data, such as somatic mutations, Copy Number Variations CNVs), gene expression profiles and so on. In this paper we combined gene co-expression modules and mutation modulators separately in tumor patients to obtain the candidate driver genes for resistant and sensitive tumor from the heterogeneous data. The final list of modulators identified are well known in biological processes associated with ovarian cancer, such as CCL17, CACTIN, CCL16, CCL22, APOB, KDF1, CCL11, HNF1B, LRG1, MED1 and so on, which can help to facilitate the discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery.

  12. Diagnostic tools for identifying sleepy drivers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    The overarching goal of this project was to identify and evaluate cognitive and behavioral indices that are sensitive to sleep : deprivation and may help identify commercial motor vehicle drivers (CMV) who are at-risk for driving in a sleep deprived ...

  13. A framework for identifying carbon hotspots and forest management drivers

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    Nilesh Timilsina; Francisco J. Escobedo; Wendell P. Cropper; Amr Abd-Elrahman; Thomas Brandeis; Sonia Delphin; Samuel Lambert

    2013-01-01

    Spatial analyses of ecosystem system services that are directly relevant to both forest management decision making and conservation in the subtropics are rare. Also, frameworks that identify and map carbon stocks and corresponding forest management drivers using available regional, national, and international-level forest inventory datasets could provide insights into...

  14. Can vehicle longitudinal jerk be used to identify aggressive drivers? An examination using naturalistic driving data.

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    Feng, Fred; Bao, Shan; Sayer, James R; Flannagan, Carol; Manser, Michael; Wunderlich, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigated the characteristics of vehicle longitudinal jerk (change rate of acceleration with respect to time) by using vehicle sensor data from an existing naturalistic driving study. The main objective was to examine whether vehicle jerk contains useful information that could be potentially used to identify aggressive drivers. Initial investigation showed that there are unique characteristics of vehicle jerk in drivers' gas and brake pedal operations. Thus two jerk-based metrics were examined: (1) driver's frequency of using large positive jerk when pressing the gas pedal, and (2) driver's frequency of using large negative jerk when pressing the brake pedal. To validate the performance of the two metrics, drivers were firstly divided into an aggressive group and a normal group using three classification methods (1) traveling at excessive speed (speeding), (2) following too closely to a front vehicle (tailgating), and (3) their association with crashes or near-crashes in the dataset. The results show that those aggressive drivers defined using any of the three methods above were associated with significantly higher values of the two jerk-based metrics. Between the two metrics the frequency of using large negative jerk seems to have better performance in identifying aggressive drivers. A sensitivity analysis shows the findings were largely consistent with varying parameters in the analysis. The potential applications of this work include developing quantitative surrogate safety measures to identify aggressive drivers and aggressive driving, which could be potentially used to, for example, provide real-time or post-ride performance feedback to the drivers, or warn the surrounding drivers or vehicles using the connected vehicle technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

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    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  16. Driver behavior analysis for right-turn drivers at signalized intersections using SHRP 2 naturalistic driving study data.

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    Wu, Jianqing; Xu, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Understanding driver behavior is important for traffic safety and operation, especially at intersections where different traffic movements conflict. While most driver-behavior studies are based on simulation, this paper documents the analysis of driver-behavior at signalized intersections with the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. This study analyzes the different influencing factors on the operation (speed control) and observation of right-turn drivers. A total of 300 NDS trips at six signalized intersections were used, including the NDS time-series sensor data, the forward videos and driver face videos. Different factors of drivers, vehicles, roads and environments were studied for their influence on driver behavior. An influencing index function was developed and the index was calculated for each influencing factor to quantitatively describe its influencing level. The influencing index was applied to prioritize the factors, which facilitates development and selection of safety countermeasures to improve intersection safety. Drivers' speed control was analyzed under different conditions with consideration of the prioritized influencing factors. Vehicle type, traffic signal status, conflicting traffic, conflicting pedestrian and driver age group were identified as the five major influencing factors on driver observation. This research revealed that drivers have high acceleration and low observation frequency under Right-Turn-On-Red (RTOR), which constituted potential danger for other roadway users, especially for pedestrians. As speed has a direct influence on crash rates and severities, the revealed speed patterns of the different situations also benefit selection of safety countermeasures at signalized intersections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

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    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

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    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  19. Development of a questionnaire for identifying driver's personal values in driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahab, Q.M.; Terken, J.M.B.; Eggen, J.H.; Terken, J.; Martens, M.; Mueller, C.; Healey, J.; Osswald, S.

    2013-01-01

    The speed behavior of drivers is influenced by their personal driving values. It is assumed that these personal values may differ between drivers. In this paper, we describe the development of the Personal Driving Values (PDV) questionnaire. The questionnaire is to be used as a means of identifying

  20. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers].

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    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the status of occupational stress in different types of train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 339 train drivers (including 289 passenger train drivers, 637 freight trains drivers, 339 passenger shunting train drivers, and 74 high speed rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, occupational stress factors, stress response factors and stress mitigating factors. The occupational stress factors, stress response factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. By using the method of covariance analysized the difference of occupational stress factors of all types train drivers, the method of Stepwise regression was used to analyze the effection (R(2)) of occupational stress factors and stress mitigating factors on stress response factors. Covariance analysis as covariates in age, education level, length of service and marital status showed that the scores of ERI (1.58 ± 0.05), extrinsic effort (19.88 ± 0.44), rewards (23.43 ± 0.43), intrinsic effort (17.86 ± 0.36), physical environment (5.70 ± 0.22), social support (30.51 ± 0.88) and daily tension (10.27 ± 0.38 ) of high speed rail drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 6.06, 11.32, 7.05, 13.25, 5.20, 9.48 and 6.14 respectively, P occupational stress factors and mitigating factors to depressive symptoms of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.64), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0

  1. Identifying drivers for consumer acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

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    Herrera-Corredor, J A; Saidu, J E P; Khachatryan, A; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Carballo-Carballo, A; Zepeda-Bautista, R

    2007-11-01

    The traditional production of corn tortilla has been modified by new processing technologies to make possible a commercial-scale production; this practice has resulted in products having sensory properties different from those produced by the traditional method. There is no published information on sensory attributes driving acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas. Identifying sensory drivers for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas will help commercially produce products that satisfy consumers' expectations. A consumer study was conducted to evaluate acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas and determine drivers of acceptance and purchase intent of the products. Ten samples of corn tortillas were selected to represent a variety of corn tortillas available in the Mexican market. Three hundred Mexican consumers evaluated acceptability of appearance, color, thickness, rollability, resistance to tearing, aroma, chewiness, taste and aftertaste, and overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a yes/no scale. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed that consumers were able to differentiate differences in sensory acceptability among 10 samples. For example, 2 homemade and 1 small commercial-scale samples, with an overall liking score of 6.6 to 6.7, were more acceptable than others. Rollability, resistance to tearing, and chewiness were attributes underlying overall differences among 10 samples. Attributes determining overall acceptance of corn tortillas were chewiness and overall liking. Purchase intent was influenced by overall appearance, rollability, chewiness, taste, and overall liking. This study revealed critical sensory attributes and their weights given by Mexican consumers when making decisions for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

  2. Understanding the health of lorry drivers in context: A critical discourse analysis.

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    Caddick, Nick; Varela-Mato, Veronica; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacey; Yates, Tom; King, James A

    2017-01-01

    This article moves beyond previous attempts to understand health problems in the lives of professional lorry drivers by placing the study of drivers' health in a wider social and cultural context. A combination of methods including focus groups, interviews and observations were used to collect data from a group of 24 lorry drivers working at a large transport company in the United Kingdom. Employing a critical discourse analysis, we identified the dominant discourses and subject positions shaping the formation of drivers' health and lifestyle choices. This analysis was systematically combined with an exploration of the gendered ways in which an almost exclusively male workforce talked about health. Findings revealed that drivers were constituted within a neoliberal economic discourse, which is reflective of the broader social structure, and which partly restricted drivers' opportunities for healthy living. Concurrently, drivers adopted the subject position of 'average man' as a way of defending their personal and masculine status in regards to health and to justify jettisoning approaches to healthy living that were deemed too extreme or irrational in the face of the constraints of their working lives. Suggestions for driver health promotion include refocusing on the social and cultural - rather than individual - underpinnings of driver health issues and a move away from moralistic approaches to health promotion.

  3. Systems analysis for modular versus multi-beam HIF drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small (∼1 cm dia.) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety and assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design

  4. Identifying Key Drivers of Return Reversal with Dynamical Bayesian Factor Graph.

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    Shuai Zhao

    Full Text Available In the stock market, return reversal occurs when investors sell overbought stocks and buy oversold stocks, reversing the stocks' price trends. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify key drivers of return reversal by incorporating a comprehensive set of factors derived from different economic theories into one unified dynamical Bayesian factor graph. We then use the model to depict factor relationships and their dynamics, from which we make some interesting discoveries about the mechanism behind return reversals. Through extensive experiments on the US stock market, we conclude that among the various factors, the liquidity factors consistently emerge as key drivers of return reversal, which is in support of the theory of liquidity effect. Specifically, we find that stocks with high turnover rates or high Amihud illiquidity measures have a greater probability of experiencing return reversals. Apart from the consistent drivers, we find other drivers of return reversal that generally change from year to year, and they serve as important characteristics for evaluating the trends of stock returns. Besides, we also identify some seldom discussed yet enlightening inter-factor relationships, one of which shows that stocks in Finance and Insurance industry are more likely to have high Amihud illiquidity measures in comparison with those in other industries. These conclusions are robust for return reversals under different thresholds.

  5. Risk Management Analysis on the Car Drivers in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntohadi, Hendro; Pahala, Yosi; Sitanggang, Rohana

    2015-01-01

    Car drivers in Indonesia will always face many kinds of risks. This research contains the context determination of this research, identifies all the significant risks, measures the frequency and impact of all the risks, draws all the identified risks in the chart, and describes how to manage or mitigate the risks. The dangerous risks which have high frequency and high impact are: 1) Many car drivers get the driving license without taking a driving course and without learning carefully the the...

  6. Ergonomic work analysis: A case study of bus drivers in the private collective transportation sector.

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    Araújo, Adolfo Vicente; Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Fernandes, Haroldo; Arcanjo, Georgia Santos

    2018-05-03

    The collective transportation system is essential to reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. Concerns exist related to quality, comfort and safety of bus driver's workstations. The objective of this study was to improve the driver's workstation in the private collective transportation sector by analyzing ergonomic practices using the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The EWA was chosen because it seeks to evaluate the labor condition as it relates to the psychophysiological conditions of workers, it complies with regulatory standard 17 (NR17). To identify driver concerns, interviews and questionnaires were administered. The workstation and worker routines were observed. The analysis revealed that the largest number of complaints related to noise, display light and location of the passenger identifier device. Drivers reported discomfort in the knees and lower back. Recommendations were made to improve the workstation and change the routine to minimize the discomfort and ergonomic risk factors.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: using evidence-based practice to identify risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Kimberly; Wolf, Debra

    2013-11-01

    Commercial motor vehicle driving is a hazardous occupation, having the third highest fatality rate among common U.S. jobs. Among the estimated 14 million U.S. commercial motor vehicle drivers, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is reported to be 17% to 28%. Despite the identified increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers, federal law does not require that they be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. This article presents an evidence-based practice change project; the authors developed, implemented, and evaluated a screening program to identify commercial motor vehicle drivers' risk for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations. The results of this practice change indicated screening for obstructive sleep apnea during the commercial driver medical examination led to improved identification of obstructive sleep apnea risk among commercial motor vehicle drivers and should be a clinical standard in occupational health clinics. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Somatic chromosomal engineering identifies BCAN-NTRK1 as a potent glioma driver and therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter J; Thomas, Rozario; Kannan, Ram; de Leon, Esther Sanchez; Drilon, Alexander; Rosenblum, Marc K; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Benezra, Robert; Ventura, Andrea

    2017-07-11

    The widespread application of high-throughput sequencing methods is resulting in the identification of a rapidly growing number of novel gene fusions caused by tumour-specific chromosomal rearrangements, whose oncogenic potential remains unknown. Here we describe a strategy that builds upon recent advances in genome editing and combines ex vivo and in vivo chromosomal engineering to rapidly and effectively interrogate the oncogenic potential of genomic rearrangements identified in human brain cancers. We show that one such rearrangement, an microdeletion resulting in a fusion between Brevican (BCAN) and Neurotrophic Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 1 (NTRK1), is a potent oncogenic driver of high-grade gliomas and confers sensitivity to the experimental TRK inhibitor entrectinib. This work demonstrates that BCAN-NTRK1 is a bona fide human glioma driver and describes a general strategy to define the oncogenic potential of novel glioma-associated genomic rearrangements and to generate accurate preclinical models of this lethal human cancer.

  9. Exploring Driver Injury Severity at Intersection: An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intersections are the most hazardous locations; however, only little is known about driver injury severity in intersection crashes. Hence, the main goal of this study was to further examine the different factors contributing to driver injury severity involved in fatal crashes at intersections. Data used for the present analysis was from the US DOT-Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS crash database from the year 2011. An ordered probit model was employed to fit the fatal crash data and analyze the factors impacting each injury severity level. The analysis results displayed that driver injury severity is significantly affected by many factors. They include driver age and gender, driver ethnicity, vehicle type and age (years of use, crash type, driving drunk, speeding, violating stop sign, cognitively distracted driving, and seat belt usage. These findings from the current study are beneficial to form a solid basis for adopting corresponding measures to effectively drop injury severity suffering from intersection crash. More insights into the effects of risk factors on driver injury severity could be acquired using more advanced statistical models.

  10. Reduction of low frequency vibration of truck driver and seating system through system parameter identification, sensitivity analysis and active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Bi, Fengrong; Du, Haiping

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to develop an 5-degree-of-freedom driver and seating system model for optimal vibration control. A new method for identification of the driver seating system parameters from experimental vibration measurement has been developed. The parameter sensitivity analysis has been conducted considering the random excitation frequency and system parameter uncertainty. The most and least sensitive system parameters for the transmissibility ratio have been identified. The optimised PID controllers have been developed to reduce the driver's body vibration.

  11. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human-wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions.

  12. Method for identifying drivers, barriers and synergies related to the deployment of a CO2 pipeline network : A case study for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Niels; Cabal, Helena; Gouveia, João Pedro; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a method to identify drivers, barriers and synergies (DBS) related to the deployment of a CO2 pipeline network. The method was demonstrated for the West Mediterranean region (WMR) (i.e. Spain, Portugal and Morocco). The method comprises a literature review, analysis of

  13. Prevalence of sleep quality disorder among Iranian drivers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Razzaghi, Alireza; Akbari, Maryam; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Kavari, Seyed Habibollah; Mani, Arash; Kazemi, Maryam; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Sleep Quality Disorder (SQD) plays a major role in road accidents. So, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of SQD among occupational drivers using systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran. Methods: All Persian and English articles between January, 2000 and October, 2015 which had reported the SQD prevalence in Iranian drivers by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with cross-sectional design, after the quality evaluation process and achieving the required score, were selected. The heterogenic index of the studies was distinguished by using Cochran (Q) and I2 tests. Based on heterogeneity results, a random effects model was used to estimate pooled prevalence of SQD. Meta-regression was also used to investigate the heterogeneity of suspected factors. Results: In total, 936 articles were found from national and international databases. Ten articles entered to meta-analysis process, ultimately. Since heterogeneity index suggested that there is a consider-able heterogeneity among the results of primary studies (I-squared = 98.8%, Q= 754.1, p less than 0.001), the overall estimation of SQD among Iranian drivers was conducted using random-effects model and its rate was estimated to be 53.4% (95% CI: 38.9-67.8). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that more than half of Iranian drivers have SQD. Identifying the drivers with SQD by periodic examinations and providing advice and health care among occupational drivers could be appropriate solutions for decreasing the accident risks. PMID:29362294

  14. A scenario elicitation methodology to identify the drivers of electricity infrastructure cost in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Nandi; Taliotis, Constantinos; Broad, Oliver; de Moura, Gustavo; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Developing a set of scenarios to assess a proposed policy or future development pathways requires a certain level of information, as well as establishing the socio-economic context. As the future is difficult to predict, great care in defining the selected scenarios is needed. Even so it can be difficult to assess if the selected scenario is covering the possible solution space. Instead, this paper's methodology develops a large set of scenarios (324) in OSeMOSYS using the SAMBA 2.0 (South America Model Base) model to assess long-term electricity supply scenarios and applies a scenario-discovery statistical data mining algorithm, Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM). By creating a multidimensional space, regions related to high and low cost can be identified as well as their key driver. The six key drivers are defined a priori in three (high, medium, low) or two levers (high, low): 1) Demand projected from GDP, population, urbanization and transport, 2) Fossil fuel price, 3) Climate change impact on hydropower, 4) Renewable technology learning rate, 5) Discount rate, 6) CO2 emission targets.

  15. Meta-analysis of graduated driver licensing laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of GDL programs for reducing total, injury, and fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old by conducting a meta-analysis of GDL research since 2001 that evaluated the effectivenes...

  16. Predictors of Self-reported Crashes among Iranian Drivers: Exploratory Analysis of an Extended Driver Behavior Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamadi Hezaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 16,500 people lose their lives each year due to traffic crashes in Iran, which reflects one of the highest road traffic fatality rates in the world. The aim of the present study is to investigate the factors structure of an extended Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ and to examine the gender differences in the extracted factors among Iranian drivers. Further, the study tested the association between DBQ factors, demographic characteristics, and self-reported crashes. Based on Iranian driving culture, an extended (36 items Internet-based version of the DBQ was distributed among Iranian drivers. The results of Exploratory Factor Analysis based on a sample of 632 Iranians identified a five-factor solution named “Speeding and Pushing Violations”, “Lapses and Errors”, “Violations Causing Inattention”, “Aggressive Violations” and “Traffic Violations” which account for 44.7 percent of the total variance. The results also revealed that females were more prone to Lapses and Errors, whereas males reported more violations than females. Logistic regression analysis identified Violations Causing Inattention, Speeding and Pushing Violations as predictors of self-reported crashes in a three-year period. The results were discussed in line with road traffic safety countermeasures suitable for the Iranian context.

  17. Analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Lee, E.P.

    1987-07-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (5 to 20 GeV) heavy (130 to 210 amu) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in sources for ions with charge state greater than unity allow a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. The use of high undepressed tunes (σ 0 ≅ 85 0 ) and low depressed tunes (σ ≅ 8.5 0 ) also contributes to a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system are discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several ion masses and charge states. The cost optimization code LIACEP, including accelerating module alternatives, transport modules, and scaling laws, is presented. Items with large cost-leverage are identified as a guide to future research activities and development of technology that can yield substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. Finally, a cost-effective strategy using heavy ion induction linacs in a development scenario for inertial fusion is presented. 34 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Distraction 'on the buses': a novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. What the drivers do and do not tell you: using verbal protocol analysis to investigate driver behaviour in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A; Harvey, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Although task analysis of pedestrian detection can provide us with useful insights into how a driver may behave in emergency situations, the cognitive elements of driver decision-making are less well understood. To assist in the design of future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, such as Autonomous Emergency Brake systems, it is essential that the cognitive elements of the driving task are better understood. This paper uses verbal protocol analysis in an exploratory fashion to uncover the thought processes underlying behavioural outcomes represented by hard data collected using the Southampton University Driving Simulator.

  20. RUBIC identifies driver genes by detecting recurrent DNA copy number breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dyk, H.O.; Hoogstraat, M; ten Hoeve, J; Reinders, M.J.T.; Wessels, L.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    The frequent recurrence of copy number aberrations across tumour samples is a reliable hallmark of certain cancer driver genes. However, state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting recurrent aberrations fail to detect several known drivers. In this study, we propose RUBIC, an approach that detects

  1. Revealing the underlying drivers of disaster risk: a global analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Disasters events are perfect examples of compound events. Disaster risk lies at the intersection of several independent components such as hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Understanding the weight of each component requires extensive standardisation. Here, I show how footprints of past disastrous events were generated using GIS modelling techniques and used for extracting population and economic exposures based on distribution models. Using past event losses, it was possible to identify and quantify a wide range of socio-politico-economic drivers associated with human vulnerability. The analysis was applied to about nine thousand individual past disastrous events covering earthquakes, floods and tropical cyclones. Using a multiple regression analysis on these individual events it was possible to quantify each risk component and assess how vulnerability is influenced by various hazard intensities. The results show that hazard intensity, exposure, poverty, governance as well as other underlying factors (e.g. remoteness) can explain the magnitude of past disasters. Analysis was also performed to highlight the role of future trends in population and climate change and how this may impacts exposure to tropical cyclones in the future. GIS models combined with statistical multiple regression analysis provided a powerful methodology to identify, quantify and model disaster risk taking into account its various components. The same methodology can be applied to various types of risk at local to global scale. This method was applied and developed for the Global Risk Analysis of the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR). It was first applied on mortality risk in GAR 2009 and GAR 2011. New models ranging from global assets exposure and global flood hazard models were also recently developed to improve the resolution of the risk analysis and applied through CAPRA software to provide probabilistic economic risk assessments such as Average Annual Losses (AAL

  2. Detection of driver metabolites in the human liver metabolic network using structural controllability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal states in human liver metabolism are major causes of human liver diseases ranging from hepatitis to hepatic tumor. The accumulation in relevant data makes it feasible to derive a large-scale human liver metabolic network (HLMN) and to discover important biological principles or drug-targets based on network analysis. Some studies have shown that interesting biological phenomenon and drug-targets could be discovered by applying structural controllability analysis (which is a newly prevailed concept in networks) to biological networks. The exploration on the connections between structural controllability theory and the HLMN could be used to uncover valuable information on the human liver metabolism from a fresh perspective. Results We applied structural controllability analysis to the HLMN and detected driver metabolites. The driver metabolites tend to have strong ability to influence the states of other metabolites and weak susceptibility to be influenced by the states of others. In addition, the metabolites were classified into three classes: critical, high-frequency and low-frequency driver metabolites. Among the identified 36 critical driver metabolites, 27 metabolites were found to be essential; the high-frequency driver metabolites tend to participate in different metabolic pathways, which are important in regulating the whole metabolic systems. Moreover, we explored some other possible connections between the structural controllability theory and the HLMN, and find that transport reactions and the environment play important roles in the human liver metabolism. Conclusion There are interesting connections between the structural controllability theory and the human liver metabolism: driver metabolites have essential biological functions; the crucial role of extracellular metabolites and transport reactions in controlling the HLMN highlights the importance of the environment in the health of human liver metabolism. PMID:24885538

  3. Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z; Okayama, T; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  5. Fast and Precise Symbolic Analysis of Concurrency Bugs in Device Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Deligiannis, P; Donaldson, AF; Rakamaric, Z

    2015-01-01

    ? 2015 IEEE.Concurrency errors, such as data races, make device drivers notoriously hard to develop and debug without automated tool support. We present Whoop, a new automated approach that statically analyzes drivers for data races. Whoop is empowered by symbolic pairwise lockset analysis, a novel analysis that can soundly detect all potential races in a driver. Our analysis avoids reasoning about thread interleavings and thus scales well. Exploiting the race-freedom guarantees provided by W...

  6. Sudden illness while driving a vehicle--a retrospective analysis of commercial drivers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Gomei, Sayaka; Okubo, Takao; Tokudome, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of commercial drivers to clarify the background of incidents of sudden illness while driving. The analysis used reports submitted by employers to the Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism regarding commercial drivers who had been ordered to stop driving owing to health problems. Of 211 cases with an average work history of 15.2 years, there were 88 bus drivers, 70 taxi drivers, and 53 truck drivers, 36.0% of who had died as a result of their disease. Among taxi and truck drivers, more than 70% of incidents were due to cardiac, aortic, and cerebrovascular disease. More than 80% of these were unable to avoid traffic accidents caused by sudden illness. However, among bus drivers, cardiac, aortic, and cerebrovascular disease accounted for only 23.5% of incidents, and accidents were avoided in more than half of the cases. The duration between starting work and the incident time was significantly shorter among bus drivers [mean 3.3 hours, standard deviation (SD) 3.1] than taxi (7.7 hours, SD 5.8) and truck (7.2 hours, SD 6.3) drivers (Pprevent disabling events while driving. As a precaution, physicians should advise commercial drivers to stop driving as soon as they detect slight discomfort. To prevent accidents, more assertive health promotion aimed at professional drivers is needed.

  7. Analysis of IFR driver fuel hot channel factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J.Y.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic uncertainty factors for Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) driver fuels have been determined based primarily on the database obtained from the predecessor fuels used in the IFR prototype, Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The uncertainty factors were applied to the channel factors (HCFs) analyses to obtain separate overall HCFs for fuel and cladding for steady-state analyses. A ''semistatistical horizontal method'' was used in the HCFs analyses. The uncertainty factor of the fuel thermal conductivity dominates the effects considered in the HCFs analysis; the uncertainty in fuel thermal conductivity will be reduced as more data are obtained to expand the currently limited database for the IFR ternary metal fuel (U-20Pu-10Zr). A set of uncertainty factors to be used for transient analyses has also been derived

  8. Analysis of IFR driver fuel hot channel factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J.Y.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic uncertainty factors for Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) driver fuels have been determined based primarily on the database obtained from the predecessor fuels used in the IFR prototype. Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The uncertainty factors were applied to the hot channel factors (HCFs) analyses to obtain separate overall HCFs for fuel and cladding for steady-state analyses. A 'semistatistical horizontal method' was used in the HCFs analyses. The uncertainty factor of the fuel thermal conductivity dominates the effects considered in the HCFs analysis; the uncertainty in fuel thermal conductivity will be reduced as more data are obtained to expand the currently limited database for the IFR ternary metal fuel (U-20Pu-10Zr). A set of uncertainty factors to be used for transient analyses has also been derived. (author)

  9. Comprehensive profiling of DNA repair defects in breast cancer identifies a novel class of endocrine therapy resistance drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurag, Meenakshi; Punturi, Nindo; Hoog, Jeremy; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Ellis, Matthew J; Haricharan, Svasti

    2018-05-23

    This study was undertaken to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the role of DNA damage repair (DDR) defects in poor outcome ER+ disease. Expression and mutational status of DDR genes in ER+ breast tumors were correlated with proliferative response in neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy trials (discovery data set), with outcomes in METABRIC, TCGA and Loi data sets (validation data sets), and in patient derived xenografts. A causal relationship between candidate DDR genes and endocrine treatment response, and the underlying mechanism, was then tested in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Correlations between loss of expression of three genes: CETN2 (p<0.001) and ERCC1 (p=0.01) from the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and NEIL2 (p=0.04) from the base excision repair (BER) pathways were associated with endocrine treatment resistance in discovery data sets, and subsequently validated in independent patient cohorts. Complementary mutation analysis supported associations between mutations in NER and BER pathways and reduced endocrine treatment response. A causal role for CETN2, NEIL2 and ERCC1 loss in intrinsic endocrine resistance was experimentally validated in ER+ breast cancer cell lines, and in ER+ patient-derived xenograft models. Loss of CETN2, NEIL2 or ERCC1 induced endocrine treatment response by dysregulating G1/S transition, and therefore, increased sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. A combined DDR signature score was developed that predicted poor outcome in multiple patient cohorts. This report identifies DDR defects as a new class of endocrine treatment resistance drivers and indicates new avenues for predicting efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibition in the adjuvant treatment setting. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. MVisAGe Identifies Concordant and Discordant Genomic Alterations of Driver Genes in Squamous Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Vonn; Du, Ying; Danilova, Ludmila; Hayward, Michele C; Hayes, D Neil

    2018-06-15

    Integrated analyses of multiple genomic datatypes are now common in cancer profiling studies. Such data present opportunities for numerous computational experiments, yet analytic pipelines are limited. Tools such as the cBioPortal and Regulome Explorer, although useful, are not easy to access programmatically or to implement locally. Here, we introduce the MVisAGe R package, which allows users to quantify gene-level associations between two genomic datatypes to investigate the effect of genomic alterations (e.g., DNA copy number changes on gene expression). Visualizing Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficients according to the genomic positions of the underlying genes provides a powerful yet novel tool for conducting exploratory analyses. We demonstrate its utility by analyzing three publicly available cancer datasets. Our approach highlights canonical oncogenes in chr11q13 that displayed the strongest associations between expression and copy number, including CCND1 and CTTN , genes not identified by copy number analysis in the primary reports. We demonstrate highly concordant usage of shared oncogenes on chr3q, yet strikingly diverse oncogene usage on chr11q as a function of HPV infection status. Regions of chr19 that display remarkable associations between methylation and gene expression were identified, as were previously unreported miRNA-gene expression associations that may contribute to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Significance: This study presents an important bioinformatics tool that will enable integrated analyses of multiple genomic datatypes. Cancer Res; 78(12); 3375-85. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental drivers of viral community composition in Antarctic soils identified by viromics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Kramer, Rolf; Van Goethem, Marc W; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Hogg, Ian; Cowan, Don A

    2017-07-19

    The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform. Metadata on soil physico-chemistry was collected from all sites. Both read and contig datasets were analyzed with reference-independent and reference-dependent methods to assess viral community structures and the influence of environmental parameters on their distribution. We observed a high heterogeneity in virus signatures, independent of geographical proximity. Tailed bacteriophages were dominant in all samples, but the incidences of the affiliated families Siphoviridae and Myoviridae were inversely correlated, suggesting direct competition for hosts. Viruses of the families Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae were present at significant levels in high-diversity soil samples and were found to co-occur, implying little competition between them. Combinations of soil factors, including pH, calcium content, and site altitude, were found to be the main drivers of viral community structure. The pattern of viral community structure with higher levels of diversity at lower altitude and pH, and co-occurring viral families, suggests that these cold desert soil viruses interact with each other, the host, and the environment in an intricate manner, playing a potentially crucial role in maintaining host diversity and functioning of the microbial ecosystem in the extreme environments of Antarctic soil.

  13. Identifying drivers of overall satisfaction in patients receiving HIV primary care: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich N Dang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the drivers of overall patient satisfaction in a predominantly low-income, ethnic-minority population of HIV primary care patients. The study's primary aims were to determine 1 the component experiences which contribute to patients' evaluations of their overall satisfaction with care received, and 2 the relative contribution of each component experience in explaining patients' evaluation of overall satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 489 adult patients receiving HIV primary care at two clinics in Houston, Texas, from January 13-April 21, 2011. The participation rate among eligible patients was 94%. The survey included 15 questions about various components of the care experience, 4 questions about the provider experience and 3 questions about overall care. To ensure that the survey was appropriately tailored to our clinic population and the list of component experiences reflected all aspects of the care experience salient to patients, we conducted in-depth interviews with key providers and clinic staff and pre-tested the survey instrument with patients. RESULTS: Patients' evaluation of their provider correlated the strongest with their overall satisfaction (standardized β = 0.445, p<0.001 and accounted for almost half of the explained variance. Access and availability, like clinic hours and ease of calling the clinic, also correlated with overall satisfaction, but less strongly. Wait time and parking, despite receiving low patient ratings, did not correlate with overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The patient-provider relationship far exceeds other component experiences of care in its association with overall satisfaction. Our study suggests that interventions to improve overall patient satisfaction should focus on improving patients' evaluation of their provider.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the relationship between driver`s behavior and vehicle motion; Sharyo unten ni taisuru untensha no kyodo no teiryoka bunseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, H; Matsuura, Y [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan); Masuda, T

    1997-10-01

    In order to study the subject of driving safety about the human-vehicle interaction, driver`s maneuvering behavior was shot by CCD-cameras installed in a cabin and the motion of traveling vehicle was simultaneously taken by VTR-cameras set on the test course. These pictures were analyzed using the three-dimensional image processing system (Peak Motus system). Consequently, this system was effectively able to use for these measurements and analysis and introduced the correlation between the vehicle movement and the driver`s action. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Identifying beliefs underlying pre-drivers' intentions to take risks: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Andrews, Elizabeth; Harris, Peter R; Armitage, Christopher J; McKenna, Frank P; Norman, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Novice motorists are at high crash risk during the first few months of driving. Risky behaviours such as speeding and driving while distracted are well-documented contributors to crash risk during this period. To reduce this public health burden, effective road safety interventions need to target the pre-driving period. We use the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the pre-driver beliefs underlying intentions to drive over the speed limit (N=77), and while over the legal alcohol limit (N=72), talking on a hand-held mobile phone (N=77) and feeling very tired (N=68). The TPB explained between 41% and 69% of the variance in intentions to perform these behaviours. Attitudes were strong predictors of intentions for all behaviours. Subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were significant, though weaker, independent predictors of speeding and mobile phone use. Behavioural beliefs underlying these attitudes could be separated into those reflecting perceived disadvantages (e.g., speeding increases my risk of crash) and advantages (e.g., speeding gives me a thrill). Interventions that can make these beliefs safer in pre-drivers may reduce crash risk once independent driving has begun. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibrating and Validating a Simulation Model to Identify Drivers of Urban Land Cover Change in the Baltimore, MD Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jantz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We build upon much of the accumulated knowledge of the widely used SLEUTH urban land change model and offer advances. First, we use SLEUTH’s exclusion/attraction layer to identify and test different urban land cover change drivers; second, we leverage SLEUTH’s self-modification capability to incorporate a demographic model; and third, we develop a validation procedure to quantify the influence of land cover change drivers and assess uncertainty. We found that, contrary to our a priori expectations, new development is not attracted to areas serviced by existing or planned water and sewer infrastructure. However, information about where population and employment growth is likely to occur did improve model performance. These findings point to the dominant role of centrifugal forces in post-industrial cities like Baltimore, MD. We successfully developed a demographic model that allowed us to constrain the SLEUTH model forecasts and address uncertainty related to the dynamic relationship between changes in population and employment and urban land use. Finally, we emphasize the importance of model validation. In this work the validation procedure played a key role in rigorously assessing the impacts of different exclusion/attraction layers and in assessing uncertainty related to population and employment forecasts.

  17. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  18. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Robert F.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Searcy, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO 2 -limiting policy is enacted.

  20. Driver-centred vehicle automation: using network analysis for agent-based modelling of the driver in highly automated driving systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-11-01

    To the average driver, the concept of automation in driving infers that they can become completely 'hands and feet free'. This is a common misconception, however, one that has been shown through the application of Network Analysis to new Cruise Assist technologies that may feature on our roads by 2020. Through the adoption of a Systems Theoretic approach, this paper introduces the concept of driver-initiated automation which reflects the role of the driver in highly automated driving systems. Using a combination of traditional task analysis and the application of quantitative network metrics, this agent-based modelling paper shows how the role of the driver remains an integral part of the driving system implicating the need for designers to ensure they are provided with the tools necessary to remain actively in-the-loop despite giving increasing opportunities to delegate their control to the automated subsystems. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes and analyses a driver-initiated command and control system of automation using representations afforded by task and social networks to understand how drivers remain actively involved in the task. A network analysis of different driver commands suggests that such a strategy does maintain the driver in the control loop.

  1. Evaluating predictive models for solar energy growth in the US states and identifying the key drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joheen; Banerji, Sugata

    2018-03-01

    Driven by a desire to control climate change and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, governments around the world are increasing the adoption of renewable energy sources. However, among the US states, we observe a wide disparity in renewable penetration. In this study, we have identified and cleaned over a dozen datasets representing solar energy penetration in each US state, and the potentially relevant socioeconomic and other factors that may be driving the growth in solar. We have applied a number of predictive modeling approaches - including machine learning and regression - on these datasets over a 17-year period and evaluated the relative performance of the models. Our goals were: (1) identify the most important factors that are driving the growth in solar, (2) choose the most effective predictive modeling technique for solar growth, and (3) develop a model for predicting next year’s solar growth using this year’s data. We obtained very promising results with random forests (about 90% efficacy) and varying degrees of success with support vector machines and regression techniques (linear, polynomial, ridge). We also identified states with solar growth slower than expected and representing a potential for stronger growth in future.

  2. [Sleep quality and occupational stress relationship analysis of 1413 train drivers in a railway bureau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To investigate sleep quality status of train drivers. Methods: By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1413 train drivers (including passenger train drivers 301, freight train drivers 683, passenger shunting train drivers 350, and high speed train drivers 79) from a railway bureau. The occupational stressors, strains, personalities and sleep quality were measured using occupational stress instruments and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Results: The train drivers of poor sleep quality was 48.34%. Sleep quality scores among different among different job category (job title) , exercise, smoking and drinking were statistical significance ( P 0.05) . Correlation: analysis revealed that sleep quality score was related negatively to job satisfaction, reward, working stability, promotion opportunities, positive affectivity, esteem and self-esteem scores ( r : -0.454, -0.207, -0.329,-0.170, -0.291, -0.103, -0.139, P stress, negative affectivity, depressive symptoms scores ( r : 0.338, 0.524, 0.226, 0.094, 0.182, 0.210, 0.247, 0.190, 0.615, 0.550, 0.345, 0.570, P stress, depressive symptoms, responsibility for person, responsibility for thing, negative affectivity and coping scores than the group of lower sleep quality score ( P stress for drivers occured the risk of poor sleep quality were more than two times as high as that of drivers with less physiological needs, less effort, less depressive symptoms and less daily stress ( OR =2.905~2.005) . Conclusions Different types of locomotive drivers get different level of sleep quality. Sleep quality was affected by occupational stress largely. Reducing the occupational stress may contribute to improve the sleep quality of train drivers.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular profiling identify new driver mutations in gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kai; Yuen, Siu Tsan; Xu, Jiangchun; Lee, Siu Po; Yan, Helen H N; Shi, Stephanie T; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Deng, Shibing; Chu, Kent Man; Law, Simon; Chan, Kok Hoe; Chan, Annie S Y; Tsui, Wai Yin; Ho, Siu Lun; Chan, Anthony K W; Man, Jonathan L K; Foglizzo, Valentina; Ng, Man Kin; Chan, April S; Ching, Yick Pang; Cheng, Grace H W; Xie, Tao; Fernandez, Julio; Li, Vivian S W; Clevers, Hans; Rejto, Paul A; Mao, Mao; Leung, Suet Yi

    Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse molecular and histological subtypes. We performed whole-genome sequencing in 100 tumor-normal pairs, along with DNA copy number, gene expression and methylation profiling, for integrative genomic analysis. We found subtype-specific genetic and

  4. Identifying key drivers of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass feedstocks for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David R.; Curtright, Aimee E.; Willis, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Production emissions dominate transportation and processing emissions. • Choice of feedstock, geographic location and prior land use drive emissions profile. • Within scenarios, emissions variability is driven by uncertainty in yields. • Favorable scenarios maximize carbon storage from direct land-use change. • Similarly, biomass production should attempt to minimize indirect land-use change. -- Abstract: Many policies in the United States, at both the federal and state levels, encourage the adoption of renewable energy from biomass. Though largely motivated by a desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these policies do not explicitly identify scenarios in which the use of biomass will produce the greatest benefits. We have modeled “farm-to-hopper” emissions associated with seven biomass feedstocks, under a wide variety of scenarios and production choices, to characterize the uncertainty in emissions. We demonstrate that only a handful of factors have a significant impact on life cycle emissions: choice of feedstock, geographic location, prior land use, and time dynamics. Within a given production scenario, the remaining variability in emissions is driven by uncertainty in feedstock yields and the release rate of N 2 O into the atmosphere from nitrogen fertilizers. With few exceptions, transport and processing choices have relatively little impact on total emissions. These results illustrate the key decisions that will determine the success of biomass programs in reducing the emissions profile of energy production, and our publicly available model provides a useful tool for identifying the most beneficial production scenarios. While model data and results are restricted to biomass production in the contiguous United States, we provide qualitative guidance for identifying favorable production scenarios that should be applicable in other regions

  5. A social network analysis of alcohol-impaired drivers in Maryland : an egocentric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the personal, household, and social structural attributes of alcoholimpaired : drivers in Maryland. The study used an egocentric approach of social network : analysis. This approach concentrated on specific actors (alcohol-impaire...

  6. Analysis of West Virginia's graduated driver licensing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for individuals between the ages of 15-20 years old in the United States. Top safety concerns involving teen drivers include; safety belt use, impaired driving, and distracted driving. Rules tha...

  7. An analysis of West Virginia's graduated driver licensing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for individuals between the ages of 15-20 years old in the United States. Top safety concerns involving teen drivers include; safety belt use, impaired driving, and distracted driving. Rules tha...

  8. Drivers of Sales Performance: A Contemporary Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem); H.M.S. Dietz (Bart); E. Verwaal (Ernst)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIt has been twenty-five years since the publication of a comprehensive review of the full spectrum of sales-performance drivers. This study takes stock of the contemporary field and synthesizes empirical evidence from the period 1982–2008. The authors revise the classification scheme for

  9. Discriminant Analysis of the Effects of Software Cost Drivers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper work investigates the effect of software cost drivers on project schedule estimation of software development projects in Nigeria. Specifically, the paper determines the extent to which software cost variables affect our software project time schedule in our environment. Such studies are lacking in the recent ...

  10. Optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis for state of alert sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pinto, Javier; Torres-Torriti, Miguel

    2013-03-28

    Road accident statistics from different countries show that a significant number of accidents occur due to driver's fatigue and lack of awareness to traffic conditions. In particular, about 60% of the accidents in which long haul truck and bus drivers are involved are attributed to drowsiness and fatigue. It is thus fundamental to improve non-invasive systems for sensing a driver's state of alert. One of the main challenges to correctly resolve the state of alert is measuring the percentage of eyelid closure over time (PERCLOS), despite the driver's head and body movements. In this paper, we propose a technique that involves optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis to improve the robustness of the driver's alert state measurement under pose changes using a single camera with near-infrared illumination. The proposed approach infers and keeps track of the driver's pose in 3D space in order to ensure that eyes can be located correctly, even after periods of partial occlusion, for example, when the driver stares away from the camera. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average. The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels. In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators.

  11. Market potential of nanoremediation in Europe - Market drivers and interventions identified in a deliberative scenario approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Hagemann, Nina; Harries, Nicola; Hauck, Jennifer; Bardos, Paul

    2018-04-01

    A deliberate expert-based scenario approach is applied to better understand the likely determinants of the evolution of the market for nanoparticles use in remediation in Europe until 2025. An initial set of factors had been obtained from a literature review and was complemented by a workshop and key-informant interviews. In further expert engaging formats - focus groups, workshops, conferences, surveys - this initial set of factors was condensed and engaged experts scored the factors regarding their importance for being likely to influence the market development. An interaction matrix was obtained identifying the factors being most active in shaping the market development in Europe by 2025, namely "Science-Policy-Interface" and "Validated information on nanoparticle application potential". Based on these, potential scenarios were determined and development of factors discussed. Conclusions are offered on achievable interventions to enhance nanoremediation deployment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H; Vermaat, Jan E; Janse, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability), mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors) are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification). Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have determined historic

  13. Analysis of effects of manhole covers on motorcycle driver maneuvers: a nonparametric classification tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Yen

    2014-01-01

    A manhole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a manhole to allow traffic to pass over the manhole and to prevent people from falling in. Because most manhole covers are placed in roadway traffic lanes, if these manhole covers are not appropriately installed or maintained, they can represent unexpected hazards on the road, especially for motorcycle drivers. The objective of this study is to identify the effects of manhole cover characteristics as well as driver factors and traffic and roadway conditions on motorcycle driver maneuvers. A video camera was used to record motorcycle drivers' maneuvers when they encountered an inappropriately installed or maintained manhole cover. Information on 3059 drivers' maneuver decisions was recorded. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were applied to explore factors that can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers when passing a manhole cover. Nearly 50 percent of the motorcycle drivers decelerated or changed their driving path to reduce the effects of the manhole cover. The manhole cover characteristics including the level difference between manhole cover and pavement, the pavement condition over the manhole cover, and the size of the manhole cover can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers. Other factors, including traffic conditions, lane width, motorcycle speed, and loading conditions, also have significant effects on motorcycle driver maneuvers. To reduce the effects and potential risks from the manhole covers, highway authorities not only need to make sure that any newly installed manhole covers are as level as possible but also need to regularly maintain all the manhole covers to ensure that they are in good condition. In the long run, the size of manhole covers should be kept as small as possible so that the impact of manhole covers on motorcycle drivers can be effectively reduced. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher

  14. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  15. [Social support and occupational stress relationship analysis of 1 413 train drivers in a railway bureau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To investigate the social support status of train drivers. Methods: Using cluster sampling, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 413 male train drivers (including 301 passenger train drivers, 683 freight train drivers, 85 guest scheduling train drivers, 265 cargo adjustable drivers, and 79 high-speed train drivers) from a railway bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, social support, occupational stressors, strains, personalities, and coping strategy using occupational stress instruments and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. We compared the difference in social support scores between different drivers, who were divided according to job type and age. Additionally, the correlation between social support score and job strain-related factors was analyzed. The influence of depressive symptoms and job satisfaction were analyzed using a non-conditional logistic multivariate model. Results: The overall average age P (50) ( P (25), P (75)) of 1 413 train drivers was 33.92 (27.83,43.58) years. The overall average length of service 12.25 (5.25,22.75) years. A significant difference in social support scores was observed according to job type ( H =23.23, P40 years (27 (22,31)). Correlation analysis revealed that the social support score was negatively associated with job satisfaction ( r=- 0.43), reward ( r=- 0.22), working stability ( r=- 0.23), promotion opportunities ( r=- 0.12), positive affectivity ( r=- 0.31), esteem ( r=- 0.21), and self-esteem ( r=- 0.20) scores ( Pstress ( r= 0.29), negative affectivity ( r= 0.23), and depressive symptoms ( r= 0.44) scores ( Poccupational stress. High social support was related to reduction in the occurrence of occupational stress, depressive symptoms, and low job satisfaction. Social support is related to mental health of train drivers.

  16. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF THE FIRMS’ VALUE DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita KISS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the value creation and the value drivers. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the concept of maximizing shareholder value. The main goal is to categorize the most important value drivers, and their role of the firms’ value. This study proceeds as follows. The first section presents the value chain, the primary and the support activities. The second part describes the theoretical background of maximizing shareholder value. The third part illustrates the key value drivers. The fourth empirical section of the study analyses the database featuring data from 18 European countries, 10 sectors and 1553 firms in the period between 2004 and 2011. Finally, the fifth section includes concluding remarks. Based on the related literature reviewed and in the conducted empirical research it can be assessed that, the EBIT, reinvestment, invested capital, the return on invested capital, the net margin and the sales growth rate all have a positive effect on firm value, while the tax rate and the market value of return on asset (MROA has a negative one.

  17. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic disease transmission; these factors may independently, or potentially synergistically, lead to enhanced leptospirosis transmission in Fiji and other similar settings.

  18. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kuskova, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO 2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO 2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO 2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO 2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO 2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO 2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO 2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO 2 emissions to a sustainable level. - Research Highlights: →CO 2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia increased during industrialisation. →The differences were strongest during periods of different political regimes. →The main drivers for differences were energy composition and energy intensity.

  19. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (≅ 10 GeV) heavy (A ≅ 200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments is amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules are described. Large cost leverage items are identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency

  20. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1985-11-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (approx. =10 GeV) heavy (CAapprox.200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules will be described. Large cost leverage items will be identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. 13 refs., 2 figs

  1. Climatic drivers of vegetation based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Jeroen; Martens, Brecht; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Molini, Annalisa; Miralles, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics are driven by climate, and at the same time they play a key role in forcing the different bio-geochemical cycles. As climate change leads to an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-meteorological extremes, vegetation is expected to respond to these changes, and subsequently feed back on their occurrence. This response can be analysed using time series of different vegetation diagnostics observed from space, in the optical (e.g. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF)) and microwave (Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD)) domains. In this contribution, we compare the climatic drivers of different vegetation diagnostics, based on a monthly global data-cube of 24 years at a 0.25° resolution. To do so, we calculate the wavelet coherence between each vegetation-related observation and observations of air temperature, precipitation and incoming radiation. The use of wavelet coherence allows unveiling the scale-by-scale response and sensitivity of the diverse vegetation indices to their climatic drivers. Our preliminary results show that the wavelet-based statistics prove to be a suitable tool for extracting information from different vegetation indices. Going beyond traditional methods based on linear correlations, the application of wavelet coherence provides information about: (a) the specific periods at which the correspondence between climate and vegetation dynamics is larger, (b) the frequencies at which this correspondence occurs (e.g. monthly or seasonal scales), and (c) the time lag in the response of vegetation to their climate drivers, and vice versa. As expected, areas of high rainfall volumes are characterised by a strong control of radiation and temperature over vegetation. Furthermore, precipitation is the most important driver of vegetation variability over short terms in most regions of the world - which can be explained by the rapid response of leaf development towards available water content

  2. Effects of Defensive Vehicle Handling on Novice Driver Safety : Phase 3. Data Analysis and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of a multistage driver education program for Montanas young : drivers. A total of 347 teenaged drivers who had completed high school driver education agreed to participate. : These drivers were randomly spl...

  3. Cellular signaling identifiability analysis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Ryan T; Pia Saccomani, Maria; Vicini, Paolo

    2010-05-21

    Two primary purposes for mathematical modeling in cell biology are (1) simulation for making predictions of experimental outcomes and (2) parameter estimation for drawing inferences from experimental data about unobserved aspects of biological systems. While the former purpose has become common in the biological sciences, the latter is less common, particularly when studying cellular and subcellular phenomena such as signaling-the focus of the current study. Data are difficult to obtain at this level. Therefore, even models of only modest complexity can contain parameters for which the available data are insufficient for estimation. In the present study, we use a set of published cellular signaling models to address issues related to global parameter identifiability. That is, we address the following question: assuming known time courses for some model variables, which parameters is it theoretically impossible to estimate, even with continuous, noise-free data? Following an introduction to this problem and its relevance, we perform a full identifiability analysis on a set of cellular signaling models using DAISY (Differential Algebra for the Identifiability of SYstems). We use our analysis to bring to light important issues related to parameter identifiability in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. We contend that this is, as of yet, an under-appreciated issue in biological modeling and, more particularly, cell biology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Failure Modes Analysis for the MSU-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Gorelov, Dmitry; Grimm, Terry L; Marti, Felix; York, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Previous end-to-end beam dynamics simulation studies* using experimentally-based input beams including alignment and rf errors and variation in charge-stripping foil thickness have indicated that the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by MSU has adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of at least 400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. During linac operation, equipment loss due to, for example, cavity contamination, availability of cryogens, or failure of rf or power supply systems, will lead to at least a temporary loss of some of the cavities and focusing elements. To achieve high facility availability, each segment of the linac should be capable of adequate performance even with failed elements. Beam dynamics studies were performed to evaluate the linac performance under various scenarios of failed cavities and focusing elements with proper correction schemes, in order to prove the flexibility and robustness of the driver ...

  5. Driver behavior in car-to-pedestrian incidents: An application of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Tivesten, Emma; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Bärgman, Jonas; Ljung Aust, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    To develop relevant road safety countermeasures, it is necessary to first obtain an in-depth understanding of how and why safety-critical situations such as incidents, near-crashes, and crashes occur. Video-recordings from naturalistic driving studies provide detailed information on events and circumstances prior to such situations that is difficult to obtain from traditional crash investigations, at least when it comes to the observable driver behavior. This study analyzed causation in 90 video-recordings of car-to-pedestrian incidents captured by onboard cameras in a naturalistic driving study in Japan. The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) was modified and used to identify contributing factors and causation patterns in these incidents. Two main causation patterns were found. In intersections, drivers failed to recognize the presence of the conflict pedestrian due to visual obstructions and/or because their attention was allocated towards something other than the conflict pedestrian. In incidents away from intersections, this pattern reoccurred along with another pattern showing that pedestrians often behaved in unexpected ways. These patterns indicate that an interactive advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) able to redirect the driver's attention could have averted many of the intersection incidents, while autonomous systems may be needed away from intersections. Cooperative ADAS may be needed to address issues raised by visual obstructions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone Gingrich; Petra Kuskova; Julia K. Steinberger [University of Klagenfurt, Wien (Austria). Institute of Social Ecology

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia. Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, Simone; Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, 1070 Wien (Austria); Kuskova, Petra [Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. (author)

  8. Long-term changes in CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K

    2011-02-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO(2) emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO(2) emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO(2) throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO(2) emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO(2) emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO(2) emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian "eco-efficiency" nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO(2) emissions to a sustainable level.

  9. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia—Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830–2000. The drivers of CO2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920–2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian “eco-efficiency” nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO2 emissions to a sustainable level. PMID:21461052

  10. Stress and strain of short haul bus drivers: psychophysiology as a design oriented method for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, M; Springer, J; Scherff, J

    1998-05-01

    Psychophysiological measures offer objective information for workplace design according to user requirements. They are, however, rarely applied in industrial practice due to weak points from the designer's point of view, such as the differentiation of various superimposed stressors, inter-individual differences, and the effort required for data acquisition and handling. In this study a set of psychophysiological methods was used to analyse bus driver workplaces as a basis for redesign, and afterwards to evaluate design improvements. During inner-city operation bus drivers are exposed to a particular workload situation, especially due to the high density of traffic and bus stops. Their job is characterized by highly frequent and often simultaneous task execution, performed with a compulsory body posture and under exposure to vibration and noise. To reduce the workload related to the equipment and tasks of bus driving, a research project was initiated to design a new driver workplace that meets the specific ergonomic requirements of the drivers. A detailed workload analysis, consisting of a task analysis, a strain analysis derived from ECG measures and an eye movement analysis was performed during public bus driving in different cities and with different drivers and bus types. Although the results have to be considered as somewhat limited owing to the methodological restraints and conditions of a field study, they provided valuable guidance for design. A new concept for the driver cabin was created based on this database. After installation, this design was evaluated by similar psychophysiological measures. Comparison of the pre- and post results indicates that the redesigned work station reduced workload levels.

  11. Revisiting drivers of energy intensity in China during 1997–2007: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Lin; Xu, Ming; Liang, Sai; Zeng, Siyu; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    The decline of China's energy intensity slowed since 2000. During 2002–2005 it actually increased, reversing the long-term trend. Therefore, it is important to identify drivers of the fluctuation of energy intensity. We use input–output structural decomposition analysis to investigate the contributions of changes in energy mix, sectoral energy efficiency, production structure, final demand structure, and final demand category composition to China's energy intensity fluctuation during 1997–2007. We include household energy consumption in the study by closing the input–output model with respect to households. Results show that sectoral energy efficiency improvements contribute the most to the energy intensity decline during 1997–2007. The increase in China's energy intensity during 2002–2007 is instead explained by changes in final demand composition and production structure. Changes in final demand composition are mainly due to increasing share of exports, while changes in production structure mainly arise from the shift of Chinese economy to more energy-intensive industries. Changes in energy mix and final demand structure contribute little to China's energy intensity fluctuation. From the consumption perspective, growing exports of energy-intensive products and increasing infrastructure demands explain the majority of energy intensity increase during 2002–2007. - Highlights: • We analyzed energy intensity change from production and consumption perspectives. • We extended the research scope of energy intensity to cover household consumption. • Sectoral energy efficiency improvement contributed most to energy intensity decline. • Impact of production structure change on energy intensity varied at different times. • Growing export demand newly became main driver of China's energy intensity increase

  12. Identifying sources, pathways and risk drivers in ecosystems of Japanese Encephalitis in an epidemic-prone north Indian district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kakkar

    Full Text Available Japanese Encephalitis (JE has caused repeated outbreaks in endemic pockets of India. This study was conducted in Kushinagar, a highly endemic district, to understand the human-animal-ecosystem interactions, and the drivers that influence disease transmission. Utilizing the ecosystems approach, a cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing mixed methods design was employed. Four villages (two with pig-rearing and two without were randomly selected from a high, a medium and a low burden (based on case counts block of Kushinagar. Children, pigs and vectors were sampled from these villages. A qualitative arm was incorporated to explain the findings from the quantitative surveys. All human serum samples were screened for JE-specific IgM using MAC ELISA and negative samples for JE RNA by rRT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In pigs, IgG ELISA and rRT-PCR for viral RNA were used. Of the 242 children tested, 24 tested positive by either rRT-PCR or MAC ELISA; in pigs, 38 out of the 51 pigs were positive. Of the known vectors, Culex vishnui was most commonly isolated across all biotopes. Analysis of 15 blood meals revealed human blood in 10 samples. Univariable analysis showed that gender, religion, lack of indoor residual spraying of insecticides in the past year, indoor vector density (all species, and not being vaccinated against JE in children were significantly associated with JE positivity. In multivariate analysis, only male gender remained as a significant risk factor. Based on previous estimates of symptomatic: asymptomatic cases of JE, we estimate that there should have been 618 cases from Kushinagar, although only 139 were reported. Vaccination of children and vector control measures emerged as major control activities; they had very poor coverage in the studied villages. In addition, lack of awareness about the cause of JE, lack of faith in the conventional medical healthcare system and multiple referral levels causing delay in

  13. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  14. Sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in truck drivers : risk analysis of road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Rosa; Spratley, Jorge; Catarino, Isabel; Lunet, Nuno; Pais-Clemente, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Portugal has one of the highest road traffic fatality rates in Europe. A clear association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and traffic accidents has been previously demonstrated. This study aimed to determine prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and other sleep disorder symptoms among truck drivers and to identify which individual traits and work habits are associated to increased sleepiness and accident risk. We evaluated a sample of 714 truck drivers using a questionnaire (244 face-to-face interviews, 470 self-administered) that included sociodemographic data, personal habits, previous accidents, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Berlin questionnaire (BQ). Twenty percent of drivers had EDS and 29 % were at high risk for having obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Two hundred sixty-one drivers (36.6 %) reported near-miss accidents (42.5 % sleep related) and 264 (37.0 %), a driving accident (16.3 % sleep related). ESS score ≥ 11 was a risk factor for both near-miss accidents (odds ratio (OR)=3.84, paccidents (OR=2.25, paccidents (OR=3.30, p=0.03). We found an association between high Mallampati score (III-IV) and near misses (OR=1.89, p=0.04). In this sample of Portuguese truck drivers, we observed a high prevalence of EDS and other sleep disorder symptoms. Accident risk was related to sleepiness and antidepressant use. Identifying drivers at risk for OSAS should be a major priority of medical assessment centers, as a public safety policy.

  15. The development of a method to measure speed adaptation to traffic complexity: Identifying novice, unsafe, and overconfident drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    To monitor novice driver performance in the first years of solo driving, a test aimed at assessing speed adaptation to the traffic situation was developed and evaluated. The Adaptation Test consisted of 18 traffic scenes presented in two (almost) identical photographs, which differed in one single

  16. The development of a method to measure speed adaptation to traffic complexity : Identifying novice, unsafe, and overconfident drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Craen, Saskia; Twisk, Divera A. M.; Hagenzieker, Marjan P.; Elffers, Henk; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    To monitor novice driver performance in the first years of solo driving, a test aimed at assessing speed adaptation to the traffic situation was developed and evaluated. The Adaptation Test consisted of 18 traffic scenes presented in two (almost) identical photographs, which differed in one single

  17. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Harold B.; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least...

  18. Whole-core damage analysis of EBR-II driver fuel elements following SHRT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Koenig, J.F.; Porter, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In the Shutdown Heat Removal Testing (SHRT) program in EBR-II, fuel element cladding temperatures of some driver subassemblies were predicted to exceed temperatures at which cladding breach may occur. A whole-core thermal analysis of driver subassemblies was performed to determine the cladding temperatures of fuel elemnts, and these temperatures were used for fuel element damage calculation. The accumulated cladding damage of fuel element was found to be very small and fuel element failure resulting from SHRT transients is unlikely. No element breach was noted during the SHRT transients. The reactor was immediately restarted after the most severe SHRT transient had been completed and no driver fuel breach has been noted to date. (orig.)

  19. An analysis of health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers: Off target and too complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeijinga, Anniek; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José

    2017-01-01

    Despite various health promotion initiatives, unfavorable figures regarding Dutch truck drivers' eating behaviors, exercise behaviors, and absenteeism have not improved. The aim was to obtain a better understanding of the low level of effectiveness of current health interventions for Dutch truck drivers by examining to what extent these are tailored to the target group's particular mindset (focus of content) and health literacy skills (presentation of content). The article analyzes 21 health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers using a two-step approach: (a) an analysis of the materials' focus, guided by the Health Action Process Approach; and (b) an argumentation analysis, guided by pragma-dialectics. The corpus analysis revealed: (a) a predominant focus on the motivation phase; and (b) in line with the aim of motivating the target group, a consistent use of pragmatic arguments, which were typically presented in an implicit way. The results indicate that existing health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers are not sufficiently tailored to the target group's mindset and health literacy skills. Recommendations are offered to develop more tailored/effective health interventions targeting this high-risk, underserved occupational group.

  20. Drivers of Wetland Conversion: a Global Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.; Verburg, P.H.; Vermaat, J.E.; Janse, J.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis

  1. Analysis of Driver Evasive Maneuvering Prior to Intersection Crashes Using Event Data Recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, John M; Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Intersection crashes account for over 4,500 fatalities in the United States each year. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging vehicle-based active safety systems that have the potential to help drivers safely navigate across intersections and prevent intersection crashes and injuries. The performance of an I-ADAS is expected to be highly dependent upon driver evasive maneuvering prior to an intersection crash. Little has been published, however, on the detailed evasive kinematics followed by drivers prior to real-world intersection crashes. The objective of this study was to characterize the frequency, timing, and kinematics of driver evasive maneuvers prior to intersection crashes. Event data recorders (EDRs) downloaded from vehicles involved in intersection crashes were investigated as part of NASS-CDS years 2001 to 2013. A total of 135 EDRs with precrash vehicle speed and braking application were downloaded to investigate evasive braking. A smaller subset of 59 EDRs that collected vehicle yaw rate was additionally analyzed to investigate evasive steering. Each vehicle was assigned to one of 3 precrash movement classifiers (traveling through the intersection, completely stopped, or rolling stop) based on the vehicle's calculated acceleration and observed velocity profile. To ensure that any significant steering input observed was an attempted evasive maneuver, the analysis excluded vehicles at intersections that were turning, driving on a curved road, or performing a lane change. Braking application at the last EDR-recorded time point was assumed to indicate evasive braking. A vehicle yaw rate greater than 4° per second was assumed to indicate an evasive steering maneuver. Drivers executed crash avoidance maneuvers in four-fifths of intersection crashes. A more detailed analysis of evasive braking frequency by precrash maneuver revealed that drivers performing complete or rolling stops (61.3%) braked less often than drivers

  2. Systems biology analysis of drivers underlying hallmarks of cancer cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Jamshidi, Neema; Corbett, Austin J.; Bordbar, Aarash; Thomas, Alex; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Malignant transformation is often accompanied by significant metabolic changes. To identify drivers underlying these changes, we calculated metabolic flux states for the NCI60 cell line collection and correlated the variance between metabolic states of these lines with their other properties. The analysis revealed a remarkably consistent structure underlying high flux metabolism. The three primary uptake pathways, glucose, glutamine and serine, are each characterized by three features: (1) metabolite uptake sufficient for the stoichiometric requirement to sustain observed growth, (2) overflow metabolism, which scales with excess nutrient uptake over the basal growth requirement, and (3) redox production, which also scales with nutrient uptake but greatly exceeds the requirement for growth. We discovered that resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in these lines broadly correlates with the amount of glucose uptake. These results support an interpretation of the Warburg effect and glutamine addiction as features of a growth state that provides resistance to metabolic stress through excess redox and energy production. Furthermore, overflow metabolism observed may indicate that mitochondrial catabolic capacity is a key constraint setting an upper limit on the rate of cofactor production possible. These results provide a greater context within which the metabolic alterations in cancer can be understood.

  3. Low back pain in drivers exposed to whole body vibration: analysis of a dose-response pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, I. J. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a dose-response pattern between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in a group of drivers. This study assessed individual factors, work-related risk factors, various LBP outcome measures and LBP disability in a group of drivers (n = 571) approached at baseline

  4. Identifying Pornographic Materials with Judgment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Judith A.; Houston, Samuel R.

    1974-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a policy-capturing methodology (JAN) which has been successfully utilized in military and educational research could be adapted for use as a procedure in identifying pornographic material. (Author)

  5. Healthcare Programmes for Truck Drivers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla-Edward, Samanta Tresha; Fobosi, Siyabulela Christopher; Hankins, Catherine; Case, Kelsey; Venter, W D Francois; Gomez, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Truck drivers have unique health needs, and by virtue of their continuous travel, experience difficulty in accessing healthcare. Currently, planning for effective care is hindered by lack of knowledge about their health needs and about the impact of on-going programmes on this population's health outcomes. We reviewed healthcare programmes implemented for sub-Saharan African truck drivers, assessed the evaluation methods, and examined impact on health outcomes. We searched scientific and institutional databases, and online search engines to include all publications describing a healthcare programme in sub-Saharan Africa where the main clients were truck drivers. We consulted experts and organisations working with mobile populations to identify unpublished reports. Forest plots of impact and outcome indicators with unadjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were created to map the impact of these programmes. We performed a subgroup analysis by type of indicator using a random-effects model to assess between-study heterogeneity. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to examine both the summary effect estimate chosen (risk difference vs. risk ratio) and model to summarise results (fixed vs. random effects). Thirty-seven publications describing 22 healthcare programmes across 30 countries were included from 5,599 unique records. All programmes had an HIV-prevention focus with only three expanding their services to cover conditions other primary healthcare services. Twelve programmes were evaluated and most evaluations assessed changes in input, output, and outcome indicators. Absence of comparison groups, preventing attribution of the effect observed to the programme and lack of biologically confirmed outcomes were the main limitations. Four programmes estimated a quantitative change in HIV prevalence or reported STI incidence, with mixed results, and one provided anecdotal evidence of changes in AIDS-related mortality and social norms. Most programmes showed

  6. Main drivers of health expenditure growth in China: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tiemin; Goss, John; Li, Jinjing

    2017-03-09

    In past two decades, health expenditure in China grew at a rate of 11.6% per year, which is much faster than the growth of the country's economy (9.9% per year). As cost containment is a key aspect of China's new health system reform agenda, this study aims to identify the main drivers of past growth so that cost containment policies are focussed in the right areas. The analysis covered the period 1993-2012. To understand the drivers of past growth during this period, Das Gupta's decomposition method was used to decompose the changes in health expenditure by disease into five main components that include population growth, population ageing, disease prevalence rate, expenditure per case of disease, and excess health price inflation. Demographic data on population size and age-composition were obtained from the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. Age- and disease- specific expenditure and prevalence rates by age and disease were extracted from China's National Health Accounts studies and Global Burden of Disease 2013 studies of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, respectively. Growth in health expenditure in China was mainly driven by a rapid increase in real expenditure per prevalent case, which contributed 8.4 percentage points of the 11.6% annual average growth. Excess health price inflation and population growth contributed 1.3 and 1.3% respectively. The effect of population ageing was relatively small, contributing 0.8% per year. However, reductions in disease prevalence rates reduced the growth rate by 0.3 percentage points. Future policy in optimising growth in health expenditure in China should address growth in expenditure per prevalent case. This is especially so for neoplasms, and for circulatory and respiratory disease. And a focus on effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of disease in the country will ensure that changing disease rates do not lead to a higher growth in future health expenditure

  7. Can Link Analysis Be Applied to Identify Behavioral Patterns in Train Recorder Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathie, Ailsa; Walker, Guy H

    2016-03-01

    A proof-of-concept analysis was conducted to establish whether link analysis could be applied to data from on-train recorders to detect patterns of behavior that could act as leading indicators of potential safety issues. On-train data recorders capture data about driving behavior on thousands of routine journeys every day and offer a source of untapped data that could be used to offer insights into human behavior. Data from 17 journeys undertaken by six drivers on the same route over a 16-hr period were analyzed using link analysis, and four key metrics were examined: number of links, network density, diameter, and sociometric status. The results established that link analysis can be usefully applied to data captured from on-vehicle recorders. The four metrics revealed key differences in normal driver behavior. These differences have promising construct validity as leading indicators. Link analysis is one method that could be usefully applied to exploit data routinely gathered by on-vehicle data recorders. It facilitates a proactive approach to safety based on leading indicators, offers a clearer understanding of what constitutes normal driving behavior, and identifies trends at the interface of people and systems, which is currently a key area of strategic risk. These research findings have direct applications in the field of transport data monitoring. They offer a means of automatically detecting patterns in driver behavior that could act as leading indicators of problems during operation and that could be used in the proactive monitoring of driver competence, risk management, and even infrastructure design. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Identifiable Data Files - Medicare Provider Analysis and ...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) File contains data from claims for services provided to beneficiaries admitted to Medicare certified inpatient...

  9. The Global Drivers of Photosynthesis and Light Use Efficiency Seasonality: A Granger Frequency Causality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Ramakrishna R.

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis and light use efficiency (LUE) are major factors in the evolution of the continental carbon cycle due to their contribution to gross primary production (GPP). However, while the drivers of photosynthesis and LUE on a plant or canopy scale can often be identified, significant uncertainties exist when modeling these on a global scale. This is due to sparse observations in regions such as the tropics and the lack of a direct global observation dataset. Although others have attempted to address this issue using correlations (Beer, 2010) or calculating GPP from vegetation indices (Running, 2004), in this study we take a new approach. We combine the statistical method of Granger frequency causality and partial Granger frequency causality with remote sensing data products (including sun-induced fluorescence used as a proxy for GPP) to determine the main environmental drivers of GPP across the globe.

  10. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  11. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ta; Jiang, Jhih-Wei; Huang, Polly; Chu, Hao-Hua; Lei, Chin-Laung; Chen, Wen-Chin

    2008-12-01

    Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1) the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2) the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3) the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  12. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1 the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2 the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3 the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  13. Misinterpretation of the strategic significance of cost driver analysis: evidence from management accounting theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T Palowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the development of cost driver theory in the Strategy literature and reflects on misinterpretations of the strategic significance of the theory in related academic disciplines, notably Management Accounting. Management Accounting has largely been responsible for informing costing practice in a wide range of organizational settings. The paper considers one such application- i.e. the case of the Higher Education Funding Council’s (HEFC costing and pricing initiative for UK universities. The project was completed just under five years ago, although details of implementation are still ongoing, to a degree. The systems in place incorporate most of the theoretical flaws outlined in this paper. Rather than providing cost driver analysis to aid the strategic management process in universities, the system appears to represent little more than a compliance and reporting framework between university central administrations and the funding provider, HEFC.

  14. Perturbation and Stability Analysis of the Multi-Anticipative Intelligent Driver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Qun; Xie, Wei-Jun; Shi, Jing; Shi, Qi-Xin

    This paper discusses three kinds of IDM car-following models that consider both the multi-anticipative behaviors and the reaction delays of drivers. Here, the multi-anticipation comes from two ways: (1) the driver is capable of evaluating the dynamics of several preceding vehicles, and (2) the autonomous vehicles can obtain the velocity and distance information of several preceding vehicles via inter-vehicle communications. In this paper, we study the stability of homogeneous traffic flow. The linear stability analysis indicates that the stable region will generally be enlarged by the multi-anticipative behaviors and reduced by the reaction delays. The temporal amplification and the spatial divergence of velocities for local perturbation are also studied, where the results further prove this conclusion. Simulation results also show that the multi-anticipative behaviors near the bottleneck will lead to a quicker backwards propagation of oscillations.

  15. Blood alcohol concentration in drivers of Liege area (Belgium): a 5-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, M; Charlier, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to describe 'the results of the blood alcohol determinations made on drivers from the Liege area between 2007 and 2012. The results were interpreted according to the sex, to the age, to the circumstances and temporal variation of the test. Statistical analysis was performed using R® software. 2725 determinations were done, mainly after crashes. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 1.69 g/L, and 2132 drivers were above the legal threshold. A majority of offenders were men, but the mean BAC did not differ significantly between men and women. A correlation between age and mean BAC can be observed on the positive cases. Lowest and highest mean BACs are observed during the daytime and during the night, respectively, but no significant difference can be observed between the week and the weekend. Finally, no significant difference in BAC was observed over years.

  16. Proteomic profiling identifies PTK2/FAK as a driver of radioresistance in HPV-negative head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Heath D.; Giri, Uma; Yang, Liang P.; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Story, Michael; Pickering, Curtis; Byers, Lauren; Williams, Michelle; El Naggar, Adel; Wang, Jing; Diao, Lixia; Shen, Li; Fan, You Hong; Molkentine, David; Beadle, Beth; Meyn, Raymond; Myers, Jeffrey; Heymach, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is commonly treated with radiotherapy, and local failure after treatment remains the major cause of disease-related mortality. To date human papillomavirus (HPV) is the only known clinically validated, targetable biomarkers of response to radiation in HNSCC. Experimental Design We performed proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of targetable biomarkers of radioresistance in HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines in vitro, and tested whether pharmacologic blockade of candidate biomarkers sensitized cells to radiotherapy. Candidate biomarkers were then investigated in several independent cohorts of patients with HNSCC. Results Increased expression of several targets was associated with radioresistance, including FGFR, ERK1, EGFR, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), also known as PTK2. Chemical inhibition of PTK2/FAK, but not FGFR, led to significant radiosensitization with increased G2/M arrest and potentiated DNA damage. PTK2/FAK overexpression was associated with gene amplification in HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines and clinical tumors. In two independent cohorts of patients with locally advanced HPV-negative HNSCC, PTK2/FAK amplification was highly associated with poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.012 and P=0.034). PTK2/FAK mRNA expression was also associated with worse DFS (P=0.03). Moreover, both PTK2/FAK mRNA (P=0.021) and copy number (P=0.063) were associated with DFS in the Head and Neck Cancer subgroup of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Conclusion Proteomic analysis identified PTK2/FAK overexpression is a biomarker of radioresistance in locally advanced HNSCC, and PTK2/FAK inhibition radiosensitized HNSCC cells. Combinations of PTK2/FAK inhibition with radiotherapy merit further evaluation as a therapeutic strategy for improving local control in HPV-negative HNSCC. PMID:27036135

  17. Carbon dioxide emission drivers for a typical metropolis using input–output structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Liying; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2013-01-01

    As the capital of China, Beijing is regarded as a major metropolis in the world. Study of the variation in temporal CO 2 emissions generated by the driving forces in Beijing can provide guidance for policy decisions on CO 2 emissions mitigation in global metropolises. Based on input–output structural decomposition analysis (IO-SDA), we analysed the driving forces for the increment in CO 2 emissions in Beijing from both production and final demand perspectives during 1997–2010. According to our results, the CO 2 emission growth in Beijing is driven mainly by production structure change and population growth, partly offset by CO 2 emission intensity reduction as well as the decline in per capita final demand volume during the study period. Final demand structure change has a limited effect on the change in the CO 2 emissions in Beijing. From the final demand perspective, urban trades, urban residential consumption, government consumption and fixed capital formation are mainly responsible for the booming emissions. This study showed how the “top-down” IO-SDA methodology was implemented on a city scale. Policy implications from this study would be helpful for addressing CO 2 emissions mitigation in global capital cities and metropolises. - Highlights: • Changes in production structure and population are drivers of CO 2 increment. • Changes in CO 2 intensity and per capita GDP are forces to offset CO 2 increment. • Final demand structure change has limited effect on Beijing's CO 2 emission change. • Beijing's key final demand categories and economic sectors are identified. • Policy implications of Beijing's results are analyzed

  18. Analysis of medical and psychological certificates concerning drivers who drove after alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Latała-Łoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to present the health predispositions to drive, assessed during certifying people referred to the Regional Centre for Occupational Medicine in Kielce due to drunk driving or driving after using alcohol. The article mainly presents the results regarding the prevalence of alcohol dependence and other psychiatric disorders in this group. We analyzed health condition at 3 year intervals in the years 2004, 2007 and 2010, adding the population of those who were examined in 2011. Material and Methods: A total of 5701 people were involved, both men and women. Drivers test cards along with the results of biochemical tests and specialist consultations were analyzed. The analysis of the results was performed using the statistical package PQStat 1.4.2.324 Results: Certificates with health contraindications to drive were issued to 6.7% of investigated individuals. Very significant correlation between alcohol dependence syndrome and the level of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were confirmed. Alcohol dependence was diagnosed in 3.8% of the group. Conclusions: The health state of the drivers met the required certification criteria necessary for obtaining a driving license in more than 93% of the group. The study revealed many diseases in the group of investigated drivers, including 3.8% of alcohol dependence and 5% of mental disorders. The threat of losing driving license has become an important factor motivating drivers to undertake therapy. However, it seems advisable to develop principles for treatment monitoring and exchange of information between the certifying physician and the treating psychiatrist or psychologist. Med Pr 2014;65(4:497–506

  19. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  20. Using Landscape Analysis to Test Hypotheses about Drivers of Tick Abundance and Infection Prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, A Michelle; Brinkerhoff, R Jory

    2018-04-12

    Patterns of vector-borne disease risk are changing globally in space and time and elevated disease risk of vector-borne infection can be driven by anthropogenic modification of the environment. Incidence of Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, has risen in a number of locations in North America and this increase may be driven by spatially or numerically expanding populations of the primary tick vector, Ixodes scapularis . We used a model selection approach to identify habitat fragmentation and land-use/land cover variables to test the hypothesis that the amount and configuration of forest cover at spatial scales relevant to deer, the primary hosts of adult ticks, would be the predominant determinants of tick abundance. We expected that land cover heterogeneity and amount of forest edge, a habitat thought to facilitate deer foraging and survival, would be the strongest driver of tick density and that larger spatial scales (5-10 km) would be more important than smaller scales (1 km). We generated metrics of deciduous and mixed forest fragmentation using Fragstats 4.4 implemented in ArcMap 10.3 and found, after adjusting for multicollinearity, that total forest edge within a 5 km buffer had a significant negative effect on tick density and that the proportion of forested land cover within a 10 km buffer was positively associated with density of I. scapularis nymphs. None of the 1 km fragmentation metrics were found to significantly improve the fit of the model. Elevation, previously associated with increased density of I. scapularis nymphs in Virginia, while significantly predictive in univariate analysis, was not an important driver of nymph density relative to fragmentation metrics. Our results suggest that amount of forest cover (i.e., lack of fragmentation) is the most important driver of I. scapularis density in our study system.

  1. An analysis on older driver's driving behavior by GPS tracking data: Road selection, left/right turn, and driving speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the high older-related accident ratio and increasing population aging problem, understanding older drivers' driving behaviors has become more and more important for building and improving transportation system. This paper examines older driver's driving behavior which includes road selection, left/right turn and driving speed. A two-month experiment of 108 participants was carried out in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Since apparently contradictory statements were often drawn in survey-based or simulators-based studies, this study collected not only drivers' basic information but also GPS data. Analysis of road selection demonstrates that older drivers are reluctant to drive on expressway not only in short trips but also in long trips. The present study did not find significant difference between older drivers and others while turning at the intersections. To investigate the impact factors on driving speed, a random-effects regression model is constructed with explanatory variables including age, gender, road types and the interaction terms between age and road types. Compared with other variables, it fails to find that age (60 years old or over has significant impact on driving speed. Moreover, the results reflect that older drivers drive even faster than others at particular road types: national road and ordinary municipal road. The results in this study are expected to help improve transportation planning and develop driving assistance systems for older drivers.

  2. Comprehensive Characterization of Cancer Driver Genes and Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Matthew H.; Tokheim, Collin; Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Sengupta, Sohini; Bertrand, Denis; Weerasinghe, Amila; Colaprico, Antonio; Wendl, Michael C.; Kim, Jaegil; Reardon, Brendan; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Jeong, Kang Jin; Cao, Song; Wang, Zixing; Gao, Jianjiong; Gao, Qingsong; Wang, Fang; Liu, Eric Minwei; Mularoni, Loris; Rubio-Perez, Carlota; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Cortés-Ciriano, Isidro; Zhou, Daniel Cui; Liang, Wen Wei; Hess, Julian M.; Yellapantula, Venkata D.; Tamborero, David; Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; Suphavilai, Chayaporn; Ko, Jia Yu; Khurana, Ekta; Park, Peter J.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Liang, Han; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Lawrence, Michael S.; Godzik, Adam; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Stuart, Josh; Wheeler, David; Getz, Gad; Chen, Ken; Lazar, Alexander J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Karchin, Rachel; Ding, Li

    2018-01-01

    Identifying molecular cancer drivers is critical for precision oncology. Multiple advanced algorithms to identify drivers now exist, but systematic attempts to combine and optimize them on large datasets are few. We report a PanCancer and PanSoftware analysis spanning 9,423 tumor exomes (comprising

  3. Engineering and Functional Characterization of Fusion Genes Identifies Novel Oncogenic Drivers of Cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncogenic gene fusions drive many human cancers, but tools to more quickly unravel their functional contributions are needed. Here we describe methodology permitting fusion gene construction for functional evaluation. Using this strategy, we engineered the known fusion oncogenes, BCR-ABL1, EML4-ALK, and ETV6-NTRK3, as well as 20 previously uncharacterized fusion genes identified in TCGA datasets.

  4. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus

  5. Analysis of impact noise induced by hitting of titanium head golf driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Young Chul; Lee, Jun Hee; An, Yong-Hwi; Park, Kyung Tae; Kang, Kyung Min; Kang, Yeon June

    2014-11-01

    The hitting of titanium head golf driver against golf ball creates a short duration, high frequency impact noise. We analyzed the spectra of these impact noises and evaluated the auditory hazards from exposure to the noises. Noises made by 10 titanium head golf drivers with five maximum hits were collected, and the spectra of the pure impact sounds were studied using a noise analysis program. The noise was measured at 1.7 m (position A) and 3.4 m (position B) from the hitting point in front of the hitter and at 3.4 m (position C) behind the hitting point. Average time duration was measured and auditory risk units (ARUs) at position A were calculated using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans. The average peak levels at position A were 119.9 dBA at the sound pressure level (SPL) peak and 100.0 dBA at the overall octave level. The average peak levels (SPL and overall octave level) at position B were 111.6 and 96.5 dBA, respectively, and at position C were 111.5 and 96.7 dBA, respectively. The average time duration and ARUs measured at position A were 120.6 ms and 194.9 units, respectively. Although impact noises made by titanium head golf drivers showed relatively low ARUs, individuals enjoying golf frequently may be susceptible to hearing loss due to the repeated exposure of this intense impact noise with short duration and high frequency. Unprotected exposure to impact noises should be limited to prevent cochleovestibular disorders.

  6. Understanding the drivers on medical workloads: an analysis of spectators at the Australian Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Kathryn; Haghighi, Pari Delir; Burstein, Frada; Williams, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    The present study was designed to further understand the psychosocial drivers of crowds impacting on the demand for healthcare. This involved analysing different spectator crowds for medical usage at mass gatherings; more specifically, did different football team spectators (of the Australian Football League) generate different medical usage rates. In total, 317 games were analysed from 10 venues over 2 years. Data were analysed by the ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests. RESULTS; Spectators who supported different football teams generated statistically significant differences in patient presentation rates (PPR) (F15, 618=1.998, P=0.014). The present study confirmed previous findings that there is a positive correlation between the crowd size and PPR at mass gatherings but found a negative correlation between density and PPR (r = -0.206, n=317, Pemergency medical care. In measuring demand for emergency medical services there is a need to develop a more sophisticated understanding of a variety of drivers in addition to traditional metrics such as temperature, crowd size and other physical elements. In this study we saw that spectators who supported different football teams generated statistically significant differences in PPR. What is known about this topic? Understanding the drivers of emergency medical care is most important in the mass gathering setting. There has been minimal analysis of psychological 'crowd' variables. What does this paper add? This study explores the psychosocial impact of supporting a different team on the PPR of spectators at Australian Football League matches. The value of collecting and analysing these types of data sets is to support more balanced planning, better decision support and knowledge management, and more effective emergency medical demand management. What are the implications for practitioners? This information further expands the body of evidence being created to understand the drivers of emergency medical demand and usage

  7. Individual and combined effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial phosphorus pools: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Yan; Peng, Changhui; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Li; Ni, Xiangyin; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Fuzhong

    2018-07-15

    Human activity-induced global change drivers have dramatically changed terrestrial phosphorus (P) dynamics. However, our understanding of the interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial P pools remains elusive, limiting their incorporation into ecological and biogeochemical models. We conducted a meta-analysis using 1751 observations extracted from 283 published articles to evaluate the individual, combined, and interactive effects of elevated CO 2 , warming, N addition, P addition, increased rainfall, and drought on P pools of plant (at both single-plant and plant-community levels), soil and microbial biomass. Our results suggested that (1) terrestrial P pools showed the most sensitive responses to the individual effects of warming and P addition; (2) P pools were consistently stimulated by P addition alone or in combination with simultaneous N addition; (3) environmental and experimental setting factors such as ecosystem type, climate, and latitude could significantly influence both the individual and combined effects; and (4) the interactive effects of two-driver pairs across multiple global change drivers are more likely to be additive rather than synergistic or antagonistic. Our findings highlighting the importance of additive interactive effects among multiple global change drivers on terrestrial P pools would be useful for incorporating P as controls on ecological processes such as photosynthesis and plant growth into ecosystem models used to analyze effects of multiple drivers under future global change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An econometric analysis of the effects of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Pedregal, Diego J

    2010-07-01

    This article seeks to quantify the effects of the penalty points system driver's license during the 18-month period following its coming into force. This is achieved by means of univariate and multivariate unobserved component models set up in a state space framework estimated using maximum likelihood. A detailed intervention analysis is carried out in order to test for the effects and their duration of the introduction of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain. Other variables, mainly indicators of the level of economic activity in Spain, are also considered. Among the main effects, we can mention an average reduction of almost 12.6% in the number of deaths in highway accidents. It would take at least 2 years for that effect to disappear. For the rest of the safety indicator variables (vehicle occupants injured in highway accidents and vehicle occupants injured in accidents built-up areas) the effects disappeared 1 year after the law coming into force. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods: Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results: In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Conclusion: Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years

  10. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650, in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the “success” of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity; and ownership and participation. Conclusion Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period

  11. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Katie

    2016-11-01

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  12. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, Simone, E-mail: simone.gingrich@uni-klu.ac.a [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, 1070 Wien (Austria); Kuskova, Petra [Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic); Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, 1070 Wien (Austria)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. - Research Highlights: {yields}CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia increased during industrialisation. {yields}The differences were strongest during periods of different political regimes. {yields}The main drivers for differences were energy composition and energy intensity.

  13. Probabilistic safety analysis about the radiation risk for the driver in a fast-scan container/vehicle inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Zhu Guoping; Ming Shenjin; Cao Yanfeng

    2008-01-01

    A new Container/Vehicle Inspection System called fast-scan inspection system has been developed and used in some countries, which has a special advantage in scanning efficiency of 200 - 400 containers per hour. However, for its unique scanning mode, the fast-scan inspection system causes some worries about the radiation risk for the truck drivers, who will drive the container truck to pass through the scanning tunnel and might be exposed by the radiation beam in accidents. A PSA analysis, which has been widely used to evaluate the safety of nuclear power plant in the past, is presented here to estimate the probability of accidental exposure to the driver and evaluate the health risk. The fault tree and event tree analysis show that the probability of accidental exposure to the driver is pretty low and the main failure contributions are human errors and scanning control devices failures, which provides some recommendations for the further improvement about this product. Furthermore, on the basic of ICRP No.60 and 76 reports, the health risk to the truck driver is only about 4.0x10 -14 /a. Compared with the exempt level of 5x10 -7 /a, it can be concluded that the fast-scan system is safe enough for the truck driver. (author)

  14. Measuring situational avoidance in older drivers: An application of Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica; Conlon, Elizabeth; Ownsworth, Tamara; Morrissey, Shirley

    2016-02-01

    Situational avoidance is a form of driving self-regulation at the strategic level of driving behaviour. It has typically been defined as the purposeful avoidance of driving situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. To date, assessment of the psychometric properties of existing scales that measure situational avoidance has been sparse. This study examined the contribution of Rasch analysis to the situational avoidance construct. Three hundred and ninety-nine Australian drivers (M=66.75, SD=10.14, range: 48-91 years) completed the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ). Following removal of the item Parallel Parking, the scale conformed to a Rasch model, showing good person separation, sufficient reliability, little disordering of thresholds, and no evidence of differential item functioning by age or gender. The residuals were independent supporting the assumption of unidimensionality and in conforming to a Rasch model, SAQ items were found to be hierarchical or cumulative. Increased avoidance was associated with factors known to be related to driving self-regulation more broadly, including older age, female gender, reduced driving space and frequency, reporting a change in driving in the past five years and poorer indices of health (i.e., self-rated mood, vision and cognitive function). Overall, these results support the use of the SAQ as a psychometrically sound measure of situational avoidance. Application of Rasch analysis to this area of research advances understanding of the driving self-regulation construct and its practice by drivers in baby boomer and older adult generations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Influencing factors for job satisfaction in train drivers in a railway bureau: an analysis of 1413 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the influencing factors for job satisfaction in train drivers. Methods: In March 2012, cluster sampling was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey in 1413 male train drivers (including 301 passenger train drivers, 683 freight train drivers, 350 passenger shunting train drivers, and 79 high-speed train drivers) from a locomotive depot of a railway bureau. The occupational stress instruments, job content questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire were used to analyze job satisfaction, occupational stress factors, stress reaction, individual characteristics, coping strategies, and social support. Results: There were significant differences in job satisfaction score between the drivers with different posts, working years, ages, smoking status, and drinking status ( P analysis revealed that job satisfaction score was positively correlated with reward, working stability, promotion opportunity, positive emotion, social support, self-esteem, and coping strategy scores ( P analysis of variance showed that compared with the moderate and low job satisfaction groups, the high job satisfaction group had significantly higher reward, positive emotion, promotion opportunity, and role ambiguity scores ( P job satisfaction groups the low job satisfaction group had significantly higher scores of psychological needs, effort, role conflict, sleep disorders, daily stress, depressive symptom, negative emotion, drug use, intragroup conflict, and social support ( P job satisfaction group had a significantly higher score of self-esteem than the other two groups ( P analysis showed that the risk of job dissatisfaction in the drivers with low so-cial support and high daily stress was more than 2 times that in those with high social support and low daily stress ( OR =2.176 and 2.171) , and sleep disorders, effort, depressive symptom, low self-esteem, and role conflict were risk factors for job dissatisfaction ( OR =1.48-1.625). Conclusion: Occupational

  16. Spatiotemporal variability in wildfire patterns and analysis of the main drivers in Honduras using GIS and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Vasquez, M. C.; Chen, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfires are unrestrained fires in an area of flammable vegetation and they are one of the most frequent disasters in Honduras during the dry season. During this period, anthropogenic activity combined with the harsh climatic conditions, dry vegetation and topographical variables, cause a large amount of wildfires. For this reason, there is a need to identify the drivers of wildfires and their susceptibility variations during the wildfire season. In this study, we combined the wildfire points during the 2010-2016 period every 8 days with a series of variables using the random forest (RF) algorithm. In addition to the wildfire points, we randomly generated a similar amount of background points that we use as pseudo-absence data. To represent the human imprint, we included proximity to different types of roads, trails, settlements and agriculture sites. Other variables included are the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS)-derived 8-day composites of land surface temperature (LST) and the normalized multi-band drought index (NMDI), derived from the MODIS surface reflectance data. We also included monthly average precipitation, solar radiation, and topographical variables. The exploratory analysis of the variables reveals that low precipitation combined with the low NMDI and accessibility to non-paved roads were the major drivers of wildfires during the early months of the dry season. During April, which is the peak of the dry season, the explanatory variables of relevance also included elevation and LST in addition to the proximity to paved and non-paved roads. During May, proximity to crops becomes relevant, in addition to the aforesaid variables. The average estimated area with high and very high wildfire susceptibility was 22% of the whole territory located mainly in the central and eastern regions, drifting towards the northeast areas during May. We validated the results using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC

  17. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  18. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D; Qing Chen, Xiao; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason S; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D; Castelao, Jose E; Chan, Tsun L; David Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Seng Chia, Kee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Cunningham, Julie M; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M; Ekici, Arif B; Eliassen, A Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; García-Sáenz, José A; Gaudet, Mia M; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J; Hoover, Robert N; Hopper, John L; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Neng Lee, Chuen; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P; Ma, Edmond S K; MacInnis, Robert J; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V Shane; Park, Sue K; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I A; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofyeva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C; Spinelli, John J; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H; Beth Terry, Mary; Tessier, Daniel C; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R; Har Yip, Cheng; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Amos, Christopher I; Couch, Fergus J; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J; Milne, Roger L; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chanock, Stephen J; Dunning, Alison M; Edwards, Stacey L; Bader, Gary D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F

    2017-11-02

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10 -8 . The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.

  19. NREL Analysis Identifies Where Commercial Customers Might Benefit from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Energy Storage | NREL | News | NREL NREL Analysis Identifies Where Commercial Customers Customers Might Benefit from Battery Energy Storage August 24, 2017 After upfront costs, batteries may reduce operating costs for customers paying demand charges Commercial electricity customers who are

  20. Identifying Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) of intellectual capital and Islamic work ethics in Malaysian SMES. ... capital and Islamic work ethics significantly influenced business performance. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Development and application of a new tool in driver task analysis; Entwicklung und Anwendung einer neuen Methodik zur Fahreraufgabenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastenmeier, W.; Gstalter, H. [mensch-verkehr-umwelt Institut fuer Angewandte Psychologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A framework for driver task analysis is derived from a model of the drivers information processing. The first step of the procedure (SAFE) is to divide a given driving task (e.g. left turning in a signalised intersection of a certain type) into subtasks. These subtasks are appointed to defined stretches of the road and the time structure of the subtasks is determined. For each subtask an analysis format is used, that organizes different requirements into perception, expectation, judgement, memory, decision and driver action. In a next step, typical driver errors are appointed to the subtasks. Afterwards the information gathered in the analysis procedure is compressed to ratings of the complexity and risk included in each subtask. After the crucial subtasks of a driving task have been determined, a list of those requirements that led to that rating can be compiled. These lists give the potential for aiding the driver e.g. by use of driver assistance systems. (orig.) [German] In den Verkehrswissenschaften existieren bislang keine verkehrsspezifischen Standardverfahren, die eine Anforderungsanalyse auf der Ebene der Fahraufgaben erlauben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Grundzuege eines Verfahrens zur Fahraufgabenanalyse dar (SAFE: Situative Anforderungsanalyse von Fahraufgaben). Es basiert auf einer Modellvorstellung zu den Informationsverarbeitungsprozessen, die waehrend der Bewaeltigung der Fahraufgabe eine Rolle spielen. Der erste Schritt der Aufgabenanalyse besteht darin, eine ausgewaehlte Fahraufgabe (z.B. Linksabbiegen in einer ampelgeregelten Kreuzung bestimmten Typs) in Teilaufgaben zu zerlegen und eine zeitliche Strukturierung dieser Teilaufgaben vorzunehmen. Diese werden raeumlichen Segmenten zugeordnet, die nacheinander durchfahren werden muessen. Fuer jede Teilaufgabe erfolgt dann die eigentliche Anforderungsanalyse, die nach den Kapiteln Wahrnehmung, Erwartungsbildung, Beurteilung, Gedaechtnisprozesse, Entscheidung/Planung sowie Fahrzeugbedienung mit jeweils

  2. Statistical analysis of suprathermal electron drivers at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiles, Thomas W.; Burch, J. L.; Chae, K.; Clark, G.; Cravens, T. E.; Eriksson, A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Frahm, R. A.; Gasc, S.; Goldstein, R.; Henri, P.; Koenders, C.; Livadiotis, G.; Mandt, K. E.; Mokashi, P.; Nemeth, Z.; Odelstad, E.; Rubin, M.; Samara, M.

    2016-11-01

    We use observations from the Ion and Electron Sensor (IES) on board the Rosetta spacecraft to study the relationship between the cometary suprathermal electrons and the drivers that affect their density and temperature. We fit the IES electron observations with the summation of two kappa distributions, which we characterize as a dense and warm population (˜10 cm-3 and ˜16 eV) and a rarefied and hot population (˜0.01 cm-3 and ˜43 eV). The parameters of our fitting technique determine the populations' density, temperature, and invariant kappa index. We focus our analysis on the warm population to determine its origin by comparing the density and temperature with the neutral density and magnetic field strength. We find that the warm electron population is actually two separate sub-populations: electron distributions with temperatures above 8.6 eV and electron distributions with temperatures below 8.6 eV. The two sub-populations have different relationships between their density and temperature. Moreover, the two sub-populations are affected by different drivers. The hotter sub-population temperature is strongly correlated with neutral density, while the cooler sub-population is unaffected by neutral density and is only weakly correlated with magnetic field strength. We suggest that the population with temperatures above 8.6 eV is being heated by lower hybrid waves driven by counterstreaming solar wind protons and newly formed, cometary ions created in localized, dense neutral streams. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first observations of cometary electrons heated through wave-particle interactions.

  3. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  4. An Analysis of a Contingency Program on Designated Drivers at a College Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazbour, Richard R.; Bailey, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of prompts and incentives on designated drivers in a bar. We defined the dependent variable as the percentage of customers either functioning as or riding with a designated driver. We used an ABCA design to evaluate the effectiveness of prompts and incentives on the dependent variable. Results indicated that…

  5. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  7. Gap Acceptance During Lane Changes by Large-Truck Drivers-An Image-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Zhao, Ding; Peng, Huei; Pan, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of rearward gap acceptance characteristics of drivers of large trucks in highway lane change scenarios. The range between the vehicles was inferred from camera images using the estimated lane width obtained from the lane tracking camera as the reference. Six-hundred lane change events were acquired from a large-scale naturalistic driving data set. The kinematic variables from the image-based gap analysis were filtered by the weighted linear least squares in order to extrapolate them at the lane change time. In addition, the time-to-collision and required deceleration were computed, and potential safety threshold values are provided. The resulting range and range rate distributions showed directional discrepancies, i.e., in left lane changes, large trucks are often slower than other vehicles in the target lane, whereas they are usually faster in right lane changes. Video observations have confirmed that major motivations for changing lanes are different depending on the direction of move, i.e., moving to the left (faster) lane occurs due to a slower vehicle ahead or a merging vehicle on the right-hand side, whereas right lane changes are frequently made to return to the original lane after passing.

  8. Meta-analysis of graduated driver licensing laws: effectiveness of specific program components : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs in the United States do not represent a single homogeneous intervention; rather, they contain different combinations and variations of program components. Programs vary by the duration of each stage of the GD...

  9. How do older adult drivers self-regulate? Characteristics of self-regulation classes defined by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Gwen; West, Bethany A; Luo, Feijun; Bird, Donna C; Freund, Katherine; Fortinsky, Richard H; Staplin, Loren

    2017-06-01

    Motor-vehicle crashes were the second leading cause of injury death for adults aged 65-84years in 2014. Some older drivers choose to self-regulate their driving to maintain mobility while reducing driving risk, yet the process remains poorly understood. Data from 729 older adults (aged ≥60years) who joined an older adult ride service program between April 1, 2010 and November 8, 2013 were analyzed to define and describe classes of driving self-regulation. Latent class analysis was employed to characterize older adult driving self-regulation classes using driving frequency and avoidance of seven driving situations. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between characteristics affecting mobility and self-regulation class. Three classes were identified (low, medium, and high self-regulation). High self-regulating participants reported the highest proportion of always avoiding seven risky driving situations and the lowest driving frequency followed by medium and low self-regulators. Those who were female, aged 80years or older, visually impaired, assistive device users, and those with special health needs were more likely to be high self-regulating compared with low self-regulating. Avoidance of certain driving situations and weekly driving frequency are valid indicators for describing driving self-regulation classes in older adults. Understanding the unique characteristics and mobility limitations of each class can guide optimal transportation strategies for older adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafian, Ghasem; Aghabeigi, Mohammad-Reza; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Sarikhani, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type. A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%). The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%). The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years'of driving experience. Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%). Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively). We found significant association between type of accident and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P less than 0.001). Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  11. Identifying organizational deficiencies through root-cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, R.W.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    All nuclear power plants incorporate root-cause analysis as an instrument to help identify and isolate key factors judged to be of significance following an incident or accident. Identifying the principal deficiencies can become very difficult when the event involves not only human and machine interaction, but possibly the underlying safety and quality culture of the organization. The current state of root-cause analysis is to conclude the investigation after identifying human and/or hardware failures. In this work, root-cause analysis is taken one step further by examining plant work processes and organizational factors. This extension is considered significant to the success of the analysis, especially when management deficiency is believed to contribute to the incident. The results of root-cause analysis can be most effectively implemented if the organization, as a whole, wishes to improve the overall operation of the plant by preventing similar incidents from occurring again. The study adds to the existing root-cause analysis the ability to localize the causes of undesirable events and to focus on those problems hidden deeply within the work processes that are routinely followed in the operation and maintenance of the facility

  12. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as accident predictor; A methodological re-meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E; Barraclough, P; Freeman, J

    2015-12-01

    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is the most commonly used self-report tool in traffic safety research and applied settings. It has been claimed that the violation factor of this instrument predicts accident involvement, which was supported by a previous meta-analysis. However, that analysis did not test for methodological effects, or include unpublished results. The present study re-analysed studies on prediction of accident involvement from DBQ factors, including lapses, and many unpublished effects. Tests of various types of dissemination bias and common method variance were undertaken. Outlier analysis showed that some effects were probably not reliable data, but excluding them did not change the results. For correlations between violations and crashes, tendencies for published effects to be larger than unpublished ones and for effects to decrease over time were observed, but were not significant. Also, using the mean of accidents as proxy for effect indicated that studies where effects for violations are not reported have smaller effect sizes. These differences indicate dissemination bias. Studies using self-reported accidents as dependent variables had much larger effects than those using recorded accident data. Also, zero-order correlations were larger than partial correlations controlled for exposure. Similarly, violations/accidents effects were strong only when there was also a strong correlation between accidents and exposure. Overall, the true effect is probably very close to zero (rresearch. Also, validation of self-reports should be more comprehensive in the future, taking into account the possibility of common method variance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  13. BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE VECTOR ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES SARCOPENIA IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of muscle mass and water shifts between body compartments are contributing factors to frailty in the elderly. The body composition changes are especially pronounced in institutionalized elderly. We investigated the ability of single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify b...

  14. Identifying Students’ Misconceptions on Basic Algorithmic Concepts Through Flowchart Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, E.; Barendsen, E.; Henze, I.; Dagienė, V.; Hellas, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a flowchart-based approach to identifying secondary school students’ misconceptions (in a broad sense) on basic algorithm concepts is introduced. This approach uses student-generated flowcharts as the units of analysis and examines them against plan composition and construct-based

  15. Structural parameter identifiability analysis for dynamic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidescu, Florin Paul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2008-01-01

    method based on Lie derivatives. The proposed systematic two phase methodology is illustrated on a mass action based model for an enzymatically catalyzed reaction pathway network where only a limited set of variables is measured. The methodology clearly pinpoints the structurally identifiable parameters...... where for a given set of measured variables it is desirable to investigate which parameters may be estimated prior to spending computational effort on the actual estimation. This contribution addresses the structural parameter identifiability problem for the typical case of reaction network models....... The proposed analysis is performed in two phases. The first phase determines the structurally identifiable reaction rates based on reaction network stoichiometry. The second phase assesses the structural parameter identifiability of the specific kinetic rate expressions using a generating series expansion...

  16. Analysis of near crashes among teen, young adult, and experienced adult drivers using the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacrist, Thomas; Douglas, Ethan C; Huang, Elaine; Megariotis, James; Prabahar, Abhiti; Kashem, Abyaad; Elzarka, Ayya; Haber, Leora; MacKinney, Taryn; Loeb, Helen

    2018-02-28

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among young drivers. Though previous research has focused on crash events, near crashes offer additional data to help identify driver errors that could potentially lead to crashes as well as evasive maneuvers used to avoid them. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) contains extensive data on real-world driving and offers a reliable methodology to quantify and study near crashes. This article presents findings on near crashes and how they compare to crash events among teen, young adult, and experienced adult drivers. A subset from the SHRP2 database consisting of 1,653 near crashes for teen (16-19 years, n = 550), young adult (20-24 years, n = 748), and experienced adult (35-54 years, n = 591) drivers was used. Onboard instrumentation including scene cameras, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System logged time series data at 10 Hz. Scene videos were reviewed for all events to classify near crashes based on 7 types: rear-end, road departure, intersection, head-on, side-swipe, pedestrian/cyclist, and animal. Near crash rates, incident type, secondary tasks, and evasive maneuvers were compared across age groups and between crashes and near crashes. For rear-end near crashes, vehicle dynamic variables including near crash severity, headway distance, time headway, and time to collision at the time of braking were compared across age groups. Crashes and near crashes were combined to compare the frequency of critical events across age. Teen drivers exhibited a significantly higher (P systems based on the most common driving errors for vulnerable road users.

  17. Kin-Driver: a database of driver mutations in protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Franco L; Tornador, Cristian; Nabau-Moretó, Nuria; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutations in protein kinases (PKs) are frequent driver events in many human tumors, while germ-line mutations are associated with hereditary diseases. Here we present Kin-driver, the first database that compiles driver mutations in PKs with experimental evidence demonstrating their functional role. Kin-driver is a manual expert-curated database that pays special attention to activating mutations (AMs) and can serve as a validation set to develop new generation tools focused on the prediction of gain-of-function driver mutations. It also offers an easy and intuitive environment to facilitate the visualization and analysis of mutations in PKs. Because all mutations are mapped onto a multiple sequence alignment, analogue positions between kinases can be identified and tentative new mutations can be proposed for studying by transferring annotation. Finally, our database can also be of use to clinical and translational laboratories, helping them to identify uncommon AMs that can correlate with response to new antitumor drugs. The website was developed using PHP and JavaScript, which are supported by all major browsers; the database was built using MySQL server. Kin-driver is available at: http://kin-driver.leloir.org.ar/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Analysis of functional germline variants in APOBEC3 and driver genes on breast cancer risk in Moroccan study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouf, Chaymaa; Göhler, Stella; Filho, Miguel Inacio Da Silva; Hajji, Omar; Hemminki, Kari; Nadifi, Sellama; Försti, Asta

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem in Morocco. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. Therefore, we investigated the potential association of several functional germline variants in the genes commonly mutated in sporadic breast cancer. In this case–control study, we examined 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes (APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, ARID1B, ATR, MAP3K1, MLL2, MLL3, NCOR1, RUNX1, SF3B1, SMAD4, TBX3, TTN), which were located in the core promoter, 5’-and 3’UTR or which were nonsynonymous SNPs to assess their potential association with inherited predisposition to breast cancer development. Additionally, we identified a ~29.5-kb deletion polymorphism between APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B and explored possible associations with BC. A total of 226 Moroccan breast cancer cases and 200 matched healthy controls were included in this study. The analysis showed that12 SNPs in 8 driver genes, 4 SNPs in APOBEC3B gene and 1 SNP in APOBEC3A gene were associated with BC risk and/or clinical outcome at P ≤ 0.05 level. RUNX1-rs8130963 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.42-3.56; P = 0.0005; dominant model), TBX3-rs8853 (OR = 2.04; 95 % CI 1.38-3.01; P = 0.0003; dominant model), TBX3-rs1061651 (OR = 2.14; 95 % CI1.43-3.18; P = 0.0002; dominant model), TTN-rs12465459 (OR = 2.02; 95 % confidence interval 1.33-3.07; P = 0.0009; dominant model), were the most significantly associated SNPs with BC risk. A strong association with clinical outcome were detected for the genes SMAD4 -rs3819122 with tumor size (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009) and TTN-rs2244492 with estrogen receptor (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009). Our results suggest that genetic variations in driver and APOBEC3 genes were associated with the risk of BC and may have impact on clinical outcome. However, the reported association between the

  19. Identifying clinical course patterns in SMS data using cluster analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been interest in using the short message service (SMS or text messaging), to gather frequent information on the clinical course of individual patients. One possible role for identifying clinical course patterns is to assist in exploring clinically important...... showed that clinical course patterns can be identified by cluster analysis using all SMS time points as cluster variables. This method is simple, intuitive and does not require a high level of statistical skill. However, there are alternative ways of managing SMS data and many different methods...

  20. Spatial organization and drivers of the virtual water trade: a community-structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The trade of agricultural commodities can be associated with a virtual transfer of the local freshwater resources used for the production of these goods. Thus, trade of food products virtually transfers large amounts of water from areas of food production to far consumption regions, a process termed the ‘globalization of water’. We consider the (time-varying) community structure of the virtual water network for the years 1986–2008. The communities are groups of countries with dense internal connections, while the connections are sparser among different communities. Between 1986 and 2008, the ratio between virtual water flows within communities and the total global trade of virtual water has continuously increased, indicating the existence of well defined clusters of virtual water transfers. In some cases (e.g. Central and North America and Europe in recent years) the virtual water communities correspond to geographically coherent regions, suggesting the occurrence of an ongoing process of regionalization of water resources. However, most communities also include countries located on different ‘sides’ of the world. As such, geographic proximity only partly explains the community structure of virtual water trade. Similarly, the global distribution of people and wealth, whose effect on the virtual water trade is expressed through simple ‘gravity models’, is unable to explain the strength of virtual water communities observed in the past few decades. A gravity model based on the availability of and demand for virtual water in different countries has higher explanatory power, but the drivers of the virtual water fluxes are yet to be adequately identified. (letter)

  1. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  2. Network analysis of genomic alteration profiles reveals co-altered functional modules and driver genes for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunyan; Wang, Hongwei; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yujing; Zhao, Wenyuan; Qi, Lishuang; Zhang, Yuannv; Wang, Chenguang; Guo, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    The heterogeneity of genetic alterations in human cancer genomes presents a major challenge to advancing our understanding of cancer mechanisms and identifying cancer driver genes. To tackle this heterogeneity problem, many approaches have been proposed to investigate genetic alterations and predict driver genes at the individual pathway level. However, most of these approaches ignore the correlation of alteration events between pathways and miss many genes with rare alterations collectively contributing to carcinogenesis. Here, we devise a network-based approach to capture the cooperative functional modules hidden in genome-wide somatic mutation and copy number alteration profiles of glioblastoma (GBM) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), where a module is a set of altered genes with dense interactions in the protein interaction network. We identify 7 pairs of significantly co-altered modules that involve the main pathways known to be altered in GBM (TP53, RB and RTK signaling pathways) and highlight the striking co-occurring alterations among these GBM pathways. By taking into account the non-random correlation of gene alterations, the property of co-alteration could distinguish oncogenic modules that contain driver genes involved in the progression of GBM. The collaboration among cancer pathways suggests that the redundant models and aggravating models could shed new light on the potential mechanisms during carcinogenesis and provide new indications for the design of cancer therapeutic strategies.

  3. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes.Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method.The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001.The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  4. Identifying functions for ex-core neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, J.M.; Oliveira, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A method of performing the phase analysis of signals arising from neutron detectors placed in the periphery of a pressurized water reactor is proposed. It consists in the definition of several identifying functions, based on the phases of cross power spectral densities corresponding to four ex-core neutron detectors. Each of these functions enhances the appearance of different sources of noise. The method, applied to the ex-core neutron fluctuation analysis of a French PWR, proved to be very useful as it allows quick recognition of various patterns in the power spectral densities. (orig.) [de

  5. Use of Photogrammetry and Biomechanical Gait analysis to Identify Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Lynnerup, Niels

    Photogrammetry and recognition of gait patterns are valuable tools to help identify perpetrators based on surveillance recordings. We have found that stature but only few other measures have a satisfying reproducibility for use in forensics. Several gait variables with high recognition rates were...... found. Especially the variables located in the frontal plane are interesting due to large inter-individual differences in time course patterns. The variables with high recognition rates seem preferable for use in forensic gait analysis and as input variables to waveform analysis techniques...

  6. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  7. Identifying the Macro-Level Drivers of Adolescent Fertility Rate in Latin America: The Role of School-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda, Claudia N.; Dávalos, Eleonora

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to explain macrolevel drivers of adolescent fertility rate using a panel data set derived from 17 Latin American countries over a period of 16 years (1997-2012). While many studies of adolescent fertility have focused on individual-level explanations, this study explores whether adolescent fertility rate is correlated to…

  8. Restructuring of the driver for TASS/SMR, SMART analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G. H.; Kim, S. H.; Whang, Y. D.; Kim, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    TASS/SMR is under development by implementing the newly developed thermal hydraulic models for the integral reactor, SMART. The data structure of TASS utilizes external files, which could result in difficulties for the code maintenance and an easy understanding of the code. The driver for TASS/SMR was rewritten for the use of Fortran 90 advanced features, such as dynamic memory management and user defined derived type. The input structure of TASS changed from the interactive method to card numbered system. Also the output process of TASS reformed by removing the utility program. The validation of the TASS/SMR driver was performed by the comparison of results. The use of the revised TASS/SMR driver is expected to accelerate code development process as well as improve user friendliness

  9. Social Cognitive Antecedents of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Truck Drivers: A Sequential Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Vayro, Caitlin; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To examine a mechanism by which social cognitive factors may predict fruit and vegetable consumption in long-haul truck drivers. Dietary self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies, and intentions were assessed in 148 Australian truck drivers, and 1 week later they reported their fruit and vegetable consumption. A theory-guided sequential mediation model was specified that postulated self-efficacy and intention as mediators between outcome expectancies and behavior. The hypothesized model was confirmed. A direct effect of outcome expectancies was no longer present when mediators were included, and all indirect effects were significant, including the 2-mediator chain (β = .15; P role of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy are important to consider for understanding and predicting healthy eating intentions in truck drivers. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  11. Driver hand-held cellular phone use: a four-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Vivoda, Jonathon M; St Louis, Renée M

    2006-01-01

    The use of hand-held cellular (mobile) phones while driving has stirred more debate, passion, and research than perhaps any other traffic safety issue in the past several years. There is ample research showing that the use of either hand-held or hands-free cellular phones can lead to unsafe driving patterns. Whether or not these performance deficits increase the risk of crash is difficult to establish, but recent studies are beginning to suggest that cellular phone use elevates crash risk. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the rate of hand-held cellular phone use by motor-vehicle drivers on a statewide level in Michigan. This study presents the results of 13 statewide surveys of cellular phone use over a 4-year period. Hand-held cellular phone use data were collected through direct observation while vehicles were stopped at intersections and freeway exit ramps. Data were weighted to be representative of all drivers traveling during daylight hours in Michigan. The study found that driver hand-held cellular phone use has more than doubled between 2001 and 2005, from 2.7% to 5.8%. This change represents an average increase of 0.78 percentage points per year. The 5.8% use rate observed in 2005 means that at any given daylight hour, around 36,550 drivers were conversing on cellular phones while driving on Michigan roadways. The trend line fitted to these data predicts that by the year 2010, driver hand-held cellular phone use will be around 8.6%, or 55,000 drivers at any given daylight hour. These results make it clear that cellular phone use while driving will continue to be an important traffic safety issue, and highlight the importance of continued attempts to generate new ways of alleviating this potential hazard.

  12. Identifying Organizational Inefficiencies with Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Patrishkoff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA was created by the author in 2004. PPA is a unique methodology which offers ten layers of additional analysis when compared to standard process mapping techniques.  The goal of PPA is to identify and eliminate waste, inefficiencies and risk in manufacturing or transactional business processes at 5 levels in an organization. The highest level being assessed is the process management, followed by the process work environment, detailed work habits, process performance metrics and general attitudes towards the process. This detailed process assessment and analysis is carried out during process improvement brainstorming efforts and Kaizen events. PPA creates a detailed visual efficiency rating for each step of the process under review.  A selection of 54 pictorial Inefficiency Icons (cards are available for use to highlight major inefficiencies and risks that are present in the business process under review. These inefficiency icons were identified during the author's independent research on the topic of why things go wrong in business. This paper will highlight how PPA was developed and show the steps required to conduct Pictorial Process Analysis on a sample manufacturing process. The author has successfully used PPA to dramatically improve business processes in over 55 different industries since 2004.  

  13. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD-ȘANDRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geospatial Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Drivers and Vector-Borne Diseases. Human health is profoundly affected by weather and climate. Environmental health is becoming a major preoccupation on a world-wide scale; there is a close correlation between a population’s state of health and the quality of its environment, considering many infectious diseases are at least partly dependent on environmental factors. When we talk about the environment, we realize that it includes and affects fields of action from our daily life. Earth observation from space, with validation from in situ observations, provide a greater understanding of the environment and enable us to monitor and predict key environmental phenomena and events that can affect our livelihoods and health. Even thought, the use of Earth observation is growing in usefulness for a wide variety of uses, it is extremely unlikely that Earth Observation will be able to detect infectious diseases directly. Instead, Earth observation can be used to detect high NDVI index (and possibly attribute the high surface chlorophyll concentration to a particular disease, and help predict the movement of the agents carrying vector-borne disease. Many diseases need certain temperature and moisture conditions to breed. The primary objective of analyzing environmental health risk and vulnerabilities is to support the Development Regions to strengthen their capacity to assess, visualize and analyze health risks and incorporate the results of this analysis in a health risk map for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response plans. At the same time, such an analysis applied in health, allows starting the collection and homogenization of baseline data, information and maps to help health authorities and decision makers to take informed decisions in times of crises. Informational Health Platform would be used for the integration of data coming from different sources in order to

  14. Factors affecting driver alertness during the operation of haul trucks in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the seriousness of haul trucks accidents, SIMRAC initiated research to identify factors affecting haul truck driver alertness during mining operations. The information obtained during the risk analysis was used to identify possible...

  15. The use of meta-analysis or research synthesis to combine driving simulation or naturalistic study results on driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Johnston, Katherine A; Willness, Chelsea R; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Three important and inter-related topics are addressed in this paper. First, the importance of meta-analysis and research synthesis methods to combine studies on traffic safety, in general, and on driver distraction, in particular, is briefly reviewed. Second, naturalistic, epidemiologic, and driving simulation studies on driver distraction are used to illustrate convergent and divergent results that have accumulated thus far in this domain of research. In particular, mobile phone conversation, passenger presence, and text messaging naturalistic studies use meta-analyses and research syntheses to illustrate important patterns of results that are in need of more in-depth study. Third, a number of driver distraction study limitations such as poorly defined dependent variables, lack of methodological detail, and omission of statistical information prevent the integration of many studies into meta-analyses. In addition, the overall quality of road safety studies suffers from these same limitations and suggestions for improvement are made to guide researchers and reviewers. Practical Applications. The use of research synthesis and meta-analysis provide comprehensive estimates of the impact of distractions on driving performance, which can be used to guide public policy and future research. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Work zone simulator analysis : driver performance and acceptance of alternate merge sign configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Improving work zone road safety is an issue of great interest due to the high number of crashes observed in work : zones. Departments of Transportation (DOTs) use a variety of methods to inform drivers of upcoming work zones. One method : used by DOT...

  17. Drivers of sales performance: A contemporary meta-analysis. Have salespeople become knowledge brokers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem); H.M.S. Dietz (Bart); E. Verwaal (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIt has been 25 years since the publication of a comprehensive review of the full spectrum of sales-performance drivers. This study takes stock of the contemporary field and synthesizes empirical evidence from the period 1982-2008. The authors revise the classification scheme for sales

  18. A Hierarchical Analysis of Tree Growth and Environmental Drivers Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Improving predictions of how forests in the eastern United States will respond to future global change requires a better understanding of the drivers of variability in tree growth rates. Current inventory data lack the temporal resolution to characterize interannual variability, while existing growth records lack the extent required to assess spatial scales of variability. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots across ten sites across the eastern US, and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores. Sites were chosen to maximize climate space explored, while within sites, plots were spread across primary environmental gradients to explore landscape-level variability in growth. Using the annual growth record available from tree cores, we explored the responses of trees to multiple environmental covariates over multiple spatial and temporal scales. We hypothesized that within and across sites growth rates vary among species, and that intraspecific growth rates increase with temperature along a species' range. We also hypothesized that trees show synchrony in growth responses to landscape-scale climatic changes. Initial analyses of growth increments indicate that across sites, trees with intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra), tend to have the highest growth rates. At the site level, there is evidence for synchrony in response to large-scale climatic events (e.g. prolonged drought and above average temperatures). However, growth responses to climate at the landscape scale have yet to be detected. Our current analysis utilizes hierarchical Bayesian state-space modeling to focus on growth responses of adult trees to environmental covariates at multiple spatial and temporal scales. This predictive model of tree growth currently incorporates observed effects at the individual, plot, site, and landscape scale. Current analysis using this model shows a potential slowing of growth in the past decade for two sites in the

  19. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  20. Obesogenic family types identified through latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Brian C; VazquezBenitez, Gabriela; Patnode, Carrie D; Hearst, Mary O; Sherwood, Nancy E; Parker, Emily D; Sirard, John; Pasch, Keryn E; Lytle, Leslie

    2011-10-01

    Obesity may cluster in families due to shared physical and social environments. This study aims to identify family typologies of obesity risk based on family environments. Using 2007-2008 data from 706 parent/youth dyads in Minnesota, we applied latent profile analysis and general linear models to evaluate associations between family typologies and body mass index (BMI) of youth and parents. Three typologies described most families with 18.8% "Unenriched/Obesogenic," 16.9% "Risky Consumer," and 64.3% "Healthy Consumer/Salutogenic." After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, parent BMI and youth BMI Z-scores were higher in unenriched/obesogenic families (BMI difference = 2.7, p typology. In contrast, parent BMI and youth BMI Z-scores were similar in the risky consumer families relative to those in healthy consumer/salutogenic type. We can identify family types differing in obesity risks with implications for public health interventions.

  1. Proteogenomic Analysis Identifies a Novel Human SHANK3 Isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Benthani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the SHANK3 gene have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. Individuals harboring different SHANK3 mutations display considerable heterogeneity in their cognitive impairment, likely due to the high SHANK3 transcriptional diversity. In this study, we report a novel interaction between the Mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC protein and a newly identified SHANK3 protein isoform in human colon cancer cells and mouse brain tissue. Hence, our proteogenomic analysis identifies a new human long isoform of the key synaptic protein SHANK3 that was not predicted by the human reference genome. Taken together, our findings describe a potential new role for MCC in neurons, a new human SHANK3 long isoform and, importantly, highlight the use of proteomic data towards the re-annotation of GC-rich genomic regions.

  2. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  3. Identifying inaccuracy of MS Project using system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrazi; Husin, Saiful; Malahayati, Nurul; Irzaidi

    2018-05-01

    The problem encountered in project owner’s financial accounting report is the difference in total project costs of MS Project to the Indonesian Standard (Standard Indonesia Standard / Cost Estimating Standard Book of Indonesia). It is one of the MS Project problems concerning to its cost accuracy, so cost data cannot be used in an integrated way for all project components. This study focuses on finding the causes of inaccuracy of the MS Projects. The aim of this study, which is operationally, are: (i) identifying cost analysis procedures for both current methods (SNI) and MS Project; (ii) identifying cost bias in each element of the cost analysis procedure; and (iii) analysing the cost differences (cost bias) in each element to identify what the cause of inaccuracies in MS Project toward SNI is. The method in this study is comparing for both the system analysis of MS Project and SNI. The results are: (i) MS Project system in Work of Resources element has limitation for two decimal digits only, have led to its inaccuracy. Where the Work of Resources (referred to as effort) in MS Project represents multiplication between the Quantities of Activities and Requirements of resources in SNI; (ii) MS Project and SNI have differences in the costing methods (the cost estimation methods), in which the SNI uses the Quantity-Based Costing (QBC), meanwhile MS Project uses the Time-Based Costing (TBC). Based on this research, we recommend to the contractors who use SNI should make an adjustment for Work of Resources in MS Project (with correction index) so that it can be used in an integrated way to the project owner’s financial accounting system. Further research will conduct for improvement the MS Project as an integrated tool toward all part of the project participant.

  4. An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to Chinese carless young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Wang, Yifan; Man, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers turn into carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has become a matter of great concern in China. Because few studies have examined the driving behaviors of these drivers, this study aims to utilize the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) to investigate the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. A total of 523 Chinese carless young drivers (214 females, 309 males) with an average age of 21.91 years completed a questionnaire including the 27-item DBQ and demographics. The data were first randomized into 2 subsamples for factor analysis and then combined together for the following analyses. Both an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n = 174) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 349) were performed to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between the demographics and the DBQ scales' variables. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were performed to investigate the prediction of the DBQ scales and crash involvement in the previous year. The EFA produced a 4-factor structure identified as errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses, and the CFA revealed a good model fit after the removal of one item with a low factor loading and the permission of the error covariance between some items. The Chinese carless young drivers reported a comparatively low level of aberrant driving behaviors. The 3 most frequently reported behaviors were all lapses and the 3 least were all violations. Gender was the only significant predictor of the 2 lapses scales and lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of the violations scale. Only the

  5. Analysis Of Traffic Conditions Based On The Percentage Of Drivers Using The Instructions Displayed On VMS Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Smolarek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to show the influence of human factor on traffic conditions during the traffic incident. The publication also depicts the functionality of the model at which the simulation was performed. The model was constructed in the VISSIM and VISUM software also using Visual Basic for Applications – Excel, [8,9]. By coordinating programs VBA and VISSIM was automated turned on or off the incident as well as turned on or off the VMS with information about the proposed of the alternative route. The additional differentiation of the percentage of drivers using the information displayed enabled to compare the data with identical external conditions influencing at traffic. For statistical analysis of data was used statistical program Statgraphics Centurion which made possible to build a model describing the impact of the behavior of drivers on traffic conditions. It is an innovative approach to modeling the impact on traffic conditions accepted by drivers information transmitted on the boards.

  6. Analysis of electric vehicle driver recharging demand profiles and subsequent impacts on the carbon content of electric vehicle trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.P.; Blythe, P.T.; Bell, M.C.; Hübner, Y.; Hill, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper quantifies the recharging behaviour of a sample of electric vehicle (EV) drivers and evaluates the impact of current policy in the north east of England on EV driver recharging demand profiles. An analysis of 31,765 EV trips and 7704 EV recharging events, constituting 23,805 h of recharging, were recorded from in-vehicle loggers as part of the Switch EV trials is presented. Altogether 12 private users, 21 organisation individuals and 32 organisation pool vehicles were tracked over two successive six month trial periods. It was found that recharging profiles varied between the different user types and locations. Private users peak demand was in the evening at home recharging points. Organisation individual vehicles were recharged primarily upon arrival at work. Organisation pool users recharged at work and public recharging points throughout the working day. It is recommended that pay-as-you-go recharging be implemented at all public recharging locations, and smart meters be used to delay recharging at home and work locations until after 23:00 h to reduce peak demand on local power grids and reduce carbon emissions associated with EV recharging. - Highlights: • Study of EV driver recharging habits in the north east of England. • 7704 electric vehicle recharging events, comprising 23,805 h were collected. • There was minimal recharging during off- peak hours. • Free parking and electricity at point of use encouraged daytime recharging. • Need for financial incentives and smart solutions to better manage recharging demand peaks

  7. Using lexical analysis to identify emotional distress in psychometric schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Samuel J; Buck, Benjamin; Gonzenbach, Virgilio; Janela, Carlos; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S

    2017-09-01

    Through the use of lexical analysis software, researchers have demonstrated a greater frequency of negative affect word use in those with schizophrenia and schizotypy compared to the general population. In addition, those with schizotypy endorse greater emotional distress than healthy controls. In this study, our aim was to expand on previous findings in schizotypy to determine whether negative affect word use could be linked to emotional distress. Schizotypy (n=33) and non-schizotypy groups (n=33) completed an open-ended, semi-structured interview and negative affect word use was analyzed using a validated lexical analysis instrument. Emotional distress was assessed using subjective questionnaires of depression and psychological quality of life (QOL). When groups were compared, those with schizotypy used significantly more negative affect words; endorsed greater depression; and reported lower QOL. Within schizotypy, a trend level association between depression and negative affect word use was observed; QOL and negative affect word use showed a significant inverse association. Our findings offer preliminary evidence of the potential effectiveness of lexical analysis as an objective, behavior-based method for identifying emotional distress throughout the schizophrenia-spectrum. Utilizing lexical analysis in schizotypy offers promise for providing researchers with an assessment capable of objectively detecting emotional distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  9. Cluster analysis of clinical data identifies fibromyalgia subgroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Docampo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia (FM is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. RESULTS: VARIABLES CLUSTERED INTO THREE INDEPENDENT DIMENSIONS: "symptomatology", "comorbidities" and "clinical scales". Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1, high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2, and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3, showing differences in measures of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment.

  10. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night.

    Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content

  11. Global Changes and Drivers of the Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important limiting resources for food production. How much water is needed for food depends on the size of the population, average food consumption patterns and food production per unit of water. These factors show large differences around the world. This paper analyzes sub-continental dynamics of the water footprint of consumption (WFcons for the prevailing diets from 1961 to 2009 using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The findings show that, in most regions, the water needed to feed one person decreased even if diets became richer, because of the increase in water use efficiency in food production during the past half-century. The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI decomposition approach is used to analyze the contributions of the major drivers of WFcons for food: population, diet and agricultural practices (output per unit of water. We compare the contributions of these drivers through different subcontinents, and find that population growth still was the major driver behind increasing WFcons for food until now and that potential water savings through agricultural practice improvements were offset by population growth and diet change. The changes of the factors mentioned above were the largest in most developing areas with rapid economic development. With the development of globalization, the international food trade has brought more and more water savings in global water use over time. The results indicate that, in the near future and in many regions, diet change is likely to override population growth as the major driver behind WFcons for food.

  12. A Critical Analysis of Anesthesiology Podcasts: Identifying Determinants of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devin; Alam, Fahad; Matava, Clyde

    2016-08-17

    Audio and video podcasts have gained popularity in recent years. Increasingly, podcasts are being used in the field of medicine as a tool to disseminate information. This format has multiple advantages including highly accessible creation tools, low distribution costs, and portability for the user. However, despite its ongoing use in medical education, there are no data describing factors associated with the success or quality of podcasts. The goal of the study was to assess the landscape of anesthesia podcasts in Canada and develop a methodology for evaluating the quality of the podcast. To achieve our objective, we identified the scope of podcasts in anesthesia specifically, constructed an algorithmic model for measuring success, and identified factors linked to both successful podcasts and a peer-review process. Independent reviewers performed a systematic search of anesthesia-related podcasts on iTunes Canada. Data and metrics recorded for each podcast included podcast's authorship, number posted, podcast series duration, target audience, topics, and social media presence. Descriptive statistics summarized mined data, and univariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with podcast success and a peer-review process. Twenty-two podcasts related to anesthesia were included in the final analysis. Less than a third (6/22=27%) were still active. The median longevity of the podcasts' series was just 13 months (interquartile range: 1-39 months). Anesthesiologists were the target audience for 77% of podcast series with clinical topics being most commonly addressed. We defined a novel algorithm for measuring success: Podcast Success Index. Factors associated with a high Podcast Success Index included podcasts targeting fellows (Spearman R=0.434; P=.04), inclusion of professional topics (Spearman R=0.456-0.603; P=.01-.03), and the use of Twitter as a means of social media (Spearman R=0.453;P=.03). In addition, more than two-thirds (16/22=73%) of podcasts

  13. Distribution and drivers of costs in type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents: a retrospective claims data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Morgan; Guerin, Annie; Latremouille-Viau, Dominick; Ionescu-Ittu, Raluca; Viswanathan, Prabhakar; Lopez, Claudia; Wu, Eric Q

    2014-09-01

    To describe the distribution of costs and to identify the drivers of high costs among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving oral hypoglycemic agents. T2DM patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and having HbA1c test data were identified from the Truven MarketScan databases of Commercial and Medicare Supplemental insurance claims (2004-2010). All-cause and diabetes-related annual direct healthcare costs were measured and reported by cost components. The 25% most costly patients in the study sample were defined as high-cost patients. Drivers of high costs were identified in multivariate logistic regressions. Total 1-year all-cause costs for the 4104 study patients were $55,599,311 (mean cost per patient = $13,548). Diabetes-related costs accounted for 33.8% of all-cause costs (mean cost per patient = $4583). Medical service costs accounted for the majority of all-cause and diabetes-related total costs (63.7% and 59.5%, respectively), with a minority of patients incurring >80% of these costs (23.5% and 14.7%, respectively). Within the medical claims, inpatient admission for diabetes-complications was the strongest cost driver for both all-cause (OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 8.1-23.6) and diabetes-related costs (OR = 9.7, 95% CI = 6.3-15.1), with macrovascular complications accounting for most inpatient admissions. Other cost drivers included heavier hypoglycemic agent use, diabetes complications, and chronic diseases. The study reports a conservative estimate for the relative share of diabetes-related costs relative to total cost. The findings of this study apply mainly to T2DM patients under 65 years of age. Among the T2DM patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents, 23.5% of patients incurred 80% of the all-cause healthcare costs, with these costs being driven by inpatient admissions, complications of diabetes, and chronic diseases. Interventions targeting inpatient admissions and/or complications of diabetes may contribute to the decrease of the

  14. m6A-Driver: Identifying Context-Specific mRNA m6A Methylation-Driven Gene Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Song-Yao; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Liu, Lian; Meng, Jia; Huang, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    As the most prevalent mammalian mRNA epigenetic modification, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been shown to possess important post-transcriptional regulatory functions. However, the regulatory mechanisms and functional circuits of m6A are still largely elusive. To help unveil the regulatory circuitry mediated by mRNA m6A methylation, we develop here m6A-Driver, an algorithm for predicting m6A-driven genes and associated networks, whose functional interactions are likely to be actively modulated ...

  15. Identifying subgroups of patients using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Mølgaard; Kent, Peter; Hestbæk, Lise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in patients with low back pain (LBP) is well recognised and different approaches to subgrouping have been proposed. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) is a statistical technique that is increasingly being used to identify subgroups based on patient characteristics. However......, as LBP is a complex multi-domain condition, the optimal approach when using LCA is unknown. Therefore, this paper describes the exploration of two approaches to LCA that may help improve the identification of clinically relevant and interpretable LBP subgroups. METHODS: From 928 LBP patients consulting...... of statistical performance measures, qualitative evaluation of clinical interpretability (face validity) and a subgroup membership comparison. RESULTS: For the single-stage LCA, a model solution with seven patient subgroups was preferred, and for the two-stage LCA, a nine patient subgroup model. Both approaches...

  16. Detection of Driver Drowsiness Using Wavelet Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and a Support Vector Machine Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC analysis and a support vector machine (SVM classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use.

  17. Cluster Analysis of Clinical Data Identifies Fibromyalgia Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Elisa; Collado, Antonio; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Carbonell, Jordi; Rivera, Javier; Vidal, Javier; Alegre, José

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia (FM) is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. Material and Methods 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. Results Variables clustered into three independent dimensions: “symptomatology”, “comorbidities” and “clinical scales”. Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1), high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2), and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3), showing differences in measures of disease severity. Conclusions We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment. PMID:24098674

  18. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  19. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  20. Social Network Analysis Identifies Key Participants in Conservation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Reed, Sarah E; Pejchar, Liba

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of participation in private lands conservation, which is often implemented voluntarily by individual citizens and private organizations, could improve its effectiveness at combating biodiversity loss. We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine participation in conservation development (CD), a private land conservation strategy that clusters houses in a small portion of a property while preserving the remaining land as protected open space. Using data from public records for six counties in Colorado, USA, we compared CD participation patterns among counties and identified actors that most often work with others to implement CDs. We found that social network characteristics differed among counties. The network density, or proportion of connections in the network, varied from fewer than 2 to nearly 15%, and was higher in counties with smaller populations and fewer CDs. Centralization, or the degree to which connections are held disproportionately by a few key actors, was not correlated strongly with any county characteristics. Network characteristics were not correlated with the prevalence of wildlife-friendly design features in CDs. The most highly connected actors were biological and geological consultants, surveyors, and engineers. Our work demonstrates a new application of SNA to land-use planning, in which CD network patterns are examined and key actors are identified. For better conservation outcomes of CD, we recommend using network patterns to guide strategies for outreach and information dissemination, and engaging with highly connected actor types to encourage widespread adoption of best practices for CD design and stewardship.

  1. Global Proteome Analysis Identifies Active Immunoproteasome Subunits in Human Platelets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M.; Brown, Lyda M.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. PMID:25146974

  2. Global proteome analysis identifies active immunoproteasome subunits in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M; Brown, Lyda M; Hoffman, Michael D; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the β5 subunit. However, β5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including β5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Analysis of drivers affecting the use of market premium for renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genoese, Massimo; Slednev, Viktor; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify and analyze parameters that determine the profitability of wind power operators in the German market premium model. Based on an empirical analysis of different German wind power profiles from 2007 to mid-2012, we are able to show that the profitability significantly depends on the correlation of the wind power portfolio with the overall wind power feed-in and prediction error in Germany. Significant differences between the wind forecast errors clearing cost of the analyzed portfolios can be identified. Our analysis shows that a wind power operator would profit in most cases from a reduced forecast error, which could be achieved through an improved forecast model and an increased share of the intraday cleared error. Furthermore significant locational portfolio advantages and disadvantages can be identified when comparing the different market values. In general, the empirical analysis shows that a premium of 3.5 €/MWh is suitable to cover the cost of an imperfect forecast. Taking further into account that for 2012 a premium of 12 €/MWh was granted; the direct marketing option can be evaluated as highly attractive, which is furthermore indicated by the rapid increase of the directly marketed wind power and photovoltaic generation. - Highlights: • Wind power operator profitability in the German market premium model is analyzed. • Correlation with the overall wind power feed-in and prediction error is crucial. • Wind forecast error clearing cost of the analyzed portfolios show clear differences. • The direct marketing option of wind power can be evaluated as attractive.

  4. Advanced driver assistance systems for teen drivers: Teen and parent impressions, perceived need, and intervention preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas

    2018-02-28

    From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also

  5. Drivers of Sales Innovation in Business-To-Business Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the term sales innovation, offers an operationalization of the concept, and discusses antecedents of sales innovation in terms of important internal and external drivers. An empirical analysis of 409 B2B firms identifies the internal drivers of sales innovation as increased top...... management focus and increased resource allocation as well as increasing customer and competitor dynamics as external drivers. Despite the suggested positive impact of the degree of competitive pressure on sales innovation, the empirical results suggest a significant negative impact, i.e. competitive...... pressure leads to less innovation in sales. Finally the paper suggests managerial implications as well as avenues of further research in this area....

  6. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; van den Akker, Jan J.H.; Keller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic...... are not able to carry the loads frequently inflicted on wet soil without exerting critical stresses on deep subsoil layers. We suggest the use of online modeling tools that combine existing knowledge. Such tools may also create maps of vulnerable areas from the field to the continent scale. Groups...

  7. Vision based Traffic Sign Detection and Analysis for Intelligent Driver Assistance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a survey of the traffic sign detection literature, detailing detection systems for Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) for driver assistance. We separately describe the contributions of recent works to the various stages inherent in traffic sign detection: segmentation, feature...... extraction, and final sign detection. While TSR is a well-established research area, we highlight open research issues in the literature, including a dearth of use of publicly-available image databases, and the over-representation of European traffic signs. Further, we discuss future directions for TSR...

  8. Identifying target processes for microbial electrosynthesis by elementary mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracke, Frauke; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-12-30

    Microbial electrosynthesis and electro fermentation are techniques that aim to optimize microbial production of chemicals and fuels by regulating the cellular redox balance via interaction with electrodes. While the concept is known for decades major knowledge gaps remain, which make it hard to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Here we present an in silico approach to identify beneficial production processes for electro fermentation by elementary mode analysis. Since the fundamentals of electron transport between electrodes and microbes have not been fully uncovered yet, we propose different options and discuss their impact on biomass and product yields. For the first time 20 different valuable products were screened for their potential to show increased yields during anaerobic electrically enhanced fermentation. Surprisingly we found that an increase in product formation by electrical enhancement is not necessarily dependent on the degree of reduction of the product but rather the metabolic pathway it is derived from. We present a variety of beneficial processes with product yield increases of maximal 36% in reductive and 84% in oxidative fermentations and final theoretical product yields up to 100%. This includes compounds that are already produced at industrial scale such as succinic acid, lysine and diaminopentane as well as potential novel bio-commodities such as isoprene, para-hydroxybenzoic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid. Furthermore, it is shown that the way of electron transport has major impact on achievable biomass and product yields. The coupling of electron transport to energy conservation could be identified as crucial for most processes. This study introduces a powerful tool to determine beneficial substrate and product combinations for electro-fermentation. It also highlights that the maximal yield achievable by bio electrochemical techniques depends strongly on the actual electron transport mechanisms. Therefore it is of great importance to

  9. Performance Analysis: Work Control Events Identified January - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R

    2011-01-14

    This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded

  10. Observed and projected drivers of emerging infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Rocklöv, Joacim; Penttinen, Pasi; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of international concern because of the potential for, and impact of, pandemics; however, they are difficult to predict. To identify the drivers of disease emergence, we analyzed infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) detected through epidemic intelligence collected at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) between 2008 and 2013, and compared the observed results with a 2008 ECDC foresight study of projected drivers of future IDTEs in Europe. Among 10 categories of IDTEs, foodborne and waterborne IDTEs were the most common, vaccine-preventable IDTEs caused the highest number of cases, and airborne IDTEs caused the most deaths. Observed drivers for each IDTE were sorted into three main groups: globalization and environmental drivers contributed to 61% of all IDTEs, public health system drivers contributed to 21%, and social and demographic drivers to 18%. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that four of the top five drivers for observed IDTEs were in the globalization and environment group. In the observational study, the globalization and environment group was related to all IDTE categories, but only to five of eight categories in the foresight study. Directly targeting these drivers with public health interventions may diminish the chances of IDTE occurrence from the outset. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  12. Behavioral metabolomics analysis identifies novel neurochemical signatures in methamphetamine sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Daniel E.; McClay, Joseph L.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Vann, Robert E.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Souza, Renan P.; Crowley, James J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Beardsley, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization has been widely studied in animal models and is theorized to reflect neural modifications associated with human psychostimulant addiction. While the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is known to play a role, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we conducted the first metabolomics analysis to globally characterize neurochemical differences associated with behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine-induced sensitization measures were generated by statistically modeling longitudinal activity data for eight inbred strains of mice. Subsequent to behavioral testing, nontargeted liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling was performed on 48 brain samples, yielding 301 metabolite levels per sample after quality control. Association testing between metabolite levels and three primary dimensions of behavioral sensitization (total distance, stereotypy and margin time) showed four robust, significant associations at a stringent metabolome-wide significance threshold (false discovery rate < 0.05). Results implicated homocarnosine, a dipeptide of GABA and histidine, in total distance sensitization, GABA metabolite 4-guanidinobutanoate and pantothenate in stereotypy sensitization, and myo-inositol in margin time sensitization. Secondary analyses indicated that these associations were independent of concurrent methamphetamine levels and, with the exception of the myo-inositol association, suggest a mechanism whereby strain-based genetic variation produces specific baseline neurochemical differences that substantially influence the magnitude of MA-induced sensitization. These findings demonstrate the utility of mouse metabolomics for identifying novel biomarkers, and developing more comprehensive neurochemical models, of psychostimulant sensitization. PMID:24034544

  13. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  14. Driver braking behavior analysis to improve autonomous emergency braking systems in typical Chinese vehicle-bicycle conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingliang; Li, Renjie; Hou, Lian; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Guofa; Li, Shengbo Eben; Cheng, Bo; Gao, Hongbo

    2017-11-01

    Bicycling is one of the fundamental modes of transportation especially in developing countries. Because of the lack of effective protection for bicyclists, vehicle-bicycle (V-B) accident has become a primary contributor to traffic fatalities. Although AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) systems have been developed to avoid or mitigate collisions, they need to be further adapted in various conflict situations. This paper analyzes the driver's braking behavior in typical V-B conflicts of China to improve the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems. Naturalistic driving data were collected, from which the top three scenarios of V-B accidents in China were extracted, including SCR (a bicycle crossing the road from right while a car is driving straight), SCL (a bicycle crossing the road from left while a car is driving straight) and SSR (a bicycle swerving in front of the car from right while a car is driving straight). For safety and data reliability, a driving simulator was employed to reconstruct these three scenarios and some 25 licensed drivers were recruited for braking behavior analysis. Results revealed that driver's braking behavior was significantly influenced by V-B conflict types. Pre-decelerating behaviors were found in SCL and SSR conflicts, whereas in SCR the subjects were less vigilant. The brake reaction time and brake severity in lateral V-B conflicts (SCR and SCL) was shorter and higher than that in longitudinal conflicts (SSR). The findings improve their applications in the Bicyclist-AEB and test protocol enactment to enhance the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems in mixed traffic situations especially for developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative analysis of major drivers for environmental management in SMEs: legislation, b2b relationships and stakeholder pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the study of Environmental Management and Small Medium Enterprises is not new area but research con Environmental Management in SMEs has a very little theoretical or empirical work on the topic. But now, due to the magnitude and growth in SMEs opportunities, the need for such studies has become very important. With regard to such research on the above topic, this research paper has identified some crucial research issues regarding the drivel and barriers of Environmental Management in SMEs. This paper reports on a study of Environmental Management, attitudes and perceptions of SMEs toward Environmental Management issues. As environmental initiatives in SMEs are, however, often inhibited by lack of resources, capacity and capability, an effort has been made in exploring the factors of such resources. Companies are facing increasing demand concerning the environmental performance of their products. The thinking of product life cycle requires the main contractors to be aware of environmental aspects of their products with in the whole value chain. This study will also focus on such value chains. In this paper, the tools are identified which small firms use to improve environmental performance. The paper also focuses on some crucial drivers and barriers for the uptake of Environmental Management tools just to identify the environmental impacts. In addition, it evaluates some threats such as trade, supply chain issues an legislation compliance in general. Moreover, this paper comprises on five major sections: First part is about the general discussion on Environmental Management, Second is about SMEs, its concept and its pertinent points towards Environmental Management, Third is regarding the integration of SMEs to Environmental Management tools, Fourth is mainly about the major drivers a legislation, business to business relationships and stakeholder pressures, Fifth part focuses on common characteristics of SMEs regarding environmental legislation to control

  16. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  17. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  18. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the TESS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Craig; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen; Dichmann, Donald; Parker, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  19. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Craig; Parker, Joel; Dichmann, Don; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  20. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  1. What Are the Main Drivers of the Bitcoin Price? Evidence from Wavelet Coherence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    The Bitcoin has emerged as a fascinating phenomenon in the Financial markets. Without any central authority issuing the currency, the Bitcoin has been associated with controversy ever since its popularity, accompanied by increased public interest, reached high levels. Here, we contribute to the discussion by examining the potential drivers of Bitcoin prices, ranging from fundamental sources to speculative and technical ones, and we further study the potential influence of the Chinese market. The evolution of relationships is examined in both time and frequency domains utilizing the continuous wavelets framework, so that we not only comment on the development of the interconnections in time but also distinguish between short-term and long-term connections. We find that the Bitcoin forms a unique asset possessing properties of both a standard financial asset and a speculative one. PMID:25874694

  2. What are the main drivers of the Bitcoin price? Evidence from wavelet coherence analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kristoufek

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin has emerged as a fascinating phenomenon in the Financial markets. Without any central authority issuing the currency, the Bitcoin has been associated with controversy ever since its popularity, accompanied by increased public interest, reached high levels. Here, we contribute to the discussion by examining the potential drivers of Bitcoin prices, ranging from fundamental sources to speculative and technical ones, and we further study the potential influence of the Chinese market. The evolution of relationships is examined in both time and frequency domains utilizing the continuous wavelets framework, so that we not only comment on the development of the interconnections in time but also distinguish between short-term and long-term connections. We find that the Bitcoin forms a unique asset possessing properties of both a standard financial asset and a speculative one.

  3. What are the main drivers of the Bitcoin price? Evidence from wavelet coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    The Bitcoin has emerged as a fascinating phenomenon in the Financial markets. Without any central authority issuing the currency, the Bitcoin has been associated with controversy ever since its popularity, accompanied by increased public interest, reached high levels. Here, we contribute to the discussion by examining the potential drivers of Bitcoin prices, ranging from fundamental sources to speculative and technical ones, and we further study the potential influence of the Chinese market. The evolution of relationships is examined in both time and frequency domains utilizing the continuous wavelets framework, so that we not only comment on the development of the interconnections in time but also distinguish between short-term and long-term connections. We find that the Bitcoin forms a unique asset possessing properties of both a standard financial asset and a speculative one.

  4. Should I Text or Call Here? A Situation-Based Analysis of Drivers' Perceived Likelihood of Engaging in Mobile Phone Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Washington, Simon

    2018-05-29

    This study investigated how situational characteristics typically encountered in the transport system influence drivers' perceived likelihood of engaging in mobile phone multitasking. The impacts of mobile phone tasks, perceived environmental complexity/risk, and drivers' individual differences were evaluated as relevant individual predictors within the behavioral adaptation framework. An innovative questionnaire, which includes randomized textual and visual scenarios, was administered to collect data from a sample of 447 drivers in South East Queensland-Australia (66% females; n = 296). The likelihood of engaging in a mobile phone task across various scenarios was modeled by a random parameters ordered probit model. Results indicated that drivers who are female, are frequent users of phones for texting/answering calls, have less favorable attitudes towards safety, and are highly disinhibited were more likely to report stronger intentions of engaging in mobile phone multitasking. However, more years with a valid driving license, self-efficacy toward self-regulation in demanding traffic conditions and police enforcement, texting tasks, and demanding traffic conditions were negatively related to self-reported likelihood of mobile phone multitasking. The unobserved heterogeneity warned of riskier groups among female drivers and participants who need a lot of convincing to believe that multitasking while driving is dangerous. This research concludes that behavioral adaptation theory is a robust framework explaining self-regulation of distracted drivers. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Terrestrial hydro-climatic change, lake shrinkage and water resource deterioration: Analysis of current to future drivers across Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsjo, J.; Beygi, H.; Thorslund, J.

    2016-12-01

    Due to overlapping effects of different anthropogenic pressures and natural variability, main drivers behind on-going changes in the water cycle have in many cases not been identified, which complicates management of water resources. For instance, in many parts of the world, and not least in semi-arid and arid parts of Asia, lowered groundwater levels and shrinkage of surface water bodies with associated salinization and water quality deterioration constitute great challenges. With the aim to identify main drivers and mechanisms behind such changes, we here combine (i) historical observations of long-term, large scale change, (ii) ensemble projections of expected future change from the climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP 5) and (iii) output from water balance modelling. Our particular focus is on regions near shrinking lakes. For the principal Lake Urmia in Iran, results show that agricultural intensification including irrigation expansion has clearly contributed to the surprisingly rapid water quality deterioration and lake shrinkage, from 10% lake area reduction in 2002 to the current value of about 75% (leaving billion of tons of salt exposed in its basin). Nevertheless, runoff decrease due to climate change has had an even larger effect. For the Aral Sea in Central Asia, where problems accelerated much earlier (in the 1990's), land-use change and irrigation expansion can fully explain the disastrous surface water deficits and water quality problems in the extensive low-lying parts of the basin. However, projections show that climate-driven runoff decrease in the headwaters of the Aral Sea basin may become a dominant driver of continued change in the near-future. More generally, present results illustrate that mitigation measures that compensate only for land-use driven effects may not reverse current trends of decreasing water availability, due to increasingly strong impacts of climate-driven runoff decrease. This has

  6. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the identification of rainfall patterns favourable for RVFV amplification.

  7. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  8. Remote sensing and spatial analysis based study for detecting deforestation and the associated drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abbas, Mustafa M.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Deafalla, Taisser H.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays, remote-sensing technologies are becoming increasingly interlinked to the issue of deforestation. They offer a systematized and objective strategy to document, understand and simulate the deforestation process and its associated causes. In this context, the main goal of this study, conducted in the Blue Nile region of Sudan, in which most of the natural habitats were dramatically destroyed, was to develop spatial methodologies to assess the deforestation dynamics and its associated factors. To achieve that, optical multispectral satellite scenes (i.e., ASTER and LANDSAT) integrated with field survey in addition to multiple data sources were used for the analyses. Spatiotemporal Object Based Image Analysis (STOBIA) was applied to assess the change dynamics within the period of study. Broadly, the above mentioned analyses include; Object Based (OB) classifications, post-classification change detection, data fusion, information extraction and spatial analysis. Hierarchical multi-scale segmentation thresholds were applied and each class was delimited with semantic meanings by a set of rules associated with membership functions. Consequently, the fused multi-temporal data were introduced to create detailed objects of change classes from the input LU/LC classes. The dynamic changes were quantified and spatially located as well as the spatial and contextual relations from adjacent areas were analyzed. The main finding of the present study is that, the forest areas were drastically decreased, while the agrarian structure in conversion of forest into agricultural fields and grassland was the main force of deforestation. In contrast, the capability of the area to recover was clearly observed. The study concludes with a brief assessment of an 'oriented' framework, focused on the alarming areas where serious dynamics are located and where urgent plans and interventions are most critical, guided with potential solutions based on the identified driving forces.

  9. A comprehensive analysis of coherent rainfall patterns in China and potential drivers. Part I: Interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Claudia Christine; Klingaman, Nicholas Pappas; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Turner, Andrew George; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Guo, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Interannual rainfall variability in China affects agriculture, infrastructure and water resource management. To improve its understanding and prediction, many studies have associated precipitation variability with particular causes for specific seasons and regions. Here, a consistent and objective method, Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection (EOT) analysis, is applied to 1951-2007 high-resolution precipitation observations over China in all seasons. Instead of maximizing the explained space-time variance, the method identifies regions in China that best explain the temporal variability in domain-averaged rainfall. The EOT method is validated by the reproduction of known relationships to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO): high positive correlations with ENSO are found in eastern China in winter, along the Yangtze River in summer, and in southeast China during spring. New findings include that wintertime rainfall variability along the southeast coast is associated with anomalous convection over the tropical eastern Atlantic and communicated to China through a zonal wavenumber-three Rossby wave. Furthermore, spring rainfall variability in the Yangtze valley is related to upper-tropospheric midlatitude perturbations that are part of a Rossby wave pattern with its origin in the North Atlantic. A circumglobal wave pattern in the northern hemisphere is also associated with autumn precipitation variability in eastern areas. The analysis is objective, comprehensive, and produces timeseries that are tied to specific locations in China. This facilitates the interpretation of associated dynamical processes, is useful for understanding the regional hydrological cycle, and allows the results to serve as a benchmark for assessing general circulation models.

  10. Staff Performance Analysis: A Method for Identifying Brigade Staff Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Laura

    1997-01-01

    ... members of conventional mounted brigade staff. Initial analysis of performance requirements in existing documentation revealed that the performance specifications were not sufficiently detailed for brigade battle staffs...

  11. Structural identifiability analysis of a cardiovascular system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironet, Antoine; Dauby, Pierre C; Chase, J Geoffrey; Docherty, Paul D; Revie, James A; Desaive, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The six-chamber cardiovascular system model of Burkhoff and Tyberg has been used in several theoretical and experimental studies. However, this cardiovascular system model (and others derived from it) are not identifiable from any output set. In this work, two such cases of structural non-identifiability are first presented. These cases occur when the model output set only contains a single type of information (pressure or volume). A specific output set is thus chosen, mixing pressure and volume information and containing only a limited number of clinically available measurements. Then, by manipulating the model equations involving these outputs, it is demonstrated that the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally globally identifiable. A further simplification is made, assuming known cardiac valve resistances. Because of the poor practical identifiability of these four parameters, this assumption is usual. Under this hypothesis, the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally identifiable from an even smaller dataset. As a consequence, parameter values computed from limited but well-chosen datasets are theoretically unique. This means that the parameter identification procedure can safely be performed on the model from such a well-chosen dataset. Thus, the model may be considered suitable for use in diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk-Adjusted Analysis of Relevant Outcome Drivers for Patients after More Than Two Kidney Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros Kousoulas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients suffering end-stage renal disease, but as the long-term renal allograft survival is limited, most transplant recipients will face graft loss and will be considered for a retransplantation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the patient and graft survival of the 61 renal transplant recipients after second or subsequent renal transplantation, transplanted in our institution between 1990 and 2010, and to identify risk factors related to inferior outcomes. Actuarial patient survival was 98.3%, 94.8%, and 88.2% after one, three, and five years, respectively. Actuarial graft survival was 86.8%, 80%, and 78.1% after one, three, and five years, respectively. Risk-adjusted analysis revealed that only age at the time of last transplantation had a significant influence on patient survival, whereas graft survival was influenced by multiple immunological and surgical factors, such as the number of HLA mismatches, the type of immunosuppression, the number of surgical complications, need of reoperation, primary graft nonfunction, and acute rejection episodes. In conclusion, third and subsequent renal transplantation constitute a valid therapeutic option, but inferior outcomes should be expected among elderly patients, hyperimmunized recipients, and recipients with multiple operations at the site of last renal transplantation.

  13. Exploring China's materialization process with economic transition: analysis of raw material consumption and its socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Tian, Xin; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Chang, Miao; Hashimoto, Seiji; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Lu, Zhongwu

    2014-05-06

    China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found.

  14. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer-associated somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are known. Currently, one of the challenges is to identify the molecular downstream effects of these variants. Although several SCNAs are known to change gene expression levels, it is not clear whether each individual SCNA affects gen...

  15. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  16. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, Leah; Crawford, Jessica; Chaluco, Timoteo; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Prosser, Wendy; Watson, Noel

    2014-08-02

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system. Substantially high levels of RDT

  17. Drivers of Medicare Reimbursement for Thoracolumbar Fusion: An Analysis of Data From The Centers For Medicare and Medicaid Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Krishn; Padegimas, Eric M; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Howley, Michael; Verma, Kushagra

    2017-11-01

    A retrospective observational study. The purpose of this study is to examine the variation in thoracolumbar fusion (TLF) payment and determine the drivers of this variation. As health care spending continues to increase, variation in surgical procedures reimbursements has come under more scrutiny. TLF is an example of a high-cost, proven-benefit procedure that is often the focus of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administrators. There is a wide variation in TLF charges, but the drivers for this variation are not clear. Claims for TLF were identified in the CMS data by analyzing Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) number 460 ("Spinal Fusion Except Cervical without Major Complications or Comorbidities"). Data on factors that may impact cost of care were collected from four sources: the United States Census Bureau, CMS, the Dartmouth Atlas, and WWAMI Rural Health Research Center. These were then grouped into seven categories: quality, supply, demand, substitute treatment availability, patient characteristics, competitive factors, and provider characteristics. Predictive reimbursement models were created from the data using multivariate linear regression to understand the factors that influence TLF reimbursement. There was significant geographic variability in reimbursement. The largest contribution to reimbursement variation came from variables in the demand (ΔR = 13.4%, P reimbursement were provider charges (β = 0.37, P reimbursement in the region (β = 0.19, P reimbursement. There was wide variation in reimbursement for TLF across the U.S. The variables that drive TLF reimbursement variation include supply, demand, and competition. Interestingly, quality of care was not associated with increased TLF reimbursement. N/A.

  18. Structural analysis of the drivers and barriers to forest management in the Slovak regions of Podpoľanie and Kysuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátil Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of structural analysis in search of key drivers and barriers of forest management in two Slovak regions: Podpoľanie and Kysuce. A comparison with factors identified in selected European regions is also presented. First, various relevant factors affecting forest management were selected for both regions. The selections draw on the pool of primary data (structured in-person interviews and secondary data (qualitative analysis of national and European documents. Second, factors were grouped according to the STEEP categories (Society, Technology, Economy, Ecology, and Policy. Subsequently, factors were rigorously assessed by the regional stakeholders in participatory workshops, and their answers were analysed by structural analysis with the help of Parmenides EIDOS™ software. The results show that in both Slovak regions political, economic, and ecological factors dominated over social and technological factors. The comparison with selected European regions revealed that in the Slovak and other European regions, the Policy category dominated due to having the highest number of factors and their overall impact on forest management. In contrast, the least important societal domain was Technology in both the Slovak and other European regions. However, while stakeholders across the selected European regions perceived the Society domain as significant, stakeholders in both Slovak regions perceived the Economy and Ecology domains as more significant.

  19. Genomic analysis identifies masqueraders of full-term cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Niihori, Tetsuya; Numata-Uematsu, Yurika; Inui, Takehiko; Yamamura-Suzuki, Saeko; Miyabayashi, Takuya; Anzai, Mai; Suzuki-Muromoto, Sato; Okubo, Yukimune; Endo, Wakaba; Togashi, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Onuma, Akira; Funayama, Ryo; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Nakayama, Keiko; Aoki, Yoko; Kure, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    Cerebral palsy is a common, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that causes movement and postural disabilities. Recent studies have suggested genetic diseases can be misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy. We hypothesized that two simple criteria, that is, full-term births and nonspecific brain MRI findings, are keys to extracting masqueraders among cerebral palsy cases due to the following: (1) preterm infants are susceptible to multiple environmental factors and therefore demonstrate an increased risk of cerebral palsy and (2) brain MRI assessment is essential for excluding environmental causes and other particular disorders. A total of 107 patients-all full-term births-without specific findings on brain MRI were identified among 897 patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy who were followed at our center. DNA samples were available for 17 of the 107 cases for trio whole-exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization. We prioritized variants in genes known to be relevant in neurodevelopmental diseases and evaluated their pathogenicity according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic candidate variants were identified in 9 of 17 cases (52.9%) within eight genes: CTNNB1 , CYP2U1 , SPAST , GNAO1 , CACNA1A , AMPD2 , STXBP1 , and SCN2A . Five identified variants had previously been reported. No pathogenic copy number variations were identified. The AMPD2 missense variant and the splice-site variants in CTNNB1 and AMPD2 were validated by in vitro functional experiments. The high rate of detecting causative genetic variants (52.9%) suggests that patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy in full-term births without specific MRI findings may include genetic diseases masquerading as cerebral palsy.

  20. Association analysis identifies ZNF750 regulatory variants in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birnbaum Ramon Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the ZNF750 promoter and coding regions have been previously associated with Mendelian forms of psoriasis and psoriasiform dermatitis. ZNF750 encodes a putative zinc finger transcription factor that is highly expressed in keratinocytes and represents a candidate psoriasis gene. Methods We examined whether ZNF750 variants were associated with psoriasis in a large case-control population. We sequenced the promoter and exon regions of ZNF750 in 716 Caucasian psoriasis cases and 397 Caucasian controls. Results We identified a total of 47 variants, including 38 rare variants of which 35 were novel. Association testing identified two ZNF750 haplotypes associated with psoriasis (p ZNF750 promoter and 5' UTR variants displayed a 35-55% reduction of ZNF750 promoter activity, consistent with the promoter activity reduction seen in a Mendelian psoriasis family with a ZNF750 promoter variant. However, the rare promoter and 5' UTR variants identified in this study did not strictly segregate with the psoriasis phenotype within families. Conclusions Two haplotypes of ZNF750 and rare 5' regulatory variants of ZNF750 were found to be associated with psoriasis. These rare 5' regulatory variants, though not causal, might serve as a genetic modifier of psoriasis.

  1. Determining the Drivers of Academic Success in Surgery: An Analysis of 3,850 Faculty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakul P Valsangkar

    Full Text Available Determine drivers of academic productivity within U.S. departments of surgery.Eighty academic metrics for 3,850 faculty at the top 50 NIH-funded university- and 5 outstanding hospital-based surgical departments were collected using websites, Scopus, and NIH RePORTER.Mean faculty size was 76. Overall, there were 35.3% assistant, 27.8% associate, and 36.9% full professors. Women comprised 21.8%; 4.9% were MD-PhDs and 6.1% PhDs. By faculty-rank, median publications/citations were: assistant, 14/175, associate, 39/649 and full-professor, 97/2250. General surgery divisions contributed the most publications and citations. Highest performing sub-specialties per faculty member were: research (58/1683, transplantation (51/1067, oncology (41/777, and cardiothoracic surgery (48/860. Overall, 23.5% of faculty were principal investigators for a current or former NIH grant, 9.5% for a current or former R01/U01/P01. The 10 most cited faculty (MCF within each department contributed to 42% of all publications and 55% of all citations. MCF were most commonly general (25%, oncology (19%, or transplant surgeons (15%. Fifty-one-percent of MCF had current/former NIH funding, compared with 20% of the rest (p<0.05; funding rates for R01/U01/P01 grants was 25.1% vs. 6.8% (p<0.05. Rate of current-NIH MCF funding correlated with higher total departmental NIH rank (p < 0.05.Departmental academic productivity as defined by citations and NIH funding is highly driven by sections or divisions of research, general and transplantation surgery. MCF, regardless of subspecialty, contribute disproportionally to major grants and publications. Approaches that attract, develop, and retain funded MCF may be associated with dramatic increases in total departmental citations and NIH-funding.

  2. Using Factor Analysis to Identify Topic Preferences Within MBA Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Chrysler

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the role of a principal components factor analysis in conducting a gap analysis as to the desired characteristics of business alumni. Typically, gap analyses merely compare the emphases that should be given to areas of inquiry with perceptions of actual emphases. As a result, the focus is upon depth of coverage. A neglected area in need of investigation is the breadth of topic dimensions and their differences between the normative (should offer and the descriptive (actually offer. The implications of factor structures, as well as traditional gap analyses, are developed and discussed in the context of outcomes assessment.

  3. The Drivers of Success in Business Model Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Savič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing empirical literature on business models is still inconclusive about the key drivers of successful business model transformation. The paper explores this issue by using a single longitudinal case study design in combination with grounded theory approach on a medium-sized, high-tech and globally oriented company. Based on on-site visits, interviews and secondary documentation data analysis, the study identifies six generic drivers of successful business model transformation: transformational leadership, discovery driven decision-making, industry improvement – customer specific orientation, content-oriented communication, self-initiative collaborators, and phased separation strategy. The new drivers supplement our existing knowledge on how successful transformation takes place and add to existing drivers, while extensive discussion of their implications may help the managers to execute business transformations more effectively.

  4. Proteomic analysis of cell lines to identify the irinotecan resistance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    was selected from the wild-type LoVo cell line by chronic exposure to irinotecan ... dose–effect curves of anticancer drugs were drawn on semilogarithm .... alcohol metabolites daunorubicinol (Forrest and Gonzalez. 2000; Mordente et al. ..... Chen L, Huang C and Wei Y 2007 Proteomic analysis of liver cancer cells treated ...

  5. DRIS Analysis Identifies a Common Potassium Imbalance in Sweetgum Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; S.X. Chang; D.J. Robison

    2003-01-01

    DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and...

  6. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    OpenAIRE

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer ri...

  7. Structural and practical identifiability analysis of S-system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Choujun; Li, Benjamin Yee Shing; Yeung, Lam Fat

    2015-12-01

    In the field of systems biology, biological reaction networks are usually modelled by ordinary differential equations. A sub-class, the S-systems representation, is a widely used form of modelling. Existing S-systems identification techniques assume that the system itself is always structurally identifiable. However, due to practical limitations, biological reaction networks are often only partially measured. In addition, the captured data only covers a limited trajectory, therefore data can only be considered as a local snapshot of the system responses with respect to the complete set of state trajectories over the entire state space. Hence the estimated model can only reflect partial system dynamics and may not be unique. To improve the identification quality, the structural and practical identifiablility of S-system are studied. The S-system is shown to be identifiable under a set of assumptions. Then, an application on yeast fermentation pathway was conducted. Two case studies were chosen; where the first case is based on a larger state trajectories and the second case is based on a smaller one. By expanding the dataset which span a relatively larger state space, the uncertainty of the estimated system can be reduced. The results indicated that initial concentration is related to the practical identifiablity.

  8. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D.; Chen, Xiao Qing; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J.; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L.; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W.; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y.; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D.; Castelao, Jose E.; Chan, Tsun L.; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chia, Kee Seng; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L.; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M.; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Dörk, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; García-Sáenz, José A.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I.; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N.; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J.; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Chuen Neng; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P.; Ma, Edmond S.K.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E.; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F.; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V. Shane; Park, Sue K.; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I.A.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofieva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th.; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J.; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E.; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J.; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O.; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A.; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tessier, Daniel C.; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J.; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H.; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Yip, Cheng Har; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L.; Amos, Christopher I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J.; Milne, Roger L.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Bader, Gary D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and many common, mainly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. We report results from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry1. We identified 65 new loci associated with overall breast cancer at pcancer due to all SNPs in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the utility of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention. PMID:29059683

  9. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast...... cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall......-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores...

  10. Identifying drought response of semi-arid aeolian systems using near-surface luminescence profiles and changepoint analysis, Nebraska Sandhills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Catherine; Bailey, Richard; Thomas, David

    2017-04-01

    Two billion people living in drylands are affected by land degradation. Sediment erosion by wind and water removes fertile soil and destabilises landscapes. Vegetation disturbance is a key driver of dryland erosion caused by both natural and human forcings: drought, fire, land use, grazing pressure. A quantified understanding of vegetation cover sensitivities and resultant surface change to forcing factors is needed if the vegetation and landscape response to future climate change and human pressure are to be better predicted. Using quartz luminescence dating and statistical changepoint analysis (Killick & Eckley, 2014) this study demonstrates the ability to identify step-changes in depositional age of near-surface sediments. Lx/Tx luminescence profiles coupled with statistical analysis show the use of near-surface sediments in providing a high-resolution record of recent system response and aeolian system thresholds. This research determines how the environment has recorded and retained sedimentary evidence of drought response and land use disturbances over the last two hundred years across both individual landforms and the wider Nebraska Sandhills. Identifying surface deposition and comparing with records of climate, fire and land use changes allows us to assess the sensitivity and stability of the surface sediment to a range of forcing factors. Killick, R and Eckley, IA. (2014) "changepoint: An R Package for Changepoint Analysis." Journal of Statistical Software, (58) 1-19.

  11. The impact of threat appeals on fear arousal and driver behavior: a meta-analysis of experimental research 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel N; McDermott, Daragh T; Sarma, Kiran M

    2013-01-01

    The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044), conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a) to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b) to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c) to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, pappeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17). This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area.

  12. The Impact of Threat Appeals on Fear Arousal and Driver Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Research 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel N.; McDermott, Daragh T.; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2013-01-01

    The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044), conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a) to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b) to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c) to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, pappeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17). This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area. PMID:23690955

  13. The impact of threat appeals on fear arousal and driver behavior: a meta-analysis of experimental research 1990-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N Carey

    Full Text Available The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044, conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, p<.01. The effect of threat appeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17. This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area.

  14. Probabilistic analysis for identifying the driving force of protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yoshihiko; Yamamori, Yu; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-01

    Toward identifying the driving force of protein folding, energetics was analyzed in water for Trp-cage (20 residues), protein G (56 residues), and ubiquitin (76 residues) at their native (folded) and heat-denatured (unfolded) states. All-atom molecular dynamics simulation was conducted, and the hydration effect was quantified by the solvation free energy. The free-energy calculation was done by employing the solution theory in the energy representation, and it was seen that the sum of the protein intramolecular (structural) energy and the solvation free energy is more favorable for a folded structure than for an unfolded one generated by heat. Probabilistic arguments were then developed to determine which of the electrostatic, van der Waals, and excluded-volume components of the interactions in the protein-water system governs the relative stabilities between the folded and unfolded structures. It was found that the electrostatic interaction does not correspond to the preference order of the two structures. The van der Waals and excluded-volume components were shown, on the other hand, to provide the right order of preference at probabilities of almost unity, and it is argued that a useful modeling of protein folding is possible on the basis of the excluded-volume effect.

  15. Potential of isotope analysis (C, Cl) to identify dechlorination mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretnik, Stefan; Thoreson, Kristen; Bernstein, Anat; Ebert, Karin; Buchner, Daniel; Laskov, Christine; Haderlein, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Kliegman, Sarah; McNeill, Kristopher; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Chloroethenes are commonly used in industrial applications, and detected as carcinogenic contaminants in the environment. Their dehalogenation is of environmental importance in remediation processes. However, a detailed understanding frequently accounted problem is the accumulation of toxic degradation products such as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) at contaminated sites. Several studies have addressed the reductive dehalogenation reactions using biotic and abiotic model systems, but a crucial question in this context has remained open: Do environmental transformations occur by the same mechanism as in their corresponding in vitro model systems? The presented study shows the potential to close this research gap using the latest developments in compound specific chlorine isotope analysis, which make it possible to routinely measure chlorine isotope fractionation of chloroethenes in environmental samples and complex reaction mixtures.1,2 In particular, such chlorine isotope analysis enables the measurement of isotope fractionation for two elements (i.e., C and Cl) in chloroethenes. When isotope values of both elements are plotted against each other, different slopes reflect different underlying mechanisms and are remarkably insensitive towards masking. Our results suggest that different microbial strains (G. lovleyi strain SZ, D. hafniense Y51) and the isolated cofactor cobalamin employ similar mechanisms of reductive dechlorination of TCE. In contrast, evidence for a different mechanism was obtained with cobaloxime cautioning its use as a model for biodegradation. The study shows the potential of the dual isotope approach as a tool to directly compare transformation mechanisms of environmental scenarios, biotic transformations, and their putative chemical lab scale systems. Furthermore, it serves as an essential reference when using the dual isotope approach to assess the fate of chlorinated compounds in the environment.

  16. Maximum covariance analysis to identify intraseasonal oscillations over tropical Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Naurinete J. C.; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Mendes, David; Spyrides, Maria H. C.; Pedra, George U.; Lucio, Paulo S.

    2017-09-01

    A reliable prognosis of extreme precipitation events in the tropics is arguably challenging to obtain due to the interaction of meteorological systems at various time scales. A pivotal component of the global climate variability is the so-called intraseasonal oscillations, phenomena that occur between 20 and 100 days. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is directly related to the modulation of convective precipitation in the equatorial belt, is considered the primary oscillation in the tropical region. The aim of this study is to diagnose the connection between the MJO signal and the regional intraseasonal rainfall variability over tropical Brazil. This is achieved through the development of an index called Multivariate Intraseasonal Index for Tropical Brazil (MITB). This index is based on Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) applied to the filtered daily anomalies of rainfall data over tropical Brazil against a group of covariates consisting of: outgoing longwave radiation and the zonal component u of the wind at 850 and 200 hPa. The first two MCA modes, which were used to create the { MITB}_1 and { MITB}_2 indices, represent 65 and 16 % of the explained variance, respectively. The combined multivariate index was able to satisfactorily represent the pattern of intraseasonal variability over tropical Brazil, showing that there are periods of activation and inhibition of precipitation connected with the pattern of MJO propagation. The MITB index could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for intraseasonal forecasting.

  17. Identifying a preservation zone using multicriteria decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farashi, A.; Naderi, M.; Parvian, N.

    2016-07-01

    Zoning of a protected area is an approach to partition landscape into various land use units. The management of these landscape units can reduce conflicts caused by human activities. Tandoreh National Park is one of the most biologically diverse, protected areas in Iran. Although the area is generally designed to protect biodiversity, there are many conflicts between biodiversity conservation and human activities. For instance, the area is highly controversial and has been considered as an impediment to local economic development, such as tourism, grazing, road construction, and cultivation. In order to reduce human conflicts with biodiversity conservation in Tandoreh National Park, safe zones need to be established and human activities need to be moved out of the zones. In this study we used a systematic methodology to integrate a participatory process with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) using a multi–criteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique to guide a zoning scheme for the Tandoreh National Park, Iran. Our results show that the northern and eastern parts of the Tandoreh National Park that were close to rural areas and farmlands returned less desirability for selection as a preservation area. Rocky Mountains were the most important and most destructed areas and abandoned plains were the least important criteria for preservation in the area. Furthermore, the results reveal that the land properties were considered to be important for protection based on the obtaine. (Author)

  18. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  19. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  20. Key Drivers for Cooperation toward Sustainable Development and the Management of CO2 Emissions: Comparative Analysis of Six Northeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the key drivers of the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in six Northeast Asian countries (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Russia from 1991 to 2015. We apply a decomposition analysis approach using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index to identify the main contributing factors toward CO2 emission changes. To discuss the decomposition results in more in detail, we explain the energy portfolio change in each country to understand the energy and resource utilization strategy. From the results, we find that the key driving factors of CO2 emissions change and energy portfolio trends are different among Northeast Asian countries, driven by economic growth in China and Korea, reduced by energy efficiency improvements in Russia and the DPRK, while being relatively benign in Japan and Mongolia due to a combination of these factors. This result implies that we can better understand the regional cooperation policy for improving each driving factor to achieve sustainable development and management of CO2 emissions considering the characteristics of each country.

  1. An analysis of the lifestyle risk factors for long-distance truck drivers / Barend Koortzen von Wielligh

    OpenAIRE

    Von Wielligh, Barend Koortzen

    2014-01-01

    The Road Freight Industry accounts for 1 to 5 percent of most countries GDP (AECOM International Development, 2011). According to e-Natis there was 321 056 Trucks (Heavy load Vehicle GVM > 3500 kg) in South Africa by November 2009 (Arrive Alive, 2009). This relative big industry, according to the statistics, influences most other industries value chains. Vehicles are driven by trucks drivers, making driving trucks their living. These drivers have their own lifestyles and ways that they go abo...

  2. Identifying Drivers of Collective Action for the Co-management of Coastal Marine Fisheries in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lozano, Alejandro J.; Heinen, Joel T.

    2016-04-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important for preventing poverty, sustaining local economies, and rural livelihoods, but tend to be negatively impacted by traditional forms of management and overexploitation among other factors. Marine Areas for Responsible Fishing (Áreas Marinas de Pesca Responsable, AMPR) have emerged as a new model for the co-management of small-scale fisheries in Costa Rica, one that involves collaboration between fishers, government agencies, and NGOs. The primary objective of this paper is to elucidate some of the key variables that influence collective action among small-scale fishers in Tárcoles, a community in the Gulf of Nicoya. We examined collective action for the formation of a local marketing cooperative and participation in management through the AMPR. We apply the social-ecological framework as a diagnostic and organizational tool in the analysis of several types of qualitative data, including interviews with key informants, informal interviews, legal documents, and gray literature. Findings illustrate the importance of socio-economic community attributes (e.g., group size, homogeneity, previous cooperation), as well as that of social (e.g., equity) and ecological (e.g., improved stocks) outcomes perceived as favorable by actors. In addition, our work demonstrates the importance of certain kinds of external NGOs for facilitating and sustaining collective action.

  3. Analysis on and Optimization of a Circular Piezoelectric Composite Laminate for a Micro-Pump Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jianyuan; Wang, Weidong; Huang, Xinbo

    2002-01-01

    Among the various micro-pump actuation devices, piezoelectric composite laminate actuation has become an effective method. Due to lacking of analysis treatments, the design of this type micro-pump is in a great limitation. In this paper, an electromechanical-coupled mechanics model is established for the circle-flake micro-actuator. A kind of analysis and design method is presented that piezoelectric plate's radial strain induced by inverse piezoelectric effect is equivalently substituted with transverse stress on piezoelectric composite laminates. It is pointed out that the equivalent transverse load depends on the edge electric field distribution of parallel plate capacitor. The question has been solved that where the neutral plane in the piezoelectric composite laminates lies. Finally, an optimization design is developed on the radius ratio of piezoelectric-to-silicon plate radius by utilizing of FEA modeling

  4. Comparison of exposure to stress and analysis of ways of coping with stress among freight transport and public transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urbańska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast progress in a lot of economic sectors has greatly contributed to a growing role of road transportation systems, including freight transport and passenger transport. The job of professional drivers is regarded as extremely hard and dangerous, it is associated with high risk of health loss and even life loss. This profession is also associated with mental burden, the main cause of the absence at work and alarming number of road accidents. The aim of study was to compare exposure to stress, check the level of stress and ways to cope with stress in 2 groups of drivers (N = 187. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among public transport drivers and freight transport drivers. The authors’ own questionnaire and 2 psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE were used as the study tools. Results: The level of stress is high in both groups, mostly due to a similar type of work. Both groups practice similar ways to cope with stress, but active ways predominate. Conclusions: The work of a professional driver is considered as extremely stressful. The level of stress among professional drivers should be under continuous control. Employers should introduce preventive programs and educate employees about some professional ways to cope with stress. Med Pr 2016;67(4:455–466

  5. What Are the Main Drivers of the Bitcoin Price? Evidence from Wavelet Coherence Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), č. článku e0123923. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bitcoin * wavelet analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kristoufek-0452318.pdf

  6. Main drivers of changes in CO_2 emissions in the Spanish economy: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansino, José M.; Román, Rocío; Ordóñez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of structural decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions in Spain by using an enhanced Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) supported by detailed Input–Output tables from the World Input–Output Database (2013) (WIOD) for the period 1995–2009. The decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions at sectoral level are broken down into six effects: carbonization, energy intensity, technology, structural demand, consumption pattern and scale. The results are interesting, not only for researchers but also for utility companies and policy-makers as soon as past and current political mitigation measures are analyzed in line with such results. The results allow us to conclude that the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol together with European Directives related to the promotion of RES seem to have a positive impact on CO_2 emissions trends in Spain. After reviewing the current mitigation measures in Spain, one policy recommendation is suggested to avoid the rebound effect and to enhance the fight against Climate Change that is tax benefits for those companies that prove reductions in their energy intensity ratios. - Highlights: • Kyoto's Protocol and European Directives acted against CO_2 emissions in Spain. • Changes in primary energy mix acted against increasing CO_2 emissions. • Energy efficiency seems to have improved. • Historical analysis gives support for most mitigation measures currently in force.

  7. Drivers of cycling mode-share: analysis of danes travel behavior 1996-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Mulalic, Ismir; Christiansen, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    -level travel survey data series from 1996 through 2013 to analyze the trend in cycling as main or access mode, as well as the significance of background variables representing key spatial and societal trends. The analysis confirms that the general trend in cycling from 1996 to 2013 was negative irrespective...... of statistical control for socio-economics, ageing, location, urban density, and weather. Results points to an increasing significance of population density over time as well as changes to the effect of location vis-a-vis the largest urban centers. The difference in cycling between central areas and more...

  8. Statistical analysis of road-vehicle-driver interaction as an enabler to designing behavioural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, T; Chowdhury, A; Ghose, A; Bhaumik, C; Balamuralidhar, P

    2014-01-01

    Telematics form an important technology enabler for intelligent transportation systems. By deploying on-board diagnostic devices, the signatures of vehicle vibration along with its location and time are recorded. Detailed analyses of the collected signatures offer deep insights into the state of the objects under study. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying telematics device in one of the office bus that ferries employees to office and back. Data is being collected from 3-axis accelerometer, GPS, speed and the time for all the journeys. In this paper, we present initial results of the above exercise by applying statistical methods to derive information through systematic analysis of the data collected over four months. It is demonstrated that the higher order derivative of the measured Z axis acceleration samples display the properties Weibull distribution when the time axis is replaced by the amplitude of such processed acceleration data. Such an observation offers us a method to predict future behaviour where deviations from prediction are classified as context-based aberrations or progressive degradation of the system. In addition we capture the relationship between speed of the vehicle and median of the jerk energy samples using regression analysis. Such results offer an opportunity to develop a robust method to model road-vehicle interaction thereby enabling us to predict such like driving behaviour and condition based maintenance etc

  9. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis of Socio-Ecologic Drivers of Ross River Virus Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of socio-ecologic factors on the transmission of Ross River virus (RRV) infection and to identify areas prone to social and ecologic-driven epidemics in Queensland, Australia. We used a Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive model to quantify the relationship between monthly variation of RRV incidence and socio-ecologic factors and to determine spatiotemporal patterns. Our results show that the average increase in monthly RRV incidence was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.1–4.5%) and 2.0% (95% CrI: 1.6–2.3%) for a 1°C increase in monthly average maximum temperature and a 10 mm increase in monthly average rainfall, respectively. A significant spatiotemporal variation and interactive effect between temperature and rainfall on RRV incidence were found. No association between Socio-economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) and RRV was observed. The transmission of RRV in Queensland, Australia appeared to be primarily driven by ecologic variables rather than social factors. PMID:20810846

  10. Analysis and Stabilization of Chaos in Permanent Magnet DC Motor Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Fadhil Rahma; Abdul-Hassan, Khalid M.; Abdullah, Mohammed Abbas; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Hoang, Thang Manh; Wang, Xiong

    In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of permanent magnet (PM) DC motor drive with proportional (P) controller have been investigated. The drive system shows different dynamical behaviors; periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic behaviors, and those are characterized by using bifurcation diagram, phase portrait, and time series. The stability analysis of period-1 behavior is studied by using Filippov’s method, the analytic results show good agreement with simulation ones. Then, the stabilization of chaos to fixed point is carried out by using the sliding mode control (SMC). In addition, experimentally the nonlinear dynamics and the proposed stabilization method to PM DC motor drive system have been achieved by using a microcontroller. For the first time, it is noted that when the system is in chaotic dynamics, the vibration of the motor is increased approximately 400% compared with the system in periodic dynamical behavior.

  11. Drivers of Vaginal Drug Delivery System Acceptability from Internet-Based Conjoint Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Primrose

    Full Text Available Vaginal microbicides potentially empower women to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs, especially when culture, religion, or social status may prevent them from negotiating condom use. The open literature contains minimal information on factors that drive user acceptability of women's health products or vaginal drug delivery systems. By understanding what women find to be most important with regard to sensory properties and product functionality, developers can iteratively formulate a more desirable product. Conjoint analysis is a technique widely used in market research to determine what combination of elements influence a consumer's willingness to try or use a product. We applied conjoint analysis here to better understand what sexually-active woman want in a microbicide, toward our goal of formulating a product that is highly acceptable to women. Both sensory and non-sensory attributes were tested, including shape, color, wait time, partner awareness, messiness/leakage, duration of protection, and functionality. Heterosexually active women between 18 and 35 years of age in the United States (n = 302 completed an anonymous online conjoint survey using IdeaMap software. Attributes (product elements were systematically presented in various combinations; women rated these combinations of a 9-point willingness-to-try scale. By coupling systematic combinations and regression modeling, we can estimate the unique appeal of each element. In this population, a multifunctional product (i.e., broad spectrum STI protection, coupled with conception is far more desirable than a microbicide targeted solely for HIV protection; we also found partner awareness and leakage are potentially strong barriers to use.

  12. Drivers of Vaginal Drug Delivery System Acceptability from Internet-Based Conjoint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primrose, Rachel J; Zaveri, Toral; Bakke, Alyssa J; Ziegler, Gregory R; Moskowitz, Howard R; Hayes, John E

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides potentially empower women to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially when culture, religion, or social status may prevent them from negotiating condom use. The open literature contains minimal information on factors that drive user acceptability of women's health products or vaginal drug delivery systems. By understanding what women find to be most important with regard to sensory properties and product functionality, developers can iteratively formulate a more desirable product. Conjoint analysis is a technique widely used in market research to determine what combination of elements influence a consumer's willingness to try or use a product. We applied conjoint analysis here to better understand what sexually-active woman want in a microbicide, toward our goal of formulating a product that is highly acceptable to women. Both sensory and non-sensory attributes were tested, including shape, color, wait time, partner awareness, messiness/leakage, duration of protection, and functionality. Heterosexually active women between 18 and 35 years of age in the United States (n = 302) completed an anonymous online conjoint survey using IdeaMap software. Attributes (product elements) were systematically presented in various combinations; women rated these combinations of a 9-point willingness-to-try scale. By coupling systematic combinations and regression modeling, we can estimate the unique appeal of each element. In this population, a multifunctional product (i.e., broad spectrum STI protection, coupled with conception) is far more desirable than a microbicide targeted solely for HIV protection; we also found partner awareness and leakage are potentially strong barriers to use.

  13. Socioeconomic drivers of FFCO2 emissions in the LA Basin: Analysis of the Hestia version 2.0 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, D.; Gurney, K. R.; Liang, J.; Patarasuk, R.; Huang, J.; Hutchins, M.

    2016-12-01

    Urban landscapes are currently home to over 50% of the world's population, a number that is projected to continue to rise for the rest of this century. Many cities are now actively developing their own climate change policies that are independent of the nation state. The Los Angeles metropolitan area is the most populous region in California with 12,872,808 residents (census 2010). In addition to California's Assembly Bill 32 (2006) which mandates a statewide reduction of GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, the city of Los Angeles released its sustainability pLAn (2015) which sets out to achieve a cleaner environment, a stronger economy, and a commitment to equity through 14 specific target areas. These include reducing Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 55% by 2035 from a 2008 baseline, and improving air quality. Through sectoral regression analysis of the bottom-up Hestia FFCO2 emissions data product version 2.0, this study provides novel, spatially explicit and policy relevant results that will enable the targeted use of resources to reduce GHG and improve air quality at strategic intervention points. The study incorporates socio-economic census data along with the emissions characteristics of Hestia to analyze the dominant drivers of FFCO2 emissions in the residential, commercial and transportation sectors. In particular, building and road types and densities, population, race, income, education characteristics and hotspot analysis. In addition to scope 1 emission dynamics, we also analyze electricity consumption emissions at the demand-side (scope 2). This study will provide stakeholders and policy makers with clear and easily digestible results that will enable efficient, targeted policy options for the city of Los Angeles in achieving its ambitious sustainability goals.

  14. The psychology of intelligence analysis: drivers of prediction accuracy in world politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellers, Barbara; Stone, Eric; Atanasov, Pavel; Rohrbaugh, Nick; Metz, S Emlen; Ungar, Lyle; Bishop, Michael M; Horowitz, Michael; Merkle, Ed; Tetlock, Philip

    2015-03-01

    This article extends psychological methods and concepts into a domain that is as profoundly consequential as it is poorly understood: intelligence analysis. We report findings from a geopolitical forecasting tournament that assessed the accuracy of more than 150,000 forecasts of 743 participants on 199 events occurring over 2 years. Participants were above average in intelligence and political knowledge relative to the general population. Individual differences in performance emerged, and forecasting skills were surprisingly consistent over time. Key predictors were (a) dispositional variables of cognitive ability, political knowledge, and open-mindedness; (b) situational variables of training in probabilistic reasoning and participation in collaborative teams that shared information and discussed rationales (Mellers, Ungar, et al., 2014); and (c) behavioral variables of deliberation time and frequency of belief updating. We developed a profile of the best forecasters; they were better at inductive reasoning, pattern detection, cognitive flexibility, and open-mindedness. They had greater understanding of geopolitics, training in probabilistic reasoning, and opportunities to succeed in cognitively enriched team environments. Last but not least, they viewed forecasting as a skill that required deliberate practice, sustained effort, and constant monitoring of current affairs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Socioeconomic Drivers of Environmental Pollution in China: A Spatial Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the environmental pollution and its impacts in China using prefecture-level cities and municipalities data. Moran’s I, the widely used spatial autocorrelation index, provides a fairly strong pattern of spatial clustering of environmental pollution and suggests a fairly high stability of the positive spatial correlation. To investigate the driving forces of environmental pollution and explore the relationship between fiscal decentralization, economic growth, and environmental pollution, spatial Durbin model is used for this analysis. The result shows that fiscal decentralization of local unit plays a significant role in promoting the environmental pollution and the feedback effect of fiscal decentralization on environmental pollution is also positive, though it is not significant. The relationship of GDP per capita and environmental pollution shows inverted U-shaped curve. Due to the scale effect of secondary industry, the higher the level of secondary industry development in a unit is, the easier it is to attract the secondary industry in adjacent units, which mitigates the environmental pollution in adjacent units. Densely populated areas tend to deteriorate local environment, but environmental regulation in densely populated areas is often tighter than other areas, which reduces environmental pollution to a certain extent.

  16. Frameshift mutational target gene analysis identifies similarities and differences in constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzki, Claudia; Huehns, Maja; Bauer, Ingrid; Ripperger, Tim; Mork, Maureen M; Vilar, Eduardo; Klöcking, Sabine; Zettl, Heike; Prall, Friedrich; Linnebacher, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Mismatch-repair deficient (MMR-D) malignancies include Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is secondary to germline mutations in one of the MMR genes, and the rare childhood-form of constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D); caused by bi-allelic MMR gene mutations. A hallmark of LS-associated cancers is microsatellite instability (MSI), characterized by coding frameshift mutations (cFSM) in target genes. By contrast, tumors arising in CMMR-D patients are thought to display a somatic mutation pattern differing from LS. This study has the main goal to identify cFSM in MSI target genes relevant in CMMR-D and to compare the spectrum of common somatic mutations, including alterations in DNA polymerases POLE and D1 between LS and CMMR-D. CMMR-D-associated tumors harbored more somatic mutations compared to LS cases, especially in the TP53 gene and in POLE and POLD1, where novel mutations were additionally identified. Strikingly, MSI in classical mononucleotide markers BAT40 and CAT25 was frequent in CMMR-D cases. MSI-target gene analysis revealed mutations in CMMR-D-associated tumors, some of them known to be frequently hit in LS, such as RNaseT2, HT001, and TGFβR2. Our results imply a general role for these cFSM as potential new drivers of MMR-D tumorigenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genome‐wide DNA methylation analysis identifies MEGF10 as a novel epigenetically repressed candidate tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Jessica; Tomari, Ayumi; Dallosso, Anthony R.; Szemes, Marianna; Kaselova, Martina; Curry, Thomas J.; Almutairi, Bader; Etchevers, Heather C.; McConville, Carmel; Malik, Karim T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer in which many children still have poor outcomes, emphasising the need to better understand its pathogenesis. Despite recent genome‐wide mutation analyses, many primary neuroblastomas do not contain recognizable driver mutations, implicating alternate molecular pathologies such as epigenetic alterations. To discover genes that become epigenetically deregulated during neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, we took the novel approach of comparing neuroblastomas to neural crest precursor cells, using genome‐wide DNA methylation analysis. We identified 93 genes that were significantly differentially methylated of which 26 (28%) were hypermethylated and 67 (72%) were hypomethylated. Concentrating on hypermethylated genes to identify candidate tumor suppressor loci, we found the cell engulfment and adhesion factor gene MEGF10 to be epigenetically repressed by DNA hypermethylation or by H3K27/K9 methylation in neuroblastoma cell lines. MEGF10 showed significantly down‐regulated expression in neuroblastoma tumor samples; furthermore patients with the lowest‐expressing tumors had reduced relapse‐free survival. Our functional studies showed that knock‐down of MEGF10 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines promoted cell growth, consistent with MEGF10 acting as a clinically relevant, epigenetically deregulated neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27862318

  18. Investigations on Driver Unique Identification from Smartphone’s GPS Data Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Chowdhury

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver identification is an emerging area of interest in vehicle telematics, automobile control, and insurance. Recent body of works indicates that it may be possible to uniquely identify a driver using multiple dedicated sensors. In this paper, we present an approach for driver identification using smartphone GPS data alone. For our experiments, we collected data from 38 drivers for two months. We quantified the driver’s natural style by extracting a set of 137 statistical features from data generated for each completed trip. The analysis shows that, for the “driver identification” problem, an average accuracy of 82.3% is achieved for driver groups of 4-5 drivers. This is comparable to the state of the arts where mostly a multisensor approach has been taken. Further, it is shown that certain behavioral attributes like high driving skill impact identification accuracy. We observe that Random Forest classifier offers the best results. These results have great implications for various stakeholders since the proposed method can identify a driver based on his/her naturalistic driving style which is quantified in terms of statistical parameters extracted from only GPS data.

  19. Temporal Drivers of Liking Based on Functional Data Analysis and Non-Additive Models for Multi-Attribute Time-Intensity Data of Fruit Chews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesten, Carla; Bi, Jian

    2018-06-03

    Conventional drivers of liking analysis was extended with a time dimension into temporal drivers of liking (TDOL) based on functional data analysis methodology and non-additive models for multiple-attribute time-intensity (MATI) data. The non-additive models, which consider both direct effects and interaction effects of attributes to consumer overall liking, include Choquet integral and fuzzy measure in the multi-criteria decision-making, and linear regression based on variance decomposition. Dynamics of TDOL, i.e., the derivatives of the relative importance functional curves were also explored. Well-established R packages 'fda', 'kappalab' and 'relaimpo' were used in the paper for developing TDOL. Applied use of these methods shows that the relative importance of MATI curves offers insights for understanding the temporal aspects of consumer liking for fruit chews.

  20. A hybrid life cycle and multi-criteria decision analysis approach for identifying sustainable development strategies of Beijing's taxi fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Applegate, Scott; Yue, Wencong; Cai, Jianying; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Gengyuan; Li, Chunhui

    2017-01-01

    To identify and evaluate sustainable strategies of taxi fleet in Beijing in terms of economic, policy, and environmental implications, a hybrid approach was developed through incorporating multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods within a general life-cycle analysis (LCA) framework. The approach can (a) help comprehensive evaluate environmental impacts of multiple types of vehicles, (b) facilitate analysis of environmental, economic and policy features of such vehicles, and (c) identify desirable taxi fleet development strategies for the city. The developed approach represented an improvement of the decision-making capability for taxi implementation based on multiple available technologies and their performance that can be specifically tailored to Beijing. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach could comprehensively reflect multiple implications of strategies for the taxi fleet in Beijing to reduce air pollution in the city. The results also indicated that the electric vehicle powered with the year 2020 electricity projections would be the ideal solution, outranking the other alternatives. The conventional vehicle ranked the lowest among the alternatives. The plug-in hybrid vehicle powered by 2020 electricity projects ranked the third, followed by the plug-in hybrid vehicle ranking the fourth, and the hybrid vehicle ranking the fifth. - Highlights: • An hybrid approach was proposed for evaluating sustainable strategies of Beijing's taxi fleet. • This approach was based on the combination of multi-criteria decision analysis methods and life-cycle assessment. • Environmental, economic and policy performances of multiple strategies were compared. • Detailed responses of taxi drivers and local residents were interviewed. • The electric vehicle would be the ideal solution for Beijing Taxi fleet.

  1. Prices versus policy: An analysis of the drivers of the primary fossil fuel mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, Tarek; Blazquez, Jorge; Hunt, Lester C.; Manzano, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Energy policymakers often attempt to shape their countries' energy mix, rather than leave it purely to market forces. By calibrating and simulating a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model, this paper analyzes the primary fossil fuel mix in the USA and compares it to Germany and the UK, given the different evolution of the mixes and the different roles played by relative prices and policy in North America and Europe. It is found that the model explains well the evolution of the primary fossil fuel mix in the USA for the period 1980–2014, suggesting that relative fossil fuel prices generally dominated in determining the mix during this time. However, this is not the case for Germany and the UK. For both countries, the model performs well only for the period after the market-oriented reforms in the 1990s. Additionally, the volatility of private consumption and output for the pre- and post-reform periods is evaluated for Germany and the UK and it is found that the liberalized energy markets brought about a transition from coal to natural gas, but with increased macroeconomic volatility. - Highlights: • Macroeconomic analysis of the importance of prices vs policy in driving the primary fossil fuel mix. • USA primary fossil fuel mix chiefly driven by relative prices since the early 1980s. • Germany and UK primary fossil fuel mix chiefly driven by policy until 1990s. • Germany and UK primary fossil fuel mix chiefly driven by relative prices since early to mid-1990s. • Transition from coal to natural gas in Germany and UK increased macroeconomic volatility.

  2. Chinese energy investments in Europe: An analysis of policy drivers and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedtke, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of China-EU energy relations, the article examines Chinese energy investments in Europe from 2008 to 2015 and analyzes the energy interests and policy approaches underpinning them. Analysis of this data shows that within the EU, 30 Chinese investments largely focused on the oil and gas sector, especially through the acquisition of company shares. Chinese energy investments in Europe reflect a clear political and commercial strategy that addresses the PRC's need to balance supply chain security of fossil fuels, environmentally friendlier energy production and use as well as to enhance the market position and energy-industrial capabilities of Chinese state-owned or state-supervised energy companies. Based on a comprehensive set of domestic incentives for international investment the Chinese penetration of the European energy sector is embedded within two levels of political cooperation. The first level revolves around bilateral investment agreements between China and 27 EU member states. On the second level, China and the EU have established a variety of formats that guide their energy cooperation. The conclusion of the proposed bilateral investment agreement between the PRC and the EU would create a uniform investment environment across the continent and facilitate mutual economic benefits for both parties. - Highlights: • A timeline of Chinese energy investments in Europe, 2008–2015, is presented. • Two tables dividing Chinese investments by sector and company type are presented. • Most Chinese investments concentrate on shares of Europe's fossil fuel sector. • Chinese investments rest on bilateral agreements with EU members. • Chinese investments in EU serve ‘internationalization’ of Chinese companies.

  3. Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raphael, Benjamin J; Dobson, Jason R; Oesper, Layla

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing is revolutionizing the study of cancer and enabling the measurement of the somatic mutations that drive cancer development. However, the resulting sequencing datasets are large and complex, obscuring the clinically important mutations in a background of errors, nois...... patterns of mutual exclusivity. These techniques, coupled with advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing, are enabling precision medicine approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer....

  4. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  5. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  6. Cost drivers for breast, lung, and colorectal cancer care in a commercially insured population over a 6-month episode: an economic analysis from a health plan perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Bhuvana; Lin, Yu Shen; Castel, Liana D

    2017-10-01

    In the absence of clinical data, accurate identification of cost drivers is needed for economic comparison in an alternate payment model. From a health plan perspective using claims data in a commercial population, the objective was to identify and quantify the effects of cost drivers in economic models of breast, lung, and colorectal cancer costs over a 6-month episode following initial chemotherapy. This study analyzed claims data from 9,748 Cigna beneficiaries with diagnosis of breast, lung, and colorectal cancer following initial chemotherapy from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015. We used multivariable regression models to quantify the impact of key factors on cost during the initial 6-month cancer care episode. Metastasis, facility provider affiliation, episode risk group (ERG) risk score, and radiation were cost drivers for all three types of cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal). In addition, younger age (p < .0001) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 oncogene overexpression (HER2+)-directed therapy (p < .0001) were associated with higher costs in breast cancer. Younger age (p < .0001) and female gender (p < .0001) were also associated with higher costs in colorectal cancer. Metastasis was also associated with 50% more hospital admissions and increased hospital length of stay (p < .001) in all three cancers over the 6-month episode duration. Chemotherapy and supportive drug therapies accounted for the highest proportion (48%) of total medical costs among beneficiaries observed. Value-based reimbursement models in oncology should appropriately account for key cost drivers. Although claims-based methodologies may be further augmented with clinical data, this study recommends adjusting for the factors identified in these models to predict costs in breast, lung, and colorectal cancers.

  7. Assessing Reliability of Cellulose Hydrolysis Models to Support Biofuel Process Design – Identifiability and Uncertainty Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2010-01-01

    The reliability of cellulose hydrolysis models is studied using the NREL model. An identifiability analysis revealed that only 6 out of 26 parameters are identifiable from the available data (typical hydrolysis experiments). Attempting to identify a higher number of parameters (as done in the ori......The reliability of cellulose hydrolysis models is studied using the NREL model. An identifiability analysis revealed that only 6 out of 26 parameters are identifiable from the available data (typical hydrolysis experiments). Attempting to identify a higher number of parameters (as done...

  8. A Strategy for Identifying Quantitative Trait Genes Using Gene Expression Analysis and Causal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishikawa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting complex diseases and other quantitative traits have been reported in humans and model animals. However, the genetic architecture of these traits remains elusive due to the difficulty in identifying causal quantitative trait genes (QTGs for common QTL with relatively small phenotypic effects. A traditional strategy based on techniques such as positional cloning does not always enable identification of a single candidate gene for a QTL of interest because it is difficult to narrow down a target genomic interval of the QTL to a very small interval harboring only one gene. A combination of gene expression analysis and statistical causal analysis can greatly reduce the number of candidate genes. This integrated approach provides causal evidence that one of the candidate genes is a putative QTG for the QTL. Using this approach, I have recently succeeded in identifying a single putative QTG for resistance to obesity in mice. Here, I outline the integration approach and discuss its usefulness using my studies as an example.

  9. A Strategy for Identifying Quantitative Trait Genes Using Gene Expression Analysis and Causal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira

    2017-11-27

    Large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting complex diseases and other quantitative traits have been reported in humans and model animals. However, the genetic architecture of these traits remains elusive due to the difficulty in identifying causal quantitative trait genes (QTGs) for common QTL with relatively small phenotypic effects. A traditional strategy based on techniques such as positional cloning does not always enable identification of a single candidate gene for a QTL of interest because it is difficult to narrow down a target genomic interval of the QTL to a very small interval harboring only one gene. A combination of gene expression analysis and statistical causal analysis can greatly reduce the number of candidate genes. This integrated approach provides causal evidence that one of the candidate genes is a putative QTG for the QTL. Using this approach, I have recently succeeded in identifying a single putative QTG for resistance to obesity in mice. Here, I outline the integration approach and discuss its usefulness using my studies as an example.

  10. Healthcare Programmes for Truck Drivers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla-Edward, Samanta Tresha; Fobosi, Siyabulela Christopher; Hankins, Catherine; Case, Kelsey; Venter, W. D. Francois; Gomez, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Truck drivers have unique health needs, and by virtue of their continuous travel, experience difficulty in accessing healthcare. Currently, planning for effective care is hindered by lack of knowledge about their health needs and about the impact of on-going programmes on this population's health

  11. DIVIDED ATTENTION IN EXPERIENCED YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS - LANE TRACKING AND VISUAL ANALYSIS IN A DYNAMIC DRIVING SIMULATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, WH; WATERINK, W; VANWOLFFELAAR, PC; ROTHENGATTER, T

    1991-01-01

    A simulated driving task that required the simultaneous execution of two continuous visual tasks was administered to 12 healthy young (mean age 26.1 years) and 12 healthy older (mean age 64.4 years) experienced and currently active drivers. The first task was a compensatory lane-tracking task

  12. Similar Students and Different Countries? An Analysis of the Barriers and Drivers for Erasmus Participation in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Souto-Otero, Manuel; de Wit, Hans; Huisman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing participation in the Erasmus study abroad program in Europe is a clear policy goal, and student-reported barriers and drivers are regularly monitored. This article uses student survey data from seven countries to examine the extent to which student-level barriers can explain the considerable cross-country variation in Erasmus…

  13. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schjønning, Per; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Keller, Thomas; Greve, M.H.; Lamandé, Mathieu; Simojoki, Asko; Stettler, Matthias; Arvidsson, Johan; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic

  14. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  15. The association between graduated driver licensing laws and travel behaviors among adolescents: an analysis of US National Household Travel Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motao Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young novice drivers have crash rates higher than any other age group. To address this problem, graduated driver licensing (GDL laws have been implemented in the United States to require an extended learner permit phase, and create night time driving or passenger restrictions for adolescent drivers. GDL allows adolescents to gain experience driving under low-risk conditions with the aim of reducing crashes. The restricted driving might increase riding with parents or on buses, which might be safer, or walking or biking, which might be more dangerous. We examined whether GDL increases non-driver travels, and whether it reduces total travels combining drivers and non-drivers. Methods We used data from the US National Household Travel Survey for the years 1995–1996, 2001–2002, and 2008–2009 to estimate the adjusted ratio for the number of trips and trip kilometers made by persons exposed to a GDL law, compared with those not exposed. Results Adolescents aged 16 years had fewer trips and kilometers as drivers when exposed to a GDL law: ratio 0.84 (95 % confidence interval (CI 0.71, 1.00 for trips; 0.79 (0.63, 0.98 for kilometers. For adolescents aged 17 years, the trip ratio was 0.94 (0.83, 1.07 and the kilometers ratio 0.80 (0.63, 1.03. There was little association between GDL laws and trips or kilometers traveled by other methods: ratio 1.03 for trips and 1.00 for kilometers for age 16 years, 0.94 for trips and 1.07 for kilometers for age 17. Conclusions If these associations are causal, GDL laws reduced driving kilometers by about 20 % for 16 and 17 year olds, and reduced the number of driving trips by 16 % among 16 year olds. GDL laws showed little relationship with trips by other methods.

  16. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  17. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  20. Driver Behavior During Overtaking Maneuvers from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Lane changes with the intention to overtake the vehicle in front are especially challenging scenarios for forward collision warning (FCW) designs. These overtaking maneuvers can occur at high relative vehicle speeds and often involve no brake and/or turn signal application. Therefore, overtaking presents the potential of erroneously triggering the FCW. A better understanding of driver behavior during lane change events can improve designs of this human-machine interface and increase driver acceptance of FCW. The objective of this study was to aid FCW design by characterizing driver behavior during lane change events using naturalistic driving study data. The analysis was based on data from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, collected by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. The 100-Car study contains approximately 1.2 million vehicle miles of driving and 43,000 h of data collected from 108 primary drivers. In order to identify overtaking maneuvers from a large sample of driving data, an algorithm to automatically identify overtaking events was developed. The lead vehicle and minimum time to collision (TTC) at the start of lane change events was identified using radar processing techniques developed in a previous study. The lane change identification algorithm was validated against video analysis, which manually identified 1,425 lane change events from approximately 126 full trips. Forty-five drivers with valid time series data were selected from the 100-Car study. From the sample of drivers, our algorithm identified 326,238 lane change events. A total of 90,639 lane change events were found to involve a closing lead vehicle. Lane change events were evenly distributed between left side and right side lane changes. The characterization of lane change frequency and minimum TTC was divided into 10 mph speed bins for vehicle travel speeds between 10 and 90 mph. For all lane change events with a closing lead vehicle, the results showed that drivers change

  1. Blood alcohol analysis alone versus comprehensive toxicological analysis - Systematic investigation of missed co-ingested other drugs in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Eisenbeiss, Lisa; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs (DUID) is a safety issue of increasing public concern. When a police officer has reasonable grounds to classify a driver as impaired, he may arrange for a blood sample to be taken. In many countries, alcohol analysis only is ordered if impairment is suspected to be exclusively due to alcohol while comprehensive toxicological screening will be performed if additional suspicion for other illegal drugs of abuse (DoA) or medicinal drugs is on hand. The aim of the present study was firstly to evaluate whether signs of impairment can be differentiated to be caused by alcohol alone or a combination of alcohol and other driving-impairing drugs and secondly to which extent additional drugs are missed in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers. A total of 293 DUID cases (negative n=41; alcohol positive only, n=131; alcohol+active drug positive, n=121) analyzed in 2015 in the Canton of Zurich were evaluated for their documented impairment symptoms by translating these into a severity score and comparing them applying principle component analysis (PCA). Additional 500 cases suspected for alcohol-impaired driving only were reanalyzed using comprehensive LC-MS/MS screening methods covering about 1500 compounds. Drugs detected were classified for severity of driving impairment using the classification system established in the DRUID study of the European Commission. As partly expected from the pharmacological and toxicological point of view, PCA analysis revealed no differences between signs of impairment caused by alcohol alone and those caused by alcohol plus at least one active drug. Breaking it down to different blood alcohol concentration ranges, only between 0.3 and 0.5g/kg trends could be observed in terms of more severe impairment for combined alcohol and drug intake. In the 500 blood samples retrospectively analyzed in this study, a total of 330 additional drugs could be detected; in some cases up to 9 co-ingested ones. In

  2. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  3. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  4. The deformation analysis of the KALIMER breakeven core driver fuel pin based on the axial power profile during irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Young Kyun; Hong, Ser Gi; Chang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bok; Kim, Young Il

    2003-03-01

    In this study, material properties such as coolant specific heat, film heat transfer coefficient, cladding thermal conductivity, surface diffusion coefficient of the multi-bubble are improved in MACSIS-Mod1. The axial power and flux profile module was also incorporated with irradiation history. The performance and feasibility of the driver fuel pin have been analyzed for nominal parameters based on the conceptual design for the KALIMER breakeven core by MACSIS-MOD1 code. The fuel slug centerline temperature takes the maximum at 700mm from the bottom of the slug in spite of the nearly symmetric axial power distribution. The cladding mid-wall and coolant temperatures take the maximum at the top of the pin. Temperature of the fuel slug surface over the entire irradiation life is much lower than the fuel-clad eutectic reaction temperature. The fission gas release of the driver fuel pin at the End Of Life(EOL) is predicted to be 68.61% and plenum pressure is too low to cause cladding yielding. The probability that the fuel pin would fail is estimated to be much less than that allowed in the design criteria. The maximum radial deformation of the fuel pin is 1.928%, satisfying the preliminary design criterion (3%) for fuel pin deformation. Therefore the conceptual design parameters of the driver fuel pin for the KALIMER breakeven core are expected to satisfy the preliminary criteria on temperature, fluence limit, deformation limit etc.

  5. The deformation analysis of the KALIMER breakeven core driver fuel pin based on the axial power profile during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Young Kyun; Hong, Ser Gi; Chang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bok; Kim, Young Il

    2003-03-01

    In this study, material properties such as coolant specific heat, film heat transfer coefficient, cladding thermal conductivity, surface diffusion coefficient of the multi-bubble are improved in MACSIS-Mod1. The axial power and flux profile module was also incorporated with irradiation history. The performance and feasibility of the driver fuel pin have been analyzed for nominal parameters based on the conceptual design for the KALIMER breakeven core by MACSIS-MOD1 code. The fuel slug centerline temperature takes the maximum at 700mm from the bottom of the slug in spite of the nearly symmetric axial power distribution. The cladding mid-wall and coolant temperatures take the maximum at the top of the pin. Temperature of the fuel slug surface over the entire irradiation life is much lower than the fuel-clad eutectic reaction temperature. The fission gas release of the driver fuel pin at the End Of Life(EOL) is predicted to be 68.61% and plenum pressure is too low to cause cladding yielding. The probability that the fuel pin would fail is estimated to be much less than that allowed in the design criteria. The maximum radial deformation of the fuel pin is 1.928%, satisfying the preliminary design criterion (3%) for fuel pin deformation. Therefore the conceptual design parameters of the driver fuel pin for the KALIMER breakeven core are expected to satisfy the preliminary criteria on temperature, fluence limit, deformation limit etc

  6. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  7. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  8. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  9. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  10. Barriers and drivers towards the incorporation of crop residue in the soil. Analysis of Italian farmers’ opinion with the theory of planned behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the benefits arising from incorporating crop residue in the soil, some farmers decide to burn or sell it. The objective of the work described in this paper was to quantify the adoption of crop residue incorporation by Italian farmers, and to identify the barriers and drivers that they perceive towards this agricultural management practice. We applied a behavioural approach, based on the theory of planned behaviour. In agriculture, this theory can be used to study individual farmer beliefs to understand the intention to adopt agricultural management practices. Based on preliminary semi-structured interviews with 24 farmers, we have prepared and disseminated a structured questionnaire in dairy farms in the plain of northern Italy, in arable farms in the plain of northern, central, and southern Italy, and in arable farms in the hill of central and southern Italy. The questionnaire contained questions to reveal subjective beliefs of the farmers on the outcomes of incorporating crop residue, and on the referents and control factors that might influence adoption. We have received 315 filled questionnaires from 16 regions and 54 provinces. The survey has identified major drivers and barriers towards the incorporation of crop residue in the soil. The main drivers were the expected improvement of soil quality (higher soil organic matter, improved structure and fertility, the expected increase of grain protein concentration in the following wheat crop, the availability of adequate machinery, the prohibition of burning crop residue, and the knowledge that incorporation is important (which emphasizes the importance of an effective advisory service. The main barriers were the costs of incorporation, the need to increase the use of nitrogen fertiliser when straw is incorporated, and the problems to sow the following crop in the presence of residue. While on the basis of the preliminary interviews we expected that the possibility to sell the straw and

  11. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods : A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results : At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions : Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to

  12. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background & Objectives: Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods: A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results: At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions: Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to

  13. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  14. A cohort of new adhesive proteins identified from transcriptomic analysis of mussel foot glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Daniel G; Errico, John M; Sjoestroem, Sebastian; Fenster, April; Waite, J Herbert

    2017-06-01

    The adaptive attachment of marine mussels to a wide range of substrates in a high-energy, saline environment has been explored for decades and is a significant driver of bioinspired wet adhesion research. Mussel attachment relies on a fibrous holdfast known as the byssus, which is made by a specialized appendage called the foot. Multiple adhesive and structural proteins are rapidly synthesized, secreted and moulded by the foot into holdfast threads. About 10 well-characterized proteins, namely the mussel foot proteins (Mfps), the preCols and the thread matrix proteins, are reported as representing the bulk of these structures. To explore how robust this proposition is, we sequenced the transcriptome of the glandular tissues that produce and secrete the various holdfast components using next-generation sequencing methods. Surprisingly, we found around 15 highly expressed genes that have not previously been characterized, but bear key similarities to the previously defined mussel foot proteins, suggesting additional contribution to byssal function. We verified the validity of these transcripts by polymerase chain reaction, cloning and Sanger sequencing as well as confirming their presence as proteins in the byssus. These newly identified proteins greatly expand the palette of mussel holdfast biochemistry and provide new targets for investigation into bioinspired wet adhesion. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Sparse canonical correlation analysis for identifying, connecting and completing gene-expression networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijenborg, S.; Zwinderman, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We generalized penalized canonical correlation analysis for analyzing microarray gene-expression measurements for checking completeness of known metabolic pathways and identifying candidate genes for incorporation in the pathway. We used Wold's method for calculation of the

  16. Traffic Safety through Driver Assistance and Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Bubb

    2011-05-01

    BMW, Daimler, Audi, Citroen, Lexus, VW, Opel, Peugeot, Renault, Chevrolet, Saab and Bosch. Both the contributions of research work concerning driving behavior analysis and driver assistance systems have to be aligned with a permanently updated interaction within the system of driver, vehicle and road traffic environment.

  17. Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpe, Lars; Lolle, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Many see trust as an important social resource for the welfare of individuals as well as nations. It is therefore important to be able to identify trust and explain its sources. Cross-country survey analysis has been an important tool in this respect, and often one single variable is used to identify social trust understood as trust in strangers,…

  18. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  19. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  20. Driver's anger state identification by using facial expression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preventive safety system of vehicle is highlighted to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Driver's state adaptive driving safety system may be one of candidates of the safety system. Identifying driver's psychosomatic states is indispensable to establish those safety systems. Anger of driver state is often seen in traffic ...

  1. Evaluation of Traffic Accident Risk in In-City Bus Drivers: The Use of Berlin Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Pervin Korkmaz; Uysal, Funda Elmas; Başoğlu, Özen K.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Traffic accidents associated with high mortality rate may produce serious problems especially in highways. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a high risk for traffic accidents due to excessive daytime sleepiness even in in-city drivers. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the rate of OSA symptoms and to identify risk factors associated with traffic accidents in in-city bus drivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS A self-administered questionnaire including demographic and anthropometric features, sleep and work schedules, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness score (ESS), and history of traffic accidents was used. RESULTS The questionnaire was conducted for 1400 male bus drivers (mean age, 38.0±6.4 y, body mass index, 27.8±3.9 kg/m2). A total of 1058 (75.6%) drivers had one or more accidents while driving bus. According to the Berlin questionnaire, 176 (12.6%) drivers were found to have high OSA risk and the accident rate was 83.0% in high-risk group, whereas 74.5% of low-risk drivers had accidents (p=0.043). The drivers with a history of traffic accident were older (p=0.030), had higher ESS (p=0.019), and were more in the high-risk OSA group according to the Berlin questionnaire (p=0.015). In multivariate linear regression analysis, traffic accident was associated with only Berlin questionnaire (p=0.015). CONCLUSION The present results support that city bus drivers with high OSA risk according to Berlin questionnaire have increased accident rates. Therefore, we suggest using Berlin questionnaire for screening sleep apnea not only in highway drivers but also in in-city bus drivers. PMID:29755810

  2. Narrative text analysis to identify technologies to prevent motor vehicle crashes: examples from military vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Yee, Nathan; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Rossen, Lauren; Bachynski, Kathleen E; Baker, Susan P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the leading circumstances of military vehicle crashes to guide prioritization and implementation of crash avoidance and/or warning technologies. A descriptive study using narrative text analysis on 3,944 military vehicle crash narratives. Crash data on drivers, from 2001 to 2006, were assembled from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. Reviewers collected information on the circumstances of crashes and determined if vehicle technology could have prevented the crash. Nearly 98% of the crashes were nonfatal; 63% occurred in the U.S. and 24% in Iraq. Among crash events where the direction of the impact was recorded, 32% were to the front of the vehicle and 16% involved a vehicle being rear-ended. Rollovers were mentioned in 20% of the narratives. Technology was determined to have the potential to prevent 26% of the crashes, with the forward collision warning system, rear end collision avoidance, emergency brake assistance, and rollover stability control system likely to have the greatest impacts. Some technologies available for civilian vehicles may prevent certain military crash circumstances. The results of this research are significant in light of ongoing global military operations that rely on military vehicles. Improving the preventive technology featured on military vehicles may be an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of military crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dominant role of drivers' attitude in prevention of road traffic crashes: a study on knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ramazan; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Sadegh Sabagh, Mohammad; Ansari Moghaddam, Alireza; Eslami, Vahid; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2014-05-01

    Evaluating the relation between Iranian drivers' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding traffic regulations, and their deterministic effect on road traffic crashes (RTCs). Two cities of Tehran and Zahedan, Iran. A cross-sectional study was designed. Using a simplified cluster sampling design, 2200 motor vehicle drivers including 1200 in Tehran and 1000 in Zahedan were selected. Sixty locations in Tehran and 50 in Zahedan were chosen. In each pre-identified location, 20 adult drivers were approached consecutively. A questionnaire developed by researchers was filled by each participant. The questionnaire had four sections including items assessing the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice of drivers toward traffic regulations. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the RTCs and KAP variables. The study sample consisted of 619 (28.1%) occupational and 1580 (71.8%) private drivers. Among them, 86.4% were male. The median age was 33.6 ± 10.83. Drivers in Tehran and Zahedan had no significant differences between their mean scores of KAP items of the questionnaire. Higher knowledge, safer attitude, and safer practice were associated with a decreased number of RTC. After adjusting for possible confounders, increase of one standard deviation in attitude and practice scores (but not knowledge) resulted in 26.4% and 18.5% decrease in RTC, respectively. Finally, considering knowledge, attitude and practice of drivers in one model to assess their mutual effect, it was shown that only attitude is significantly associated with a decrease of RTC (OR=0.76, P=0.007). Increase in attitude and practice accompanied with decreased number of RTCs in Iranian drivers. Specifically, drivers' attitude had the crucial effect. It is not knowledge and standard traffic education; rather it is how such education is registered as an attitude that translates what is being learned into actions. Without safer attitude, even safer self

  4. Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schunkert, Heribert; König, Inke R.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Holm, Hilma; Preuss, Michael; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Barbalic, Maja; Gieger, Christian; Absher, Devin; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Allayee, Hooman; Altshuler, David; Anand, Sonia S.; Andersen, Karl; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Ardissino, Diego; Ball, Stephen G.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Barnes, Timothy A.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berger, Klaus; Bis, Joshua C.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Boerwinkle, Eric; Braund, Peter S.; Brown, Morris J.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Buysschaert, Ian; Carlquist, John F.; Chen, Li; Cichon, Sven; Codd, Veryan; Davies, Robert W.; Dedoussis, George; Dehghan, Abbas; Demissie, Serkalem; Devaney, Joseph M.; Diemert, Patrick; Do, Ron; Doering, Angela; Eifert, Sandra; Mokhtari, Nour Eddine El; Ellis, Stephen G.; Elosua, Roberto; Engert, James C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; de Faire, Ulf; Fischer, Marcus; Folsom, Aaron R.; Freyer, Jennifer; Gigante, Bruna; Girelli, Domenico; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Halperin, Eran; Hammond, Naomi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Hofman, Albert; Horne, Benjamin D.; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jones, Gregory T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kaiser, Michael A.; Kaplan, Lee M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kong, Augustine; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lambrechts, Diether; Leander, Karin; Lettre, Guillaume; Li, Mingyao; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loley, Christina; Lotery, Andrew J.; Mannucci, Pier M.; Maouche, Seraya; Martinelli, Nicola; McKeown, Pascal P.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Mooser, Vincent; Morgan, Thomas; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.; Münzel, Thomas; Musunuru, Kiran; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Olivieri, Oliviero; Patel, Riyaz S.; Patterson, Chris C.; Peters, Annette; Peyvandi, Flora; Qu, Liming; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Rallidis, Loukianos S.; Rice, Catherine; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Rubin, Diana; Salomaa, Veikko; Sampietro, M. Lourdes; Sandhu, Manj S.; Schadt, Eric; Schäfer, Arne; Schillert, Arne; Schreiber, Stefan; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Sivananthan, Mohan; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Smith, Albert; Smith, Tamara B.; Snoep, Jaapjan D.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spertus, John A.; Stark, Klaus; Stirrups, Kathy; Stoll, Monika; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Rij, Andre M.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Wareham, Nick J.; Wells, George A.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wild, Philipp S.; Willenborg, Christina; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Ye, Shu; Zeller, Tanja; Ziegler, Andreas; Cambien, Francois; Goodall, Alison H.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Quertermous, Thomas; März, Winfried; Hengstenberg, Christian; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Hall, Alistair S.; Deloukas, Panos; Thompson, John R.; Stefansson, Kari; Roberts, Robert; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; McPherson, Ruth; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 individuals with CAD (cases) and 64,762 controls of European descent followed by genotyping of top association signals in 56,682 additional individuals. This analysis identified 13

  5. Attitudes of Greek Drivers with Focus on Mobile Phone Use While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Marinou, Paraskevi

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and behavior of Greek drivers with specific focus on mobile phone use while driving. The research is based on the data of the pan-European SARTRE 4 survey, which was conducted on a representative sample of Greek drivers in 2011. Analysis of the drivers' behavior was carried out by the statistical methods of factor and cluster analysis. According to the results of factor analysis, Greek drivers' responses in the selected questions were summarized into 4 factors, describing road behavior and accident involvement probability as well as their views on issues concerning other drivers' road behaviors, fatigued driving, enforcement of road safety, and mobile phone use while driving. The results of cluster analysis indicated 5 different groups of Greek drivers--the moderate, the optimistic, the conservative, the risky, and the reasonably cautious--and the characteristics of each group where identified. These results may be useful for the appropriate design of targeted road safety campaigns and other countermeasures.

  6. Climatic and management drivers of CO2 exchanges by a production crop: analysis over three successive 4-year cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Pauline; Moureaux, Christine; Bodson, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges between crops and the atmosphere are influenced by both climatic and crop management drivers. The investigated crop, situated at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (candidate ICOS site) in the Hesbaye region in Belgium and managed for more than 70 years using conventional farming practices, was monitored over three complete sugar beet/winter wheat/potato/winter wheat rotation cycles from 2004 to 2016. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chambers, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), autotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). Meteorological data and crop management practices were also recorded. Climatic and seasonal evolutions of the carbon balance components were studied and crop carbon budgets were computed both at the yearly and crop rotation cycle scales. On average over the 12 years, NEE was negative but NBP was positive, i.e. as far as carbon exportation by harvest are included in the budget, the site behaved as a carbon source. Impacts of both meteorological drivers and crop management operations on CO2 exchanges were analyzed and compared between crop types, years, and rotation cycles. The uncertainties associated to the carbon fluxes were also evaluated and discussed.

  7. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers' Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruohua; Chen, Xumei; Yu, Lei; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-12

    Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers' compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers' compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany) to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO₂, NO x , HC, and CO emissions. CO₂ was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  8. The Impact of Shift Work on Brazilian Train Drivers with Different Chronotypes: A Comparative Analysis through Objective and Subjective Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Fernandes Jr., Silvio; Stetner Antonietti, Leandro; Saba, Amanda; Paulino de Faria, Alexandre; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Tufik, Sergio; Túlio de Mello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare sleep pattern, tiredness sensation and quality of life between different chronotypes in train drivers from a Brazilian transportation company. Subjects and Methods Ninety-one train drivers, working a rotary work schedule including night shift, were divided into three groups according to their chronotype (morning types, intermediate or evening types) and were assessed for their sleep and quality of life, as characterized by a subjective questionnaire and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), applied before and immediately after the night shift. The pattern of activity and rest was measured for 10 days by actigraphy, and the chronotype was determined through the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Forty-one (45.1s%) individuals were classified as morning type, 44 (48.4s%) were classified as intermediate and 6 (6.6s%) as evening type. The evening types had a tendency to remain awake for a longer period of time before the night shift (p = 0.05) and scored worse overall for quality of life compared to morning types (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding variability in the PVT performance, even when covaried by the period of waking time before the test. There was no significant difference either in feelings of fatigue before and after starting the shift. Conclusion Although the evening type number was small, evening type individuals scored worse relative to sleep and quality of life than morning type individuals. PMID:23328130

  9. An analysis of the suitability of a low-cost eye tracker for assessing the cognitive load of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čegovnik, Tomaž; Stojmenova, Kristina; Jakus, Grega; Sodnik, Jaka

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a driving simulator study in which we investigated whether the Eye Tribe eye tracker (ET) is capable of assessing changes in the cognitive load of drivers through oculography and pupillometry. In the study, participants were asked to drive a simulated vehicle and simultaneously perform a set of secondary tasks with different cognitive complexity levels. We measured changes in eye properties, such as the pupil size, blink rate and fixation time. We also performed a measurement with a Detection Response Task (DRT) to validate the results and to prove a steady increase of cognitive load with increasing secondary task difficulty. The results showed that the ET precisely recognizes an increasing pupil diameter with increasing secondary task difficulty. In addition, the ET shows increasing blink rates, decreasing fixation time and narrowing of the attention field with increasing secondary task difficulty. The results were validated with the DRT method and the secondary task performance. We conclude that the Eye Tribe ET is a suitable device for assessing a driver's cognitive load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  13. Identifying influential individuals on intensive care units: using cluster analysis to explore culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Clark, Lindsey; Cheng, Tianyi; Franklin, Ella; Fernandez, Nicole; Ratwani, Raj; Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify attribute patterns of influential individuals in intensive care units using unsupervised cluster analysis. Despite the acknowledgement that culture of an organisation is critical to improving patient safety, specific methods to shift culture have not been explicitly identified. A social network analysis survey was conducted and an unsupervised cluster analysis was used. A total of 100 surveys were gathered. Unsupervised cluster analysis was used to group individuals with similar dimensions highlighting three general genres of influencers: well-rounded, knowledge and relational. Culture is created locally by individual influencers. Cluster analysis is an effective way to identify common characteristics among members of an intensive care unit team that are noted as highly influential by their peers. To change culture, identifying and then integrating the influencers in intervention development and dissemination may create more sustainable and effective culture change. Additional studies are ongoing to test the effectiveness of utilising these influencers to disseminate patient safety interventions. This study offers an approach that can be helpful in both identifying and understanding influential team members and may be an important aspect of developing methods to change organisational culture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative analysis of primary versus relapse/refractory DLBCL identifies shifts in mutation spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Danielle M; Liang, Winnie S; Saif, Sakina; Johnson, Justin; Todorov, Petar; Dulak, Austin; Enriquez, Daniel; Halperin, Rebecca; Ahmed, Ambar; Saveliev, Vladislav; Carpten, John; Craig, David; Barrett, J Carl; Dougherty, Brian; Zinda, Michael; Fawell, Stephen; Dry, Jonathan R; Byth, Kate

    2017-11-21

    Current understanding of the mutation spectrum of relapsed/refractory (RR) tumors is limited. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 47 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumors that persisted after R-CHOP treatment, 8 matched to primary biopsies. We compared genomic alterations from the RR cohort against two treatment-naïve DLBCL cohorts (n=112). While the overall number and types of mutations did not differ significantly, we identified frequency changes in DLBCL driver genes. The overall frequency of MYD88 mutant samples increased (12% to 19%), but we noted a decrease in p.L265P (8% to 4%) and increase in p.S219C mutations (2% to 6%). CARD11 p.D230N, PIM1 p.K115N and CD79B p.Y196C mutations were not observed in the RR cohort, although these mutations were prominent in the primary DLBCL samples. We observed an increase in BCL2 mutations (21% to 38% of samples), BCL2 amplifications (3% to 6% of samples) and CREBBP mutations (31% to 42% of samples) in the RR cohort, supported by acquisition of mutations in these genes in relapsed compared to diagnostic biopsies from the same patient. These increases may reflect the genetic characteristics of R-CHOP RR tumors expected to be enriched for during clinical trial enrollment. These findings hold significance for a number of emerging targeted therapies aligned to genetic targets and biomarkers in DLBCL, reinforcing the importance of time-of-treatment biomarker screening during DLBCL therapy selection.

  15. Lifestyle and accidents among young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, N P; Berg, H Y

    1994-06-01

    This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk, and to identify specific high-risk and low-risk groups. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 20-year-olds describe themselves and how often they deal with a large number of different activities, like sports, music, movies, reading, cars and driving, political engagement, etc. They also report their involvement in traffic accidents. With a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, lifestyle profiles are defined. These profiles are finally correlated to accidents, which makes it possible to define high-risk and low-risk groups. The cluster analysis defined 15 clusters including four high-risk groups with an average overrisk of 150% and two low-risk groups with an average underrisk of 75%. The results are discussed from two perspectives. The first is the importance of theoretical understanding of the contribution of lifestyle factors to young drivers' high accident risk. The second is how the findings could be used in practical road safety measures, like education, campaigns, etc.

  16. Identifying Effective Spelling Interventions Using a Brief Experimental Analysis and Extended Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Merilee; Clure, Lynne F.; Bleck, Amanda A.; Schmitz, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is an important skill that is crucial to effective written communication. In this study, brief experimental analysis procedures were used to examine spelling instruction strategies (e.g., whole word correction; word study strategy; positive practice; and cover, copy, and compare) for four students. In addition, an extended analysis was…

  17. Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with a drunk driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Muñoz, José Ignacio; Blank-Gomel, Aharon

    2017-06-01

    To assess the impact of demographic, intrapersonal and environmental factors on the likelihood in Chile of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID). Multi-level cross-sectional study. Data were acquired from two large-scale household surveys of representative samples of Chile's Metropolitan Region. The study included 1341 individuals ≥ 16 years; 696 of them reported engaging in PAID. The primary outcome was self-reported frequencies of having accepted a ride with an alcohol-impaired driver. PAID was associated significantly with 'age' [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-0.99, P = 0.03], 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.078-0.44, P = 0.00), 'time exposure as passenger' (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = 0.00) and 'sex' (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.53-0.87, P = 0.00). In women, PAID was associated with 'age' (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.99, P = 0.02), 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.59, P = 0.00) and 'low quality of public bus stops' (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.98-0.99, P = 0.01). Younger women with high education levels were more likely to engage in PAID than younger women with low education levels. In men, PAID was associated with 'traffic safety beliefs' (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02-0.63, P = 0.01) and 'time exposure as passenger' (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = 0.02). In Chile, men are at higher risk of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID) than women. In women, PAID appears to be associated with lower traffic safety beliefs, lower quality of public bus stations and an interaction between education and age. In men, PAID is associated with lower traffic safety beliefs and higher time exposure as passenger. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Do Specific Growth Drivers Exist for Firms? A Regional Analysis of Start-ups and Industrial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL I. OJEAGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of start-ups, have remained largely a micro economic issue. Firms are the key drivers of industrial sector GDP (or enterprise growth in countries across regions. Few studies have tried to examine the consequence of start-ups in the broad macroeconomics terms on enterprise growth in general with special emphasis on industrial sector output. This study provides a macroeconomic study of the effect of start- ups on industrial sector growth for countries in some specific geographical regions of the world. Panel data is utilized due to it obvious advantages such its ability to utilize a panel of short time frames and its suitability for controlling for omitted variable bias and unobservable heterogeneity across regions. The results show that start-ups remain an intrinsic variable for enterprise growth and industrial sector output discussion in general.

  19. Patterns of Harmful Alcohol Consumption among Truck Drivers: Implications for Occupational Health and Work Safety from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of productivity losses arising from absenteeism, presenteeism, and workplace injuries. Among occupational categories most affected by the use of this substance, truck drivers are subject to risk factors and risky behaviors that can have a serious impact on their health, their work, and the general road safety. The use of alcohol during truck-driving activities is, indeed, an important risk factor for traffic accidents. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims at synthesizing the literature regarding harmful alcohol consumption patterns among truck drivers in a rigorous way. A ‘binge drinking’ prevalence of 19.0%, 95% confidence interval or CI (13.1, 26.9 was present. An ‘everyday drinking’ pattern rate of 9.4%, 95% CI (7.0, 12.4 was found, while the rate of alcohol misuse according to the “Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test” (AUDIT—“Cut down-Annoyed-Guilty-Eye opener questionnaire” (CAGE instruments was computed to be of 22.7%, 95% CI (14.8, 33.0. No evidence of publication bias could be found. However, there is the need to improve the quality of published research, utilizing standardized reliable instruments. The knowledge of these epidemiological data can be useful for decision makers in order to develop, design, and implement ad hoc adequate policies.

  20. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  1. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies chromosomal regions involved in ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Jochumsen, Kirsten M; Mogensen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    the relation of gene expression and chromosomal position to identify chromosomal regions of importance for early recurrence of ovarian cancer. By use of *Gene Set Enrichment Analysis*, we have ranked chromosomal regions according to their association to survival. Over-representation analysis including 1...... using death (P = 0.015) and recurrence (P = 0.002) as outcome. The combined mutation score is strongly associated to upregulation of several growth factor pathways....

  2. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  3. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  4. Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); J.C. Randall (Joshua); C. Lamina (Claudia); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); L. Qi (Lu); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); C.J. Willer (Cristen); B.M. Herrera (Blanca); A.U. Jackson (Anne); N. Lim (Noha); P. Scheet (Paul); N. Soranzo (Nicole); N. Amin (Najaf); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); J.C. Chambers (John); A. Drong (Alexander); J. Luan; H.N. Lyon (Helen); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S. Sanna (Serena); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); H.Z. Jing; P. Almgren (Peter); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); L. Cherkas (Lynn); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); C. Cooper (Charles); G. Crawford (Gabe); A. Doering (Angela); A. Dominiczak (Anna); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); S. Ebrahim (Shanil); P. Elliott (Paul); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Fischer (Guido); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grallert (Harald); C.J. Groves (Christopher); S.M. Grundy (Scott); C. Guiducci (Candace); D. Hadley (David); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); A. Hofman (Albert); R. Holle (Rolf); J.W. Holloway (John); T. Illig (Thomas); B. Isomaa (Bo); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); K. Jameson (Karen); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); F. Karpe (Fredrik); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.P. Morris (Andrew); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Nordström (Anna); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); F. Payne (Felicity); J. Peden (John); I. Prokopenko (Inga); F. Renström (Frida); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Song (Kijoung); X. Yuan (Xin); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); M. Uda (Manuela); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); G.B. Walters (Bragi); M.N. Weedon (Michael); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); C. Zhang (Cuilin); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G.D. Smith; I.N.M. Day (Ian); P.W. Franks (Paul); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A. Kong (Augustine); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); M. Laakso (Markku); E. Lakatta (Edward); V. Mooser (Vincent); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D.P. Strachan (David); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); D. Waterworth (Dawn); M. Boehnke (Michael); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Groop (Leif); D.J. Hunter (David); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D. Schlessinger (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); I.E. Barroso (Inês); M.I. McCarthy (Mark)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the

  5. Identifying Skill Requirements for GIS Positions: A Content Analysis of Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the skill requirements for geographic information system (GIS) positions, including GIS analysts, programmers/developers/engineers, specialists, and technicians, through a content analysis of 946 GIS job advertisements from 2007-2014. The results indicated that GIS job applicants need to possess high levels of GIS analysis…

  6. Transcriptome analysis of recurrently deregulated genes across multiple cancers identifies new pan-cancer biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Tanaka, Yuji; Kawaji, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    Genes that are commonly deregulated in cancer are clinically attractive as candidate pan-diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. To globally identify such targets, we compared Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) profiles from 225 different cancer cell lines and 339 corresponding primary cell...

  7. Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Scott, Laura J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur

    2010-01-01

    By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals...

  8. Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.F. Voight (Benjamin); L.J. Scott (Laura); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); A.D. Morris (Andrew); C. Dina (Christian); R.P. Welch (Ryan); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); C. Huth (Cornelia); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); L.J. McCulloch (Laura); T. Ferreira (Teresa); H. Grallert (Harald); N. Amin (Najaf); G. Wu (Guanming); C.J. Willer (Cristen); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); C. Langenberg (Claudia); O.M. Hofmann (Oliver); J. Dupuis (Josée); L. Qi (Lu); A.V. Segrè (Ayellet); M. van Hoek (Mandy); P. Navarro (Pau); K.G. Ardlie (Kristin); B. Balkau (Beverley); R. Benediktsson (Rafn); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R. Blagieva (Roza); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); K.B. Boström (Kristina Bengtsson); B. Bravenboer (Bert); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); N.P. Burtt (Noël); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); P.S. Chines (Peter); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); D.J. Couper (David); G. Crawford (Gabe); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); K.S. Elliott (Katherine); M.R. Erdos (Michael); C.S. Fox (Caroline); C.S. Franklin (Christopher); M. Ganser (Martha); C. Gieger (Christian); N. Grarup (Niels); T. Green (Todd); S. Griffin (Simon); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); S. Hadjadj (Samy); N. Hassanali (Neelam); C. Herder (Christian); B. Isomaa (Bo); A.U. Jackson (Anne); P.R.V. Johnson (Paul); T. Jørgensen (Torben); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); N. Klopp (Norman); A. Kong (Augustine); P. Kraft (Peter); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T. Lauritzen (Torsten); M. Li (Man); A. Lieverse (Aloysius); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); M. Marre (Michel); T. Meitinger (Thomas); K. Midthjell (Kristian); M.A. Morken (Mario); N. Narisu (Narisu); P. Nilsson (Peter); K.R. Owen (Katharine); F. Payne (Felicity); J.R.B. Perry (John); A.K. Petersen; C. Platou (Carl); C. Proença (Christine); I. Prokopenko (Inga); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); N.R. Robertson (Neil); G. Rocheleau (Ghislain); M. Roden (Michael); M.J. Sampson (Michael); R. Saxena (Richa); B.M. Shields (Beverley); P. Shrader (Peter); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); T. Sparsø (Thomas); K. Strassburger (Klaus); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Q. Sun (Qi); A.J. Swift (Amy); B. Thorand (Barbara); J. Tichet (Jean); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); R.M. van Dam (Rob); T.W. van Haeften (Timon); T.W. van Herpt (Thijs); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); G.B. Walters (Bragi); M.N. Weedon (Michael); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Cauchi (Stephane); F.S. Collins (Francis); A.L. Gloyn (Anna); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T. Hansen (Torben); W.A. Hide (Winston); G.A. Hitman (Graham); A. Hofman (Albert); D. Hunter (David); K. Hveem (Kristian); M. Laakso (Markku); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I. Rudan (Igor); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); L.D. Stein (Lincoln); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Campbell (Harry); M.J. Daly (Mark); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); J.B. Meigs (James); J.S. Pankow (James); O. Pedersen (Oluf); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); I.E. Barroso (Inês); J.C. Florez (Jose); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R. Sladek (Rob); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J.F. Wilson (James); T. Illig (Thomas); P. Froguel (Philippe); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); D. Altshuler (David); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); R.M. Watanabe (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBy combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals

  9. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology...

  10. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  11. Exome-wide rare variant analysis identifies TUBA4A mutations associated with familial ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Bradley N.; Ticozzi, Nicola; Fallini, Claudia; Gkazi, Athina Soragia; Topp, Simon; Kenna, Kevin P.; Scotter, Emma L.; Kost, Jason; Keagle, Pamela; Miller, Jack W.; Calini, Daniela; Vance, Caroline; Danielson, Eric W.; Troakes, Claire; Tiloca, Cinzia; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Lewis, Elizabeth A.; King, Andrew; Colombrita, Claudia; Pensato, Viviana; Castellotti, Barbara; de Belleroche, Jacqueline; Baas, Frank; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.; Sapp, Peter C.; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Polak, Meraida; Asress, Seneshaw; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; Muñoz-Blanco, José Luis; Simpson, Michael; van Rheenen, Wouter; Diekstra, Frank P.; Lauria, Giuseppe; Duga, Stefano; Corti, Stefania; Cereda, Cristina; Corrado, Lucia; Sorarù, Gianni; Morrison, Karen E.; Williams, Kelly L.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Blair, Ian P.; Dion, Patrick A.; Leblond, Claire S.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Hardiman, Orla; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing is an effective strategy for identifying human disease genes. However, this methodology is difficult in late-onset diseases where limited availability of DNA from informative family members prohibits comprehensive segregation analysis. To overcome this limitation, we performed an

  12. Social Network Analysis: A Simple but Powerful Tool for Identifying Teacher Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. Sean; Trygstad, Peggy J.; Hayes, Meredith L.

    2018-01-01

    Instructional teacher leadership is central to a vision of distributed leadership. However, identifying instructional teacher leaders can be a daunting task, particularly for administrators who find themselves either newly appointed or faced with high staff turnover. This article describes the use of social network analysis (SNA), a simple but…

  13. Systematic In Vivo RNAi Analysis Identifies IAPs as NEDD8-E3 Ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broemer, Meike; Tenev, Tencho; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G

    2010-01-01

    -like proteins (UBLs), and deconjugating enzymes that remove the Ub or UBL adduct. Systematic in vivo RNAi analysis identified three NEDD8-specific isopeptidases that, when knocked down, suppress apoptosis. Consistent with the notion that attachment of NEDD8 prevents cell death, genetic ablation of deneddylase 1...

  14. Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Andre; Kitchen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Used 1996 Canadian census data to examine the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. Analysis of 20 indicators of urban deprivation identified 6 main types of deprivation in the city and found that they were most visible on the Island of Montreal. Urban deprivation was not confined to the inner city. (SM)

  15. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production

  16. Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deloukas, Panos; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Farrall, Martin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Thompson, John R.; Ingelsson, Erik; Saleheen, Danish; Erdmann, Jeanette; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Stirrups, Kathleen; König, Inke R.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Asa; Hall, Alistair S.; Lee, Jong-Young; Willer, Cristen J.; Chambers, John C.; Esko, Tõnu; Folkersen, Lasse; Goel, Anuj; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Shungin, Dmitry; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Zhang, Weihua; Ziegler, Andreas; Absher, Devin; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Barroso, Inês; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cox, David; Dimitriou, Maria; Do, Ron; Doney, Alex S. F.; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Eriksson, Per; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gigante, Bruna; Groop, Leif; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Illig, Thomas; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kuusisto, Johanna; Langenberg, Claudia; Langford, Cordelia; Leander, Karin; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; McCarthy, Mark I.; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Mihailov, Evelin; Maouche, Seraya; Morris, Andrew D.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nikus, Kjell; Peden, John F.; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Song, Ci; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Basart, Hanneke; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; de Faire, Ulf; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Ferrières, Jean; Gauguier, Dominique; Go, Alan S.; Goodall, Alison H.; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kähönen, Mika; Kee, Frank; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Klopp, Norman; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laakso, Markku; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Lind, Lars; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Peters, Annette; Quertermous, Thomas; Rader, Daniel J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Schadt, Eric; Shah, Svati H.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stark, Klaus; Stefansson, Kari; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dedoussis, George; Franks, Paul W.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Metspalu, Andres; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Schreiber, Stefan; Ripatti, Samuli; Blankenberg, Stefan S.; Perola, Markus; Clarke, Robert; Boehm, Bernhard O.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Reilly, Muredach P.; März, Winfried; Collins, Rory; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hamsten, Anders; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Danesh, John; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Roberts, Robert; Watkins, Hugh; Schunkert, Heribert; Samani, Nilesh J.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2)

  17. AcuI identifies water buffalo CSN3 genotypes by RFLP analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Online resources. AcuI identifies water buffalo CSN3 genotypes by RFLP analysis. Soheir M. El Nahas Ahlam A. Abou Mossallam. Volume 93 Online resources 2014 pp e94-e96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Cluster analysis of spontaneous preterm birth phenotypes identifies potential associations among preterm birth mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, M Sean; Manuck, Tracy A; Varner, Michael W; Christensen, Bryce; Biggio, Joseph; Bukowski, Radek; Parry, Samuel; Zhang, Heping; Huang, Hao; Andrews, William; Saade, George; Sadovsky, Yoel; Reddy, Uma M; Ilekis, John

    2015-09-01

    We sought to use an innovative tool that is based on common biologic pathways to identify specific phenotypes among women with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) to enhance investigators' ability to identify and to highlight common mechanisms and underlying genetic factors that are responsible for SPTB. We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective case-control multicenter study of SPTB. All cases delivered a preterm singleton at SPTB ≤34.0 weeks' gestation. Each woman was assessed for the presence of underlying SPTB causes. A hierarchic cluster analysis was used to identify groups of women with homogeneous phenotypic profiles. One of the phenotypic clusters was selected for candidate gene association analysis with the use of VEGAS software. One thousand twenty-eight women with SPTB were assigned phenotypes. Hierarchic clustering of the phenotypes revealed 5 major clusters. Cluster 1 (n = 445) was characterized by maternal stress; cluster 2 (n = 294) was characterized by premature membrane rupture; cluster 3 (n = 120) was characterized by familial factors, and cluster 4 (n = 63) was characterized by maternal comorbidities. Cluster 5 (n = 106) was multifactorial and characterized by infection (INF), decidual hemorrhage (DH), and placental dysfunction (PD). These 3 phenotypes were correlated highly by χ(2) analysis (PD and DH, P cluster 3 of SPTB. We identified 5 major clusters of SPTB based on a phenotype tool and hierarch clustering. There was significant correlation between several of the phenotypes. The INS gene was associated with familial factors that were underlying SPTB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying the "Right Stuff": An Exploration-Focused Astronaut Job Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J. D.; Holland, A. W.; Vessey, W. B.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists play a key role in NASA astronaut candidate selection through the identification of the competencies necessary to successfully engage in the astronaut job. A set of psychosocial competencies, developed by I/O psychologists during a prior job analysis conducted in 1996 and updated in 2003, were identified as necessary for individuals working and living in the space shuttle and on the International Space Station (ISS). This set of competencies applied to the space shuttle and applies to current ISS missions, but may not apply to longer-duration or long-distance exploration missions. With the 2015 launch of the first 12- month ISS mission and the shift in the 2020s to missions beyond low earth orbit, the type of missions that astronauts will conduct and the environment in which they do their work will change dramatically, leading to new challenges for these crews. To support future astronaut selection, training, and research, I/O psychologists in NASA's Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Operations and Research groups engaged in a joint effort to conduct an updated analysis of the astronaut job for current and future operations. This project will result in the identification of behavioral competencies critical to performing the astronaut job, along with relative weights for each of the identified competencies, through the application of job analysis techniques. While this job analysis is being conducted according to job analysis best practices, the project poses a number of novel challenges. These challenges include the need to identify competencies for multiple mission types simultaneously, to evaluate jobs that have no incumbents as they have never before been conducted, and working with a very limited population of subject matter experts. Given these challenges, under the guidance of job analysis experts, we used the following methods to conduct the job analysis and identify the key competencies for current and

  20. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  1. Sleep, Dietary, and Exercise Behavioral Clusters Among Truck Drivers With Obesity: Implications for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ryan; Thompson, Sharon V; Wipfli, Brad; Hanson, Ginger; Elliot, Diane L; Anger, W Kent; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B; Hohn, Elliot; Perrin, Nancy A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe a sample of truck drivers, identify clusters of drivers with similar patterns in behaviors affecting energy balance (sleep, diet, and exercise), and test for cluster differences in health safety, and psychosocial factors. Participants' (n = 452, body mass index M = 37.2, 86.4% male) self-reported behaviors were dichotomized prior to hierarchical cluster analysis, which identified groups with similar behavior covariation. Cluster differences were tested with generalized estimating equations. Five behavioral clusters were identified that differed significantly in age, smoking status, diabetes prevalence, lost work days, stress, and social support, but not in body mass index. Cluster 2, characterized by the best sleep quality, had significantly lower lost workdays and stress than other clusters. Weight management interventions for drivers should explicitly address sleep, and may be maximally effective after establishing socially supportive work environments that reduce stress exposures.

  2. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies metastatic pathways and transcription factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Kruse, Torben A

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis is believed to progress in several steps including different pathways but the determination and understanding of these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in breast tumors has been used to predict outcome in recent studies. Besides classification of outcome, these global expression patterns may reflect biological mechanisms involved in metastasis of breast cancer. Our purpose has been to investigate pathways and transcription factors involved in metastasis by use of gene expression data sets. We have analyzed 8 publicly available gene expression data sets. A global approach, 'gene set enrichment analysis' as well as an approach focusing on a subset of significantly differently regulated genes, GenMAPP, has been applied to rank pathway gene sets according to differential regulation in metastasizing tumors compared to non-metastasizing tumors. Meta-analysis has been used to determine overrepresentation of pathways and transcription factors targets, concordant deregulated in metastasizing breast tumors, in several data sets. The major findings are up-regulation of cell cycle pathways and a metabolic shift towards glucose metabolism reflected in several pathways in metastasizing tumors. Growth factor pathways seem to play dual roles; EGF and PDGF pathways are decreased, while VEGF and sex-hormone pathways are increased in tumors that metastasize. Furthermore, migration, proteasome, immune system, angiogenesis, DNA repair and several signal transduction pathways are associated to metastasis. Finally several transcription factors e.g. E2F, NFY, and YY1 are identified as being involved in metastasis. By pathway meta-analysis many biological mechanisms beyond major characteristics such as proliferation are identified. Transcription factor analysis identifies a number of key factors that support central pathways. Several previously proposed treatment targets are identified and several new pathways that may

  3. Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the Ocean: A Meta-Analysis of Phylum Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E M; Hamel, J-F; Mercier, A

    Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green. We explore the ways in which these colour patterns correlate with behavioural, morphological, geographic and phylogenetic variables in extant classes of Echinodermata, a phylum that has close phylogenetic ties with chordates and representatives in nearly all marine environments. Results of multivariate analyses show that intensely pigmented eggs are characteristic of pelagic or external development whereas pale eggs are commonly brooded internally. Of the five egg colours catalogued, orange and yellow are the most common. Yellow eggs are a primitive character, associated with all types of development (predominant in internal brooders), whereas green eggs are always pelagic, occur in the most derived orders of each class and are restricted to the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Orange eggs are geographically ubiquitous and may represent a 'universal' egg pigment that functions well under a diversity of environmental conditions. Finally, green occurs chiefly in the classes Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea, orange in Asteroidea, yellow in Echinoidea, and brown in Holothuroidea. By examining an unprecedented combination of egg colours/intensities and reproductive strategies, this phylum-wide study sheds new light on the role and drivers of egg pigmentation, drawing parallels with theories developed from the study of more derived vertebrate taxa. The primary use of pigments (of any colour) to protect externally developing eggs from oxidative damage and predation is

  4. Is a driver's license age waiver worth a teen's life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Dawn M; Miller, Beverly K; Mullins, Samantha H; Porter, Mary E; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens 14-19 years of age, with younger teen drivers at higher risk than older teens. Graduated driver licensing has been proven to reduce teen driver-related motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. Arkansas allows parents to request age waivers, which allow a teen to obtain a license for independent driving before the sixteenth birthday. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the prevalence of age waivers issued in Arkansas and (2) determine motor vehicle crash risks associated with 14 and 15 year old drivers. This is a brief report on an informative query exploring risk factors related to age waivers. Publicly available databases were utilized for across state comparisons. The Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems (WISQARS) was utilized to calculate motor vehicle crash crude death rates. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data were utilized to identify seat belt use rates. The Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) was utilized to identify crash fatality risks for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas (N = 24). Age waiver data were obtained from the Arkansas Driver Control Administration. De-identified data on fatal crashes and rates of age waiver issuance in Arkansas for 14 and 15 year olds from 2004 through 2016 were calculated. We reviewed crash data for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas between 2004 and 2014 to determine fatality risks. Thirty-one out of seventy-five counties in Arkansas were above the state age waiver issuance rate of 30.4 per 1000 14 to 15 year old teens. Among the four states that had similar age waivers for 14 to 15 year olds, Arkansas had the highest motor vehicle death rate of 10.2 per 100,000 young teens and the lowest seat belt use rate at 73%. Arkansas had the highest reported teen crash fatality rates among 4 states with age waivers. The volume of age waivers issued in Arkansas is concerning. Further research is needed

  5. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Ashbrook

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis.We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1 and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum.

  6. Three novel approaches to structural identifiability analysis in mixed-effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D

    2016-05-06

    Structural identifiability is a concept that considers whether the structure of a model together with a set of input-output relations uniquely determines the model parameters. In the mathematical modelling of biological systems, structural identifiability is an important concept since biological interpretations are typically made from the parameter estimates. For a system defined by ordinary differential equations, several methods have been developed to analyse whether the model is structurally identifiable or otherwise. Another well-used modelling framework, which is particularly useful when the experimental data are sparsely sampled and the population variance is of interest, is mixed-effects modelling. However, established identifiability analysis techniques for ordinary differential equations are not directly applicable to such models. In this paper, we present and apply three different methods that can be used to study structural identifiability in mixed-effects models. The first method, called the repeated measurement approach, is based on applying a set of previously established statistical theorems. The second method, called the augmented system approach, is based on augmenting the mixed-effects model to an extended state-space form. The third method, called the Laplace transform mixed-effects extension, is based on considering the moment invariants of the systems transfer function as functions of random variables. To illustrate, compare and contrast the application of the three methods, they are applied to a set of mixed-effects models. Three structural identifiability analysis methods applicable to mixed-effects models have been presented in this paper. As method development of structural identifiability techniques for mixed-effects models has been given very little attention, despite mixed-effects models being widely used, the methods presented in this paper provides a way of handling structural identifiability in mixed-effects models previously not

  7. Microarray analysis and scale-free gene networks identify candidate regulators in drought-stressed roots of loblolly pine (P. taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeaux John M

    2011-05-01

    roots. Many of the genes identified are known to be up-regulated in response to osmotic stress in pine and other plant species and encode proteins involved in both signal transduction and stress tolerance. Gene expression levels returned to control values within a 48-hour recovery period in all but 76 transcripts. Correlation network analysis indicates a scale-free network topology for the pine root transcriptome and identifies central nodes that may serve as drivers of drought-responsive transcriptome dynamics in the roots of loblolly pine.

  8. Microarray analysis and scale-free gene networks identify candidate regulators in drought-stressed roots of loblolly pine (P. taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    genes identified are known to be up-regulated in response to osmotic stress in pine and other plant species and encode proteins involved in both signal transduction and stress tolerance. Gene expression levels returned to control values within a 48-hour recovery period in all but 76 transcripts. Correlation network analysis indicates a scale-free network topology for the pine root transcriptome and identifies central nodes that may serve as drivers of drought-responsive transcriptome dynamics in the roots of loblolly pine. PMID:21609476

  9. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  10. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  11. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  12. A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Myla F J; La Sorte, Frank A; Nilon, Charles H; Katti, Madhusudan; Goddard, Mark A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Warren, Paige S; Williams, Nicholas S G; Cilliers, Sarel; Clarkson, Bruce; Dobbs, Cynnamon; Dolan, Rebecca; Hedblom, Marcus; Klotz, Stefan; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kühn, Ingolf; Macgregor-Fors, Ian; McDonnell, Mark; Mörtberg, Ulla; Pysek, Petr; Siebert, Stefan; Sushinsky, Jessica; Werner, Peter; Winter, Marten

    2014-04-07

    Urbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km(2)) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education.

  13. A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Myla F. J.; La Sorte, Frank A.; Nilon, Charles H.; Katti, Madhusudan; Goddard, Mark A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Warren, Paige S.; Williams, Nicholas S. G.; Cilliers, Sarel; Clarkson, Bruce; Dobbs, Cynnamon; Dolan, Rebecca; Hedblom, Marcus; Klotz, Stefan; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kühn, Ingolf; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; McDonnell, Mark; Mörtberg, Ulla; Pyšek, Petr; Siebert, Stefan; Sushinsky, Jessica; Werner, Peter; Winter, Marten

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization contributes to the loss of the world's biodiversity and the homogenization of its biota. However, comparative studies of urban biodiversity leading to robust generalities of the status and drivers of biodiversity in cities at the global scale are lacking. Here, we compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities: birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities). We found that the majority of urban bird and plant species are native in the world's cities. Few plants and birds are cosmopolitan, the most common being Columba livia and Poa annua. The density of bird and plant species (the number of species per km2) has declined substantially: only 8% of native bird and 25% of native plant species are currently present compared with estimates of non-urban density of species. The current density of species in cities and the loss in density of species was best explained by anthropogenic features (landcover, city age) rather than by non-anthropogenic factors (geography, climate, topography). As urbanization continues to expand, efforts directed towards the conservation of intact vegetation within urban landscapes could support higher concentrations of both bird and plant species. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education. PMID:24523278

  14. Using Latent Semantic Analysis to Identify Research Trends in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit Singh Sehra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap (OSM, based on collaborative mapping, has become a subject of great interest to the academic community, resulting in a considerable body of literature produced by many researchers. In this paper, we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA to help identify the emerging research trends in OSM. An extensive corpus of 485 academic abstracts of papers published during the period 2007–2016 was used. Five core research areas and fifty research trends were identified in this study. In addition, potential future research directions have been provided to aid geospatial information scientists, technologists and researchers in undertaking future OSM research.

  15. SUBJECTIVE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER DROWSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Miranda; Moerland, Perry D; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Laivuori, Hannele; van der Post, Joris A M; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite) and protein-protein associations (STRING). This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome). The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300) and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda van Uitert

    Full Text Available Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite and protein-protein associations (STRING. This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome. The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300 and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.

  18. Identifying compromised systems through correlation of suspicious traffic from malware behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Ana E. F.; Grégio, André; Santos, Rafael D. C.

    2016-05-01

    Malware detection may be accomplished through the analysis of their infection behavior. To do so, dynamic analysis systems run malware samples and extract their operating system activities and network traffic. This traffic may represent malware accessing external systems, either to steal sensitive data from victims or to fetch other malicious artifacts (configuration files, additional modules, commands). In this work, we propose the use of visualization as a tool to identify compromised systems based on correlating malware communications in the form of graphs and finding isomorphisms between them. We produced graphs from over 6 thousand distinct network traffic files captured during malware execution and analyzed the existing relationships among malware samples and IP addresses.

  19. Exploratory Cluster Analysis to Identify Patterns of Chronic Kidney Disease in the 500 Cities Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelley H; Li, Yan; Liu, Bian

    2018-05-17

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading cause of death in the United States. We used cluster analysis to explore patterns of chronic kidney disease in 500 of the largest US cities. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, we found that unhealthy behaviors, prevention measures, and health outcomes related to chronic kidney disease differ between cities in Utah and those in the rest of the United States. Cluster analysis can be useful for identifying geographic regions that may have important policy implications for preventing chronic kidney disease.

  20. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new susceptibility loci for migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Gormley, Padhraig; Kurth, Tobias; Bettella, Francesco; McMahon, George; Kallela, Mikko; Malik, Rainer; de Vries, Boukje; Terwindt, Gisela; Medland, Sarah E; Todt, Unda; McArdle, Wendy L; Quaye, Lydia; Koiranen, Markku; Ikram, M Arfan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Stam, Anine H; Ligthart, Lannie; Wedenoja, Juho; Dunham, Ian; Neale, Benjamin M; Palta, Priit; Hamalainen, Eija; Schürks, Markus; Rose, Lynda M; Buring, Julie E; Ridker, Paul M; Steinberg, Stacy; Stefansson, Hreinn; Jakobsson, Finnbogi; Lawlor, Debbie A; Evans, David M; Ring, Susan M; Färkkilä, Markus; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari A; Freilinger, Tobias; Schoenen, Jean; Frants, Rune R; Pelzer, Nadine; Weller, Claudia M; Zielman, Ronald; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Borck, Guntram; Göbel, Hartmut; Heinze, Axel; Heinze-Kuhn, Katja; Williams, Frances M K; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; van den Ende, Joyce; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Vink, Jacqueline M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Alexander, Michael; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, Heinz Erich; Aromaa, Arpo; Eriksson, Johan G; Traynor, Bryan; Trabzuni, Daniah; Rossin, Elizabeth; Lage, Kasper; Jacobs, Suzanne B R; Gibbs, J Raphael; Birney, Ewan; Kaprio, Jaakko; Penninx, Brenda W; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia; Raitakari, Olli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Zwart, John-Anker; Cherkas, Lynn; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Ferrari, Michel D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Dichgans, Martin; Wessman, Maija; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Daly, Mark J; Nyholt, Dale R; Chasman, Daniel; Palotie, Aarno

    2013-08-01

    Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) and 95,425 population-matched controls. We identified 12 loci associated with migraine susceptibility (P<5×10(-8)). Five loci are new: near AJAP1 at 1p36, near TSPAN2 at 1p13, within FHL5 at 6q16, within C7orf10 at 7p14 and near MMP16 at 8q21. Three of these loci were identified in disease subgroup analyses. Brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus analysis suggests potential functional candidate genes at four loci: APOA1BP, TBC1D7, FUT9, STAT6 and ATP5B.

  1. In-depth analysis of drivers' merging behavior and rear-end crash risks in work zone merging areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Xue, Shan; Yang, Ying; Yan, Xuedong; Qu, Xiaobo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the drivers' merging behavior and the rear-end crash risk in work zone merging areas during the entire merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. With the merging traffic data from a work zone site in Singapore, a mixed probit model is developed to describe the merging behavior, and two surrogate safety measures including the time to collision (TTC) and deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) are adopted to compute the rear-end crash risk between the merging vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. Results show that the merging vehicle has a bigger probability of completing a merging maneuver quickly under one of the following situations: (i) the merging vehicle moves relatively fast; (ii) the merging lead vehicle is a heavy vehicle; and (iii) there is a sizable gap in the adjacent through lane. Results indicate that the rear-end crash risk does not monotonically increase as the merging vehicle speed increases. The merging vehicle's rear-end crash risk is also affected by the vehicle type. There is a biggest increment of rear-end crash risk if the merging lead vehicle belongs to a heavy vehicle. Although the reduced remaining distance to work zone could urge the merging vehicle to complete a merging maneuver quickly, it might lead to an increased rear-end crash risk. Interestingly, it is found that the rear-end crash risk could be generally increased over the elapsed time after the merging maneuver being triggered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Food Hub Commerce and Participation Using Agent-Based Modeling: Integrating Financial and Social Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Caroline C; Stone, Richard T; Dorneich, Michael C; Gilbert, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Factors influencing long-term viability of an intermediated regional food supply network (food hub) were modeled using agent-based modeling techniques informed by interview data gathered from food hub participants. Previous analyses of food hub dynamics focused primarily on financial drivers rather than social factors and have not used mathematical models. Based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered from 22 customers and 11 vendors at a midwestern food hub, an agent-based model (ABM) was created with distinct consumer personas characterizing the range of consumer priorities. A comparison study determined if the ABM behaved differently than a model based on traditional economic assumptions. Further simulation studies assessed the effect of changes in parameters, such as producer reliability and the consumer profiles, on long-term food hub sustainability. The persona-based ABM model produced different and more resilient results than the more traditional way of modeling consumers. Reduced producer reliability significantly reduced trade; in some instances, a modest reduction in reliability threatened the sustainability of the system. Finally, a modest increase in price-driven consumers at the outset of the simulation quickly resulted in those consumers becoming a majority of the overall customer base. Results suggest that social factors, such as desire to support the community, can be more important than financial factors. An ABM of food hub dynamics, based on human factors data gathered from the field, can be a useful tool for policy decisions. Similar approaches can be used for modeling customer dynamics with other sustainable organizations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. A Numerical Procedure for Model Identifiability Analysis Applied to Enzyme Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hoey, Stijn; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    The proper calibration of models describing enzyme kinetics can be quite challenging. In the literature, different procedures are available to calibrate these enzymatic models in an efficient way. However, in most cases the model structure is already decided on prior to the actual calibration...... and Pronzato (1997) and which can be easily set up for any type of model. In this paper the proposed approach is applied to the forward reaction rate of the enzyme kinetics proposed by Shin and Kim(1998). Structural identifiability analysis showed that no local structural model problems were occurring......) identifiability problems. By using the presented approach it is possible to detect potential identifiability problems and avoid pointless calibration (and experimental!) effort....

  4. Automated Source Code Analysis to Identify and Remove Software Security Vulnerabilities: Case Studies on Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is to illustrate the development of generic solution strategies to remove software security vulnerabilities that could be identified using automated tools for source code analysis on software programs (developed in Java). We use the Source Code Analyzer and Audit Workbench automated tools, developed by HP Fortify Inc., for our testing purposes. We present case studies involving a file writer program embedded with features for password validation, and ...

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Exacerbation-Prone Adult Asthmatics Identified by Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Shin, Seung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Chang, Hun Soo; Bae, Da Jeong; Cho, You Sook; Park, Hae Sim; Yoon, Ho Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation. A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters. Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation. Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  6. Structural and mechanistic analysis of a β-glycoside phosphorylase identified by screening a metagenomic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Spencer S; Patel, Ankoor; Larmour, Veronica L C; Morgan-Lang, Connor; Hallam, Steven J; Mark, Brian L; Withers, Stephen G

    2018-03-02

    Glycoside phosphorylases have considerable potential as catalysts for the assembly of useful glycans for products ranging from functional foods and prebiotics to novel materials. However, the substrate diversity of currently identified phosphorylases is relatively small, limiting their practical applications. To address this limitation, we developed a high-throughput screening approach using the activated substrate 2,4-dinitrophenyl β-d-glucoside (DNPGlc) and inorganic phosphate for identifying glycoside phosphorylase activity and used it to screen a large insert metagenomic library. The initial screen, based on release of 2,4-dinitrophenyl from DNPGlc in the presence of phosphate, identified the gene bglP, encoding a retaining β-glycoside phosphorylase from the CAZy GH3 family. Kinetic and mechanistic analysis of the gene product, BglP, confirmed a double displacement ping-pong mechanism involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. X-ray crystallographic analysis provided insights into the phosphate-binding mode and identified a key glutamine residue in the active site important for substrate recognition. Substituting this glutamine for a serine swapped the substrate specificity from glucoside to N -acetylglucosaminide. In summary, we present a high-throughput screening approach for identifying β-glycoside phosphorylases, which was robust, simple to implement, and useful in identifying active clones within a metagenomics library. Implementation of this screen enabled discovery of a new glycoside phosphorylase class and has paved the way to devising simple ways in which enzyme specificity can be encoded and swapped, which has implications for biotechnological applications. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Identifying barriers to patient acceptance of active surveillance: content analysis of online patient communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Mark V; Bennett, Michele; Vincent, Armon; Lee, Olivia T; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Gomella, Leonard G; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research aimed at identifying patient acceptance of active surveillance (AS) has been identified as a public health research priority. The primary objective of this study was to determine if analysis of a large-sample of anonymous internet conversations (ICs) could be utilized to identify unmet public needs regarding AS. English-language ICs regarding prostate cancer (PC) treatment with AS from 2002-12 were identified using a novel internet search methodology. Web spiders were developed to mine, aggregate, and analyze content from the world-wide-web for ICs centered on AS. Collection of ICs was not restricted to any specific geographic region of origin. NLP was used to evaluate content and perform a sentiment analysis. Conversations were scored as positive, negative, or neutral. A sentiment index (SI) was subsequently calculated according to the following formula to compare temporal trends in public sentiment towards AS: [(# Positive IC/#Total IC)-(#Negative IC/#Total IC) x 100]. A total of 464 ICs were identified. Sentiment increased from -13 to +2 over the study period. The increase sentiment has been driven by increased patient emphasis on quality-of-life factors and endorsement of AS by national medical organizations. Unmet needs identified in these ICs include: a gap between quantitative data regarding long-term outcomes with AS vs. conventional treatments, desire for treatment information from an unbiased specialist, and absence of public role models managed with AS. This study demonstrates the potential utility of online patient communications to provide insight into patient preferences and decision-making. Based on our findings, we recommend that multidisciplinary clinics consider including an unbiased specialist to present treatment options and that future decision tools for AS include quantitative data regarding outcomes after AS.

  8. Parallel analysis of tagged deletion mutants efficiently identifies genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Parrish, Mark L; Cadera, Emily; Larson, Lynnelle; Matson, Clinton K; Garrett-Engele, Philip; Armour, Chris; Lum, Pek Yee; Shoemaker, Daniel D

    2003-07-30

    Increased levels of HMG-CoA reductase induce cell type- and isozyme-specific proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum. In yeast, the ER proliferations induced by Hmg1p consist of nuclear-associated stacks of smooth ER membranes known as karmellae. To identify genes required for karmellae assembly, we compared the composition of populations of homozygous diploid S. cerevisiae deletion mutants following 20 generations of growth with and without karmellae. Using an initial population of 1,557 deletion mutants, 120 potential mutants were identified as a result of three independent experiments. Each experiment produced a largely non-overlapping set of potential mutants, suggesting that differences in specific growth conditions could be used to maximize the comprehensiveness of similar parallel analysis screens. Only two genes, UBC7 and YAL011W, were identified in all three experiments. Subsequent analysis of individual mutant strains confirmed that each experiment was identifying valid mutations, based on the mutant's sensitivity to elevated HMG-CoA reductase and inability to assemble normal karmellae. The largest class of HMG-CoA reductase-sensitive mutations was a subset of genes that are involved in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, suggesting that karmellae assembly requires changes in transcription or that the presence of karmellae may interfere with normal transcriptional regulation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. System reliability analysis using dominant failure modes identified by selective searching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Ok, Seung-Yong; Song, Junho; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2013-01-01

    The failure of a redundant structural system is often described by innumerable system failure modes such as combinations or sequences of local failures. An efficient approach is proposed to identify dominant failure modes in the space of random variables, and then perform system reliability analysis to compute the system failure probability. To identify dominant failure modes in the decreasing order of their contributions to the system failure probability, a new simulation-based selective searching technique is developed using a genetic algorithm. The system failure probability is computed by a multi-scale matrix-based system reliability (MSR) method. Lower-scale MSR analyses evaluate the probabilities of the identified failure modes and their statistical dependence. A higher-scale MSR analysis evaluates the system failure probability based on the results of the lower-scale analyses. Three illustrative examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the approach through comparison with existing methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the proposed method skillfully identifies the dominant failure modes, including those neglected by existing approaches. The multi-scale MSR method accurately evaluates the system failure probability with statistical dependence fully considered. The decoupling between the failure mode identification and the system reliability evaluation allows for effective applications to larger structural systems

  10. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  11. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  12. Identifying a system of predominant negative symptoms: Network analysis of three randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Reasons for the recent mixed success of research into negative symptoms may be informed by conceptualizing negative symptoms as a system that is identifiable from network analysis. We aimed to identify: (I) negative symptom systems; (I) central negative symptoms within each system; and (III) differences between the systems, based on network analysis of negative symptoms for baseline, endpoint and change. Patients with chronic schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms participated in three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60days (n=487). Networks analyses were computed from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) scores for baseline and endpoint for severity, and estimated change based on mixed models. Central symptoms to each network were identified. The networks were contrasted for connectivity with permutation tests. Network analysis showed that the baseline and endpoint symptom severity systems formed symptom groups of Affect, Poor responsiveness, Lack of interest, and Apathy-inattentiveness. The baseline and endpoint networks did not significantly differ in terms of connectivity, but both significantly (Psymptom group split into three other groups. The most central symptoms were Decreased Spontaneous Movements at baseline and endpoint, and Poverty of Speech for estimated change. Results provide preliminary evidence for: (I) a replicable negative symptom severity system; and (II) symptoms with high centrality (e.g., Decreased Spontaneous Movement), that may be future treatment targets following replication to ensure the curent results generalize to other samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A retrospective analysis to identify the factors affecting infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lee, Hanna; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    This study compares the performance of the logistic regression and decision tree analysis methods for assessing the risk factors for infection in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The subjects were 732 cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy at K university hospital in Seoul, Korea. The data were collected between March 2011 and February 2013 and were processed for descriptive analysis, logistic regression and decision tree analysis using the IBM SPSS Statistics 19 and Modeler 15.1 programs. The most common risk factors for infection in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy were identified as alkylating agents, vinca alkaloid and underlying diabetes mellitus. The logistic regression explained 66.7% of the variation in the data in terms of sensitivity and 88.9% in terms of specificity. The decision tree analysis accounted for 55.0% of the variation in the data in terms of sensitivity and 89.0% in terms of specificity. As for the overall classification accuracy, the logistic regression explained 88.0% and the decision tree analysis explained 87.2%. The logistic regression analysis showed a higher degree of sensitivity and classification accuracy. Therefore, logistic regression analysis is concluded to be the more effective and useful method for establishing an infection prediction model for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using a Systematic Approach to Identifying Organizational Factors in Root Cause Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallogly, Kay Wilde

    2011-01-01

    This presentation set the scene for the second discussion session. In her presentation, the author observed that: - Investigators do not see the connection between the analysis tools available and the identification of HOF. Most investigators use the tools in a cursory manner and so do not derive the full benefits of the tools. Some tools are used for presentation purposes as opposed to being used for analytical purposes e.g. event and causal factors charts. In some cases, the report will indicate that specific analytical tools were used in the investigation but the analysis is not in the body of the report. - Some investigators are documenting HOF causes but do not recognize them as such. This indicates a lack of understanding of HOF. - Others investigators focus on technical issues because of their own comfort level. - The culture of the Organisation will affect the depth of the investigation and therefore the use of the analytical tools to pursue HOF issues. - The author contends that if analysis tools are applied systematically to gather factually based data, then HOF issues can be identified. The use of factual information (without judgement and subjectivity) is important to maintain the credibility of the investigation especially when HOF issues are identified. - Systematic use of tools assists in better communication of the issues to foster greater understanding and acceptance by senior management. - Barrier Analysis, Change Analysis, and TWIN (Task Demands, Work Environment, Individual Capabilities, and Human Nature) all offer the opportunity to identify HOF issues if the analyst pursues this line of investigation. It was illustrated that many elements of the TWIN Error Precursors are themselves Organisational in nature. - The TWIN model applied to the Anatomy of an Event will help to distinguish those which are Organisational issues (Latent Organisational Weaknesses, Error Precursors and Flawed Defences) and those which are human factors (Active Errors

  15. Using multidimensional topological data analysis to identify traits of hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-deVries, Jasmine; Pedoia, Valentina; Samaan, Michael A; Ferguson, Adam R; Souza, Richard B; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2018-05-07

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifaceted disease with many variables affecting diagnosis and progression. Topological data analysis (TDA) is a state-of-the-art big data analytics tool that can combine all variables into multidimensional space. TDA is used to simultaneously analyze imaging and gait analysis techniques. To identify biochemical and biomechanical biomarkers able to classify different disease progression phenotypes in subjects with and without radiographic signs of hip OA. Longitudinal study for comparison of progressive and nonprogressive subjects. In all, 102 subjects with and without radiographic signs of hip osteoarthritis. 3T, SPGR 3D MAPSS T 1ρ /T 2 , intermediate-weighted fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE). Multidimensional data analysis including cartilage composition, bone shape, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) classification of osteoarthritis, scoring hip osteoarthritis with MRI (SHOMRI), hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS). Analysis done using TDA, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) testing, and Benjamini-Hochberg to rank P-value results to correct for multiple comparisons. Subjects in the later stages of the disease had an increased SHOMRI score (P Analysis of this subgroup identified knee biomechanics (P analysis of an OA subgroup with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) showed anterior labral tears to be the most significant marker (P = 0.0017) between those FAI subjects with and without OA symptoms. The data-driven analysis obtained with TDA proposes new phenotypes of these subjects that partially overlap with the radiographic-based classical disease status classification and also shows the potential for further examination of an early onset biomechanical intervention. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Assessing drivers' response during automated driver support system failures with non-driving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  17. Geographic scale matters in detecting the relationship between neighbourhood food environments and obesity risk: an analysis of driver license records in Salt Lake County, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessie X; Hanson, Heidi A; Zick, Cathleen D; Brown, Barbara B; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2014-08-19

    Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated relationship between food environments and obesity risk. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Salt Lake County, Utah, USA. 403,305 Salt Lake County adults 25-64 in the Utah driver license database between 1995 and 2008. Utah driver license data were geo-linked to 2000 US Census data and Dun & Bradstreet business data. Food outlets were classified into the categories of large grocery stores, convenience stores, limited-service restaurants and full-service restaurants, and measured at four neighbourhood geographic scales: Census block group, Census tract, ZIP code and a 1 km buffer around the resident's house. These measures were regressed on individual obesity status using multilevel random intercept regressions. Obesity. Food environment was important for obesity but the scale of the relevant neighbourhood differs for different type of outlets: large grocery stores were not significant at all four geographic scales, limited-service restaurants at the medium-to-large scale (Census tract or larger) and convenience stores and full-service restaurants at the smallest scale (Census tract or smaller). The choice of neighbourhood geographic scale can affect the estimated significance of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk. However, variations in geographic scale alone do not explain the mixed findings in the literature. If researchers are constrained to use one geographic scale with multiple categories of food outlets, using Census tract or 1 km buffer as the neighbourhood geographic unit is likely to allow researchers to detect most significant relationships. Published by the BMJ

  18. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Robert D; Smith, Richard L; O'Brien, Natalie P

    2018-04-26

    Shifting school start times to 8:30 am or later has been found to improve academic performance and reduce behavior problems. Limited research suggests this may also reduce adolescent driver motor vehicle crashes. A change in the school start time from 7:30 am to 8:45 am for all public high schools in one North Carolina county presented the opportunity to address this question with greater methodologic rigor. We conducted ARIMA interrupted time-series analyses to examine motor vehicle crash rates of high school age drivers in the intervention county and 3 similar comparison counties with comparable urban-rural population distribution. To focus on crashes most likely to be affected, we limited analysis to crashes involving 16- & 17-year-old drivers occurring on days when school was in session. In the intervention county, there was a 14% downward shift in the time-series following the 75 min delay in school start times (p = .076). There was no change approaching statistical significance in any of the other three counties. Further analysis indicated marked, statistically significant shifts in hourly crash rates in the intervention county, reflecting effects of the change in school start time on young driver exposure. Crashes from 7 to 7:59 am decreased sharply (-25%, p = .008), but increased similarly from 8 to 8:59 am (21%, p = .004). Crashes from 2 to 2:59 pm declined dramatically (-48%, p = .000), then increased to a lesser degree from 3 to 3:59 pm (32%, p = .024) and non-significantly from 4 to 4:59 (19%, p = .102). There was no meaningful change in early morning or nighttime crashes, when drowsiness-induced crashes might have been expected to be most common. The small decrease in crashes among high school age drivers following the shift in school start time is consistent with the findings of other studies of teen driver crashes and school start times. All these studies, including the present one, have limitations, but the similar

  19. Attitudinal segmentaion of drivers in Pakistan: The potential for effective road safety campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zahara; Carsten, Oliver

    2018-05-01

    Deviant driving behaviors are considered as the main cause of Road Traffic Accidents in Pakistan. This research is founded on the premise that driving behaviors are mediated by attitudinal and motivational factors. It advocates that rather than simply aggregating drivers' responses or a-priori classification of them based on their personal characteristics, adoption of segmentation technique is more useful to look at multiple factors provoking aberrant driving behavior in combination and not just in isolation. For this, the study generated an Attitudinal Questionnaire, inspired by the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB: Ajzen, 1991), and extended violation-scale of modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ: Lawton et al., 1997). Attitudinal and behavioral items are first factor analyzed. Then, cluster analysis is performed on extracted attitudinal factors which classified sample driving population into four relatively homogenous and distinct groups of drivers. The results demonstrated the explanatory utility of the market segmentation approach to systematically relate the interaction between attitudes, behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of drivers. It is concluded that the approach is successful in distinguishing safe drivers from unsafe driver and therefore, can legitimately form the basis of road safety interventions. Finally, the findings are used to recommend targeted information-based road safety solutions with a focus on the diverse characteristics of each of the identified segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of drivers for modular production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  2. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  3. Gene expression signature analysis identifies vorinostat as a candidate therapy for gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Claerhout

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future.Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer-specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern.We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment.

  4. Protein functional links in Trypanosoma brucei, identified by gene fusion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimpalis Philip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domain or gene fusion analysis is a bioinformatics method for detecting gene fusions in one organism by comparing its genome to that of other organisms. The occurrence of gene fusions suggests that the two original genes that participated in the fusion are functionally linked, i.e. their gene products interact either as part of a multi-subunit protein complex, or in a metabolic pathway. Gene fusion analysis has been used to identify protein functional links in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotic model organisms, such as yeast and Drosophila. Results In this study we have extended this approach to include a number of recently sequenced protists, four of which are pathogenic, to identify fusion linked proteins in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. We have also examined the evolution of the gene fusion events identified, to determine whether they can be attributed to fusion or fission, by looking at the conservation of the fused genes and of the individual component genes across the major eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages. We find relatively limited occurrence of gene fusions/fissions within the protist lineages examined. Our results point to two trypanosome-specific gene fissions, which have recently been experimentally confirmed, one fusion involving proteins involved in the same metabolic pathway, as well as two novel putative functional links between fusion-linked protein pairs. Conclusions This is the first study of protein functional links in T. brucei identified by gene fusion analysis. We have used strict thresholds and only discuss results which are highly likely to be genuine and which either have already been or can be experimentally verified. We discuss the possible impact of the identification of these novel putative protein-protein interactions, to the development of new trypanosome therapeutic drugs.

  5. Gene Expression Signature Analysis Identifies Vorinostat as a Candidate Therapy for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woonyoung; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, KyoungHyun; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Mills, Gordon B.; Cho, Jae Yong

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer–specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A) whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern. Conclusions/Significance We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment. PMID:21931799

  6. Drivers of soil organic matter vulnerability to climate change. Part I: Laboratory incubations of Swiss forest soils and radiocarbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Domínguez, Beatriz; Studer, Mirjam S.; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Haghipour, Negar; McIntyre, Cameron; Wacker, Lukas; Zimmermann, Stephan; Walthert, Lorenz; Hagedorn, Frank; Abiven, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Given the key role of soil organic carbon (SOC) on climate and greenhouse gas regulation, there is an increasing need to incorporate the carbon (C) feedback between SOC and the atmosphere into earth system models. The evaluation of these models points towards uncertainties on the response of CO2-C fluxes, derived from the decomposition of SOC, to the influence of controls/drivers. SOC vulnerability refers to the likelihood of losing previously stabilized soil organic matter, by the effect of environmental factors. The objective of this study is to produce a SOC vulnerability ranking of soils and to provide new insights into the influence of environmental and soil properties controls. Research on SOC vulnerability tends to focus on climatic controls and neglect the effect of other factors, such as soil geochemistry and mineralogy, on C stabilization/de-stabilization processes. In this work, we hypothesized that climate (mean annual temperature and soil moisture status proxy at the research sites in the period 1981-2010), soil (pH and % clay) and terrain (slope gradient and orientation) characteristics are the main controls of the CO2-C fluxes from SOC. Following a statistics-based approach, we selected 54 forest sites across Switzerland, which cover a broad spectrum of values for the hypothesized controls. Then, we selected the study sites so that the controls are orthogonal to each other; thus, their effect was not confounded. At each site, we collected three non-overlapping topsoil (i.e. 20 cm) composites within 40 x 40 m2 plots. In the laboratory, we sieved fresh soils at 2 mm and run a 2-weeks pre-incubation, before beginning a 6-months aerobic soil incubation under controlled conditions of moisture and temperature. Periodically, we collected NaOH (1M) traps containing the CO2-C derived from microbial heterotrophic respiration. We calculated the cumulative CO2-C respired and the one-pool SOC decomposition rates from the 54 forest sites, and linked these data to

  7. Cooperative advanced Driver assistance Systems - Technological measures for data privacy compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Hubert; Schnieder, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) will contribute to road traffic safety: Critical situations will be detected, the driver alerted and control of the vehicle interfered with automatically. However, the introduction of such driver assistance systems presupposes that data privacy issues have already been solved in advance. A necessary condition for the driver to accept and trust new Driver assistance systems is that his/her personal and personally identifiable data will be t...

  8. Tunable driver for the LLNL FEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, W.C.; Basten, M.A.; Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.J.

    1991-07-01

    This report describes main activities undertaken during the period 1 June 1990 to 1 June 1991 by MIT to support the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory tunable FEL driver project. The goal of this research was to further characterize a tunable microwave source (already identified as a BWO-gyrotron) of moderate output power (10--20 kW). In the 1989 fiscal year, the source was assembled at MIT and initial tests were conducted. Proposed for the fiscal year 1990 were analysis of the previous experimental results, and the performance of new experiments designed to increase the voltage tuning range, the output efficiency, and magnetic field tuning. During the report period the previous experimental results were analyzed and compared to computational results and new components were designed, to make the BWO ready for further experiments. In addition, the BWO-gyrotron was mounted in a new superconducting magnet and initial magnetic field profile measurements were made

  9. Shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Managbanag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of genes that modulate longevity is a major focus of aging-related research and an area of intense public interest. In addition to facilitating an improved understanding of the basic mechanisms of aging, such genes represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention in multiple age-associated diseases, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. To date, however, targeted efforts at identifying longevity-associated genes have been limited by a lack of predictive power, and useful algorithms for candidate gene-identification have also been lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have utilized a shortest-path network analysis to identify novel genes that modulate longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on a set of previously reported genes associated with increased life span, we applied a shortest-path network algorithm to a pre-existing protein-protein interaction dataset in order to construct a shortest-path longevity network. To validate this network, the replicative aging potential of 88 single-gene deletion strains corresponding to predicted components of the shortest-path longevity network was determined. Here we report that the single-gene deletion strains identified by our shortest-path longevity analysis are significantly enriched for mutations conferring either increased or decreased replicative life span, relative to a randomly selected set of 564 single-gene deletion strains or to the current data set available for the entire haploid deletion collection. Further, we report the identification of previously unknown longevity genes, several of which function in a conserved longevity pathway believed to mediate life span extension in response to dietary restriction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates that shortest-path network analysis is a useful approach toward identifying genetic determinants of longevity and represents the first application of

  10. Identifying configurations of behavior change techniques in effective medication adherence interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara

    2016-05-04

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.

  11. Messina: a novel analysis tool to identify biologically relevant molecules in disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pinese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphologically similar cancers display heterogeneous patterns of molecular aberrations and follow substantially different clinical courses. This diversity has become the basis for the definition of molecular phenotypes, with significant implications for therapy. Microarray or proteomic expression profiling is conventionally employed to identify disease-associated genes, however, traditional approaches for the analysis of profiling experiments may miss molecular aberrations which define biologically relevant subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present Messina, a method that can identify those genes that only sometimes show aberrant expression in cancer. We demonstrate with simulated data that Messina is highly sensitive and specific when used to identify genes which are aberrantly expressed in only a proportion of cancers, and compare Messina to contemporary analysis techniques. We illustrate Messina by using it to detect the aberrant expression of a gene that may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Messina allows the detection of genes with profiles typical of markers of molecular subtype, and complements existing methods to assist the identification of such markers. Messina is applicable to any global expression profiling data, and to allow its easy application has been packaged into a freely-available stand-alone software package.

  12. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C. O. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in Steroid Biosynthesis in Euphorbia tirucalli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Qiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of different Euphorbia tirucalli tissues revealed a contrasting tissue-specificity for the biosynthesis of euphol and β-sitosterol, which represent the two pharmaceutically active steroids in E. tirucalli. To uncover the molecular mechanism underlying this tissue-specificity for phytochemicals, a comprehensive E. tirucalli transcriptome derived from its root, stem, leaf and latex was constructed, and a total of 91,619 unigenes were generated with 51.08% being successfully annotated against the non-redundant (Nr protein database. A comparison of the transcriptome from different tissues discovered members of unigenes in the upstream steps of sterol backbone biosynthesis leading to this tissue-specific sterol biosynthesis. Among them, the putative oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC encoding genes involved in euphol synthesis were notably identified, and their expressions were significantly up-regulated in the latex. In addition, genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the different E. tirucalli tissues were identified. The cluster analysis of those DEGs showed a unique expression pattern in the latex compared with other tissues. The DEGs identified in this study would enrich the insights of sterol biosynthesis and the regulation mechanism of this latex-specificity.

  14. Safety climate and the distracted driving experiences of truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    For truck drivers, distracted driving is a workplace behavior that increases occupational injury risk. We propose safety climate as an appropriate lens through which researchers can examine occupational distracted driving. Using a mixed methods study design, we surveyed truck drivers using the Safety Climate Questionnaire (SCQ) complemented by semi-structured interviews of experts on distracted driving and truck safety. Safety climate was assessed by using the entire SCQ as an overall climate score, followed by factor analysis that identified the following safety climate factors: Communications and Procedures; Management Commitment; and Work Pressure. In multivariate regression, the overall safety climate scale was associated with having ever experienced a crash and/or distraction-involved swerving. Interview participants described how these SCQ constructs could affect occupational distracted driving. To reduce distraction-related crashes in their organizations, management can adhere to safe policies and procedures, invest in engineering controls, and develop safer communication procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regional drivers of on-farm energy production in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, Axel; Düvelmeyer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Bavaria's energy policy seeks to increase the share of power supply from renewable sources related to on-farm energy production (agricultural biogas, wind- and solar energy) from currently 15% to more than 30% in 2021. It is therefore of particular interest for policy-makers to identify regional drivers of and barriers to this concept. The presented study addresses this issue and applies a spatial regression analysis to Bavaria’s 71 rural counties. The findings indicate significant impacts of technological regional transformation ability, agricultural structure (degree of professionalization and consolidation of organic farming) and neighborhood effects. This is in contrast to most geographical factors, which seem to be of minor relevance. - Highlights: •Energy transition is largely carried by farmers’ adoption of renewable energy (RE). •Adoption of RE generally follows an s-shaped diffusion curve. •Drivers are regions’ transformation ability and professionalization of agriculture. •Adoption of RE conflicts with organic farming.

  16. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  17. Internet driver education study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  18. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  19. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  20. The systematic functional analysis of plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tewari, Rita; Straschil, Ursula; Bateman, Alex; Bö hme, Ulrike; Cherevach, Inna; Gong, Peng; Pain, Arnab; Billker, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  1. The systematic functional analysis of plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tewari, Rita

    2010-10-21

    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Integrating Stakeholder Preferences and GIS-Based Multicriteria Analysis to Identify Forest Landscape Restoration Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Uribe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pressing question that arises during the planning of an ecological restoration process is: where to restore first? Answering this question is a complex task; it requires a multidimensional approach to consider economic constrains and the preferences of stakeholders. Being the problem of spatial nature, it may be explored effectively through Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA performed in a Geographical Information System (GIS environment. The proposed approach is based on the definition and weighting of multiple criteria for evaluating land suitability. An MCDA-based methodology was used to identify priority areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Upper Mixtec region, Oaxaca (Mexico, one of the most degraded areas of Latin America. Socioeconomic and environmental criteria were selected and evaluated. The opinions of four different stakeholder groups were considered: general public, academic, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs and governmental officers. The preferences of these groups were spatially modeled to identify their priorities. The final result was a map that identifies the most preferable sites for restoration, where resources and efforts should be concentrated. MCDA proved to be a very useful tool in collective planning, when alternative sites have to be identified and prioritized to guide the restoration work.

  3. OLDER DRIVERS AND ADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE

    2006-01-01

    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  4. Practical In-Depth Analysis of IDS Alerts for Tracing and Identifying Potential Attackers on Darknet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuk Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The darknet (i.e., a set of unused IP addresses is a very useful solution for observing the global trends of cyber threats and analyzing attack activities on the Internet. Since the darknet is not connected with real systems, in most cases, the incoming packets on the darknet (‘the darknet traffic’ do not contain a payload. This means that we are unable to get real malware from the darknet traffic. This situation makes it difficult for security experts (e.g., academic researchers, engineers, operators, etc. to identify whether the source hosts of the darknet traffic are infected by real malware or not. In this paper, we present the overall procedure of the in-depth analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts using real data collected at the Science and Technology Cyber Security Center (S&T CSC in Korea and provide the detailed in-depth analysis results. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide practical experience, insight and know-how to security experts so that they are able to identify and trace the root cause of the darknet traffic. The experimental results show that correlation analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts is very useful to discover potential attack hosts, especially internal hosts, and to find out what kinds of malware infected them.

  5. Co-expression analysis identifies CRC and AP1 the regulator of Arabidopsis fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinxin; Yin, Linlin; Xue, Hongwei

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development, however, the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood. To study the relevant regulatory network, fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases, desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network. Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT) identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, and function in many processes. Interestingly, 63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched. Two TF genes, CRC and AP1, both correlating with 8 FA guide genes, were further characterized. Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds. The contents of palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased, whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds, which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes. In addition, yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15, indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Pathway cross-talk network analysis identifies critical pathways in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Quan-Hong; Chen, Deng-Hong; Meng, Ying

    2017-06-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Pathway cross-talk analysis might contribute to the inference of the driving forces in bacterial sepsis and facilitate a better understanding of underlying pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis. This study aimed to explore the critical pathways associated with the progression of neonatal sepsis by the pathway cross-talk analysis. By integrating neonatal transcriptome data with known pathway data and protein-protein interaction data, we systematically uncovered the disease pathway cross-talks and constructed a disease pathway cross-talk network for neonatal sepsis. Then, attract method was employed to explore the dysregulated pathways associated with neonatal sepsis. To determine the critical pathways in neonatal sepsis, rank product (RP) algorithm, centrality analysis and impact factor (IF) were introduced sequentially, which synthetically considered the differential expression of genes and pathways, pathways cross-talks and pathway parameters in the network. The dysregulated pathways with the highest IF values as well as RPpathways in neonatal sepsis. By integrating three kinds of data, only 6919 common genes were included to perform the pathway cross-talk analysis. By statistic analysis, a total of 1249 significant pathway cross-talks were selected to construct the pathway cross-talk network. Moreover, 47 dys-regulated pathways were identified via attract method, 20 pathways were identified under RPpathways with the highest IF were also screened from the pathway cross-talk network. Among them, we selected 8 common pathways, i.e. critical pathways. In this study, we systematically tracked 8 critical pathways involved in neonatal sepsis by integrating attract method and pathway cross-talk network. These pathways might be responsible for the host response in infection, and of great value for advancing diagnosis and therapy of neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2017

  7. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY NEW STAR CANDIDATES IN NEARBY YOUNG STELLAR KINEMATIC GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan; Baron, Frédérique; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method based on a Bayesian analysis to identify new members of nearby young kinematic groups. The analysis minimally takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, and color of a star, but other observables can be readily added (e.g., radial velocity, distance). We use this method to find new young low-mass stars in the β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups and in the TW Hydrae, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Starting from a sample of 758 mid-K to mid-M (K5V-M5V) stars showing youth indicators such as Hα and X-ray emission, our analysis yields 214 new highly probable low-mass members of the kinematic groups analyzed. One is in TW Hydrae, 37 in β Pictoris, 17 in Tucana-Horologium, 20 in Columba, 6 in Carina, 50 in Argus, 32 in AB Doradus, and the remaining 51 candidates are likely young but have an ambiguous membership to more than one association. The false alarm rate for new candidates is estimated to be 5% for β Pictoris and TW Hydrae, 10% for Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus, and 14% for AB Doradus. Our analysis confirms the membership of 58 stars proposed in the literature. Firm membership confirmation of our new candidates will require measurement of their radial velocity (predicted by our analysis), parallax, and lithium 6708 Å equivalent width. We have initiated these follow-up observations for a number of candidates, and we have identified two stars (2MASSJ01112542+1526214, 2MASSJ05241914-1601153) as very strong candidate members of the β Pictoris moving group and one strong candidate member (2MASSJ05332558-5117131) of the Tucana-Horologium association; these three stars have radial velocity measurements confirming their membership and lithium detections consistent with young age.

  8. Identifying the new Influencers in the Internet Era: Social Media and Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL DEL FRESNO GARCÍA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social media influencers (SMIs can be defined as a new type of independent actor who are able to shape audience attitudes through the use of social media channels in competition and coexistence with professional media. Being able to accurately identify SMIs is critical no matter what is being transmitted in a social system. Social Network Analysis (SNA has been recognized as a powerful tool for representing social network structures and information dissemination. SMIs can be identifi ed by their high-ranking position in a network as the most important or central nodes. The results reveal the existence of three different typologies of SMIs: disseminator, engager and leader. This methodology permits the optimization of resources to create effective online communication strategies.

  9. Gastric Cancer Associated Genes Identified by an Integrative Analysis of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most severe complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the world. The molecular mechanisms and risk factors for this disease are still not clear since the cancer heterogeneity caused by different genetic and environmental factors. With more and more expression data accumulated nowadays, we can perform integrative analysis for these data to understand the complexity of gastric cancer and to identify consensus players for the heterogeneous cancer. In the present work, we screened the published gene expression data and analyzed them with integrative tool, combined with pathway and gene ontology enrichment investigation. We identified several consensus differentially expressed genes and these genes were further confirmed with literature mining; at last, two genes, that is, immunoglobulin J chain and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 17, were screened as novel gastric cancer associated genes. Experimental validation is proposed to further confirm this finding.

  10. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Study on driver`s stress in lane-change maneuver. Evaluation and analysis of heat rate change; Shasen henkoji no untensha no kinchodo kaiseki. Shinpaku hendo no gen`in bunrui to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, K [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Chikamori, S; Shimizu, Y [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We measured the changes of heart rate in order to analyze the drivers` stress while they tried high speed lane-change on the stationary driving simulator. We concluded that the reasons of the chances were mainly dependent on the following two items. (1) mental pressure caused by the coming task of lane-change, (2) mental disturbance by the task to keep the vehicle inside the lane. By using the mental pressure and disturbance, we could evaluate the stability of the vehicles in lane-change maneuver. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Using sensitivity analysis to identify key factors for the propagation of a plant epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Bruchou, Claude; Dallot, Sylvie; Pleydell, David R J; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the key factors underlying the spread of a disease is an essential but challenging prerequisite to design management strategies. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach based on sensitivity analyses of a spatiotemporal stochastic model simulating the spread of a plant epidemic. This work is motivated by the spread of sharka, caused by plum pox virus , in a real landscape. We first carried out a broad-range sensitivity analysis, ignoring any prior information on six epidemiological parameters, to assess their intrinsic influence on model behaviour. A second analysis benefited from the available knowledge on sharka epidemiology and was thus restricted to more realistic values. The broad-range analysis revealed that the mean duration of the latent period is the most influential parameter of the model, whereas the sharka-specific analysis uncovered the strong impact of the connectivity of the first infected orchard. In addition to demonstrating the interest of sensitivity analyses for a stochastic model, this study highlights the impact of variation ranges of target parameters on the outcome of a sensitivity analysis. With regard to sharka management, our results suggest that sharka surveillance may benefit from paying closer attention to highly connected patches whose infection could trigger serious epidemics.

  13. A cross-study gene set enrichment analysis identifies critical pathways in endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease. Gene expression profiling of endometriosis has been used in several studies, but few studies went further to classify subtypes of endometriosis based on expression patterns and to identify possible pathways involved in endometriosis. Some of the observed pathways are more inconsistent between the studies, and these candidate pathways presumably only represent a fraction of the pathways involved in endometriosis. Methods We applied a standardised microarray preprocessing and gene set enrichment analysis to six independent studies, and demonstrated increased concordance between these gene datasets. Results We find 16 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated pathways common in ovarian endometriosis data sets, 22 up-regulated and one down-regulated pathway common in peritoneal endometriosis data sets. Among them, 12 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated were found consistent between ovarian and peritoneal endometriosis. The main canonical pathways identified are related to immunological and inflammatory disease. Early secretory phase has the most over-represented pathways in the three uterine cycle phases. There are no overlapping significant pathways between the dataset from human endometrial endothelial cells and the datasets from ovarian endometriosis which used whole tissues. Conclusion The study of complex diseases through pathway analysis is able to highlight genes weakly connected to the phenotype which may be difficult to detect by using classical univariate statistics. By standardised microarray preprocessing and GSEA, we have increased the concordance in identifying many biological mechanisms involved in endometriosis. The identified gene pathways will shed light on the understanding of endometriosis and promote the development of novel therapies.

  14. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  15. Systematic enrichment analysis of gene expression profiling studies identifies consensus pathways implicated in colorectal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lascorz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of gene expression profiling (GEP studies on colorectal carcinogenesis have been performed but no reliable gene signature has been identified so far due to the lack of reproducibility in the reported genes. There is growing evidence that functionally related genes, rather than individual genes, contribute to the etiology of complex traits. We used, as a novel approach, pathway enrichment tools to define functionally related genes that are consistently up- or down-regulated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: We started the analysis with 242 unique annotated genes that had been reported by any of three recent meta-analyses covering GEP studies on genes differentially expressed in carcinoma vs normal mucosa. Most of these genes (218, 91.9% had been reported in at least three GEP studies. These 242 genes were submitted to bioinformatic analysis using a total of nine tools to detect enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO categories or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. As a final consistency criterion the pathway categories had to be enriched by several tools to be taken into consideration. Results: Our pathway-based enrichment analysis identified the categories of ribosomal protein constituents, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, carbonic anhydrase isozymes, and a general category related to inflammation and cellular response as significantly and consistently overrepresented entities. Conclusions: We triaged the genes covered by the published GEP literature on colorectal carcinogenesis and subjected them to multiple enrichment tools in order to identify the consistently enriched gene categories. These turned out to have known functional relationships to cancer development and thus deserve further investigation.

  16. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  17. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pinfield

    Full Text Available The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their

  18. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  19. Comparing chemical analysis with literature studies to identify micropollutants in a catchment of Copenhagen (DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Birch, Heidi; Eriksson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    on urban surface runoff originating from a well defined catchment of Copenhagen (Denmark) with an inventory of potential pollution sources for the same catchment. The selected catchment covers an area with roads, a shopping centre, a parking lot, office buildings, a gymnasium and some restaurants....... The literature approach is limited to the range of included PSs and to how and which information is compiled, whereas the analytical chemical approach is limited to the selection of analyzed substances, sensitivity and precision. Comparing the two approaches of chemical analysis with literature study to identify...

  20. Genome-wide analysis of regulatory proteases sequences identified through bioinformatics data mining in Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Bin; Lou, Zhong-Zi; Li, Li; Brindley, Paul J; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Jia, Wan-Zhong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-06-04

    Cysticercosis remains a major neglected tropical disease of humanity in many regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and elsewhere. Owing to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drugs to prevent re-infection, identification of novel vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents against Taenia solium and related helminth pathogens is a public health priority. The T. solium genome and the predicted proteome were reported recently, providing a wealth of information from which new interventional targets might be identified. In order to characterize and classify the entire repertoire of protease-encoding genes of T. solium, which act fundamental biological roles in all life processes, we analyzed the predicted proteins of this cestode through a combination of bioinformatics tools. Functional annotation was performed to yield insights into the signaling processes relevant to the complex developmental cycle of this tapeworm and to highlight a suite of the proteases as potential intervention targets. Within the genome of this helminth parasite, we identified 200 open reading frames encoding proteases from five clans, which correspond to 1.68% of the 11,902 protein-encoding genes predicted to be present in its genome. These proteases include calpains, cytosolic, mitochondrial signal peptidases, ubiquitylation related proteins, and others. Many not only show significant similarity to proteases in the Conserved Domain Database but have conserved active sites and catalytic domains. KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS) analysis indicated that ~60% of these proteases share strong sequence identities with proteins of the KEGG database, which are involved in human disease, metabolic pathways, genetic information processes, cellular processes, environmental information processes and organismal systems. Also, we identified signal peptides and transmembrane helices through comparative analysis with classes of important regulatory proteases

  1. Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Voight, Benjamin; Scott, Laura; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Morris, Andrew; Dina, Christian; Welch, Ryan; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Huth, Cornelia; Aulchenko, Yurii; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; McCulloch, Laura; Ferreira, Teresa; Grallert, Harald; Amin, Najaf; Wu, Guanming

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBy combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals with combined P 5 × 10 8. These include a second independent signal at the KCNQ1 locus; the first report, to our knowledge, of an X-chromosomal association (near DUSP9); and a further instance of ov...

  2. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  3. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis identifies novel mutations in families with severe familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Zheng, Yu; Tellier, Laurent Christian Asker M.; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, characterized by failure of vascular development of the peripheral retina. The symptoms of FEVR vary widely among patients in the same family, and even between the two eyes of a given patient. This study was designed to identify the genetic defect in a patient cohort of ten Chinese families with a definitive diagnosis of FEVR. Methods To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members by using Sanger sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Results Of the cohort of ten FEVR families, six pathogenic variants were identified, including four novel and two known heterozygous mutations. Of the variants identified, four were missense variants, and two were novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del]. The two novel heterozygous deletion mutations were not observed in the control subjects and could give rise to a relatively severe FEVR phenotype, which could be explained by the protein function prediction. Conclusions We identified two novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del] using targeted NGS as a causative mutation for FEVR. These genetic deletion variations exhibit a severe form of FEVR, with tractional retinal detachments compared with other known point mutations. The data further enrich the mutation spectrum of FEVR and enhance our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlations to provide useful information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and effective genetic counseling. PMID:28867931

  4. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brian J; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam; Washietl, Stefan; Wen, Jiayu; Kellis, Manolis; Breaker, Ronald; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory RNA structures are often members of families with multiple paralogous instances across the genome. Family members share functional and structural properties, which allow them to be studied as a whole, facilitating both bioinformatic and experimental characterization. We have developed a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein-coding regions comprising 725 individual structures, including 48 families with known structural RNA elements. Known families identified include both noncoding RNAs, e.g., miRNAs and the recently identified MALAT1/MEN β lincRNA family; and cis-regulatory structures, e.g., iron-responsive elements. We also identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one involving six long hairpins in the 3'-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we identify potential new regulatory networks, including large families of short hairpins enriched in immunity-related genes, e.g., TNF, FOS, and CTLA4, which include known transcript destabilizing elements. Our findings exemplify the diversity of post-transcriptional regulation and provide a resource for further characterization of new regulatory mechanisms and families of noncoding RNAs.

  5. Whole Genome Analysis of Injectional Anthrax Identifies Two Disease Clusters Spanning More Than 13 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keim

    2015-11-01

    Lay Person Interpretation: Injectional anthrax has been plaguing heroin drug users across Europe for more than 10 years. In order to better understand this outbreak, we assessed genomic relationships of all available injectional anthrax strains from four countries spanning a >12 year period. Very few differences were identified using genome-based analysis, but these differentiated the isolates into two distinct clusters. This strongly supports a hypothesis of at least two separate anthrax spore contamination events perhaps during the drug production processes. Identification of two events would not have been possible from standard epidemiological analysis. These comprehensive data will be invaluable for classifying future injectional anthrax isolates and for future geographic attribution.

  6. Polygenic analysis of genome-wide SNP data identifies common variants on allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadnejad, Afsaneh; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Haagerup, Annette

    Background: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is a complex disorder that affects many people around the world. There is a high genetic contribution to the development of the AR, as twins and family studies have estimated heritability of more than 33%. Due to the complex nature of the disease, single SNP...... analysis has limited power in identifying the genetic variations for AR. We combined genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) with polygenic risk score (PRS) in exploring the genetic basis underlying the disease. Methods: We collected clinical data on 631 Danish subjects with AR cases consisting of 434...... sibling pairs and unrelated individuals and control subjects of 197 unrelated individuals. SNP genotyping was done by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0. SNP imputation was performed using "IMPUTE2". Using additive effect model, GWAS was conducted in discovery sample, the genotypes...

  7. Towards a typology of business process management professionals: identifying patterns of competences through latent semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Oliver; Schmiedel, Theresa; Gorbacheva, Elena; vom Brocke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    While researchers have analysed the organisational competences that are required for successful Business Process Management (BPM) initiatives, individual BPM competences have not yet been studied in detail. In this study, latent semantic analysis is used to examine a collection of 1507 BPM-related job advertisements in order to develop a typology of BPM professionals. This empirical analysis reveals distinct ideal types and profiles of BPM professionals on several levels of abstraction. A closer look at these ideal types and profiles confirms that BPM is a boundary-spanning field that requires interdisciplinary sets of competence that range from technical competences to business and systems competences. Based on the study's findings, it is posited that individual and organisational alignment with the identified ideal types and profiles is likely to result in high employability and organisational BPM success.

  8. Sustainable Development in China’s Coastal Area: Based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Welfare-Response Framework and the Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of China’s coastal areas is being constrained by resources and the environment, with sustainable development being the key to solving these problems. The data envelopment analysis (DEA model is widely used to assess sustainable development. However, indicators used in the DEA model are not selected in a scientific and comprehensive manner, which may lead to unrepresentative results. Here, we use the driver-pressure-state-welfare-response (DPSWR framework to select more scientific and comprehensive indicators for a more accurate analysis of efficiency in China’s coastal area. The results show that the efficiencies of most provinces and cities in China’s coastal area have a stable trend. In the time dimension, efficiency was rising before 2008, after which it decreased. In the spatial dimension, China’s coastal provinces and cities are divided into three categories: high efficiency, low efficiency, and greater changes in efficiency. By combining DPSWR and DEA, we produce reliable values for measuring efficiency, with the benefit of avoiding the incomplete selection of DEA indicators.

  9. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  10. Meta-analysis of Drosophila circadian microarray studies identifies a novel set of rhythmically expressed genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Keegan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Five independent groups have reported microarray studies that identify dozens of rhythmically expressed genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Limited overlap among the lists of discovered genes makes it difficult to determine which, if any, exhibit truly rhythmic patterns of expression. We reanalyzed data from all five reports and found two sources for the observed discrepancies, the use of different expression pattern detection algorithms and underlying variation among the datasets. To improve upon the methods originally employed, we developed a new analysis that involves compilation of all existing data, application of identical transformation and standardization procedures followed by ANOVA-based statistical prescreening, and three separate classes of post hoc analysis: cross-correlation to various cycling waveforms, autocorrelation, and a previously described fast Fourier transform-based technique. Permutation-based statistical tests were used to derive significance measures for all post hoc tests. We find application of our method, most significantly the ANOVA prescreening procedure, significantly reduces the false discovery rate relative to that observed among the results of the original five reports while maintaining desirable statistical power. We identify a set of 81 cycling transcripts previously found in one or more of the original reports as well as a novel set of 133 transcripts not found in any of the original studies. We introduce a novel analysis method that compensates for variability observed among the original five Drosophila circadian array reports. Based on the statistical fidelity of our meta-analysis results, and the results of our initial validation experiments (quantitative RT-PCR, we predict many of our newly found genes to be bona fide cyclers, and suggest that they may lead to new insights into the pathways through which clock mechanisms regulate behavioral rhythms.

  11. Finite Element Creep-Fatigue Analysis of a Welded Furnace Roll for Identifying Failure Root Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. P.; Mohr, W. C.

    2015-11-01

    Creep-fatigue induced failures are often observed in engineering components operating under high temperature and cyclic loading. Understanding the creep-fatigue damage process and identifying failure root cause are very important for preventing such failures and improving the lifetime of engineering components. Finite element analyses including a heat transfer analysis and a creep-fatigue analysis were conducted to model the cyclic thermal and mechanical process of a furnace roll in a continuous hot-dip coating line. Typically, the roll has a short life, modeling heat convection from hot air inside the furnace. The creep-fatigue analysis was performed by inputting the predicted temperature history and applying mechanical loads. The analysis results showed that the failure was resulted from a creep-fatigue mechanism rather than a creep mechanism. The difference of material properties between the filler metal and the base metal is the root cause for the roll failure, which induces higher creep strain and stress in the interface between the weld and the HAZ.

  12. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant contributor to motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, and texting is a particularly significant form of driver distraction that continues to be on the rise. The present study examined the influence of driver age (18-59 years old) and other factors on the disruptive effects of texting on simulated driving behavior. While 'driving' the simulator, subjects were engaged in a series of brief text conversations with a member of the research team. The primary dependent variable was the occurrence of Lane Excursions (defined as any time the center of the vehicle moved outside the directed driving lane, e.g., into the lane for oncoming traffic or onto the shoulder of the road), measured as (1) the percent of subjects that exhibited Lane Excursions, (2) the number of Lane Excursions occurring and (3) the percent of the texting time in Lane Excursions. Multiple Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of several factors on driving performance while texting, including text task duration, texting skill level (subject-reported), texting history (#texts/week), driver gender and driver age. Lane Excursions were not observed in the absence of texting, but 66% of subjects overall exhibited Lane Excursions while texting. Multiple Regression analysis for all subjects (N=50) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, and texting skill level and driver age were significantly correlated with the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions. Driver gender was not significantly correlated with Lane Excursions during texting. Multiple Regression analysis of only highly skilled texters (N=27) revealed that driver age was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions and the percent of texting time in Lane Excursions. In contrast, Multiple Regression analysis of those drivers who self-identified as not highly skilled

  14. Identifying novel glioma associated pathways based on systems biology level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangfan; Li, Jinquan; Yan, Wenying; Chen, Jiajia; Li, Yin; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2013-01-01

    With recent advances in microarray technology, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, it brings a great challenge for integrating this "-omics" data to analysis complex disease. Glioma is an extremely aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor, and thus the study of the molecule mechanism underlying glioma remains very important. To date, most studies focus on detecting the differentially expressed genes in glioma. However, the meta-analysis for pathway analysis based on multiple microarray datasets has not been systematically pursued. In this study, we therefore developed a systems biology based approach by integrating three types of omics data to identify common pathways in glioma. Firstly, the meta-analysis has been performed to study the overlapping of signatures at different levels based on the microarray gene expression data of glioma. Among these gene expression datasets, 12 pathways were found in GeneGO database that shared by four stages. Then, microRNA expression profiles and ChIP-seq data were integrated for the further pathway enrichment analysis. As a result, we suggest 5 of these pathways could be served as putative pathways in glioma. Among them, the pathway of TGF-beta-dependent induction of EMT via SMAD is of particular importance. Our results demonstrate that the meta-analysis based on systems biology level provide a more useful approach to study the molecule mechanism of complex disease. The integration of different types of omics data, including gene expression microarrays, microRNA and ChIP-seq data, suggest some common pathways correlated with glioma. These findings will offer useful potential candidates for targeted therapeutic intervention of glioma.

  15. Identifying Talent in Youth Sport: A Novel Methodology Using Higher-Dimensional Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Till

    Full Text Available Prediction of adult performance from early age talent identification in sport remains difficult. Talent identification research has generally been performed using univariate analysis, which ignores multivariate relationships. To address this issue, this study used a novel higher-dimensional model to orthogonalize multivariate anthropometric and fitness data from junior rugby league players, with the aim of differentiating future career attainment. Anthropometric and fitness data from 257 Under-15 rugby league players was collected. Players were grouped retrospectively according to their future career attainment (i.e., amateur, academy, professional. Players were blindly and randomly divided into an exploratory (n = 165 and validation dataset (n = 92. The exploratory dataset was used to develop and optimize a novel higher-dimensional model, which combined singular value decomposition (SVD with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Once optimized, the model was tested using the validation dataset. SVD analysis revealed 60 m sprint and agility 505 performance were the most influential characteristics in distinguishing future professional players from amateur and academy players. The exploratory dataset model was able to distinguish between future amateur and professional players with a high degree of accuracy (sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 71.1%; p<0.001, although it could not distinguish between future professional and academy players. The validation dataset model was able to distinguish future professionals from the rest with reasonable accuracy (sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 63.8%; p = 0.003. Through the use of SVD analysis it was possible to objectively identify criteria to distinguish future career attainment with a sensitivity over 80% using anthropometric and fitness data alone. As such, this suggests that SVD analysis may be a useful analysis tool for research and practice within talent identification.

  16. Application of cluster analysis to geochemical compositional data for identifying ore-related geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuguang; Zhou, Kefa; Wang, Jinlin; Yang, Genfang; Wang, Shanshan

    2017-12-01

    Cluster analysis is a well-known technique that is used to analyze various types of data. In this study, cluster analysis is applied to geochemical data that describe 1444 stream sediment samples collected in northwestern Xinjiang with a sample spacing of approximately 2 km. Three algorithms (the hierarchical, k-means, and fuzzy c-means algorithms) and six data transformation methods (the z-score standardization, ZST; the logarithmic transformation, LT; the additive log-ratio transformation, ALT; the centered log-ratio transformation, CLT; the isometric log-ratio transformation, ILT; and no transformation, NT) are compared in terms of their effects on the cluster analysis of the geochemical compositional data. The study shows that, on the one hand, the ZST does not affect the results of column- or variable-based (R-type) cluster analysis, whereas the other methods, including the LT, the ALT, and the CLT, have substantial effects on the results. On the other hand, the results of the row- or observation-based (Q-type) cluster analysis obtained from the geochemical data after applying NT and the ZST are relatively poor. However, we derive some improved results from the geochemical data after applying the CLT, the ILT, the LT, and the ALT. Moreover, the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms are more reliable than the hierarchical algorithm when they are used to cluster the geochemical data. We apply cluster analysis to the geochemical data to explore for Au deposits within the study area, and we obtain a good correlation between the results retrieved by combining the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms and the potential zones of Au mineralization. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms is an effective tool to identify potential zones of mineralization from geochemical data.

  17. Molecular genetic studies in Saudi population; identified variants from GWAS and meta-analysis in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Khalid Khalaf; Ali Khan, Imran; Alotaibi, Mohammad Abdullah; Saud Aloyaid, Abdullah; Al-Basheer, Haifa Abdulaziz; Alghamdi, Naelah Abdullah; Al-Baradie, Raid Saleem; Al-Sulaiman, A M

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder, correlates with heritability and considered as one of the major diseases. The prior reports performed the variable models such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), replication, case-control, cross-sectional and meta-analysis studies and still, we lack diagnostic marker in the global world. There are limited studies were carried out in Saudi population, and we aim to investigate the molecular association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through GWAS and meta-analysis studies in stroke patients in the Saudi population. In this case-control study, we have opted gender equality of 207 cases and 207 controls from the capital city of Saudi Arabia in King Saud University Hospital. The peripheral blood (5 ml) sample will be collected in two different vacutainers, and three mL of the coagulated blood will be used for lipid analysis (biochemical tests) and two mL will be used for DNA analysis (molecular tests). Genomic DNA will be extracted with the collected blood samples, and specific primers will be designed for the opted SNPs ( SORT1 -rs646218 and OLR1 -rs11053646 polymorphisms) and PCR-RFLP will be performed and randomly DNA sequencing will be carried out to cross check the results. The rs646218 and rs11053646 polymorphisms were significantly associated with allele, genotype and dominant models with and without crude odds ratios (OR's) and Multiple logistic regression analysis (p Saudi population. The current results were in the association with the prior study results documented through GWAS and meta-analysis association. However, other ethnic population studies should be performed to rule out in the human hereditary diseases.

  18. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  19. Study on driver model for hybrid truck based on driving simulator experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Hoang Phuc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a proposed car-following driver model taking into account some features of both the compensatory and anticipatory model representing the human pedal operation has been verified by driving simulator experiments with several real drivers. The comparison between computer simulations performed by determined model parameters with the experimental results confirm the correctness of this mathematical driver model and identified model parameters. Then the driver model is joined to a hybrid vehicle dynamics model and the moderate car following maneuver simulations with various driver parameters are conducted to investigate influences of driver parameters on vehicle dynamics response and fuel economy. Finally, major driver parameters involved in the longitudinal control of drivers are clarified. Keywords: Driver model, Driver-vehicle closed-loop system, Car Following, Driving simulator/hybrid electric vehicle (B1

  20. Single Molecule Cluster Analysis Identifies Signature Dynamic Conformations along the Splicing Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mario R.; Martin, Joshua S.; Kahlscheuer, Matthew L.; Krishnan, Ramya; Abelson, John; Laederach, Alain; Walter, Nils G.

    2016-01-01

    The spliceosome is the dynamic RNA-protein machine responsible for faithfully splicing introns from precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs). Many of the dynamic processes required for the proper assembly, catalytic activation, and disassembly of the spliceosome as it acts on its pre-mRNA substrate remain poorly understood, a challenge that persists for many biomolecular machines. Here, we developed a fluorescence-based Single Molecule Cluster Analysis (SiMCAn) tool to dissect the manifold conformational dynamics of a pre-mRNA through the splicing cycle. By clustering common dynamic behaviors derived from selectively blocked splicing reactions, SiMCAn was able to identify signature conformations and dynamic behaviors of multiple ATP-dependent intermediates. In addition, it identified a conformation adopted late in splicing by a 3′ splice site mutant, invoking a mechanism for substrate proofreading. SiMCAn presents a novel framework for interpreting complex single molecule behaviors that should prove widely useful for the comprehensive analysis of a plethora of dynamic cellular machines. PMID:26414013

  1. Integrating text mining, data mining, and network analysis for identifying genetic breast cancer trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurca, Gabriela; Addam, Omar; Aksac, Alper; Gao, Shang; Özyer, Tansel; Demetrick, Douglas; Alhajj, Reda

    2016-04-26

    Breast cancer is a serious disease which affects many women and may lead to death. It has received considerable attention from the research community. Thus, biomedical researchers aim to find genetic biomarkers indicative of the disease. Novel biomarkers can be elucidated from the existing literature. However, the vast amount of scientific publications on breast cancer make this a daunting task. This paper presents a framework which investigates existing literature data for informative discoveries. It integrates text mining and social network analysis in order to identify new potential biomarkers for breast cancer. We utilized PubMed for the testing. We investigated gene-gene interactions, as well as novel interactions such as gene-year, gene-country, and abstract-country to find out how the discoveries varied over time and how overlapping/diverse are the discoveries and the interest of various research groups in different countries. Interesting trends have been identified and discussed, e.g., different genes are highlighted in relationship to different countries though the various genes were found to share functionality. Some text analysis based results have been validated against results from other tools that predict gene-gene relations and gene functions.

  2. Short communication: cheminformatics analysis to identify predictors of antiviral drug penetration into the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corbin G; Sedykh, Alexander; Nicol, Melanie R; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the female genital tract (FGT) is variable and almost unpredictable. Identifying an efficient method to find compounds with high tissue penetration would streamline the development of regimens for both HIV preexposure prophylaxis and viral reservoir targeting. Here we describe the cheminformatics investigation of diverse drugs with known FGT penetration using cluster analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) modeling. A literature search over the 1950-2012 period identified 58 compounds (including 21 ARVs and representing 13 drug classes) associated with their actual concentration data for cervical or vaginal tissue, or cervicovaginal fluid. Cluster analysis revealed significant trends in the penetrative ability for certain chemotypes. QSAR models to predict genital tract concentrations normalized to blood plasma concentrations were developed with two machine learning techniques utilizing drugs' molecular descriptors and pharmacokinetic parameters as inputs. The QSAR model with the highest predictive accuracy had R(2)test=0.47. High volume of distribution, high MRP1 substrate probability, and low MRP4 substrate probability were associated with FGT concentrations ≥1.5-fold plasma concentrations. However, due to the limited FGT data available, prediction performances of all models were low. Despite this limitation, we were able to support our findings by correctly predicting the penetration class of rilpivirine and dolutegravir. With more data to enrich the models, we believe these methods could potentially enhance the current approach of clinical testing.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of rice aleurone cells identified a novel abscisic acid response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenneth A; Homayouni, Arielle; Gu, Lingkun; Huang, Kuan-Ying; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Shen, Qingxi J

    2017-09-01

    Seeds serve as a great model to study plant responses to drought stress, which is largely mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA responsive element (ABRE) is a key cis-regulatory element in ABA signalling. However, its consensus sequence (ACGTG(G/T)C) is present in the promoters of only about 40% of ABA-induced genes in rice aleurone cells, suggesting other ABREs may exist. To identify novel ABREs, RNA sequencing was performed on aleurone cells of rice seeds treated with 20 μM ABA. Gibbs sampling was used to identify enriched elements, and particle bombardment-mediated transient expression studies were performed to verify the function. Gene ontology analysis was performed to predict the roles of genes containing the novel ABREs. This study revealed 2443 ABA-inducible genes and a novel ABRE, designated as ABREN, which was experimentally verified to mediate ABA signalling in rice aleurone cells. Many of the ABREN-containing genes are predicted to be involved in stress responses and transcription. Analysis of other species suggests that the ABREN may be monocot specific. This study also revealed interesting expression patterns of genes involved in ABA metabolism and signalling. Collectively, this study advanced our understanding of diverse cis-regulatory sequences and the transcriptomes underlying ABA responses in rice aleurone cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2015-01-01

    The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host-pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Clustering analysis of water distribution systems: identifying critical components and community impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, K; Farmani, R; Fu, G; Astaraie-Imani, M; Ward, S; Butler, D

    2014-01-01

    Large water distribution systems (WDSs) are networks with both topological and behavioural complexity. Thereby, it is usually difficult to identify the key features of the properties of the system, and subsequently all the critical components within the system for a given purpose of design or control. One way is, however, to more explicitly visualize the network structure and interactions between components by dividing a WDS into a number of clusters (subsystems). Accordingly, this paper introduces a clustering strategy that decomposes WDSs into clusters with stronger internal connections than external connections. The detected cluster layout is very similar to the community structure of the served urban area. As WDSs may expand along with urban development in a community-by-community manner, the correspondingly formed distribution clusters may reveal some crucial configurations of WDSs. For verification, the method is applied to identify all the critical links during firefighting for the vulnerability analysis of a real-world WDS. Moreover, both the most critical pipes and clusters are addressed, given the consequences of pipe failure. Compared with the enumeration method, the method used in this study identifies the same group of the most critical components, and provides similar criticality prioritizations of them in a more computationally efficient time.

  6. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theore