WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis geographic information

  1. Modeling uncertainty in geographic information and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainty modeling and data quality for spatial data and spatial analyses are im-portant topics in geographic information science together with space and time in geography,as well as spatial analysis. In the past two decades,a lot of efforts have been made to research the uncertainty modeling for spatial data and analyses. This paper presents our work in the research. In particular,four progresses in the re-search are given out: (a) from determinedness-to uncertainty-based representation of geographic objects in GIS; (b) from uncertainty modeling for static data to dy-namic spatial analyses; (c) from modeling uncertainty for spatial data to models; and (d) from error descriptions to quality control for spatial data.

  2. Fundamental procedures of geographic information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical procedures common to most computer-oriented geographic information systems are composed of fundamental map processing operations. A conceptual framework for such procedures is developed and basic operations common to a broad range of applications are described. Among the major classes of primitive operations identified are those associated with: reclassifying map categories as a function of the initial classification, the shape, the position, or the size of the spatial configuration associated with each category; overlaying maps on a point-by-point, a category-wide, or a map-wide basis; measuring distance; establishing visual or optimal path connectivity; and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods based on the thematic or spatial attributes of the data values within each neighborhood. By organizing such operations in a coherent manner, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling structure can be developed which accommodates a variety of needs in a common, flexible and intuitive manner. The use of each is limited only by the general thematic and spatial nature of the data to which it is applied.

  3. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dağlar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they become challenging. The purpose of this study is to conduct a literature review of Geographical Information System and Crime Mapping in Crime Analysis and to propose policy recommendations regarding to implementation of crime mapping and GIS. To achieve this purpose, first a historical evaluation of GIS and crime mapping will be rendered and then the importance of place will be explained in terms of assessing crime problems accurately.

  4. Catchment delineation and morphometric analysis using geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumar, Rohitashw; Singh, P K; Singh, Manjeet; Yadav, K K; Mittal, H K

    2015-01-01

    The geographical information system (GIS) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage patterns of watershed planning and management. The morphometric parameters of basins can address linear, areal and relief aspects. The study deals with the integrated watershed management of Baliya micro-watersheds, located in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. Morphometric analysis in hydrological investigation is an important aspect and it is inevitable in the development and management of drainage basins. The determination of linear, areal and relief parameters indicate fairly good significance. The low value of the bifurcation ratio of 4.19 revealed that the drainage pattern has not been distorted by structural disturbance. The high value of the elongation ratio (0.68) compared to the circulatory ratio (0.27) indicates an elongated shape of the watershed. The high value of drainage density (5.39 km/km(2)) and stream frequency (12.32) shows that the region has impermeable subsoil material under poor vegetative cover with a low relief factor. The morphometric parameters of relief ratio (0.041) and relative relief (0.99%) show that the watershed can be treated using GIS techniques to determine the morphometric presence of dendritic drainage pattern, with a view to selecting the soil and water conservation measures and water harvesting.

  5. Applications of Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of Lake Uluabat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacısalihoğlu, Saadet; Karaer, Feza; Katip, Aslıhan

    2016-06-01

    Lake Uluabat is one of the most important wetlands in Turkey because of its rich biodiversity, lying on a migratory bird route with almost all its shores being covered by submerged plants. The lake has been protected by the Ramsar Convention since 1998. However, the Lake is threatened by natural and anthropogenic stressors as a consequence of its location. Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis is a tool that has been widely used, especially for water quality management in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the water quality and determined most polluted points using GIS analysis of the lake. Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese were monitored monthly from June 2008 to May 2009, with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake. Effect of pH, relation of temperature, and Chl-a with other water quality parameters and metals are designated as statistically significant. Data were mapped using ArcGIS 9.1 software and were assessed according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulations (TWPCR). The research also focused on classifying and mapping the water quality in the lake by using the spatial analysis functions of GIS. As a result, it was determined that Lake Uluabat belonged to the 4th class, i.e., highly polluted water, including any water of lower quality. A remarkable portion of the pollution in the water basin was attributed to domestic wastewater discharges, industrial and agricultural activities, and mining.

  6. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  7. Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of

  8. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING PLANNING AND ANALYSIS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, J; William Austin, W; Larry Koffman, L

    2007-09-17

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dispositioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dispositioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities.

  9. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  10. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  11. GRASS/GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System/Geographic Information System) Implementation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Cxn’triing a GRAISS GIS Databse - 15- -15- s)Surces of )igital Spotial l)ata for (;lS )ata )ata Data F Scale/ Data Media Acquistin n "I:!......." . S...infestations were identified, types and quantities of chemicals used to combat pests, and other relevant information. R arg Zoes Field survey and/or...infestation, types and quantifies of ch-micals used to combat the pest. and reconmeided date for next chemical application LA Infreaion: A comparison

  12. Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, John, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

  13. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  14. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, PE

    2003-09-18

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is used to calculate highway, rail, or waterway routes within the United States. TRAGIS is a client-server application with the user interface and map data files residing on the user's personal computer and the routing engine and network data files on a network server. The user's manual provides documentation on installation and the use of the many features of the model.

  15. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  16. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  17. How geographical information systems analysis influences the continuum of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskie, Jennifer; Wallenfang, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As the vast repository of data about millions of patients grows, the analysis of this information is changing the provider-patient relationship and influencing the continuum of care for broad swaths of the population. At the same time, while population health management moves from a volume-based model to a value-based one and additional patients seek care due to healthcare reform, hospitals and healthcare networks are evaluating their business models and searching for new revenue streams. Utilizing geographical information systems to model and analyze large amounts of data is helping organizations better understand the characteristics of their patient population, demographic and socioeconomic trends, and shifts in the utilization of healthcare. In turn, organizations can more effectively conduct service line planning, strategic business plans, market growth strategies, and human resource planning. Healthcare organizations that use GIS modeling can set themselves apart by making more informed and objective business strategy decisions.

  18. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Lagrab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facilities in Mukalla districts in YEMEN which contributed to building a geographic database for the study area. After that the Kindergarten spatial patterns are analyzed in terms of proximity to each other and used near some other land in the surrounding area such as streets highways factories etc. Also measures the concentration dispersion clustering and distribution direction for the kindergarten this study showed the effectiveness of the GIS for spatial data analysis. One of the most important finding that most of the Kindergarten was established in Mukalla city did not take into account the criteria that set by the authorities. Furthermore almost district suffers from a shortage in the number of kindergarten and pattern of distribution of those kindergartens dominated by spatial dispersed.

  19. Geographic information analysis: An ecological approach for the management of wildlife on the forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a summary of the project funded by NAGw-1460 as part of the Earth Observation Commericalization/Applications Program (EOCAP) directed by NASA's Earth Science and Applications Division. The goal was to work with several agencies to focus on forest structure and landscape characterizations for wildlife habitat applications. New analysis techniques were used in remote sensing and landscape ecology with geographic information systems (GIS). The development of GIS and the emergence of the discipline of landscape ecology provided us with an opportunity to study forest and wildlife habitat resources from a new perspective. New techniques were developed to measure forest structure across scales from the canopy to the regional level. This paper describes the project team, technical advances, and technology adoption process that was used. Reprints of related refereed journal articles are in the Appendix.

  20. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  1. What Influences Geography Teachers' Usage of Geographic Information Systems? A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chi, Yu-Lin; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the usage of the geographic information system (GIS) among geography teachers is a crucial step in evaluating the current dissemination of GIS knowledge and skills in Taiwan's educational system. The primary contribution of this research is to further our understanding of the factors that affect teachers' GIS usage. The structural…

  2. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera.

  3. Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma

    2008-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable

  4. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B M; van Bruggen, A H; Subbarao, K V; Pennings, G G

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT The epidemiology of lettuce downy mildew has been investigated extensively in coastal California. However, the spatial patterns of the disease and the distance that Bremia lactucae spores can be transported have not been determined. During 1995 to 1998, we conducted several field- and valley-scale surveys to determine spatial patterns of this disease in the Salinas valley. Geostatistical analyses of the survey data at both scales showed that the influence range of downy mildew incidence at one location on incidence at other locations was between 80 and 3,000 m. A linear relationship was detected between semivariance and lag distance at the field scale, although no single statistical model could fit the semi-variograms at the valley scale. Spatial interpolation by the inverse distance weighting method with a power of 2 resulted in plausible estimates of incidence throughout the valley. Cluster analysis in geographic information systems on the interpolated disease incidence from different dates demonstrated that the Salinas valley could be divided into two areas, north and south of Salinas City, with high and low disease pressure, respectively. Seasonal and spatial trends along the valley suggested that the distinction between the downy mildew conducive and nonconducive areas might be determined by environmental factors.

  5. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de

  6. Geographic Information System and tools of spatial analysis in a pneumococcal vaccine trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this Geographic Information System (GIS study was to obtain accurate information on the locations of study subjects, road network and services for research purposes so that the clinical outcomes of interest (e.g., vaccine efficacy, burden of disease, nasopharyngeal colonization and its reduction could be linked and analyzed at a distance from health centers, hospitals, doctors and other important services. The information on locations can be used to investigate more accurate crowdedness, herd immunity and/or transmission patterns. Method A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (11PCV was conducted in Bohol Province in central Philippines, from July 2000 to December 2004. We collected the information on the geographic location of the households (N = 13,208 of study subjects. We also collected a total of 1982 locations of health and other services in the six municipalities and a comprehensive GIS data over the road network in the area. Results We calculated the numbers of other study subjects (vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively within the neighborhood of each study subject. We calculated distances to different services and identified the subjects sharing the same services (calculated by distance. This article shows how to collect a complete GIS data set for human to human transmitted vaccine study in developing country settings in an efficient and economical way. Conclusions The collection of geographic locations in intervention trials should become a routine task. The results of public health research may highly depend on spatial relationships among the study subjects and between the study subjects and the environment, both natural and infrastructural. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN62323832

  7. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  8. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  9. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Analysis of terrains suitable for tourism and recreation by using geographic information system (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklıbaşında, Meliha; Bulut, Yahya

    2014-09-01

    The use and utilization areas of geographic information system (GIS) increase every day due to both enabling easiness in storing, updating, grouping, analyzing, correlating, and mapping of data about evaluation factors in planning studies and having quite low error margin depending on the accuracy of data stored. In fact, GIS is also used both in visualization and in various analyses in planning tourism terrains. In this study, the effectiveness of GIS on holistic evaluation of natural and cultural resources in planning tourism terrains was analyzed. Natural and cultural resources in Kayseri Yahyalı were quantified by using ArcGIS 9.3 software from GIS software; data were analyzed and potential tourism and recreation terrains, level of suitability, and rate of coverage were determined. As a result of the analyses, it was determined that 11.847 ha area (6,53%) was quite suitable for such kind of activities, 103.010 ha (56,77%) was suitable, 39.278 ha (21,65%) was less suitable, and 27.314 ha area (15,05%) was not suitable. In the next stage, landscape properties which are suitable for tourism and recreation were evaluated and landscape types were classified in the sense of their tourist attraction. It was determined that the water resources and valley landscapes were the basic sources of the tourism and recreation activities of Yahyalı, and it was determined that the landscape of the forest and mountain was important for variety of the tourism and recreation activities of Yahyalı.

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  1. Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process multicriteria and Geographical information system for coastal vulnerability analysis in Morocco: The case of Mohammedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Meryem; Maanan, Mohamed; Hakdaoui, Mustapha

    2016-04-01

    This paper shows a method to assess the vulnerability of coastal risks such as coastal erosion or submarine applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and spatial analysis techniques with Geographic Information System (GIS). The coast of the Mohammedia located in Morocco was chosen as the study site to implement and validate the proposed framework by applying a GIS-FAHP based methodology. The coastal risk vulnerability mapping follows multi-parametric causative factors as sea level rise, significant wave height, tidal range, coastal erosion, elevation, geomorphology and distance to an urban area. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process methodology enables the calculation of corresponding criteria weights. The result shows that the coastline of the Mohammedia is characterized by a moderate, high and very high level of vulnerability to coastal risk. The high vulnerability areas are situated in the east at Monika and Sablette beaches. This technical approach is based on the efficiency of the Geographic Information System tool based on Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to help decision maker to find optimal strategies to minimize coastal risks.

  2. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  3. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.

    2016-07-01

    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  4. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  5. A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang; Wu, Changshan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA). Specifically, a logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between land use/land covers and surrounding socio-economic factors, and a classification tree method was used to identify the present status of endmember classes throughout the whole study area. Furthermore, an ordinary kriging analysis was employed to generate a spatially varying endmember spectra at all pixels in the remote sensing image. As a consequence, a fully constrained temporal mixture analysis was conducted for examining the fractional land use land covers. Results show that the proposed GATMA achieved a promising accuracy with an RMSE of 6.81%, SE of 1.29% and MAE of 2.6%. In addition, comparative analysis result illustrates that a significant accuracy improvement has been found in the whole study area and both developed and less developed areas, and this demonstrates that the variability of endmember class and endmember spectra is essential for unmixing analysis. PMID:28335464

  6. Geographical information system (GIS) as a new tool to evaluate epidemiology based on spatial analysis and clinical outcomes in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Porto, Lara Benigno; Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) have emerged as a group of innovative software components useful for projects in epidemiology and planning in Health Care System. This is an original study to investigate environmental and geographical influences on epidemiology of acromegaly in Brazil. We aimed to validate a method to link an acromegaly registry with a GIS mapping program, to describe the spatial distribution of patients, to identify disease clusters and to evaluate if the access to Health Care could influence the outcome of the disease. Clinical data from 112 consecutive patients were collected and home addresses were plotted in the GIS software for spatial analysis. The buffer spatial distribution of patients living in Brasilia showed that 38.1% lived from 0.33 to 8.66 km, 17.7% from 8.67 to 18.06 km, 22.2% from 18.07 to 25.67 km and 22% from 25.68 to 36.70 km distant to the Reference Medical Center (RMC), and no unexpected clusters were identified. Migration of 26 patients from 11 others cities in different regions of the country was observed. Most of patients (64%) with adenomas bigger than 25 mm lived more than 20 km away from RMC, but no significant correlation between the distance from patient's home to the RMC and tumor diameter (r = 0.45 p = 0.20) nor for delay in diagnosis (r = 0.43 p = 0.30) was found. The geographical distribution of diagnosed cases did not impact in the latency of diagnosis or tumor size but the recognition of significant migration denotes that improvements in the medical assistance network are needed.

  7. Geographical information system (GIS) as a new tool to evaluate epidemiology based on spatial analysis and clinical outcomes in acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Porto, Lara Benigno; Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) have emerged as a group of innovative software components useful for projects in epidemiology and planning in Health Care System. This is an original study to investigate environmental and geographical influences on epidemiology of acromegaly in Brazil. We aimed to validate a method to link an acromegaly registry with a GIS mapping program, to describe the spatial distribution of patients, to identify disease clusters and to evaluate if the access to Hea...

  8. Analysis of Debris Flow Kuranji River in Padang City Using Rainfall Data, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Z.; Mohd Akib, W. A. A. Wan; Ahmad, A.

    2014-02-01

    Flash flood is the most common environmental hazard worldwide. This phenomenon is usually occurs due to intense and prolonged rainfall spells on saturated ground. When there is a rapid rise in water levels and high flow-velocities of the stream occur, the channel overflows and the result is a flash flood. Flash floods normally cause a dangerous wall of roaring water carrying rocks, mud and other debris. On Tuesday, July 24, 2012 at 18:00 pm, a flash flood (debris flow) struck Kuranji River whereby 19 urban villages in seven (7) sub-districts in the city of Padang were affected by this flood disaster. The temporary loss estimated is 40 Billion US Dollar reported by the West Sumatra Provincial Government due to many damages of the built environment infrastructures. This include damaged houses of 878 units, mosque 15 units, irrigation damaged 12 units, bridges 6 units, schools 2 units and health posts 1 unit. Generally, widely used methods for making a landslide study are Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing techniques. The landslide information extracted from remotely sensed products is mainly related to morphology, vegetation and hydrologic conditions of a slope. While GIS is used to create a database, data management, data display and to analyze data such as thematic maps of land use/land cover, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), rainfall data and soil texture. This paper highlights the analysis of the condition of the Watershed Kuranji River experiencing flash floods, using remote sensing satellite image of Landsat ETM 7 in 2009 and 2012 and Geographic Information System (GIS). Furthermore, the data was analyzed to determine whether this flash flood occurred due to extreme rain or collapse of existing natural dams in the upstream of the Kuranji River.

  9. The integration of a LANDSAT analysis capability with a geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrand, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The integration of LANDSAT data was achieved through the development of a flexible, compatible analysis tool and using an existing data base to select the usable data from a LANDSAT analysis. The software package allows manipulation of grid cell data plus the flexibility to allow the user to include FORTRAN statements for special functions. Using this combination of capabilities the user can classify a LANDSAT image and then selectivity merge the results with other data that may exist for the study area.

  10. Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS(Geographic Information System) in Crime Analysis of Gujranwala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Iqra

    2016-07-01

    Crime mapping is a dynamic process. It can be used to assist all stages of the problem solving process. Mapping crime can help police protect citizens more effectively. The decision to utilize a certain type of map or design element may change based on the purpose of a map, the audience or the available data. If the purpose of the crime analysis map is to assist in the identification of a particular problem, selected data may be mapped to identify patterns of activity that have been previously undetected. The main objective of this research was to study the spatial distribution patterns of the four common crimes i.e Narcotics, Arms, Burglary and Robbery in Gujranwala City using spatial statistical techniques to identify the hotspots. Hotspots or location of clusters were identified using Getis-Ord Gi* Statistic. Crime analysis mapping can be used to conduct a comprehensive spatial analysis of the problem. Graphic presentations of such findings provide a powerful medium to communicate conditions, patterns and trends thus creating an avenue for analysts to bring about significant policy changes. Moreover Crime mapping also helps in the reduction of crime rate.

  11. An Indicator of Solid Waste Generation Potential for Illinois Using Principal Components Analysis and Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, M D; Kerzee, R G; Bing-Canar, J; Mensah, E K; Oroke, K G; Swager, R R

    1996-05-01

    An indicator of solid waste generation potential (SWGP) is proposed as a versatile means to assist the development of integrated solid waste (SW) management plans. The proposed indicator is based on key sodoeconomic variables for the State of Illinois which were found to be highly correlated with variables describing the SW stream of the State. The proposed indicator was derived by applying the principal components analysis (PCA) technique. The technique is used to merge the rank transformed socioeconomic variables into a single variable, the SWGP indicator, while maintaining the regional information of the original variables. An innovative aspect of this indicator approach is the use of the ordinal scale for all these diverse variables. The validity of this approach was assessed and the proposed indicator was found to be directly proportional to a composite variable describing the SW stream for the State of Illinois. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to depict the spatial distribution of the SWGP will help planners visualize the expected overall refuse generation pattern and to identify critical regions. In addition, the proposed indicator could be used as an instrument to validate the solid waste generation (SWG) quantities reported by counties to state agencies.

  12. Using risk-based analysis and geographic information systems to assess flooding problems in an urban watershed in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardmeyer, Kent; Spencer, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of risk-based analysis (RBA) in flood damage assessment, and it illustrates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in identifying flood-prone areas, which can aid in flood-mitigation planning assistance. We use RBA to calculate expected annual flood damages in an urban watershed in the state of Rhode Island, USA. The method accounts for the uncertainty in the three primary relationships used in computing flood damage: (1) the probability that a given flood will produce a given amount of floodwater, (2) the probability that a given amount of floodwater will reach a certain stage or height, and (3) the probability that a certain stage of floodwater will produce a given amount of damage. A greater than 50% increase in expected annual flood damage is estimated for the future if previous development patterns continue and flood-mitigation measures are not taken. GIS is then used to create a map that shows where and how often floods might occur in the future, which can help (1) identify priority areas for flood-mitigation planning assistance and (2) disseminate information to public officials and other decision-makers.

  13. Flood Vulnerability Analysis of the part of Karad Region, Satara District, Maharashtra using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warghat, Sumedh R.; Das, Sandipan; Doad, Atul; Mali, Sagar; Moon, Vishal S.

    2012-07-01

    Karad City is situated on the bank of confluence of river Krishna & Koyana, which is severely flood prone area. The floodwaters enter the city through the roads and disrupt the infrastructure in the whole city. Furthermore, due to negligence of the authorities and unplanned growth of the city, the people living in the city have harnessed the natural flow of water by constructing unnecessary embankments in the river Koyna. Due to this reason now river koyna is flowing in the form of a narrow channel, which very easily over-flows during very minor flooding.Flood Vulnerabilty Analysis has been done for the karad region of satara district, maharashtra using remote sensing and geographic information system technique. The aim of this study is to identify flood vulnerability zone by using GIS and RS technique and an attempt has been to demonstrat the application of remote sensing and GIS in order to map flood vulnerabilty area by utilizing ArcMap, and Erdas software. Flood vulnerabilty analysis of part the Karad Regian of Satara District, Maharashtra has been carried out with the objectives - Identify the Flood Prone area in the Koyana and Krishna river basin, Calculate surface runoff and Delineate flood sensitive areas. Delineate classified hazard Map, Evaluate the Flood affected area, Prepare the Flood Vulnerability Map by utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS technique. (C.J. Kumanan;S.M. Ramasamy)The study is based on GIS and spatial technique is used for analysis and understanding of flood problem in Karad Tahsil. The flood affected areas of the different magnitude has been identified and mapped using Arc GIS software. The analysis is useful for local planning authority for identification of risk areas and taking proper decision in right moment. In the analysis causative factors for flooding in watershed are taken into account as annual rainfall, size of watershed, basin slope, drainage density of natural channels and land use. (Dinand Alkema; Farah Aziz.)This study of

  14. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  15. Developing geographic information infrastructure : the role of information policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within information societies, information availability is a key issue affecting societyâs well being. The infrastructure underlying the foundation of the information society may be referred to as the information infrastructure. A geographic information infrastructure (GII) supports the information i

  16. Tagging in Volunteered Geographic Information: An Analysis of Tagging Practices for Cities and Urban Regions in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Davidovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI projects, the tagging or annotation of objects is usually performed in a flexible and non-constrained manner. Contributors to a VGI project are normally free to choose whatever tags they feel are appropriate to annotate or describe a particular geographic object or place. In OpenStreetMap (OSM, the Map Features part of the OSM Wiki serves as the de-facto rulebook or ontology for the annotation of features in OSM. Within Map Features, suggestions and guidance on what combinations of tags to use for certain geographic objects are outlined. In this paper, we consider these suggestions and recommendations and analyse the OSM database for 40 cities around the world to ascertain if contributors to OSM in these urban areas are using this guidance in their tagging practices. Overall, we find that compliance with the suggestions and guidance in Map Features is generally average or poor. This leads us to conclude that contributors in these areas do not always tag features with the same level of annotation. Our paper also confirms anecdotal evidence that OSM Map Features is less influential in how OSM contributors tag objects.

  17. Analysis of Relationships between Altitude and Distance from Volcano with Stomach Cancer Incidence Using a Geographic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, F; Ahari, S Sadeghieh; Barzegari, S; Hassanlouei, B; Sadrkabir, M; Farzaneh, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world, with a wide variation in incidence rates across different geographical areas. In Iran GC is the most common cancer in males and it is reported to be the third most prevalent after breast and colorectal in females. A geographical information system (GIS) allows investigation of the geographical distribution of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between gastric cancer and effective climatic factors using GIS. The dispersion distribution and the relationship between environmental factors effective on cancer were measured using Arc GIS. Of all cases, 672 (73.8%) were in males with a sex ratio of 3 to 1. The highest incidence by cities was seen in Namin with 137.5 per 100,000. The results of this study showed that the distribution of GC around the Sabalan volcanic mountain was significantly higher than other places in the same province. These results can be considered as a window to future comprehensive research on gastric cancer.

  18. Optimal site selection for sitting a solar park using multi-criteria decision analysis and geographical information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Skarlatos, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Among the renewable power sources, solar power is rapidly becoming popular because it is inexhaustible, clean, and dependable. It has also become more efficient since the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells has increased. Following these trends, solar power will become more affordable in years to come and considerable investments are to be expected. Despite the size of solar plants, the sitting procedure is a crucial factor for their efficiency and financial viability. Many aspects influence such a decision: legal, environmental, technical, and financial to name a few. This paper describes a general integrated framework to evaluate land suitability for the optimal placement of photovoltaic solar power plants, which is based on a combination of a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing techniques, and multi-criteria decision-making methods. An application of the proposed framework for the Limassol district in Cyprus is further illustrated. The combination of a GIS and multi-criteria methods produces an excellent analysis tool that creates an extensive database of spatial and non-spatial data, which will be used to simplify problems as well as solve and promote the use of multiple criteria. A set of environmental, economic, social, and technical constrains, based on recent Cypriot legislation, European's Union policies, and expert advice, identifies the potential sites for solar park installation. The pairwise comparison method in the context of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to estimate the criteria weights in order to establish their relative importance in site evaluation. In addition, four different methods to combine information layers and check their sensitivity were used. The first considered all the criteria as being equally important and assigned them equal weight, whereas the others grouped the criteria and graded them according to their objective perceived importance. The overall suitability of the study

  19. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  20. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has improv

  1. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  2. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fast

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.

  3. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  4. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  5. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... of requirements and rules, building on terms from the domain and concept ontologies. In combination with the theoretical basis the analysis is used for developing an underlying model of notions, which defines the individual elements in a specification and the relations between them. In the chapters of the thesis...... this underlying model is extended to include a number of components, which each contribute to the model being able to form the basis of a strong and productive specification tool for the making and maintenance of specifications for geographic information. These components among others include description...

  6. Complementarity of Historic Building Information Modelling and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Koehl, M.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Macher, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the potential of integrating both semantically rich models from Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to build the detailed 3D historic model. BIM contributes to the creation of a digital representation having all physical and functional building characteristics in several dimensions, as e.g. XYZ (3D), time and non-architectural information that are necessary for construction and management of buildings. GIS has potential in handling and managing spatial data especially exploring spatial relationships and is widely used in urban modelling. However, when considering heritage modelling, the specificity of irregular historical components makes it problematic to create the enriched model according to its complex architectural elements obtained from point clouds. Therefore, some open issues limiting the historic building 3D modelling will be discussed in this paper: how to deal with the complex elements composing historic buildings in BIM and GIS environment, how to build the enriched historic model, and why to construct different levels of details? By solving these problems, conceptualization, documentation and analysis of enriched Historic Building Information Modelling are developed and compared to traditional 3D models aimed primarily for visualization.

  7. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet

  8. Water quality analysis of the commercial boreholes in Mubi Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria: geographic information system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayomi, Ikusemoran; Elisha, Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    It is observed that most of the commercial boreholes in Mubi Metropolis are located along River Yedzeram which is the main river that runs across the town. Unfortunately, due to the geographical location of the town in savanna region with minimal water supply, water related small scale industries such as sachet water, block making, irrigation agriculture, cloth dying, car wash and other pollution activities such as mechanical workshops and public toilets are also located along the same River Yedzeram. Moreover, the inhabitants of the town either dump their refuse in the River or spread it on their farmlands as there is no provision of refuse dump site by the government. Therefore, five parameters (Nitrate, Magnesium, Copper, Calcium and Iron) were used to test thewater quality of water samples that were collected from twenty two commercial boreholes along the river, using the standard examination of water and waste water of the World Health Organization to determine the water quality of the boreholes. The study revealed that only eight out of the twenty two boreholes are of good quality, while the others are either of bad quality or not portable. ArcGIS 9.2 and ILWIS 3.3 software were used to analyze the laboratory results through the use of SQL queries. It was recommended that the government should provide portable water, establish water quality control board and make use of GIS for creation of database and analysis.

  9. Spatial Analysis of Phytophthora infestans Genotypes and Late Blight Severity on Tomato and Potato in the Del Fuerte Valley Using Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Garcia, R; Orum, T V; Felix-Gastelum, R; Trinidad-Correa, R; Vanetten, H D; Nelson, M R

    2001-12-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic structure of Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato and tomato late blight, was analyzed spatially in a mixed potato and tomato production area in the Del Fuerte Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico. Isolates of P. infestans were characterized by mating type, allozyme analysis at the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and peptidase loci, restriction fragment length polymorphism with probe RG57, metalaxyl sensitivity, and aggressiveness to tomato and potato. Spatial patterns of P. infestans genotypes were analyzed by geographical information systems and geo-statistics during the seasons of 1994-95, 1995-96, and 1996-97. Spatial analysis of the genetic structure of P. infestans indicates that geographic substructuring of this pathogen occurs in this area. Maps displaying the probabilities of occurrence of mating types and genotypes of P. infestans, and of disease severity at a regional scale, were presented. Some genotypes that exhibited differences in epidemiologically important features such as metalaxyl sensitivity and aggressiveness to tomato and potato had a restricted spread and were localized in isolated areas. Analysis of late blight severity showed recurring patterns, such as the earliest onset of the disease in the area where both potato and tomato were growing, strengthening the hypothesis that infected potato tubers are the main source of primary inoculum. The information that geostatistical analysis provides might help improve management programs for late blight in the Del Fuerte Valley.

  10. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  11. Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

  12. Using volunteered geographic information to visualize ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), specifically geotagged photographs available from social media platforms, is a promising technology that can be utilized to identify public values for ecosystem goods and services in a defined geographic area. VGI can help researchers indirectly survey and report on the values and preferences of communities involved in restoration and revitalization projects. We are using geotagged images from three social media platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Images are obtained for the neighborhoods to the St. Louis River in the Duluth, MN and analyzed along several dimensions including the spatial distribution of images from each platform and the types and frequencies of social values and ecosystem service depicted. This study will demonstrate a method for translating the values of ecosystem goods and services as captured in social media into spatially-explicit data. Study outcomes are the incorporation of social media-derived indicators of ecosystems services into City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development Sustainable and Healthy Community research. Not applicable

  13. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  14. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  15. The Role of Geographic Information in News Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremeskel, G.G.; Vries, A.P. de

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of geographic proximity in news consumption. Using a month-long log of user interactions with news items of ten information portals, we study the relationship between users' geographic locations and the geographic foci of information portals and local news categories. We find

  16. Fundamental problems on scale of geographical information science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wu, Hehai; Hu, Jie

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, the description of the scale of geographical information is mainly concerned with spatiality and its temporal character and semantic character is ignored. With a few of new techniques and way such as 3D geographical information system, temporal geographical information system, virtual geographical environment, electronic map appears, the traditional description of scale of geographical information shows its deficiencies to make certain of every aspect of it. At first, in this paper we try to extend the connotation and the dimension of scale of geographical information to full the need of describing the every aspects of it, and give three-tiered conceptualization of its scale as: kinds of scale; dimensions of scale; components of scale. The dimension of scale of geographical information is consisted of spatial dimension, temporal dimension and semantic dimension. The classifications of scale of geographical information are of phenomena scale, measure scale and token scale. The components of scale of geographical information are of extension, granularity (resolution) and interval. It is through the Cartesian product of kinds of scale and components of scale can we define the particulars of every aspects of scale of geographical information. At last in this paper the transform of scale of geographical information and issue of scale choice is discussed.

  17. Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

    2000-01-01

    As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

  18. U.S.-Mexico Border Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the development of extensive geodatabases have become invaluable tools for addressing a variety of contemporary societal issues and for making predictions about the future. The United States-Mexico Geographic Information System (USMX-GIS) is based on fundamental datasets that are produced and/or approved by the national geography agencies of each country, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico, and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The data are available at various scales to allow both regional and local analysis. The USGS and the INEGI have an extensive history of collaboration for transboundary mapping including exchanging digital technology and developing methods for harmonizing seamless national level geospatial datasets for binational environmental monitoring, urban growth analysis, and other scientific applications.

  19. A scoping review of geographic information systems in maternal health

    OpenAIRE

    Makanga, Prestige T.; Schuurman, Nadine; von Dadelszen, Peter; Firoz, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly recognized tools in maternal health. Objectives To evaluate the use of GIS in maternal health and to identify knowledge gaps and opportunities. Search strategy Keywords broadly related to maternal health and GIS were used to search for academic articles and gray literature. Selection criteria Reviewed articles focused on maternal health, with GIS used as part of the methods. Data collection and analysis Peer reviewed articles (n...

  20. Volunteered Geographic Information in Natural Hazard Analysis: A Systematic Literature Review of Current Approaches with a Focus on Preparedness and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Klonner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of new technologies, citizens can contribute to scientific research via Web 2.0 applications for collecting and distributing geospatial data. Integrating local knowledge, personal experience and up-to-date geoinformation indicates a promising approach for the theoretical framework and the methods of natural hazard analysis. Our systematic literature review aims at identifying current research and directions for future research in terms of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI within natural hazard analysis. Focusing on both the preparedness and mitigation phase results in eleven articles from two literature databases. A qualitative analysis for in-depth information extraction reveals auspicious approaches regarding community engagement and data fusion, but also important research gaps. Mainly based in Europe and North America, the analysed studies deal primarily with floods and forest fires, applying geodata collected by trained citizens who are improving their knowledge and making their own interpretations. Yet, there is still a lack of common scientific terms and concepts. Future research can use these findings for the adaptation of scientific models of natural hazard analysis in order to enable the fusion of data from technical sensors and VGI. The development of such general methods shall contribute to establishing the user integration into various contexts, such as natural hazard analysis.

  1. Crowdsourcing, citizen science or volunteered geographic information? The current state of crowdsourced geographic information

    OpenAIRE

    See, Linda; Mooney, Peter; Foody, Giles; Bastin, Lucy; COMBER Alexis; Estima, Jacinto; Fritz, Steffen; Kerle, Norman; Jiang, Bin; Laakso, Mari; Liu, Hai Ying; Milčinski, Grega; Nikšieč, Matej; Painho, Marco; Pődör, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe da...

  2. Crowdsourcing, Citizen Science or Volunteered Geographic Information? The Current State of Crowdsourced Geographic Information

    OpenAIRE

    L. See; P. Mooney; Foody, G; L. Bastin; Comber, A; Estima, J; Fritz, S; KERLE N.; Jiang, B; Laakso, M; Liu, HY; Milcinski, G.; Nikšieč, M; Painho, M.; Podör, A.

    2016-01-01

    Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe da...

  3. Crowdsourcing, Citizen Science or Volunteered Geographic Information? The Current State of Crowdsourced Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda See

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe data arising from citizens. In this article, the expressions used to describe citizen sensing of geographic information are reviewed and their use over time explored, prior to categorizing them and highlighting key issues in the current state of the subject. The latter involved a review of ~100 Internet sites with particular focus on their thematic topic, the nature of the data and issues such as incentives for contributors. This review suggests that most sites involve active rather than passive contribution, with citizens typically motivated by the desire to aid a worthy cause, often receiving little training. As such, this article provides a snapshot of the role of citizens in crowdsourcing geographic information and a guide to the current status of this rapidly emerging and evolving subject.

  4. Representing Uncertain Geographical Information with Algorithmic Map Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsdon, Chris

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of geographical information - including the results ion data analysis - is imprecise in some way. For example the the results of geostatistical interpolation should consist not only of point estimates of the value of some quantity at points in space, but also of confidence intervals or standard errors of these estimators. Similarly, mappings of contour lines derived form such interpolations will also be characterised by uncertainty. However, most computerized cartography tools are designed to provide 'crisp' representations of geographical information, such as sharply drawn lines, or clearly delineated areas. In this talk, the use of 'fuzzy' or 'sketchy' cartographic tools will be demonstrated - where maps have a hand-drawn appearance and the degree of 'roughness' and other related characteristics can be used to convey the degree of uncertainty associated with estimated quantities being mapped. The tools used to do this are available as an R package, which will be described in the talk.

  5. Advances in spatial epidemiology and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Russell S; Delmelle, Eric; Eberth, Jan M

    2017-01-01

    The field of spatial epidemiology has evolved rapidly in the past 2 decades. This study serves as a brief introduction to spatial epidemiology and the use of geographic information systems in applied research in epidemiology. We highlight technical developments and highlight opportunities to apply spatial analytic methods in epidemiologic research, focusing on methodologies involving geocoding, distance estimation, residential mobility, record linkage and data integration, spatial and spatio-temporal clustering, small area estimation, and Bayesian applications to disease mapping. The articles included in this issue incorporate many of these methods into their study designs and analytical frameworks. It is our hope that these studies will spur further development and utilization of spatial analysis and geographic information systems in epidemiologic research.

  6. Generalisation of geographic information cartographic modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackaness, William A; Sarjakoski, L Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale MappingUsers have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) for Lousiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2007) [GNIS_LA_USGS_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. A Secured Framework for Geographical Information Applications on Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennatallah H. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current geographical information applications increasingly require managing spatial data through the Web. Users of geographical information application need not only to display the spatial data but also to interactively modify them. As a result, the security risks that face geographical information applications are also increasing. In this paper, a secured framework is proposed. The proposed framework's goal is, providing a fine grained access control to web-based geographic information applications. A case study is finally applied to prove the proposed framework feasibility and effectiveness.

  9. Spatial Analysis in Educational Administration: Exploring the Role of G.I.S. (Geographical Information Systems) as an Evaluative Tool in the Public School Board Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert S.; Baird, William; Rosolen, Lisa

    In January 1998, seven school boards amalgamated to form the Toronto District School Board, a board responsible for 600 schools. To deal with the complexities of the new entity, researchers have been using geographical information systems (GIS). GIS are computer-based tools for mapping. They store information as a collection of thematic layers or…

  10. Geographical information system analysis for oceanographic parameters in the coastal waters of Goa, India - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Joglekar, V.V.

    , temperature and salinity and other chemical parameters are converted to raster format. The procedure employed can be applied to other environmental management tasks like risk analysis, fishery resources etc. This paper mainly emphasis on the methodology...

  11. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  12. Development Trends of Cartography and Geographic Information Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the problems of cartography and geographic information engineering and increasing demands of national and military infomationization construction, the paper proposes six hotspots on the research of cartography and geographic information engineering for the future on the foundation of analyzing the development track of cartology, which are heterogeneous geospatial data assimilation, transferring from emphasizing geography infor-mation gaining to user-oriented geographic information deep processing, web or grid geographic information service. intelligent spatial data generalization. integration of GIS and VGE. cartography and geographic information engineering theory system with multi-mode(Map,.GlS..VGE spatial-temporal integrated cognition as the core. And discusses the necessity ,existing groundwork and research contents on studying these hotspots.

  13. Geographical Information Systems: A Tool for Institutional Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, James E.; Carlson, Christina E.

    This paper addresses the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), a computerized tool for associating key information by geographical location, to the institutional research function at institutions of higher education. The first section investigates the potential of GIS as an analytical and planning tool for institutional…

  14. Spatial data structures in geographic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, P.J.M. van

    1988-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Geographic Infomation Systems (GISs) with respect to the Data Model. We introduce a classification of the types of data that one encounters in GISs. The requirements for the GIS Data Model, that we are developing, are summarized in a short list. The known solutions

  15. A multi-agent system architecture for geographic information gathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gang-Yi; Wang, Shen-Kang

    2004-11-01

    World Wide Web (WWW) is a vast repository of information, including a great deal of geographic information. But the location and retrieval of geographic information will require a significant amount of time and effort. In addition, different users usually have different views and interests in the same information. To resolve such problems, this paper first proposed a model of geographic information gathering based on multi-Agent (MA) architecture. Then based on this model, we construct a prototype system with GML (Geography Markup Language). This system consists of three tiers-Client, Web Server and Data Resource. Finally, we expatiate on the process of Web Server.

  16. A multi-Agent system architecture for geographic information gathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高刚毅; 王申康

    2004-01-01

    World Wide Web (WWW) is a vast repository of information, including a great deal of geographic information. But the location and retrieval of geographic information will require a significant amount of time and effort. In addition, different users usually have different views and interests in the same information. To resolve such problems, this paper first proposed a model of geographic information gathering based on multi-Agent (MA) architecture. Then based on this model, we construct a prototype system with GML (Geography Markup Language). This system consists of three tiers-Client, Web Server and Data Resource. Finally, we expatiate on the process of Web Server.

  17. Urban vegetation cover extraction from hyperspectral imagery and geographic information system spatial analysis techniques: case of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios P.; Georgopoulou, Iro A.; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the performance of two different pixel-based classifiers [spectral angle mapper (SAM) and support vector machines (SVMs)] in discriminating different land-cover classes in a typical urban setting, focusing particularly on urban vegetation cover by utilizing hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) data. As a case study, the city of Athens, Greece, was used. Validation of urban vegetation predictions was based on the error matrix statistics. Additionally, the final urban vegetation cover maps were compared at a municipality level against reference urban vegetation cover estimates derived from the digitization of very high-resolution imagery. To ensure consistency and comparability of the results, the same training and validation points dataset were used to compare the different classifiers. The results showed that SVMs outperformed SAM in terms of both classification and urban vegetation cover mapping with an overall accuracy of 86.53% and Kappa coefficient 0.823, whereas for SAM classification, the accuracy statistics obtained were 75.13% and 0.673, respectively. Our results confirmed the ability of both techniques, when combined with Hyperion imagery, to extract urban vegetation cover for the case of a densely populated city with complex urban features, such as Athens. Our findings offer significant information at the local scale as regards to the presence of open green spaces in the urban environment of Athens. Such information is vital for successful infrastructure development, urban landscape planning, and improvement of urban environment. More widely, this study also contributes significantly toward an objective assessment of Hyperion in detecting and mapping urban vegetation cover.

  18. Social Media Geographic Information in Tourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Floris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social media are playing an increasingly important role as information resource in tourism both for customers (i.e. the tourists, who gather trustworthy information supporting the choice of destinations and services from peers, and for businesses, which can use the same information for improving their marketing strategies. The use of social media data can also offer new opportunities for decision-support in tourism planning. With improved understanding of the motivations of tourists and tailoring tourism service supply, decision making can be facilitated by emphasizing the strengths of tourist destinations for past and potential visitors. However, this kind of information about tourists perceptions and opinions is not always properly analysed by planners. Understanding the user satisfaction, which depends on factors related to both the location and the services that the local industry proposes, may offer valuable information in tourism planning at regional and local level.  In the light of the above premises, the goal of the study presented in this paper is to propose an integrated approach to investigate the relationships between tourists satisfaction, destination resources and tourism industry for supporting design and decision-making in regional tourism planning. The methodology developed in the study includes data collection from popular tourism social media platforms (i.e. Booking.com and TripAdvisor.com.com, and their integration with territorial and tourism data. Spatial and statistical analysis techniques are then applied to elicit insights from tourists perceptions on success factors which may be used in decision-making and planning support. The case study demonstrates the value of social media data and computational social science techniques in tourism planning. The paper concludes with a critical discussion on the potential of using such an approach in more general urban and regional planning setting.

  19. The spatial analysis on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Jiangsu province, China based on geographic information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Bao

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is endemic in mainland China, accounting for 90% of total reported cases worldwide, and Jiangsu is one of the most severely affected provinces. In this study, the authors conducted GIS-based spatial analyses in order to determine the spatial distribution of the HFRS cases, identify key areas and explore risk factors for public health planning and resource allocation.Interpolation maps by inverse distance weighting were produced to detect the spatial distribution of HFRS cases in Jiangsu from 2001 to 2011. Spatio-temporal clustering was applied to identify clusters at the county level. Spatial correlation analysis was conducted to detect influencing factors of HFRS in Jiangsu.HFRS cases in Jiangsu from 2001 to 2011 were mapped and the results suggested that cases in Jiangsu were not distributed randomly. Cases were mainly distributed in northeastern and southwestern Jiangsu, especially in Dafeng and Sihong counties. It was notable that prior to this study, Sihong county had rarely been reported as a high-risk area of HFRS. With the maximum spatial size of 50% of the total population and the maximum temporal size of 50% of the total population, spatio-temporal clustering showed that there was one most likely cluster (LLR = 624.52, P<0.0001, RR = 8.19 and one second-most likely cluster (LLR = 553.97, P<0.0001, RR = 8.25, and both of these clusters appeared from 2001 to 2004. Spatial correlation analysis showed that the incidence of HFRS in Jiangsu was influenced by distances to highways, railways, rivers and lakes.The application of GIS together with spatial interpolation, spatio-temporal clustering and spatial correlation analysis can effectively identify high-risk areas and factors influencing HFRS incidence to lay a foundation for researching its pathogenesis.

  20. 选择电力地理信息系统平台的分析%Analysis of Choosing the Platform in Power Geographic Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘理峰; 孙才新; 周泉; 金学军; 李小平

    2001-01-01

    Geographic Information System(GIS) is playing more and more important role in information management of power system. The popular GIS platform products include GeoMedia, Arc/Info, MapInfo and MicroStation. The choosing and using of power GIS platform should obey the rule in power system reality. Based on their preponderant application in geographic industry, Arc/Info and MapInfo have been successfully used in power system. The scheme of power GIS platform is put forward in this paper, referenced to the judgement and analysis of these prevailing platform, and the example of "GIS information system in Chongqing YuBei Power Supply Bureau" is given. This example shows the powerful twice developing ability, the profound network topology analysis ability of this method, which could also satisfy the needs of excessive and separate work nodes and parallel operation. All researches showed in this paper demonstrate the method could satisfy the need of power GIS.%地理信息系统(GIS)在电力系统信息管理中起着越来越重要的作用。目前GIS平台主要有GeoMedia、Arc/Info、MapInfo和MicroStation四种产品。电力GIS平台的选择和使用必须从电力系统实际出发,借助于各自在地理行业的优势,Arc/Info和MapInfo产品已成功进入电力市场。通过对目前几种GIS通用平台的深入比较、分析,提出了一种基于GeoMedia的电力GIS平台解决方案,并介绍了该平台方案在“重庆渝北供电局GIS综合信息系统”中的应用。应用表明该方案具有强大的二次开发能力,满足工作节点多且分散、并发操作强的要求,具有良好的网络拓扑分析功能,能够满足电力GIS的要求。

  1. Landscape Analysis of Geographical Names in Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hubei Province is the hub of communications in central China, which directly determines its strategic position in the country’s development. Additionally, Hubei Province is well-known for its diverse landforms, including mountains, hills, mounds and plains. This area is called “The Province of Thousand Lakes” due to the abundance of water resources. Geographical names are exclusive names given to physical or anthropogenic geographic entities at specific spatial locations and are important signs by which humans understand natural and human activities. In this study, geographic information systems (GIS technology is adopted to establish a geodatabase of geographical names with particular characteristics in Hubei Province and extract certain geomorphologic and environmental factors. We carry out landscape analysis of mountain-related geographical names and water-related geographical names respectively. In the end, we calculate the information entropy of geographical names of each county to describe the diversity and inhomogeneity of place names in Hubei province. Our study demonstrates that geographical names represent responses to the cultural landscape and physical environment. The geographical names are more interesting in specific landscapes, such as mountains and rivers.

  2. THE MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Based on the combination of Geographical information system(GIS)with the research ofToponymy,some foundational problems of the Geographical Name Information System(GINS)are discussed in this paper.The present situation of Toponymical research is anal-ysed and the necessity of introducing the GIS tools to the research of Toponymy is demon-strated.The conceptual model of the GNIS and the structure of Geographical name Database(GND)are discussed.The basic functions of the GNIS software for management and re-search of geographical name are suggested.Some issues are stated such as the applicationand potential of the combination of GIS with CAD in the management and research of To-ponymy,the combination of GNIS with other spatial information system and sharing the in-formation with each other,the research and development of GNIS, etc.

  3. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  4. Ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qin; Li, Deren; Zhang, Xia; Xia, Yu

    2009-10-01

    Metadata is important to facilitate data sharing among Geospatial Information Communities in distributed environment. For unanimous understanding and standard production of metadata annotations, metadata specifications are documented such as Geographic Information Metadata Standard (ISO19115-2003), the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM), and so on. Though these specifications provide frameworks for description of geographic data, there are two problems which embarrass sufficiently data sharing. One problem is that specifications are lack of domainspecific semantics. Another problem is that specifications can not always solve semantic heterogeneities. To solve the former problem, an ontology-based geographic information metadata extension framework is proposed which can incorporate domain-specific semantics. Besides, for solving the later problem, metadata integration mechanism based on the proposed extension is studied. In this paper, integration of metadata is realized through integration of ontologies. So integration of ontologies is also discussed. By ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration, sharing of geographic data is realized more efficiently.

  5. Change of Geographic Information Service Model in Mobile Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fu; DU Qingyun

    2005-01-01

    A research on that how the topic of mobility, which is completely different but tightly relevant to space, provides new approaches and methods so as to promote the further development of geographic information services, will accumulate basic experience for different types of relative information systems in the wide fields of location based services. This paper analyzes the meaning of mobility and the change for geographic information service model, it describes the differences and correlation between M-GIS and traditional GIS. It sets a technical framework of geographic information services according to mobile context and provides a case study.

  6. Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Eric Alan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

  7. A geographic information system for local public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Oers (Johannes Anna Maria)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis book deals with the development and use of a geographic information system for local public health policy. Health differences between populations in different geographical areas, large (countries) or small (city-neighbourhoods) have always been a challenge to epidemiologists and pol

  8. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS) techniques--exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping--to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and "other" age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  9. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  10. The use of geographical information system in health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechili, Aggelos; Zimeras, Stelios; Al-Fantel, Konstantina; Diomidous, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The provision of health care has undergone radical changes during the last years. Geography plays an important role in understanding the dynamics of health, as well as the reasons why a disease is spreading. In general, a Geographic Information System (GIS) is based on the same principals with a traditional relational database. The main idea behind this study is the methodological approach as far as the implementation of a real- time electronic healthcare record is concerned, for the descriptive statistical analysis that uses geographical information to identify spatial data related to accidents. The purpose of developing such a health care record is to record the patients who were injured in accidents. The database that will be used for the development of the EHR is based on Microsoft Office 2007, which is considered to be one of the best tools for developing databases. The main table of the database includes the fields with demographics, ie name, surname, age, sex, address and place of birth. The primary key of the table Demographics is Patient_ID. The demographics from the table are connected to the table Admission with a relationship type one- to- many. The combination of these features in a graphic representation can be used to display the health problems on the map, so that the proper health policies can be applied. The results of the monitoring could be used as pilot instructions for spatial epidemiological analysis.

  11. Research and implementation of geographic information service mode in digital home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, B.; Liu, K.; Gan, Y.; Zhong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Accompanying infrastructure improvements and networking technology innovation, the development of digital home service industry has gotten more and more attention. However, the digital home service levels have not sufficiently met rising demand from users. Therefore, it is urgent to propose and develop new service modes for the digital home. Geographic information services can provide various spatial information services such as map search, spatial information query. It has become an inevitable trend to implement geographic information services in the digital home. This paper proposes three new geographic information services modes for the digital home after sufficient requirement analysis: pushed information service mode, interactive information service mode, personalized information service mode. The key technologies to implement geographic information services on digital televisions are studied, involving digital television middleware technology, network transmission technology and visualization technology. According to the service modes' characteristics mentioned above, a service system in the digital home is established to implement geographic information services on the basis of digital television. The implementation of geographic information services in the digital home not only enriches the digital home services content, but also promotes geographic information from specialization to public popularity.

  12. Function Analyses of Geographic Information System on Rural Distribution Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Junlong; FAN Yongcun; ZHANG Chunmei; GU Shumin

    2006-01-01

    With the actuality and characteristic and requirement of rural power enterprise distribution network management, this article introduced the function of geographic information system on the framework of distribution network, in order to develop rural distribution network.

  13. Geographic Information Systems in the Classroom: Methods and Philosophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Terry J.; Burley, Jon Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Describes the curriculum, philosophic perspectives, and student products related to teaching Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and landscape planning by examining a college course in the GIS and landscape instructional area taught at the University of Michigan. (JRH)

  14. The application of Yangtze Estuary Tidal Wetlands Geographic Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJun; CHENZhenlou; XUShiyuan; WANGDongqi; LIUJie

    2005-01-01

    Yangtze Estuary Tidal Wetlands Geographic Information System (YETWGIS) is a comprehensive software system for environmental management and decision of Yangtze estuary tidal wetlands. Based on MapObjects components technology, Data Mining technology, mathematical modeling method and Visual Basic language, this software system has many functions such as displaying, editing, querying and searching, spatial statistics and analysis, thematic map compiling, and environmental quality evaluation. This paper firstly outlined the system structure, key techniques, and achieving methods of YETWGIS, and then, described the core modules (the thematic map compiling module and environmental quality evaluation model module) in detail. In addition, based on information entropy model, it thoroughly discussed the methods of environmental quality evaluation and indicators' weight calculation. Finally, by using YETWGIS, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of Heavy Metal and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) of the Yangtze estuary tidal wetlands in 2002, and evaluated the environmental quality of the Yangtze estuary tidal wetlands in 2003.

  15. Application of a geographical information system for information management on pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Danilo Pacheco González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: tuberculosis program is a priority for the National Health System in Cuba. The difficulties encountered in dealing with the disease are associated, directly or indirectly, to a restricted knowledge management by the health system. Objective: to implement a geographical information system to manage information on pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: retrospective, descriptive and correlational study conducted between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2007. It included the 155 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in 15 years old patients and on in the province of Cienfuegos. MapInfo 8.5 software was used to design the geographical information system. Theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were combined. Results: the elimination of the geographical aspect as an obstacle for carrying out preventive actions established in the program and for the stratification of pulmonary tuberculosis according to its incidence in districts and neighbourhoods of the city. Conclusions: the designed geographical information system is an auxiliary technological tool that improves information management on pulmonary tuberculosis in Cienfuegos as the basis for a variety of analysis and the generation of new knowledge.

  16. Analysis of the relationships between esophageal cancer cases and climatic factors using a Geographic Information System (GIS): a case study of Ardabil province in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahari, Saeid Sadeghieh; Agdam, Fridoon Babaei; Amani, Firouz; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Akhghari, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a mjaor health problems in many parts of the world. A geographical information system (GIS) allows investigation of the geographical distribution of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between esophageal cancer and effective climatic factors using GIS. The dispersion distribution and the relationship between environmental factors effective on cancer were measured using Arc GIS. The highest degree of spread was in Germi town and the least was in Ardabil city. There was a significant relationship between effective environmental factors and esophageal cancer in Ardabil province. The results indicated that environmental factors probably are influential in determining the incidence of esophageal cancer. Also, these results can be considered as a window to future comprehensive research on esophageal cancer and related risk factors.

  17. Research on digital city geographic information common services platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dequan; Wu, Qunyong; Wang, Qinmin

    2008-10-01

    Traditional GIS (Geographic Information System) software development mode exposes many defects that will largely slow down the city informational progress. It is urgent need to build a common application infrastructure for informational project to speed up the development pace of digital city. The advent of service-oriented architecture (SOA) has motivated the adoption of GIS functionality portals that can be executed in distributed computing environment. According to the SOA principle, we bring forward and design a digital city geographic information common services platform which provides application development service interfaces for field users that can be further extended relevant business application. In the end, a public-oriented Web GIS is developed based on the platform for helping public users to query geographic information in their daily life. It indicates that our platform have the capacity that can be integrated by other applications conveniently.

  18. A multi-Agent system architecture for geographic information gathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高刚毅; 王申康

    2004-01-01

    World Wide Web(WWW)is a vast repository of information,including a great deal of geographic information.But the location and retrieval of geographic information will require a significant amount of time and effort. In addition,different users usually have different views and interests in the same information. To resolve such problems,this paper first proposed a model of geographic information gathering based on multi-Agent(MA)architecture. Then based on this model,we construct a prototype system with GML(Geography Markup Language). This system consists of three tiers-Client,Web Server and Data Resource. Finally,we expatiate on the process of Web Server.

  19. Geographical Information System Redefined for Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    K., Srinivasan; Anand, V Nath

    2004-01-01

    In Kerala, the revenue generated by tourism i assessed as 6.29% of GDP and the employment in tourism is estimated as 7 lakhs. Total investments worth over Rs.500 Cr. has come into Kerala on account of the State's prioritizing the creation of basic infrastructure to support tourism and adopting a policy that i eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable says Kerala's Tourism's ministrer in 2003. The importance of information technology in increasing in all the sectors. Tourism one of the larg...

  20. Usage of the game technologies engines for the purpose of modern geographic information systems creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigalov Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern professional geographic information systems significantly lagged behind in quality of 3D graphics, which complicates their full application in the existing conditions. The main differences of the principles of game engines work from the principles of creation of professional geographic information systems structure are considered in the article. These aspects interfere with construction of modern from the graphic point of view, geographic information systems. The analysis of the contradictions considered in article will allow minimizing them at application of game engines (for example, Unity for reduction in cost and acceleration of production of modern GIS of new generation.

  1. µ-shapes: Delineating urban neighborhoods using volunteered geographic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Aadland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban neighborhoods are a unique form of geography in that their boundaries rely on a social definition rather than a well-defined physical or administrative boundary. Currently, geographic gazetteers capture little more than then the centroid of a neighborhood, limiting potential applications of the data. In this paper, we present µ-shapes, an algorithm that employs fuzzy-set theory to model neighborhood boundaries suitable for populating gazetteers using volunteered geographic information (VGI. The algorithm is evaluated using a reference dataset and VGI from the Map Kibera Project. A confusion matrix comparison between the reference dataset and µ-shape's output demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy. Analysis of variance indicated that the algorithm was able to distinguish between boundary and interior blocks. This suggests that, given the existing state of GIS technology, the µ-shapes algorithm can enable neighborhood-related queries that incorporate spatial uncertainty, e.g., find all restaurants within the core of a neighborhood.

  2. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  3. Optimization analysis of bus lines based on geographical information system%基于GIS的公交线路优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦明连; 贾艳红; 陈海燕

    2013-01-01

    针对公交线路规划设计的特点与目标,以实地采集数据及地图数据为基础,利用GIS空间分析中的缓冲区分析、叠置分析及网络分析功能,以江苏省连云港市新浦区某实验区为例,对研究区域的公交站点辐射范围、区域交通设施完备度、区域交通便捷度和区域交通道路通达性指标进行了分析。并结合空间信息叠置原理,以沟通淮海工学院苍梧校区与通灌校区的公交线路为例,以路线长短和乘客数量为权重进行网络分析,并结合研究区公交站点辐射范围、区域交通设施完备度、区域交通便捷度和区域交通道路通达性分析结果,对现有公交线路优化问题进行了分析。明确了目前公共交通存在的若干问题,为进一步实施公交线网优化方案及提高公交运行效率提供参考。研究表明,GIS技术对于解决城市公共交通线路优化和分析问题具有重要作用。%According to the characteristics and objectives of planning and design of bus lines, some indices are analyzed based on the map and data acquiring on the spot in Xinpu District of Lianyungang City in Jiangsu Province, China.The indices include the radiation scope of bus stops, the facilities complete degree of regional transportation, the convenience degree of regional transportation and the accessible degree of regional road.The technology of the geographical information system ( GIS) is introduced to this study, including spatial buffer analysis and spatial information overlay and network analysis.The optimal choice for the bus line from Cangwu campus to Tongguan campus of the Hua-ihai Institute of Technology is carried out based on the spatial network analysis by the weight of the length of bus lines and the quantity of passengers.The results are imported into this optimal choice simultaneously from the radiation scope of bus stops, the facilities complete degree of regional trans-portation, the

  4. Dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes based on remote sensing and geographic information system: an example in Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. C.; Dong, X. F.; Wang, J. H.

    2007-11-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau is suffering from severe soil erosion. The eco-environmental changes of the plateau are believed to have an important influence on global eco-environmental sustainability; hence, this problem has attracted considerable attention from scientists around the world. This study has two purposes; application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in the dynamic analysis of eco-environmental changes in the semiarid zone; and using the Longdong region of the Chinese Loess Plateau as an example, to make dynamic analysis of the eco-environmental changes of the region during the 1986 2004 period and identify controlling factors. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data at a spatial resolution of 30 m were used for analysis. Two training areas were selected in Jingning and Qingcheng counties for analysis using 10-m resolution SPOT and Landsat TM data. The satellite RS images were obtained from the Institute of Remote Sensing Application (IRSA), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Each images was rectified by Albers Equal Area Conic projection based on 1:50,000 scale topographic maps after spectrum preparation of the images. To make the precision within 1 or 2 pixels, the accurate coordinative control points of the two systems were identified. Then the interpretation key was established based on the land use/cover survey in the study area. The images were classified into six primary environmental types (farmland, forest, grassland, water, construction area, and desert) and 25 sub-types using a visual image interactive interpretation method to obtain vector and attribute data. The resultant accuracy of the land use/cover classification reached 95%. Finally, the transformation areas and ratios of various eco-environmental types in the region were calculated to obtain the transition matrixes of eco-environmental types in the two training areas, Jingning and Qingcheng. This study demonstrates that satellite RS and GIS techniques

  5. Property regimes and the commodification of geographic information: An examination of Google Street View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Alvarez León

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The body of information on the Internet is becoming increasingly geographical. This is both due to the expansion of established categories of geographic information (e.g., digital maps and geospatial databases and to the simultaneous enrichment of other types of information through geographic identifiers (e.g., geotags, check-ins, and global positioning system coordinates. As this repository of geographic information expands, it is also a key site for multiple processes of commodification transforming informational resources into market goods. Understanding the dynamics driving the integration of geographic information into the digital economy requires a comprehensive political economic analysis. A key component of this analysis is to explain the logics of creation and allocation of economic value from geographic information on the Internet. Addressing this need, in the present article I deploy the property regimes schema developed by Schlager and Ostrom and expand it to elucidate the differentiated commodification processes of geographic information on the Internet. Property regimes are arrangements that define rules, distribute rights, and delineate roles with respect to particular goods. These arrangements are enabled by elements such as legal frameworks, jurisdictions, type of information, and technologies of access. In this article, I explore how the legal frameworks regulating traditional categories of geographic information (such as maps have been destabilized in the process of technological innovation, leading to the creation of new informational goods along with their respective property regimes, and rearticulating legal, economic, and sociotechnical relations. To illustrate this, I analyze the case of Google Street View images through their property regimes in various jurisdictions.

  6. Volunteered Geographic Information and Computational Geography: New Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), one of the most important types of user-generated web content, has been emerging as a new phenomenon. VGI is contributed by numerous volunteers and supported by web 2.0 technologies. This chapter discusses how VGI provides new perspectives for computational geography, a transformed geography based on the use of data-intensive computing and simulations to uncover the underlying mechanisms behind geographic forms and processes. We provide several exemplars of computational geography using OpenStreetMap data and GPS traces to investigate the scaling of geographic space and its implications for human mobility patterns. We illustrate that the field of geography is experiencing a dramatic change and that geoinformatics and computational geography deserve to be clearly distinguished, with the former being a study of engineering and the latter being a science. Keywords geoinformatics, openstreetmap, scaling of geographic space, spatial heterogeneity

  7. Land use suitability analysis of the Upper Basin of the Kara Menderes River using analytical hierarchy process and geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Akbulak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development links to a rationalistic and effective use of resources. Presently, growth in human needs for a variety of reasons causes a great pressure on the existing resources, which has induced in misuse-based deterioration of lands as well as increase in poverty and several kinds of social problems. In this context, due to rapid growth of population in Turkey, the most appropriate use of lands according to their potentials is essential, because sustainability of environments can only be achieved on condition that natural and cultural potentials are appointed and the land use is enforced in compliance with ecological properties. In previous attempts of land suitability analyses, the subject “the most proper use of land” has been the focus of several authors.In this study, land suitability analysis of the upper basin of the Kara Menderes River was carried out, which drains the Biga Peninsula, west of the Marmara Region in Turkey, on the basis of geographical information systems and analytical hierarchy process, a technique used for multi-criteria decision making studies. After the determination of suitability in terms of the main three land use types, i.e. agriculture, meadow-pasture and forest, an optimal land use map was produced and results were compared to the present-day land use situation. Based on optimal land use results, an area of 15.2% is suggested for agricultural activities. The area proposed for meadow-pasture lands corresponds to only about 8.5%. Forest areas constitute, however, the foremost class with the suggested value of 75,1%. When data from optimal land use is compared with that in the present-day conditions, it is noticed that the proportion of agricultural areas excesses the suggested value of optimal land use, as opposed to the proportions of forest and meadow-pasture areas having smaller distributions. This implies that some agricultural areas, which are recommended to be evaluated as forest and meadow

  8. Land use suitability analysis of the Upper Basin of the Kara Menderes River using analytical hierarchy process and geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Akbulak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development links to a rationalistic and effective use of resources. Presently, growth in human needs for a variety of reasons causes a great pressure on the existing resources, which has induced in misuse-based deterioration of lands as well as increase in poverty and several kinds of social problems. In this context, due to rapid growth of population in Turkey, the most appropriate use of lands according to their potentials is essential, because sustainability of environments can only be achieved on condition that natural and cultural potentials are appointed and the land use is enforced in compliance with ecological properties. In previous attempts of land suitability analyses, the subject “the most proper use of land” has been the focus of several authors.In this study, land suitability analysis of the upper basin of the Kara Menderes River was carried out, which drains the Biga Peninsula, west of the Marmara Region in Turkey, on the basis of geographical information systems and analytical hierarchy process, a technique used for multi-criteria decision making studies. After the determination of suitability in terms of the main three land use types, i.e. agriculture, meadow-pasture and forest, an optimal land use map was produced and results were compared to the present-day land use situation. Based on optimal land use results, an area of 15.2% is suggested for agricultural activities. The area proposed for meadow-pasture lands corresponds to only about 8.5%. Forest areas constitute, however, the foremost class with the suggested value of  75,1%. When data from optimal land use is compared with that in the present-day conditions, it is noticed that the proportion of agricultural areas excesses the suggested value of optimal land use, as opposed to the proportions of forest and meadow-pasture areas having smaller distributions. This implies that some agricultural areas, which are recommended to be evaluated as forest and

  9. The Geographic Information Grid System Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the deficiencies of current application systems, and discuss the key requirements of distributed Geographic Information service (GIS). We construct the distributed GIS on grid platform. Considering the flexibility and efficiency, we integrate the mobile agent technology into the system. We propose a new prototype system, the Geographic Information Grid System (GIGS) based on mobile agent. This system has flexible services and high performance, and improves the sharing of distributed resources. The service strategy of the system and the examples are also presented.

  10. Volunteered Geographic Information System Design: Project and Participation Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Pablo Gómez-Barrón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the early phases of a methodological proposal for designing and developing Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI initiatives based on a system perspective analysis in which the components depend and interact dynamically among each other. First, it focuses on those characteristics of VGI projects that present different goals and modes of organization, while using a crowdsourcing strategy to manage participants and contributions. Next, a tool is developed in order to design the central crowdsourced processing unit that is best suited for a specific project definition, associating it with a trend towards crowd-based or community-driven approaches. The design is structured around the characterization of different ways of participating, and the task cognitive demand of working on geo-information management, spatial problem solving and ideation, or knowledge acquisition. Then, the crowdsourcing process design helps to identify what kind of participants are needed and outline subsequent engagement strategies. This is based on an analysis of differences among volunteers’ participatory behaviors and the associated set of factors motivating them to contribute, whether on a crowd or community-sourced basis. From a VGI system perspective, this paper presents a set of guidelines and methodological steps in order to align project goals, processes and volunteers and thus successfully attract participation. This methodology helps establish the initial requirements for a VGI system, and, in its current state, it mainly focuses on two components of the system: project and participants.

  11. Role of geographic information system in malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V P; Srivastava, A

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we provide an account of our experience in the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) in understanding malaria transmission dynamics at the local level. Two studies have been briefly reviewed. One is the application of RS on the mosquito production in the Sanjay lake and surrounding areas in Delhi. Studies are demonstrated that remote sensing data were useful in assessing relative mosquito abundance from large water bodies. The second study was carried out in Nadiad taluka, Kheda district, Gujarat on the application of RS and GIS in a village-wise analysis of receptivity and vulnerability to malaria. For this study, remote sensed data and topo sheets of 1:50,000 and 1:125,000 were used in preparing thematic maps. Digitised overlaid maps were subjected to computer analysis using ARC/INFO 3.1 software. Malaria annual parasite incidence (API) showed relationship with water table followed by soil type, irrigation and water quality, other parameters also contributed to malaria receptivity but less significantly. Based on GIS analysis location specific malaria control strategy was suggested to achieve cost effective control of malaria on a sustainable basis.

  12. Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

    2012-09-01

    A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espírito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention.

  13. Teaching "with" Rather than "about" Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas C.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2009-01-01

    Both "teaching" and "teaching" with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are "wicked problems," in the sense that they involve multiple variables that interact with one another. Effective teaching calls for both learning with understanding and transfer. The authors' own experience implementing a geography and…

  14. Teaching "with" Rather than "about" Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas C.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2009-01-01

    Both "teaching" and "teaching" with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are "wicked problems," in the sense that they involve multiple variables that interact with one another. Effective teaching calls for both learning with understanding and transfer. The authors' own experience implementing a geography and geospatial inquiry project with middle…

  15. A reactive data structure for geographic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, P.J.M. van

    1989-01-01

    We introduce a Reactive Data Structure, that is a spatial data structure with detail levels. The two properties, spatial organization and detail levels, are the basis for a Geographic Information System with a multi-scale database. A reactive data structure is a novel type of data structure catering

  16. An interactive learning environment in Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS are computer-based tools for the input, management, analysis, modelling and display of geographical data. GIS are applied in a wide range of organizations and disciplines, including central and local government, environmental agencies, transport planning and vehicle navigation, education and research, utilities management, resource management, and the financial and retail sectors. GIS is a field of constantly changing technology, and it has been recognized that GIS education needs to be more than a 'once in a lifetime' event (Muller, 1993. Consequently, GIS teachers have developed computer-based materials for learners at all levels, from school students to postgraduates, and for the independent professional updating their skills and knowledge. To date, these materials have followed a number of approaches. Initially demonstrations of GIS software and its capabilities addressed the need to increase awareness of GIS and its applications (DoE, 1987. Arcdemo (Green, 1987 was an innovative early example, providing a demonstration of the software package Arc/Info online. Training in particular software, and the need for hands-on experience, have been addressed with the production of software-specific educational materials which use primarily traditional text-based instructions for exercises with specially prepared data. Examples include Getting started in GIS (Langford, 1993, the Unitar workbooks for Idrisi (for example McKendry et al, 1992 and Understanding GIS: the Arc/Info Method (ESRI, 1990. These have proved particularly popular, and by directing learners through structured exercises allow new users to become familiar with complex software in a relatively short time. More recently, they have migrated to CD-ROM, with training materials such as Getting to know Arcview (ESRI, 1995 provided in this format, and combining software, data and demonstrations.

  17. The NASA John C. Stennis Environmental Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Tyrus

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Introduction: Background information. Initial applications of the SSC EGIS. Ongoing projects. 2.Scope of SSC EGIS. 3. Data layers. 4. Onsite operations. 5. Landcover classifications. 6. Current activities. 7. GIS/Key. 8. Infrastructure base map - development. 9. Infrastructure base map - application. 10. Incorrected layer. 11. Corrected layer. 12. Emergency environmental response tool. 13. Future directions. 14. Bridging the gaps. 15. Environmental geographical information system.

  18. Geographic Information Systems in Evaluation and Visualization of Construction Schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, V. K.; Pal, Mahesh

    2008-01-01

    Commercially available scheduling tools such as Primavera and Microsoft Project fail to provide information pertaining to the spatial aspects of construction project. A methodology using geographical information systems (GIS) is developed to represent spatial aspects of the construction progress graphically by synchronizing it with construction schedule. The spatial aspects are depicted by 3D model developed in AutoCAD and construction schedule is generated using Microsoft Excel. Spatial and ...

  19. Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.

  20. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  1. Technology and Its Application:MIS with Geographical Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Despite the constant expansion of the application of GIS, in recent years, the data processing ability of the application system developed with GIS_Tool is quite limited. Management information system with the geographical information can not only be used to deal with data commonly, but also deal with digitized maps as GIS_Tool does. Thus it can help the user develop an application system high-qualified both in maps and traditional data. This paper, by taking the method of integrated MapInfo in the application of Visual Basic as an example, mainly illustrates two technological problems-integrated map technology and the multiuserization of Maplnfo geographical information. And also the concrete solutions to the problems are provided.

  2. Geographical Scale Effects on the Analysis of Leptospirosis Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gracie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis displays a great diversity of routes of exposure, reservoirs, etiologic agents, and clinical symptoms. It occurs almost worldwide but its pattern of transmission varies depending where it happens. Climate change may increase the number of cases, especially in developing countries, like Brazil. Spatial analysis studies of leptospirosis have highlighted the importance of socioeconomic and environmental context. Hence, the choice of the geographical scale and unit of analysis used in the studies is pivotal, because it restricts the indicators available for the analysis and may bias the results. In this study, we evaluated which environmental and socioeconomic factors, typically used to characterize the risks of leptospirosis transmission, are more relevant at different geographical scales (i.e., regional, municipal, and local. Geographic Information Systems were used for data analysis. Correlations between leptospirosis incidence and several socioeconomic and environmental indicators were calculated at different geographical scales. At the regional scale, the strongest correlations were observed between leptospirosis incidence and the amount of people living in slums, or the percent of the area densely urbanized. At the municipal scale, there were no significant correlations. At the local level, the percent of the area prone to flooding best correlated with leptospirosis incidence.

  3. Geographical Scale Effects on the Analysis of Leptospirosis Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, Renata; Barcellos, Christovam; Magalhães, Mônica; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis displays a great diversity of routes of exposure, reservoirs, etiologic agents, and clinical symptoms. It occurs almost worldwide but its pattern of transmission varies depending where it happens. Climate change may increase the number of cases, especially in developing countries, like Brazil. Spatial analysis studies of leptospirosis have highlighted the importance of socioeconomic and environmental context. Hence, the choice of the geographical scale and unit of analysis used in the studies is pivotal, because it restricts the indicators available for the analysis and may bias the results. In this study, we evaluated which environmental and socioeconomic factors, typically used to characterize the risks of leptospirosis transmission, are more relevant at different geographical scales (i.e., regional, municipal, and local). Geographic Information Systems were used for data analysis. Correlations between leptospirosis incidence and several socioeconomic and environmental indicators were calculated at different geographical scales. At the regional scale, the strongest correlations were observed between leptospirosis incidence and the amount of people living in slums, or the percent of the area densely urbanized. At the municipal scale, there were no significant correlations. At the local level, the percent of the area prone to flooding best correlated with leptospirosis incidence. PMID:25310536

  4. Geographic Information Systems in Evaluation and Visualization of Construction Schedule

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, V K

    2008-01-01

    Commercially available scheduling tools such as Primavera and Microsoft Project fail to provide information pertaining to the spatial aspects of construction project. A methodology using geographical information systems (GIS) is developed to represent spatial aspects of the construction progress graphically by synchronizing it with construction schedule. The spatial aspects are depicted by 3D model developed in AutoCAD and construction schedule is generated using Microsoft Excel. Spatial and scheduling information are linked together into the GIS environment (ArcGIS). The GIS-based system developed in this study may help in better understanding the schedule along with its spatial aspects.

  5. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM-BASED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR SITE SELECTION OF GREEN MUSSEL, Perna viridis, MARICULTURE IN LADA BAY, PANDEGLANG, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel is one of important species cultured in Lada Bay, Pandeglang. To provide a necessary guidance regarding green mussel mariculture development, finding suitable site is an important step. This study was conducted to identify suitable site for green mussel mariculture development using geographic information system (GIS based models. Seven important parameters were grouped into two submodels, namely environmental (water temperature, salinity, suspended solid, dissolve oxygen, and bathymetry and infrastructural (distance to settlement and pond aquaculture. A constraint data was used to exclude the area from suitability maps that cannot be allowed to develop green mussel mariculture, including area of floating net fishing activity and area near electricity station. Analyses of factors and constraints indicated that about 31% of potential area with bottom depth less than 25 m had the most suitable area. This area was shown to have an ideal condition for green mussel mariculture in this study region. This study shows that GIS model is a powerful tool for site selection decision making. The tool can be a valuable tool in solving problems in local, regional, and/or continent areas.

  6. The role of Volunteered Geographic Information in participatory planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne-Marie Sanvig; Kahila, Maarit

    2012-01-01

    Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful......, employing volunteered GPS tracking to capture everyday uses of the urban environment. The second case study was carried out in Finland, employing SoftGIS as a tool to identify and quantify place values.......Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful...

  7. FCoE Application on Network Service of Geographic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Di

    2008-01-01

    The network service of geographic information has developed rapidly based data sharing on the web. It has an basic capability to satisfy the requirements from various users, but the network transporting efficiency of sharing data is affected greatly by the distinct environment of network resources. The emergence of fibre channel over Ethernet(FCoE) technology solves the problem preferably. FCoE allows IP protocol and fibre channel network traffic to be carried over existing FCoE-aware drivers, NICs, and switches. It also allows an evolutionary approach towards input/output(I/O) consolidation by preserving all fibre channel constructs. FCoE simplifies customer environments by using Ethernet and allowing the industry to avoid creating another, separate protocol for I/O consolidation. The advantages of FCoE increase network transport efficiency of geographic information.

  8. Principles of logic and the use of digital geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Digital geographic information systems allow many different types of data to be spatially and statistically analyzed. Logical operations can be performed on individual or multiple data planes by algorithms that can be implemented in computer systems. Users and creators of the systems should fully understand these operations. This paper describes the relationships of layers and features in geographic data bases and the principles of logic that can be applied by geographic information systems and suggests that a thorough knowledge of the data that are entered into a geographic data base and of the logical operations will produce results that are most satisfactory to the user. Methods of spatial analysis are reduced to their primitive logical operations and explained to further such understanding.

  9. Fuzzy surfaces in GIS and geographical analysis theory, analytical methods, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lodwick, Weldon

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are a central to geographical analysis. Their generation and manipulation are a key component of geographical information systems (GISs). However, geographical surface data is often not precise. When surfaces are used to model geographical entities, the data inherently contains uncertainty in terms of both position and attribute. Fuzzy Surface in GIS and Geographical Analysis sets out a process to identify the uncertainty in geographic entities. It describes how to successfully obtain, model, analyze, and display data, as well as interpret results within the context of GIS. Focusing on uncertainty that arises from transitional boundaries, the book limits its study to three types of uncertainties: intervals, fuzzy sets, and possibility distributions. The book explains that uncertainty in geographical data typically stems from these three and it is only natural to incorporate them into the analysis and display of surface data. The book defines the mathematics associated with each method for analysis,...

  10. E-RESOURCES GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM SYSTEM FOR MILITARY OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kurniawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the barometer of the strength of a country is a military force that is owned by the state. To produce a good military force in a country, it would require an easy, fast and accurate military resource management. This study utilized geographic data as a reference for the location of the logistics resources to help simplify the management of military data using spatial data in Geographic Information System (GIS. The system development approach used JSON Service technology framework and HTML 5 to improve system performance. The features development of the management of military resources associated with military operations are conducted. Results of this study generate e-resource military operation system which is swift and in accordance with the W3C web standards.

  11. Evaluation of Database Modeling Methods for Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanasis Hadzilacos

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic evaluation of different modeling techniques for the design of Geographic Information Systems as we experienced them through theoretical research and real world applications. A set of exemplary problems for spatial systems on which the suitability of models can be tested is discussed. We analyse the use of a specific database design methodology including the phases of conceptual, logical and physical modeling. By employing, at each phase, representative models of classical and object-oriented approaches we assess their efficiency in spatial data handling. At the conceptual phase, we show how the Entity-Relationship, EFO and OMT models deal with the geographic needs; at the logical phase we argue why the relational model is good to serve as a basis to accommodate these requirements, but not good enough as a stand alone solution.

  12. Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic-related air pollution is a potential risk factor for human respiratory health. A Geographical Information System (GIS) approach was used to examine whether distance from a main road (the Tosco-Romagnola road) affected respiratory health status. Methods We used data collected during an epidemiological survey performed in the Pisa-Cascina area (central Italy) in the period 1991-93. A total of 2841 subjects participated in the survey and filled out a standardized questionnaire on health status, socio-demographic information, and personal habits. A variable proportion of subjects performed lung function and allergy tests. Highly exposed subjects were defined as those living within 100 m of the main road, moderately exposed as those living between 100 and 250 m from the road, and unexposed as those living between 250 and 800 m from the road. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the risks for respiratory symptoms and diseases between exposed and unexposed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results The study comprised 2062 subjects: mean age was 45.9 years for men and 48.9 years for women. Compared to subjects living between 250 m and 800 m from the main road, subjects living within 100 m of the main road had increased adjusted risks for persistent wheeze (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.08-2.87), COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.08), and reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.11-3.87) among males, and for dyspnea (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.13-2.27), positivity to skin prick test (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.11-3.00), asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.97-2.88) and attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.98-2.84) among females. Conclusion This study points out the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health status, including lung function impairment. It also highlights the added value of GIS in environmental health research. PMID:21362158

  13. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  14. Development of Geographic Information Systems and their use in National Libraries of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Kotelnikova

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 20th century cartography has amassed a vast array of information on major aspects of existence, interaction and the functioning of nature and society owing to vigorous automation and computerisation. These are applied for the purpose of creating geographic information systems (GIS. The main function of geographic information systems is the storage and use of computer (electronic maps and atlases. Geographic information systems differ from each other in their territorial levels (global, national, regional, municipal and others and by their subjects (land, cadastre, ecological, sea and other maps. The geographic information system, ‘Black Sea’ is cited as an example. This is an information-based project compiled with a view to taking decisions on the protection of the resources of the basin of the Black Sea. The Black Sea GIS was developed for use by governments, scientists, the general public, NGOs and the media for the following purposes: · planning for marine environment activities and impacts on a regional scale; · public awareness through training, education, workshops, lectures and media; · scientific analysis, modelling, ecological impact assessment, science planning. The main GIS components are designed to perform the following functions: · data input; · data storage and database management; · data analysis and processing; · interaction with the user (graphical/map editing; and · data output and presentation (plotting.

  15. Forest and wildlife habitat analysis using remote sensing and geographic information systems. M.S. Thesis, 26 May 1992 Abstract Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, Maria

    1995-01-01

    Forest and wildlife habitat analyses were conducted at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the Central Cascade Mountains of Oregon using remotely sensed data and a geographic information system (GIS). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to determine forest successional stages, and to analyze the structure of both old and young conifer forests. Two successional stage maps were developed. One was developed from six TM spectral bands alone, and the second was developed from six TM spectral bands and a relative sun incidence band. Including the sun incidence band in the classification improved the mapping accuracy in the two youngest successional stages, but did not improve overall accuracy or accuracy of the two oldest successional stages. Mean spectral values for old-growth and mature stands were compared in seven TM bands and seven band transformations. Differences between mature and old-growth successional stages were greatest for the band ratio of TM 4/5 (P = 0.00005) and the multiband transformation of wetness (P = 0.00003). The age of young conifer stands had the highest correlation to TM 4/5 values (r = 0.9559) of any of the TM band or band transformations used. TM 4/5 ratio values of poorly regenerated conifer stands were significantly different from well regenerated conifer stands after age 15 (P = 0.0000). TM 4/5 was named a 'Successional Stage Index' (SSI) because of its ability to distinguish forest successional stages. The forest successional stage map was used as input into a vertebrate richness model using GIS. The three variables of (1) successional stage, (2) elevation, and (3) site moisture were used in the GIS to predict the spatial occurrence of small mammal, amphibian, and reptile species based on primary and secondary habitat requirements. These occurrence or habitat maps were overlayed to tally the predicted number of vertebrate at any given point in the study area. Overall, sixty-three and sixty-seven percent of the model

  16. Geographical Information Systems (GIS); Sistemas de Informacion Geografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santiago, P.A. [Inisel Espacio, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have converted in a computer`s tool that due of its great versatility, exceeds of its usage as Basic Cartography Manager. The best GIS to use (vector or raster) will depend on the type of data we work with, we should keep in mind that the use of a specific GIS does not mean total incompatibility with others GIS. Future tendencies in this field aim to Data Storage Optimization and to Shared Operating System between Workstations and Personal computers. (Author)

  17. Water quality modeling using geographic information system (GIS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Bernard A

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and natural resources at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is of great concern. The potential for surface and ground water quality problems resulting from non-point sources of pollution was examined using models. Since spatial variation of parameters required was important, geographic information systems (GIS) and their data were used. The potential for groundwater contamination was examined using the SEEPAGE (System for Early Evaluation of the Pollution Potential of Agricultural Groundwater Environments) model. A watershed near the VAB was selected to examine potential for surface water pollution and erosion using the AGNPS (Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution) model.

  18. E-Government and Geographical Information Based Collaboration Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve an efficient e-Government many factors must be considered. In the UN e-Government Survey from 2008 a holistic approach is recommended incorporating human capacity, infrastructure development and access to information and knowledge. In the same survey Denmark is ranked second...... in regard of e-Government readiness. In Denmark the development of e-Government is characterised by a very informal, bottom-up approach, with a focus on standardisation, the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and IT-architecture. The organisational aspects have not been an issue of much attention....... A national survey conducted by the University of Aalborg and Geoforum Denmark shows that the way the different players actually collaborate is a determining factor for a successful development in the field of e-Government....

  19. Key solutions to geographical information synchronizing in GRID-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Fan, XiangTao; Du, XiaoPing

    2008-10-01

    Geographical GRID system is of great importance at fields as public security, military action, emergency response etc. The homogenizing distributed geographic environment system requires same geographical information for operations in each node. The bottle neck is how to reliably and accurately synchronize the great volume geographical data. This paper solves the problem in three ways. First, Message server queue is constructed for stable message delivery. In this way, the message server always has its alternative in preparation for breakdowns, and the whole GRID always has single working message server. Then the message server queue can be constructed and effectively woks. This mode has the advantages of the other two modes that the message delivery is more reliable and less time-costing. Second, both push and pull modes are adopted to send messages in time. Push mode means the node which has altered its data is responsible for the delivery of the changed part, like "push" the data to the message server. While pull mode means the demand node or the message server is responsible to check the data status in other nodes and "pull" the new data from the source. In push mode, if the network between the sponsor node and the message server breakdown, the message could be missing or the sponsor could be halted, when the network resumed, the update action could not be invoked again. And in pull mode, the message server needs to check the data and collect update parts in the whole grid, it is a time-costing operation that could not be executed frequently. So the combination mode is adopted. In combination mode, not only each node has its own update trigger to invoke the delivery of the new data, but also the message server also can recurrently check the data status after an assigned interval according to the network situation and the computation ability, then the duly update can be guaranteed. Three, extended GML is developed to wrap the geographical data. GML defines a lot

  20. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  1. On the validation of solids represented with the international standards for geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, H.

    2013-01-01

    The international standards for geographic information provide unambiguous definitions of geometric primitives, with the aim of fostering exchange and interoperability in the geographical information system (GIS) community. In two dimensions, the standards are wellaccepted and there are algorithms (

  2. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREST FLORA OF THE CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia in General is a relict, geographically situated in the steppe zone. Composing flora elements have different types of habitats, concentrated in the natural physical-geographical unit where isolated from the main habitats. Comparative analysis of the geographic, ecological and systematic components of forest flora will provide data about the correlation of these parameters identify the leading group. Location. The Central CiscaucasiaMethods. We made the geographical and systematic ranges of forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia and their comparative analysis is conducted.Results. Geographical analysis of forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia revealed 16 geographical elements, grouped in 6 categories, among which is the predominant group of boreal geographical elements. It is established that the leading geographical elements are Euro-Caucasian, Caucasian and Sub-Caucasian, numbering 189 species, and are half of the flora. Comparison with ecological spectrum showed that the sequence geographical elements completely different, here leading positions are occupied Northern species as ecologically more conservative, and the Caucasian demonstrate ecological plasticity. In a systematic relation matched warheads geographical and systematic spectra. The scope of the results. The results may be used in comparative Floristics, in its theoretical part in adjusting themodels of the Genesis of the flora.Conclusions. Thus, half of the geographical elements of the forest flora of the Central Ciscaucasia are linked in their distribution of Caucasian floristic province (Euro-Caucasian, Caucasian and Sub-Caucasian. These same geographical elements to predominate in the head part of the spectrum families. Most geographical elements have low ecological plasticity species, their components, do not go beyond the forest plant association, but geographical elements head part of the geographical range

  3. Improving MANET Routing Protocols Through the Use of Geographical Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Hnatyshin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a summary of our research studyof the location-aided routing protocols for mobilead hoc networks (MANET. This study focuses on theissue of using geographical location information toreduce the control traffic overhead associated withthe route discovery process of the ad-hoc on demanddistance vector (AODV routing protocol. AODV performs route discovery by flooding the wholenetwork with the route request packets. This results in unnecessarily large number of control packetstraveling through the network. In this paper, we introduced a new Geographical AODV (GeoAODVprotocol that relies on location information to reduce the flooding area to a portion of the network that islikely contains a path to destination. Furthermore,we also compared GeoAODV performance with thatof the Location Aided Routing (LAR protocol and examined four mechanisms for reducing the size of theflooding area: LAR zone, LAR distance, GeoAODV static, and GeoAODV rotate. We employed OPNETModeler version 16.0 software to implement these mechanisms and to compare their performancethrough simulation. Collected results suggest thatlocation-aided routing can significantly reduce thecontrol traffic overhead during the route discoveryprocess. The comparison study revealed that the LARzone protocol consistently generates fewer controlpackets than other location-aided mechanisms.However, LAR zone relies on the assumption that location information and traveling velocities of all thenodes are readily available throughout the network,which in many network environments is unrealistic.At the same time, the GeoAODV protocols make no such assumption and dynamically distribute locationinformation during route discovery. Furthermore, the collected results showed that the performance ofthe GeoAODV rotate protocol was only slightly worsethan that of LAR zone. We believe that eventhough GeoAODV rotate does not reduce the control traffic overhead by as much as LAR zone, it canbecome a

  4. GSM Base Stations Location Monitoring using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboye B. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM is a digital system developed to meet the desires of the entire public. As the population of a particular area, city or country increases, the number of mobile subscribers increases too. GSM network operators have to reduce congestion on their networks in order to satisfy their subscribers, therefore, a means of monitoring the base stations' locations and the geographical area of where they are located are important factor to achieve this purpose. This work provides a simple step-by-step approach on how to monitor the location of the base stations. A review of GSM and Global Positioning System (GPS technology and their applications to the Geographic Information System (GIS are presented. The means of taken the coordinates of base stations using a GPS device is also presented. ESRI's ArcView application software was used to design the map that shows the location of the base station and thereafter was integrated into the web. It concluded with the recommendation to GSM operators in Nigeria. If the recommendations are given necessary attention, the planning and optimization of cell sites will be enhanced and thereby reduce congestion on network. As a result, the performance of Network will improve, and it will give rise to subscribers' satisfaction and increasing profit returns to the operators.

  5. Geographic information system(GIS) applications to optimize route selection, environmental analysis and power transmission line designs; Aplicaciones en sistemas de informacion geograficos (SIG) para optimizar seleccion de ruta, analisis ambiental y diseno de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadena Suarez, Luis Fernando; Posada Delgado, Fabio Humberto; Alvarez Davila, Esteban; Gomez Colorado, Oscar Alberto [Interconexion Electrica S.A. (ISA), Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: fecadena@isa.com.co

    2001-07-01

    Interconexion Eletrica s.a. (ISA) is a company of the Colombian government for electric energy transportation through the national energy transportation network, it makes part of the companies group with growing environmental conscience. The better route identifications for high voltage transmission lines do not involve just the engineering analyses, but mainly the environmental one.These integrated analysis have been largely powered through the technology applications like Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). These technologies were applied for a total of 300 kilometers between 1992 and 2000 in the largest power transmission lines whose configurations cross different geographic conditions. This current technical contribution describes the application of GIS and RS technologies for the best routes, environmental sensibility analysis and environmental impact evaluations. The applications have resulted in the integration between engineering and environmental processes, optimization of environmental evaluation, formulations of procedures handling and environmental control, as well as transmission line profile characteristics. After the project construction, GIS can be used as a useful tool for environmental monitoring in connection with power transmission lines, maintenance of servitude areas, availability conditions and quality of the high voltage transmission service.

  6. Study on the Construction and Application of 3D Geographic Information Services for the Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, W.-Q.

    2014-04-01

    Smart City, whose main characteristics are intelligence and interconnection capability, has become an important goal of some cities' development. This paper, based on urban three-dimensional geographic information characteristics, analyses 3D geographic information requirements in the Smart City construction and development process, proposes construction and management methods for 3D geographic information. Furthermore, this paper takes Shanghai Geographic Information Public Service Platform as an example, discusses 3D geographic information application in multiple fields, and proves that it is an effective ways to promote Intelligent City construction.

  7. Basic theory and key technologies for marine geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Fenzhen; YANG Xiaomei; XU Jun; ZHANG Tianyu; LUO Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Marine geographic information system (MGIS) has great ability to deal with the spatio-temporal problems and has potential superiority when it is applied to oceanography. Using the feature extraction of oceanic phenomena as a case study, the functions of the MGIS are analyzed, and thus the position of MGIS in the oceanography is defined. Comparing the requirement of MGIS with that of the traditional GIS which has been developed in the terrestrial applications in the past four decades, the frame for the functions of MGIS is constructed. According to the established MGIS, some key technologies are discussed in detail with emphasis on the specialities which can distinguish the MGIS from the traditional GIS.

  8. Savannah River Site Geographic Information System management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    A plan for managing the development of Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in a coordinated, integrated fashion has been developed. Included in the plan are discussions on the guidance for GIS activities at the site, the overall strategy for managing GIS applications development, the specific administrative and programmatic tasks with projected completion schedules, and the organizational structure in place to direct this GIS effort. The Department of Energy-Savannah River Field Office (DOE-SR) has encouraged all primary subcontracting organizations at SRS involved with the mapping of spatial data to coordinate their efforts and be more cost effective. This plan provides a description of organized activities in 1992 for establishing a coordinated approach for developing and implementing GIS technology.

  9. Measuring access to primary medical care: some examples of the use of geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E B; Campbell, J L

    1998-06-01

    This paper explores the potential for geographical information system technology in defining some variables influencing the use of primary care medical services. Eighteen general practices in Scotland contributed to a study examining the accessibility of their services and their patients' use of the local Accident and Emergency Department. Geo-referencing of information was carried out through analysis of postcode data relating to practices and patients. This information was analyzed using ARC/INFO GIS software in conjunction with the ORACLE relational database and 1991 census information. The results demonstrate that GIS technology has an important role in defining and analyzing the use of health services by the population.

  10. Performance analysis of black hole attacks in geographical routing MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J Shanthi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network is vulnerable to several types of attacks. The most commonly classified attack is black hole attack, which is carried by single or multiple attackers, advertising itself of having a short fresh route to transmit data. The aim is to ensure security against the black hole attack and analyze the performance in geographical routing. The simple method is to send data as small blocks instead of entire data. The traffic is monitored independently in its neighborhood. The mechanism uses geographic information to detect variance in neighbor relations and node movements. We analyze the black hole attack in two popular location based protocol LAR and DREAM. It provides the stimulation study of black hole attack with the minimum attacker and also provides analysis on the parameters such as throughput, packet delivery and delay done with OMNET++ simulator. The simulation results show that packet loss increases and throughput decreases in the network with a black hole node in geographical routing. The proposed mechanism can be combined with existent routing protocols to defend against black hole attacks.

  11. Integration technology research on marine geographical information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Cunjin; SU Fenzhen; DU Yunyan; YANG Xiaomei

    2008-01-01

    It is urgent and necessary to integrate a marine geographical information system (MGIS) with marine remote sensing detection modules.On the basis of the current technology and features of applications,an open three-layer integration framework is de-signed.At the data layer,a two-level three-base integration mechanism based on the plug-in technology is applied;At the func-tion layer,an integration mode based on API,DLL,EXE and COM is discussed;and at the application layer,a sharing mecha-nism based on the clients/service is adopted.As an example,the remote sensing integrated application information system of Chinas coastal zone and offshore (MaXplorer1.0) with multiecology remote sensing fusion and assimilation module,surge detec-tion module as well as eight other thematic application modules is integrated,and the key technology of integration is discussed at different layers and in different modules.The result shows that it is possible to realize the conformity of technology and resources and to provide the incorporate technology platform for marine information operational functioning after applying the integration framework.

  12. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  13. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Arca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While our country is a sources of unique beauties in various fields such as natural beauty, history, culture, art, climatic features, geographical position, it is also a country of catastrophe. It is especially a country of earthquake which often experiences forceful earthquakes.Catastrophe, earthquake in particular, is a reality we should admit and learn to live with. Therefore, we are responsible to minimize the loss and damage stemming from catastrophe in our era when it is still impossible to determine catastrophe in advance. The loss can be minimized by working and measurements which should be taken before, during and after the catastrophe. In this context, Geographical Information System and remote sensing has much importance.The primary mission of the Disaster Management is, therefore, to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the nations from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the nations in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation. Recently, disaster management emphasizes the importance of disaster prevention - focusing on disaster preparedness.The studies regarding natural hazards RS and GIS are widely used today. These studies include earthquake, flood, landslide, fire, volcanic eruptions, storm and other natural phenomena that cause natural disasters. GIS and RS are not only used for locating, monitoring and determining influence areas of these natural events, but are very useful in determining what is to be done before and after a natural disaster. Effective usage of GIS technologies regarding disasters first depends on determining that for what purpose and how they are going to be used. In this respect, it is a necessity to explain of how an effective and contemporary disaster management system and its components should be before dealing with the characteristics

  14. An Analysis of Urban Land Development Using Multi-Criteria Decision Model and Geographical Information System (A Case Study of Babolsar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Lotfi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The unplanned physical expansion of cities has been one of the most important problems of urban management in developing countries. Iran, like other developing world has experienced a high level of urbanization growth which transformed the physical fabric of urban areas. North of Iran is one of most rapid growing region of the country where the moderate climate and a tourism based economy encouraged many developers to investigate in housing sector. So, the primary outcome of such process was the out-growth of the city boundaries in the region. Approach: This research attempted to present an appropriate model for urban physical development. The study used different parameters such as environmental and socio-economic factors to provide a good understanding of the city behavior in its geographical setting. Through applying the Multi-Criteria Decision Model (MCDA and GIS, the most appropriate area introduced for near future development. Results: The results revealed that the integrated GIS and MCDA model has many potentials which allow the planner or user investigate the final decision for site selection for future urban physical development. Conclusion: Since the city is located in a fertile agricultural area where the general policy of the local government is to save the lands for strategic crops like rice, to select the right site for city development is quiet significant.

  15. Architecture and key technologies of grid geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The highly efficient and stable collaborative computation platform for geospatial information can be constructed on the basis of Grid computing technology,com-bined with Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing technology and geospatial database technology. This paper proposed the architecture and key technologies of the Grid GIS (Geographic Information System) incorporated with P2P structure,and corre-spondingly a Grid GIS prototype named Nebula was designed and then imple-mented. Nebula is a suite of middleware for geospatial Grid computing,which could be deployed onto various service nodes in network. Based on Grid protocols and infrastructure,Nebula provides invocation interfaces to users in form of Grid services. By using P2P message based communication mechanism,complex geospatial computation tasks could be accomplished by Nebula in a collaborative way. This paper introduced Nebula’s architecture and key modules,and according to experimental data,we discussed the Grid GIS’s advantages,application scenar-ios and future directions.

  16. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  17. Objective Evaluation in an Online Geographic Information System Certificate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. WALKER

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Evaluation in an Online Geographic Information System Certificate Program Asst. Professor. Dr. Scott L. WALKER Texas State University-San Marcos San Marcos, Texas, USA ABSTRACT Departmental decisions regarding distance education programs can be subject to subjective decision-making processes influenced by external factors such as strong faculty opinions or pressure to increase student enrolment. This paper outlines an evaluation of a departmental distance-education program. The evaluation utilized several methods that strived to inject objectivity in evaluation and subsequent decision-making. A rapid multi-modal approach included evaluation methods of (1 considering the online psychosocial learning environment, (2 content analyses comparing the online version of classes to face-to-face versions, (3 cost comparisons in online vs. face-to-face classes, (4 student outcomes, (5 student retention, and (6 benchmarking. These approaches offer opportunities for departmental administrators and decision-making committees to make judgments informed by facts rather than being influenced by the emotions, beliefs, or opinions of organizational dynamics.

  18. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yüksek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface Modeling (DSM and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g. X3-D and VRML and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  19. Use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and analysis of demand: an analysis for predictions in the energy segment; O emprego do SIG (Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas) e a analise de demanda: um ensaio para previsoes no segmento de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro SA. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Gas e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The energy assumed a preponderant paper to the current societies because it became the number spine of both economic and social activities developed. Technological advances and the economic and social development of the nations, was based on the transformation and use of natural resources in products and services. Such transformation if gave more of accented form from the Industrial Revolution where the substitution of activities until then carried through by the man, for the job of machines, transformed the way of life and the behavior of the society. Particularly the projection of demand of energy send to the following duality: the problem should be evaluated in a wide way, in other words, considering the whole range of component variables of the decision process for generation and allocation of the energy supply; however, in a local way regarding with the search of models that optimize of the energy potentials and the consequent search of value added market. Historically the forecast of the energy demand uses the GDP mainly. It is presupposed that the association of such variables to the areas that these act, or polygons that delimit them, it happens in a homogeneous way and that the limits of such areas constitute an identified change of behavior. However, this premise is false, because such polygons are defined for operational and / or politician criteria not having warranty that such distributions are really homogeneous. As solution, the development and use of decision support systems based on GIS (Geographic Information System) technology has been along the last years a powerful modeling and simulation tool. The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of techniques of spatial analysis in the activity of projection, activity that is inherent to the forecast energy demand, to mitigate the future developments of scientific models and applications associates. (author)

  20. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis - Towards a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the 'per-pixel paradigm' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.

  1. Considerations in developing geographic informations systems based on low-cost digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F. M.; Dobson, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of digital image processing systems costing $20,000 or less for geographic information systems is assessed with the emphasis on the volume of data to be handled, the commercial hardware systems available, and the basic software for: (1) data entry, conversion and digitization; (2) georeferencing and geometric correction; (3) data structuring; (4) editing and updating; (5) analysis and retrieval; (6) output drivers; and (7) data management. Costs must also be considered as tangible and intangible factors.

  2. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  3. Combined use of bacterial community analysis techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) for the evaluation of anthropogenic impact in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.; Aguilo, M. M.; Martin-Cardona, C.; Nogales, B.

    2009-07-01

    Marinas and recreational boats have an impact in coastal environments because they constitute point sources for low intensity but recurrent pollution by oil hydrocarbons. Since marinas tend to be located in areas of great natural beauty, and/or of high value economic activities, the pollution they contribute is assumed to be important and increasing, through currently-available information is very incomplete. (Author)

  4. Usability of Geographic Information: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Sharples, S; Harding, J; Parker, C J; Bearman, N; Maguire, M; Forrest, D; Haklay, M; Jackson, M

    2013-11-01

    The use of Geographic Information or GI, has grown rapidly in recent years. Previous research has identified the importance of usability and user centred design in enabling the proliferation and exploitation of GI. However, the design and development of usable GI is not simply a matter of applying the tried and tested usability methods that have been developed for software and web design. Dealing with data and specifically GI brings with it a number of issues that change the way usability and user centred design can be applied. This paper describes the outcomes of a workshop held in March 2010 exploring the core issues relating to GI usability. The workshop brought together an international group of twenty experts in both human factors and GI, from a wide range of academic and industrial backgrounds. These experts considered three key issues, the stakeholders in GI, key challenges applying usability to GI and the usability methods that can be successfully applied to GI. The result of this workshop was to identify some areas for future research, such as the production of meaningful metadata and the implications of blurring of the line between data producers and data consumers.

  5. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Seth E

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an "intelligence" that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of "volunteered" or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the "intelligence" collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an "intelligent" end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs.

  6. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  7. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  8. Geographical Information Systems: Thoughts regarding implementation and transitions between steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    Approximately 539 organizations from around the world offer products and services that are related to Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The evolution of the annual GIS industry runs parallel to the development of the GIS in many organizations throughout the world. The GIS field experienced tremendous growth in recent years in response to the expanding information needs of business and government and to technological advances such as faster, cheaper microcomputers, user-friendly desktop software, and low-cost and widely available spatial data. Dataquest, Inc., a computer-industry, market-research firm based in San Jose, California estimates the 1993 GIS hardware and software market at $1.8 billion, up 897% from $177.2 million in 1987. These figures indicate the enormous magnitude of the GIS market without even including vital and growing components such as services (e.g., consulting and integration) or spatial data. The latter part of this paper will address the GIS implementation process. There are many ways to implement GIS within your organization. The transitions between the steps of a GIS implementation project are more difficult than the steps themselves. Yet these transitions are often underestimated or overlooked in the planning process and the management of the project. Transitions in the GIS implementation process must be anticipated, planned, and managed as carefully as the development activities. Many new companies entered and flourished in the fledgling GIS business in the late 1980s and early 1990s. On the other hand, some were not so lucky, and survey results show considerable turnover in company names over the years. Regardless, the industry still is attractive for new entrants. Of the companies existing in 1995, 9% were founded in 1993 or later.

  9. [Linkage of environmental and health data: health risk analysis of the Rio de Janeiro water supply by using geographical information systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, C; Coutinho, K; Pina, M F; Magalhães, M M; Paola, J C; Santos, S M

    1998-01-01

    Exposure assessment of population groups is based on linkage of environmental and health data. This relationship can be hard to establish due to spatial and temporal lags in data sets. Environmental data generally refer to scattered sampling points, while epidemiological data integrate periods of time within administrative territories. GIS can be used as a basis for organizing health-related and environmental data sets. We examined potential health risk in the Rio de Janeiro city water supply based on the overlay of information layers containing data on the presence and quality of water supply services. We used census tracts as the primary georeferenced data, since they contain information on how households are supplied, water supply pipes, sources, and reservoirs, and water quality according to the monitoring program. Population groups exposed to risks were located and quantified using spatial operations among these layers and adopting different risk criteria. The main problems related to water supply are located on the northern slope of the Tijuca Mountain Range (involving the absence or poor quality of water) and in the western area of the city of Rio, where the population relies on alternative water supply sources. The different origins, objectives, and structures of data have to be analyzed critically, and GIS can be used as a data validation tool as well as an instrument for detailed identification of inconsistencies.

  10. Relationships between esophageal cancer and spatial environment factors by using Geographic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ku-Sheng; Huo, Xia; Zhu, Guang-Hui

    2008-04-15

    To explore the relationships between esophageal cancer (EC) and climatic, geographic factors in China by using Geographic Information System, database of EC mortality of 237 sampling areas surveyed in 1990-1992 was established in Excel and linked with the digital polygon maps of study areas. Geographic and climate data of sampling areas were extracted from the raster dataset and finished in Arc/Info 9.0 and ENVI4.2 software by using spatial analysis. Spearman correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis after principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to analyze the relationship between EC and these factors. The counties that have the highest EC morality show significant aggregation. Spearman correlation analysis shows weak negative correlation between precipitation, water-heat index (WHI), highest/lowest temperature and EC mortality, and weak positive correlation between drought index (DI), wind speed, population density and EC mortality. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the variables associated with EC mortality were precipitation, temperature, wind speed, elevation, DI, WHI and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of July. Our study suggested that the high-risk areas of EC in China are mostly drought and low altitude areas relatively. There were relatively lower NDVI in summer and higher wind speed in these areas. GIS can be applied to cancer epidemiology study and will exert active effect, which should be further explored.

  11. A 'user friendly' geographic information system in a color interactive digital image processing system environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    NASA's Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (ERRSAC) has recognized the need to accommodate spatial analysis techniques in its remote sensing technology transfer program. A computerized Geographic Information System to incorporate remotely sensed data, specifically Landsat, with other relevant data was considered a realistic approach to address a given resource problem. Questions arose concerning the selection of a suitable available software system to demonstrate, train, and undertake demonstration projects with ERRSAC's user community. The very specific requirements for such a system are discussed. The solution found involved the addition of geographic information processing functions to the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System (IDIMS). Details regarding the functions of the new integrated system are examined along with the characteristics of the software.

  12. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographic information system grid modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS) based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas) were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  13. A geographical information system using the Google Map API for guidance to referral hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujioka, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Yuji; Inoue, Michiyoshi; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Miyoshi, Akira

    2010-12-01

    Our hospital acts as a regional core hospital through inter-hospital collaboration. Geographical information is necessary to guide patients to the other hospitals. Although paper maps, which contain directions, nearest public transportation, etc., are usually provided to guide patients to the hospitals, the geographical information tends to change daily. However, updating the geographical information on the maps is costly. We constructed an electronic geographical information system using the Google Map API ( http://code.google.com/apis/maps/ ) with open source software to improve our ability to collaborate with other clinics.

  14. Analysis of the potential production and the development of bioenergy in the province of Mendoza - Bio-fuels and biomass - Using geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Marco, Noelia; Hilbert, Jorge Antonio [Instituto de Ingenieria Rural, INTA Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP: 1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silva Colomer, Jorge [INTA EEA Junin Mendoza, Carril Isidoro Busquets s/n CP: 5572 (Argentina); Anschau, Renee Alicia; Carballo, Stella [Instituto de Clima y Agua, INTA. Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP:1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    In this work, the partial results of the potential production of energy, starting from the biomass and the development of the crops, directed to the production of bio-fuels (Colza and Topinamur) in the North irrigation oasis of Mendoza, Argentina within the National Program of Bio-energy developed by INTA is presented. For the evaluation of the bio-energetic potential, derived from the biomass, the WISDOM methodology developed by FAO and implemented by INTA in Argentina was applied with the collaboration of national and provincial governmental entities that contribute local information The study of the potential production and the development of the bio-energetic crops have been carried out with the advising and participation of the experts of INTA of the studied crops. The province of Mendoza has semi-deserted agro-climatic characteristics. The type of soil and type of weather allows the production of great quality fruits and vegetables in the irrigated areas. The four great currents of water conform three oasis; Northeast, Center and South, which occupy the 3.67% of the surface of Mendoza. Today, Mendoza has 267,889 irrigated hectares, but the surface that was farmed by irrigation was near to the 400,000 ha. The climate contingencies, froze and hailstorm precipitations, plus the price instability cause great losses in the productive sector, taking it to the forlornness of the exploitations. The crop setting of these forlornness lands with crops directed to the production of bio-fuels and the utilization of the biomass coming from the agriculture activities and the agro industry (pruning of fruit trees, refuses of olive and vine, remnants of the peach industry, etc.) could assist the access to the energy in the rural areas, stimulating the economical improvement and the development in these communities. (author)

  15. Geospatial Narratives and their Spatio-Temporal Dynamics: Commonsense Reasoning for High-level Analyses in Geographic Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mehul Bhatt; Jan Oliver Wallgrün

    2013-01-01

    The modelling, analysis, and visualisation of dynamic geospatial phenomena has been identified as a key developmental challenge for next-generation Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this context, the envisaged paradigmatic extensions to contemporary foundational GIS technology raises fundamental questions concerning the ontological, formal representational, and (analytical) computational methods that would underlie their spatial information theoretic underpinnings. We present the conce...

  16. The Application of Geographic Information System on Telecommunication Cable Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system tomanage the geographically distributed data. It combines the process of geographic informat ion and attribute information. Telecommunication bureau has great requirements f or GIS and corresponding software platforms due to the speciality of the telecom m unication system. The design ideas, solutions and basic functions of the telecommunication GIS for the cable design and maintenance are discussed .

  17. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  18. Russian and Foreign Experience of Integration of Agent-Based Models and Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Anatol’evich Gulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the mechanisms of integration of agent-based models and GIS technology developed by Russian and foreign researchers. The basic framework of the article is based on critical analysis of domestic and foreign literature (monographs, scientific articles. The study is based on the application of universal scientific research methods: system approach, analysis and synthesis, classification, systematization and grouping, generalization and comparison. The article presents theoretical and methodological bases of integration of agent-based models and geographic information systems. The concept and essence of agent-based models are explained; their main advantages (compared to other modeling methods are identified. The paper characterizes the operating environment of agents as a key concept in the theory of agent-based modeling. It is shown that geographic information systems have a wide range of information resources for calculations, searching, modeling of the real world in various aspects, acting as an effective tool for displaying the agents’ operating environment and allowing to bring the model as close as possible to the real conditions. The authors also focus on a wide range of possibilities for various researches in different spatial and temporal contexts. Comparative analysis of platforms supporting the integration of agent-based models and geographic information systems has been carried out. The authors give examples of complex socio-economic models: the model of a creative city, humanitarian assistance model. In the absence of standards for research results description, the authors focus on the models’ elements such as the characteristics of the agents and their operation environment, agents’ behavior, rules of interaction between the agents and the external environment. The paper describes the possibilities and prospects of implementing these models

  19. 77 FR 69899 - Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety The National Transportation Safety Board will hold a public conference on the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transportation safety on December 4-5, 2012. GIS is a rapidly expanding group...

  20. Cartographic Encounters at the Bureau of Indian Affairs Geographic Information System Center of Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    The centering processes of geographic information system (GIS) development at the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was an extension of past cartographic encounters with American Indians through the central control of geospatial technologies, uneven development of geographic information resources, and extension of technically dependent…

  1. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM, DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, AND URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full report reviews the application of Geographic Inforamtion System (GIS) technology to the field of urban stormwater modeling. The GIS literature is reviewed in the context of its use as a spatial database for urban stormwater modeling, integration of GIS and hydroloic time...

  2. Construction of Guiyang Forest-fire Prevention Geographic Information System Based on Requirement Analysis%基于需求分析的贵阳市森林防火地理信息系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜伟

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,construction of forest-fire prevention geographic information system for Guiyang city was discussed,which based on the requirement analysis,3S technologies,database technologies and network communication technology.The system includes three subsystems: forest-fire prevention command subsystem,positioning and monitoring subsystem,and daily fire prevention office management subsystem.The functions of the system include early warning of the forest-fire disaster,on-site command of fire-fighting,disaster loss assessment,etc.It could serve as an informatization platform for forest fire management in Guiyang city.%基于需求分析,利用3S技术、数据库技术和网络通讯技术构建了贵阳市森林防火地理信息系统。系统包括森林防火指挥子系统、定位监控子系统和日常防火办公管理子系统,实现了对林火灾前预警、灾时指挥和灾后损失评估功能,为贵阳市林业系统提供森林防火信息化平台。

  3. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterizations of benthic habitats near South Florida coast (NODC Accession 0000600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to organize and characterize information about benthic communities and substrates, which are...

  4. Geographic Information System arboretum garden of Sochi "Dendrarium"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annenkova Irina Vladimirovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Program is designed to monitoring of arboretum collections. It has features that take into account the specifics of such collections: a period of survival new plantings, change dendrometric and phytosanitary characteristics of woody plants with age, the need to analyze the causes of mortality. Geobaza includes three magazines to track for living collection, landings and removing plants. Each magazine is represented on the map by three layers: single specimens, hedgerows and groups. Tables of landings and removing plants magazines contain dendrometric and cartographic information for each object. The living collection magazine dendrometric information is stored in separate tables. It allows to save data about changes that occur during the lifetime of plants. Geobaza stores information about date of planting, sapling age, the taxonomic name, the identifier of introduction specimens , the lawn of growth, plant life-form, trunk diameter, plant height, size, crown, decoration, phytosanitary condition, damage by diseases and pests, the date and the age removing. Program's taxonomic dictonary keeps names of families, species, infraspecific taxa and cultivars of plants. It's based on plant taxonomic database "Plant List", which freely accessible at http://www.theplantlist.org. Dictonary allows to edit the name and systematic position of taxon, the conservation status according by IUCN Red Data Book, Red Books Russia and the Krasnodar Territory, allows writing floristic regions, habitats and rank uniqueness at Sochi region. The advantages of using ArcGIS software are visualization, quick search taxons and plants, getting information on the taxonomic and quantitative composition of the collection, tracking taxa remaining in a single copy, printing maps necessary scale. The program allows you to automatically generate a collection catalog, list of lawns, which grows taxon, sheets landings and removing plants, reports on the taxonomic structure of families

  5. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  6. From Pixels to Geographic Objects in Remote Sensing Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.A.; Van Coillie, Frieke M.B.; Jong, Steven M. de

    2012-01-01

    Traditional image analysis methods are mostly pixel-based and use the spectral differences of landscape elements at the Earth surface to classify these elements or to extract element properties from the Earth Observation image. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) has received considerabl

  7. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis: Towards a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaschke, T.; Hay, G.J.; Kelly, M.; Lang, S.; Hofmann, P.; Addink, E.A.; Queiroz Feitosa, R.; van der Meer, F.D.; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Coillie, F.; Tiede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extr

  8. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information.

  9. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  10. SLAR image interpretation keys for geographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    A means for side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery to become a more widely used data source in geoscience and agriculture is suggested by providing interpretation keys as an easily implemented interpretation model. Interpretation problems faced by the researcher wishing to employ SLAR are specifically described, and the use of various types of image interpretation keys to overcome these problems is suggested. With examples drawn from agriculture and vegetation mapping, direct and associate dichotomous image interpretation keys are discussed and methods of constructing keys are outlined. Initial testing of the keys, key-based automated decision rules, and the role of the keys in an information system for agriculture are developed.

  11. The study of disaster situation awareness based on volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiansheng; Chen, Zi; Li, Shengming; Luo, Nianxue

    2015-12-01

    As the development of Web 2.0, the social media like microblog, blogs and social network have supplied a bunch of information with locations (Volunteered Geographical Information, VGI).Recent years many cases have shown that, if disaster happened, the cyber citizens will get together very quickly and share the disaster information, this results a bunch of volunteered geographical information about disaster situation which is very valuable for disaster response if this VGIs are used efficiently and properly. This project will take typhoon disaster as case study. In this paper, we study the relations between weibo messages and the real typhoon situation, we proposed an analysis framework for mine the relations between weibo messages distribution and physical space. We found that the number of the weibo messages, key words frequency and spatial temporary distribution of the messages have strong relations with the disaster spread in the real world, and this research results can improve our disaster situation awareness in the future. The achievement of the study will give a method for typhoon disaster situation awareness based on VGI from the bottom up, and will locate the disaster spot and evolution quickly which is very important for disaster response and recover.

  12. The Abduction of Geographic Information Science: Transporting Spatial Reasoning to the Realm of Purpose and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couclelis, Helen

    People intuitively understand that function and purpose are critical parts of what human-configured entities are about, but these notions have proved difficult to capture formally. Even though most geographical landscapes bear traces of human purposes, visibly expressed in the spatial configurations meant to serve these purposes, the capability of GIS to represent means-ends relationships and to support associated reasoning and queries is currently quite limited. This is because spatial thinking as examined and codified in geographic information science is overwhelmingly of the descriptive, analytic kind that underlies traditional science, where notions of means and ends play a negligible role. This paper argues for the need to expand the reach of formalized spatial thinking to also encompass the normative, synthetic kinds of reasoning characterizing planning, engineering and the design sciences in general. Key elements in a more comprehensive approach to spatial thinking would be the inclusion of abductive modes of inference along with the deductive and inductive ones, and the development of an expanded geographic ontology that integrates analysis and synthesis, form and function, landscape and purpose, description and design.

  13. Air pollution simulation and geographical information systems (GIS) applied to Athens International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an improved methodology for analysing atmospheric pollution around airports using Gaussian-plume numerical simulation integrated with Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The new methodology focuses on streamlining the lengthy analysis process for Airport Environmental Impact Assessments by integrating the definition of emission sources, simulating and displaying the results in a GIS environment. One of the objectives of the research is to validate the methodology applied to the Athens International Airport, "Eleftherios Venizelos", to produce a realistic estimate of emission inventories, dispersion simulations and comparison to measured data. The methodology used a combination of the Emission Dispersion and Modelling System (EDMS) and the Atmospheric Dispersion and Modelling system (ADMS) to improve the analysis process. The second objective is to conduct numerical simulations under various adverse conditions (e.g. scenarios) and assess the dispersion in the surrounding areas. The study concludes that the use of GIS in environmental assessments provides a valuable advantage for organizing data and entering accurate geographical/topological information for the simulation engine. Emissions simulation produced estimates within 10% of published values. Dispersion simulations indicate that airport pollution will affect neighbouring cities such as Rafina and Loutsa. Presently, there are no measured controls in these areas. In some cases, airport pollution can contribute to as much as 40% of permissible EU levels in VOCs.

  14. Comprehensive assessment method for environmental impact of railway based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小萍; 陈秀方; 马超群; 杨晓宇; 冉茂平; 孟祥定

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the geographic information system (GIS), a GIS based map overlay method was developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around railway and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of railway environmental impact and the optimization of railway alignments. The assessment process of the GIS based map overlay method was presented, which includes deciding the system structure and weights of assessment factors, making environmental vulnerability grade maps, and evaluating the alternative alignments comprehensively to obtain the best one. With the GIS functions of spatial analysis, such as overlay analysis and buffer analysis, and functions of handling attribute data, the GIS based map overlay method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing map overlay method and the conclusion is more reasonable. In the end, a detailed case study was illustrated to verify the efficiency of the method.

  15. The Kiwifruit Climate Division Analysis of Chongqing Wansheng District That Based On Geographic Information System%基于GIS的重庆市万盛区猕猴桃气候区划分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾永美; 高阳华; 杨世琦

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the meteorological condition of kiwifruit growth, ensures the appropriate planting areas of kiwifruit in Wansheng district and gives some cultivation suggestion of it. Based on the geographic information system platform, we used some methods of spatial analysis like kriging, inverse distance weighted to the temperature, rainfall and sunshine of Chongqing thirty-four stations. It has been discovered there are enough sunshine and moisture in Wansheng distract and we determined the mean of annual temperature was regioiialization index. According to the regionalization index, the article works out the map with 1 : 50 000 topographic data by the technology of geographic information system and names it Wansheng district climate ecological zonation of kiwifruit. The re sults of the study show that most of the regions in Wansheng district are appropriate for planting kiwifruit. Among them the medium ele vations of mountains that nine hundred meters to one thousand five hundred meters was named the most suitable areas because of it heat appropriate, the town of Qingnian, Cuanba and Conglin were named A warm climate region, the eastern that altitude beyond one point five kilometers like Wangxiangtai, Zhaiziyan and other Alpine areas were called cool weather appropriate region. The research agree ment that we should take the following measures to increase the production, combined with favorable terrain to establish test base, suit able cultivation method and using the " bag" protection of high yield bumper harvest.%考察猕猴桃生长需要的生态条件,确定重庆市万盛区猕猴桃适宜种植区并对猕猴桃栽培提出建议.借助GIS平台,对重庆市34台站气温、降水、日照等数据采用克里金插值、反向运算等方法进行空间分析.研究发现万盛区光照和水分条件较充分;确定以年平均气温为区划指标,根据指标利用地理信息系统技术在1∶50000地形上制作万盛区猕猴桃气

  16. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Sustainable utilization of aquatic living resources needs accurate assessment. This stress the need for use of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the recent past interest has been generated for use of GIS in various areas of biological...

  17. 1998 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1998_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  18. 1999 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1999_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  19. 1997 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sample Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1997_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis (BSA) program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office....

  20. Analysis of Geographic Coordinates of the Meteorological Post at Zrinjevac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Špoljarić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Meteorological Post at Zrinjevac built in 1884 is a public meteorological station where many citizens and visitors can obtain information about temperature, humidity and air pressure in the centre of the town. Based on the available documentation, the paper presents the analysis of geographic coordinates of the post, their reliability (accuracy – referring to whether they determine the real position of the post and who and when determined them. There are also the analysed coordinates given that were established by Ivan Stožir in 1884, then the coordinates read by Guro Pila in 1890 from the new special map of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and converted in 1941 by Nikolaj Abakumov from rectangular coordinates from the cadastral plan, and finally, the coordinates determined by means of modern GNSS measuring systems. There are also the changes of the form and the contents of the post show window described that took place on the occasion of two great restorations in 1959 and 1993 and were done in accordance with its modernisation. The clock with the 24-hour dial is also described. The times of sunrise and sunset in Zagreb have been checked and recalculated.

  1. Design Research of TIANDITU (Map Worl)-Based Geographic Information System for Travelling Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of the National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the travelling channel is TIANDITU-based geographic information platform for travelling service. With the development of tourism, traditional ways for providing travelling information cannot meet the needs of travelers. As such, the travelling channel of TIANDITU focuses on providing travel information abundantly and precisely, which integrated the geographic information data of TIANDITU Version 2.0 and the authoritative information resources from China National Tourism Administration. Furthermore, spatial positioning, category and information query of various travelling information were offered for the public in the travelling channel. This research mainly involves three important parts: the system design, key technologies of the system design and application examples. Firstly, this paper introduced the design of TIANDITU-based geographic information system for travelling service, and the general and database design were described in detail. The designs for general, database and travelling service above should consider lots of factors which illustrated in the paper in order to guarantee the efficient service. The process of system construction, the content of geographic information for travelling and system functions of geographic information for travelling are also proposed via diagram in this part. Then several key technologies were discussed, including the travelling information integration for main node and among nodes, general architecture design and management system for travelling channel, web portals and system interface. From the perspective of main technologies, this part describes how TIANDITU travelling channel can realize various functions and reach the requirements from different users. Finally, three application examples about travelling information query were listed shortly. The functions and search results are shown clearly in this

  2. Geographic Information Technologies as an outreach activity in geo-scientific education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Shimrit; Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a decline in the rates of examinees in the academic track that were entitled to an enhanced matriculation certificate in scientific-technological education was reported in Israel. To confront this problem the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev fosters interdisciplinary exploration through educational programs that make use of the facility and its equipment and enable the empowerment of the community by understanding and appreciating science and technology. This is achieved by using Geographic Information Technologies (GIT) such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for geo-physical sciences in activities that combine theoretical background with hands-on activities. Monitoring Earth from space by satellites, digital atlases and virtual-based positioning applications are examples for fusion of spatial information (geographic) and technology that the activity is based on. GIT opens a new chapter and a recent history of Cartography starting from the collection of spatial data to its presentation and analysis. GIS have replaced the use of classical atlas books and offer a variety of Web-based applications that provide maps and display up-to-date imagery. The purpose of this workshop is to expose teachers and students to GITs which are applicable in every classroom. The activity imparts free geographic information systems that exist in cyberspace and accessible to single users as the Israeli national GIS and Google earth, which are based on a spatial data and long term local and global satellite imagery coverage. In this paper, our "Think global-Map Local" activity is presented. The activity uses GIS and change detection technologies as means to encourage students to explore environmental issues both around the globe and close to their surroundings. The students detect changes by comparing multi temporal images of a chosen site and learn how to map the alterations and produce change

  3. Geographic Information System (GIS) for Dengue Research in Indonesia: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction: Geographic information system (GIS) can be very effective tool in combating dengue infection. However, there is only few study that apply GIS in dengue research in IndonesiaObjectives: The purpose of this literature review is to identify how geographic information system (GIS) applications have been used in dengue mapping in Indonesia  and to critically examine the issues, strengths, weakness and challenges inherent to those approaches, especially from  the spatial analy...

  4. Geographic information systems (GIS) for Health Promotion and Public Health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Flaman, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to identify how geographic information system (GIS) applications have been used in health-related research and to critically examine the issues, strengths, and challenges inherent to those approaches from the lenses of health promotion and public health. Through the review process, conducted in 2007, it is evident that health promotion and public health applications of GIS can be generally categorized into four predominant themes: disease surveillance (n = 227), risk analysis (n = 189), health access and planning (n = 138), and community health profiling (n = 115). This review explores how GIS approaches have been used to inform decision making and discusses the extent to which GIS can be applied to address health promotion and public health questions. The contribution of this literature review will be to generate a broader understanding of how GIS-related methodological techniques and tools developed in other disciplines can be meaningfully applied to applications in public health policy, promotion, and practice.

  5. 2010 VA Information Technologies Agency (VITA)/VA Geographic Information Network (VGIN) Lidar: Eastern Shore, VA (Accomack and Northampton Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Geographic Information Network (VGIN) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Accomack and Northampton counties on the eastern...

  6. Inferring geographic coordinates of origin for Europeans using small panels of ancestry informative markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Drineas

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale studies of European populations have demonstrated the existence of population genetic structure within Europe and the potential to accurately infer individual ancestry when information from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers is used. In fact, when genomewide genetic variation of European populations is projected down to a two-dimensional Principal Components Analysis plot, a surprising correlation with actual geographic coordinates of self-reported ancestry has been reported. This substructure can hamper the search of susceptibility genes for common complex disorders leading to spurious correlations. The identification of genetic markers that can correct for population stratification becomes therefore of paramount importance. Analyzing 1,200 individuals from 11 populations genotyped for more than 500,000 SNPs (Population Reference Sample, we present a systematic exploration of the extent to which geographic coordinates of origin within Europe can be predicted, with small panels of SNPs. Markers are selected to correlate with the top principal components of the dataset, as we have previously demonstrated. Performing thorough cross-validation experiments we show that it is indeed possible to predict individual ancestry within Europe down to a few hundred kilometers from actual individual origin, using information from carefully selected panels of 500 or 1,000 SNPs. Furthermore, we show that these panels can be used to correctly assign the HapMap Phase 3 European populations to their geographic origin. The SNPs that we propose can prove extremely useful in a variety of different settings, such as stratification correction or genetic ancestry testing, and the study of the history of European populations.

  7. Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System functional requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitzler, W.D.

    1992-06-01

    In the context of this document and COE, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are decision support systems involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment. They are digital computer systems for capturing, processing, managing, displaying, modeling, and analyzing geographically referenced spatial data which are described by attribute data and location. The ability to perform spatial analysis and the ability to combine two or more data sets to create new spatial information differentiates a GIS from other computer mapping systems. While the CCGIS allows for data editing and input, its primary purpose is not to prepare data, but rather to manipulate, analyte, and clarify it. The CCGIS defined herein provides GIS services and resources including the spatial and map related functionality common to all subsystems contained within the COE suite of C4I systems. The CCGIS, which is an integral component of the COE concept, relies on the other COE standard components to provide the definition for other support computing services required.

  8. Quality of Life Assessment in Urban Environment Using a Geographical Informational System Model. Case Study: Brăila City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD ŞANDRU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on the quality of life ( QoL in urban areas is gaining interest from a variety of disciplines such as planning, geography, sociology, economics, psychology, political science, marketing, and is becoming an important tool for urban planning and management. At present, there is a great deal of ambiguity and controversy on the concept of QoL, its elements and indicators. Thus, the present paper focuses on the development of a methodology for assessing quality of life in urban environment implementing a geographical informational system model that includes data from different areas of analysis, as follows: geographical data, Urban Audit socio-economic data, Urban Atlas data, satellite image data, survey data and indicators. The Geographic Information model derived from correlating the data mentioned above is used for evaluating the quality of life in Brăila, a 200,000 people city, situated in eastern Romania and port on the Danube River.

  9. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

  10. Landscape Epidemiology Modeling Using an Agent-Based Model and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Niaz Arifin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A landscape epidemiology modeling framework is presented which integrates the simulation outputs from an established spatial agent-based model (ABM of malaria with a geographic information system (GIS. For a study area in Kenya, five landscape scenarios are constructed with varying coverage levels of two mosquito-control interventions. For each scenario, maps are presented to show the average distributions of three output indices obtained from the results of 750 simulation runs. Hot spot analysis is performed to detect statistically significant hot spots and cold spots. Additional spatial analysis is conducted using ordinary kriging with circular semivariograms for all scenarios. The integration of epidemiological simulation-based results with spatial analyses techniques within a single modeling framework can be a valuable tool for conducting a variety of disease control activities such as exploring new biological insights, monitoring epidemiological landscape changes, and guiding resource allocation for further investigation.

  11. Analysing the Sustainability of Urban Development: A review on the Potential Use of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ujang, U.; Desa, G.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-10-01

    The challenges of how to ensure sustainable urban development are currently one of the important agenda among governments around the world. The stakeholders require the latest and high volume of geographic information for the decision making process to efficiently respond to challenges, improve service delivery to citizens, and plan a successful future of the city. However, it is time-consuming and costly to get the available information and some of the information is not up-to-date. Recently, GeoWeb 2.0 technological advances have increased the number of volunteers from non-professional citizen to contribute to the collection, sharing, and distribution of geographic information. The information known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has generated another approach of spatial data sources that can give up-to-date, huge volume of data, and available geographic information in a low cost for various applications. With this in mind, this paper presents a review of literature based on the potential use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in measuring sustainability of urban development. The review highlighted that social, economic, and environment as three pertinent pillars relating to the use of VGI for measurement sustainable urban development.

  12. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information system and modeling for estimating crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Luis Alonso

    This thesis explores various aspects of the use of remote sensing, geographic information system and digital signal processing technologies for broad-scale estimation of crop yield in Kansas. Recent dry and drought years in the Great Plains have emphasized the need for new sources of timely, objective and quantitative information on crop conditions. Crop growth monitoring and yield estimation can provide important information for government agencies, commodity traders and producers in planning harvest, storage, transportation and marketing activities. The sooner this information is available the lower the economic risk translating into greater efficiency and increased return on investments. Weather data is normally used when crop yield is forecasted. Such information, to provide adequate detail for effective predictions, is typically feasible only on small research sites due to expensive and time-consuming collections. In order for crop assessment systems to be economical, more efficient methods for data collection and analysis are necessary. The purpose of this research is to use satellite data which provides 50 times more spatial information about the environment than the weather station network in a short amount of time at a relatively low cost. Specifically, we are going to use Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based vegetation health (VH) indices as proxies for characterization of weather conditions.

  13. [Qingshishan watershed agro-ecology information system and its application with the support of Geographic Information System (GIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Wang, Z

    2000-10-01

    Geographic Information System(GIS) is applied to establish Qingshishan Watershed Agro-Ecology Information System (QWAEIS), QWAEIS integrates spatial information such as land use, soil, water and topography with basic information such as population, climate and agricultural production. The watershed agro-ecology information was effectively analyzed and managed by QWAEIS, land suitable classes were evaluated by QWAEIS and the land evaluation result are given, QWAEIS also can support watershed planning with its spatial information.

  14. Intelligence from Space: Using Geographical Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial element, which is omnipresent in data and information relevant to organizations, is much underused in the decision-making processes within organizations. This applies also to decision-making within the domain of Competitive Intelligence. The chapter explores how the CI function may benef

  15. Non-professional user`s understanding of Geographic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2003-01-01

    -based online services and comprehend the information contents? Using the Gi-based online services qualitatively in the participatory process obviously requires knowledge of the non-professional user`s understanding and use of GI. This paper discusses the needs for research into this field as well as relevant...... research methods....

  16. Geographical aspects of informal reef fishery systems in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollit, I; Léopold, M; Guillemot, N; David, G; Chabanet, P; Lebigre, J M; Ferraris, J

    2010-01-01

    The coral reefs in New Caledonia have long been used by the local population for subsistence as well as commercial and recreational purposes. The impact of informal fisheries on reef ecosystems illustrated the idiosyncrasies of New Caledonian fisheries in the southwest Pacific. This paper compared informal fishery systems on the southwest coast (close to the capital and economic center of the country) and the northwest coast (where an industrial mining complex has been under development) of New Caledonia to analyze their spatial structure and characteristics. Four geosystems were defined. These depended on the natural, social and economical environments as well as management strategies. The way of life of the fishers proved to be a major factor in how the informal fishery systems were structured. Our observations suggested that ongoing socio-economic changes in New Caledonia have shaped informal fishing activities since the 1900s. The findings from this study validate the suitability of spatial approaches to coral reef fisheries and provide local stakeholders with original management clues for marine resources sustainability.

  17. Political aspects of geographical information technologies with examples from imperial and post-independence India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Graham David

    The goal of this research is to examine some of the political dimensions of digital geographical information technologies in order to allow better assessment of their increasing use. Although the conclusions and recommendations are applicable to many regions of the world where these technologies are being introduced, this research derives most of its examples from India. Since at least the early days of British imperialism, decisions regarding land use in India have been informed by various types of information, including cartographic ones. In this thesis it is argued that this information was neither neutral nor objective but rather formed political and ideological statements concerning social relations with the landscape. These statements were reflected both in the nature of the data which were collected and in the ways in which these data were presented. By examining the historical evolution of geographical information technologies in British India and attendant social and environmental impacts, the stage is set for critical speculation on the possible impacts resulting from the introduction of digital geographical information technologies such as remote sensing and geographical information systems. This research draws heavily from the work of historian of cartography Brian Harley. Harley's work is extended to include consideration of the ways in which human-environment relationships are reflected and altered by geographic information technologies. This discussion of possible political and environment implications is influenced by recent literature in the areas of political ecology and the history of cartography. It is concluded that although there are many obstacles including unequal access to the technology, unequal access to information, and issues of control over information creation, which may reinforce and intensify existing social and political inequities, there is cause for some cautious optimism about the potential beneficial outcomes of the use of

  18. Spatial Analysis on the Geographical Information of the Scientific Literatures for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau%青藏高原科研文献地理信息空间分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 李新; 马明国; 张志强

    2012-01-01

    多学科的协同、渗透、交叉已成为当代科学发展的重要趋势,文献计量学和地理信息系统(GIS)技术的集成是拓展GIS应用领域的一个新兴方向。许多与地理空间位置有关的信息包含在大量地学科研文献中。从CNKI文献数据库收录的研究青藏高原的科研文献中提取研究区、样带和采样点等位置相关信息,运用GIS技术进行空间分析和展现。结果显示,青藏高原研究的主要学科领域集中在生态环境及其变化、地质与地球物理特征及其演化、资源及其勘探、地质工程等方面。有关青藏高原的研究在空间分布上存在较大的差异,对青藏高原的研究从西南、西北到东南、东北区域,其受关注的程度逐渐增加。祁连山脉、羌塘高原、青海湖、青藏公路、青藏铁路和川藏公路等是研究的热点区域。沿经度和纬度方向不同区间研究的分布也不同,研究热点区域呈现出从青藏高原中部向东北部转移的趋势。多数采样点和观测点沿交通干线分布,并且随着与交通干线距离的增加数量明显减少。GIS技术在关于青藏高原的文献计量分析中得到了有效应用,有助于挖掘出大量与空间位置相关的信息,从而深入分析青藏高原研究的发展态势。%The multi-disciplinary cooperation and intersection becomes the main development tendency of the modern sciences.It is a new direction to expand the Geographical Information System(GIS) application areas by integrating the GIS technologies with Bibliometrics.A lot of geographic-related information is involved in the literatures concerned with geosciences normally involve some geo-science references.In this paper,the location-related information(e.g.study areas,sampling trips and sampling points) was extracted from the CNKI-indexed scientific literatures for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.These data were spatially analyzed and presented by using the GIS technologies

  19. Assessment of Basal Stem Rot Disease Distribution in Palm Oil Plantation Using Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Azahar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The concurrent advances in global positioning systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS techniques have provided powerful analysis tools for precision agriculture. This study will focus on how Geographical Information System (GIS can help to assess the distribution Basal Stem Rot Diseases (BSR on oil palm plantation. Basal Stem Rot (BSR is caused by Ganoderma Boninense, and it is the most serious disease for oil palm trees in Malaysia. The fungus infects oil palm trees, initially causing yield loss and finally killing the trees. Various factors were previously reported to influence incidence of BSR, such as previous crops, techniques for replanting, types of soils, density and the age of trees. At present, effective and sustainable management strategies to control BSR are hampered mainly by a lack of understanding of mechanisms of disease establishment, development and spread. The study aims to apply spatial analysis methods to investigate the behaviours of BSR. Data for analysis were obtained from oil palm plantation at Teluk Intan, Perak, Malaysia. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  20. Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-Enabled Control of Diverse In-Situ Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Nengcheng Chen; Changjiang Xiao; Fangling Pu; Xiaolei Wang; Chao Wang; Zhili Wang; Jianya Gong

    2015-01-01

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical informatio...

  1. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  2. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  3. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for land use/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  4. New approach for the study of paleofloras using geographical information systems applied to Glossopteris Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cortez Christiano-de-Souza

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a methodology which makes possible the visualization of the spatial distribution of plant fossils and applies it to the occurrences of the Gondwana Floristic Province present on the eastern border of the Brazilian portion of the Paraná Basin during the Neopaleozoic. This province was chosen due to the existence of a large number of publications referring to their occurrence, so that a meta-analysis of their distribution could be based on ample information. The first step was the construction of a composite database including geographical location, geology, and the botanical systematics of each relevant fossil. The geographical locations were then georeferenced for translation into various maps showing various aspects of the distribution of the fossils. The spatial distribution of the fossil-housing outcrops shows that these are distributed along the area of deposition studied. Although some genera persisted for long periods of time, others lasted for only short intervals. As time passed, the fossil composition underwent a gradual change from the Late Carboniferous (Itararé Group to the Late Permian (Rio do Rasto Formation, with the number of genera represented decreasing from 45 in the Itararé Group to 11 in the Rio do Rasto Formation.

  5. Application of geographical information system for lymphatic filariasis and malaria control in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie, P N

    2014-06-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is defined as an information system used to capture, store, edit, retrieve, analyze and visualize geographically referenced data. The use of GIS is one technology that is very useful in the prevention and control of Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs) such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and malaria which cause high morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This paper focuses on how the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) can be harnessed for surveillance, prevention and control of LF and malaria in Nigeria. GIS can be used as an operational tool to assist with resource allocation, as a monitoring and evaluation tool and as a tool to investigate various research projects on spatial aspects of LF and malaria epidemiology. This paper provides information on the benefits and potential of using GIS as a tool for the national malaria and LF control programmes with particular reference to Nigeria.

  6. Role of remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics in kala-azar epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another.

  7. [Ecosystem services evaluation based on geographic information system and remote sensing technology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Huang; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystem services evaluation is a hot topic in current ecosystem management, and has a close link with human beings welfare. This paper summarized the research progress on the evaluation of ecosystem services based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology, which could be reduced to the following three characters, i. e., ecological economics theory is widely applied as a key method in quantifying ecosystem services, GIS and RS technology play a key role in multi-source data acquisition, spatiotemporal analysis, and integrated platform, and ecosystem mechanism model becomes a powerful tool for understanding the relationships between natural phenomena and human activities. Aiming at the present research status and its inadequacies, this paper put forward an "Assembly Line" framework, which was a distributed one with scalable characteristics, and discussed the future development trend of the integration research on ecosystem services evaluation based on GIS and RS technologies.

  8. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  9. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS. In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  10. Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that large-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of principles for their satisfaction. These principles, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.

  11. Hazards Assessment of Regional Debris Flows Based on Geographic Information Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaobo; GUI Peng

    2007-01-01

    Supported by the spatial analysis feature of geographic information science and assessment model of regional debris flows, hazards degrees of the debris flows in the Upper Yangtze River Watershed (UYRW) are divided into five grades based on grid cell. The area of no danger, light danger, medium danger, severe danger and extreme severe danger regions respectively are 278 000, 288 000, 217 000, 127 000, 15 000 km2. Furthermore, the counties in the UYRW are classified into four classes based on the hazards degrees in each county. The number of severe danger, medium danger, light danger and no danger counties respectively are 49, 82, 77 and 105. The assessment results will be provided for the hazards forecasting and mitigation in the UYRW and ongoing regionalization of Main Function Regions in China as data and technique framework.

  12. Design and Realization of Geographic Information System for Plant Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenran Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The thesis research work is based on adopting the combination of theory and technology research. For the unique characteristics of bambusoideae in yunnan province, analyses the characteristics, value and the present situation of resources of bambusoideae plant resources in yunnan province. According to the system requirements of the specimen of bambusoideae in Yunnan province, by Microsoft. Net framework platform, a collection of Web services and ASP.NET technology, based on the data of Microsoft SQL Server2008 and ADO.NET technology support, selecting desktop GIS Arc GIS platform (Arc GIS Desktop and server (Arc GIS Server as a system of GIS secondary development of GIS, and using developed tools of Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Visual, Finally, the information system of plant specimen which based on GIS integration development of bambusoideae is finished .

  13. Problems on the application of geographic information systems to urban environmental management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; LONG; Tengrui; 等

    2002-01-01

    Geographic information systems(GIS)are a widely used tool in urban planning and management.More and more cities and deecision-makers require its attributes of promptness,precision and visualization.But the application of GIS in urban environmental management is still a new field and relevant researches are getting on tardily.As a subsystem of GIS,an urban environmental management geographic information system(UEMGIS0should be a complex multi-discipline and multi-objective tool to perform quantitative multi-dimension analysis and to transfer the results into an expression legible to an ordinary user.It should be a dynamic system of prompt functions based on upgradable databases,and be composed of many subsystems respectively specialized in items about water,air,waste and noise as well as relative standards and regulations.However, existing UEMGISs mostly rely on the basic GIS too much to design the actual requirements of applications and managements in themselves,and the unavailability of sufficient fundamental data has retarded their improvement.In the design of a UEMGIS,the standardization of data classification should be taken into consideration to make the data exchangeable and shareable among its subsystems and within every subsystemj,and the applicable error limits for input data should be defined in accordance with the user s required precision of data out.Data acquisition can be easy and quick if remote sensing,global positioning system(GPS)and other technologies are combined with GIS,Rapidly progressing information fechnologies have been giving a bright prospect for the melioration of UEMGIS that will have great potential and wide application in environmental conservation.

  14. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  15. Geographical Information Systems in Victorian Secondary Schools: Current Constraints and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Peter; Gordon-Brown, Lee; Peterson, Jim; Ward, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Whilst widespread diffusion and adoption of spatial enabling technology, such as geographic information systems (GIS), is taking place within Australian public and private sectors, the same cannot be said for GIS within Australian secondary schools and state-based geography curricula. In the Australian state of Victoria, information regarding the…

  16. A RuleML Study on Integrating Geographical and Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold

    2008-01-01

    as an interchangeable RuleML knowledge base, consisting of facts and rules. Rules are also used for integrating geographical and health information. The implemented eHealthGeo system uses the OO jDREW reasoning engine to deduce implicit information such as spatial relationships. The system combines this with spatial...

  17. Geographic Information System Tools for Conservation Planning: User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy J.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; DeHaan, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Public and private land managers desire better ways to incorporate landscape, species, and habitat relations into their conservation planning processes. We present three tools, developed for the Environmental Systems Research Institute?s ArcView 3.x platform, applicable to many types of wildlife conservation management and planning efforts. These tools provide managers and planners with the ability to rapidly assess landscape attributes and link these attributes with species-habitat information. To use the tools, the user provides a detailed land cover spatial database and develops a matrix to identify species-habitat relations for the landscape of interest. The tools are applicable to any taxa or suite of taxa for which the required data are available. The user also has the ability to interactively make polygon-specific changes to the landscape and re-examine species-habitat relations. The development of these tools has given resource managers the means to evaluate the merits of proposed landscape management scenarios and to choose the scenario that best fits the goals of the managed area.

  18. [Design and implementation of Geographical Information System on prevention and control of cholera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-jun; Fang, Li-qun; Wang, Duo-chun; Wang, Lu-xi; Li, Ya-pin; Li, Yan-li; Yang, Hong; Kan, Biao; Cao, Wu-chun

    2012-04-01

    To build the Geographical Information System (GIS) database for prevention and control of cholera programs as well as using management analysis and function demonstration to show the spatial attribute of cholera. Data from case reporting system regarding diarrhoea, vibrio cholerae, serotypes of vibrio cholerae at the surveillance spots and seafoods, as well as surveillance data on ambient environment and climate were collected. All the data were imported to system database to show the incidence of vibrio cholerae in different provinces, regions and counties to support the spatial analysis through the spatial analysis of GIS. The epidemic trends of cholera, seasonal characteristics of the cholera and the variation of the vibrio cholerae with times were better understood. Information on hotspots, regions and time of epidemics was collected, and helpful in providing risk prediction on the incidence of vibrio cholerae. The exploitation of the software can predict and simulate the spatio-temporal risks, so as to provide guidance for the prevention and control of the disease.

  19. The Potential of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI in Future Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Attard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As transport systems are pushed to the limits in many cities, governments have tried to resolve problems of traffic and congestion by increasing capacity. Miller (2013 contends the need to identify new capabilities (instead of capacity of the transport infrastructure in order to increase efficiency without extending the physical infrastructure. Kenyon and Lyons (2003 identified integrated traveller information as a facilitator for better transport decisions. Today, with further developments in the use of geographic information systems (GIS and a greater disposition by the public to provide volunteered geographic information (VGI, the potential of information is not only integrated across modes but also user-generated, real-time and available on smartphones anywhere. This geographic information plays today an important role in sectors such as politics, businesses and entertainment, and presumably this would extend to transport in revealing people’s preferences for mobility and therefore be useful for decision-making. The widespread availability of networks and smartphones offer new opportunities supported by apps and crowdsourcing through social media such as the successful traffic and navigation app Waze, car sharing programmes such as Zipcar, and ride sharing systems such as Uber. This study aims to develop insights into the potential of governments to use voluntary (crowdsourced geographic information effectively to achieve sustainable mobility. A review of the literature and existing technology informs this article. Further research into this area is identified and presented at the end of the paper.

  20. Development of a flexible higher education curriculum framework for geographic information science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations means that curricula need to constantly be updated and developed to maintain currency and relevance. This paper reviews the curriculum initiatives and outlines a new and flexible GIScience higher education curriculum framework which complements and utilises existing curricula. This new framework was applied to the GIScience programs at Curtin University in Perth, Australia which has surpassed 25 years of GIScience education. Some of the results of applying this framework are outlined and discussed.

  1. Key Techniques for Dynamic Updating of National Fundamental Geographic Information Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Donghua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important missions of fundamental surveying and mapping work is to keep the fundamental geographic information fresh. In this respect, National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation has launched the project of dynamic updating of national fundamental geographic information database since 2012, which aims to update 1:50 000, 1:250 000 and 1:1 000 000 national fundamental geographic information database continuously and quickly, by updating and publishing once a year. This paper introduces the general technical thinking of dynamic updating, states main technical methods, such as dynamic updating of fundamental database, linkage updating of derived databases, and multi-tense database management and service and so on, and finally introduces main technical characteristics and engineering applications.

  2. Technology Integration around the Geographic Information: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Vargas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instead it has been part of a development and technological integration process. This paper presents a state of the art review about the application of geographic information under different approaches: its use on location based services, the collaborative user participation on it, its contextual-awareness, its use in the Semantic Web and the challenges of its use in natural language queries. Finally, a prototype that integrates most of these areas is presented.

  3. Technology Integration around the Geographic Information: A State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Ponce-Medellin, Rafael; Vargas, Rocio; Ruiz, Lirio

    2009-01-01

    One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instead it has been part of a development and technological integration process. This paper presents a state of the art review about the application of geographic information under different approaches: its use on location based services, the collaborative user participation on it, its contextual-awareness, its use in the Semantic Web and the challenges of its use in natural languge queries. Finally, a prototype that integrates most of these areas is presented.

  4. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and model...

  5. A Novel Visual Data Mining Module for the Geographical Information System gvSIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Vázquez-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of large GIS models containing spatio-temporal information is a challenge. In this paper we propose the integration of scientific visualization (ScVis techniques into geographic information systems (GIS as an alternative for the visual analysis of data. Providing GIS with such tools improves the analysis and understanding of datasets with very low spatial density and allows to find correlations between variables in time and space. In this regard, we present a new visual data mining tool for the GIS gvSIG. This tool has been implemented as a gvSIG module and contains several ScVis techniques for multiparameter data with a wide range of possibilities to explore interactively the data. The developed module is a powerful visual data mining and data visualization tool to obtain knowledge from multiple datasets in time and space. A real case study with meteorological data from Villa Clara province (Cuba is presented, where the implemented visualization techniques were used to analyze the available datasets. Although it is tested with meteorological data, the developed module is of general application in the sense that it can be used in multiple application fields related with Earth Sciences.

  6. Development of component geographic information systems applying in forest resources management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong; YU Su-fang; FAN Wen-yi

    2005-01-01

    The history, current situation, and development trend of GIS (Geographic Information System) applied in the forest resources management were discussed in this paper. On the basis of geographic spatial characteristics of forest resources data, a component geographic information system (ComGIS) was developed for forest resources management. The system embeds a GIS ActiveX control MapObjects (Inc. ESRI) on Visual C++ platform. System design, data organization and achieving way were studied and expatiated by taking Xigangzi Forestry Centre as study object. The system has many useful functions,, such as adding and display of various map layers, zoom of map by wheeling mouse, attribute and spatial data querying, map auto roaming, features rendering based on the spatial trait of data, label controlling through attribute data band with vector graph, as well as output of 'Column chart' for showing the result of statistics. At the same time, parts of source codes are attached.

  7. Using a Geographical Information System to investigate the relationship between reported cryptosporidiosis and water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake Iain

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on a study investigating the epidemiology of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the North West of England and Wales using a Geographical Information System (GIS to map location of residence of cases. Some 747 reports of cases were made to CDSC North West of which 649 reports were suitable for analysis. Cases were plotted on the maps of water supply zone and water quality area boundaries, provided by the two main water utilities. Results It was notable that there were major spatial variations in attack rate across the North West and Wales. The most dramatic example was the large difference between the Greater Manchester conurbation with many reports and Liverpool with none. Given the distribution of previously detected waterborne outbreaks in the region it was initially thought that drinking water source may be an explanation. However, an analysis of the distribution of cases in the Greater Manchester area showed no correlation with any of five water supplies that serve the conurbation. Conclusions Our study has shown a dramatic variation in the incidence of laboratory confirmed cryptosporidiosis within two regions of the United Kingdom. Further analysis has not been able to prove drinking water as a likely explanation of this variation which so far remains unexplained.

  8. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  9. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    This annual and final report describes the results of the multi-year project entitled 'NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)' (http://www.natcarb.org). The original project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) in the midcontinent of the United States (MIDCARB) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration. The NatCarb system built on the technology developed in the initial MIDCARB effort. The NatCarb project linked the GIS information of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project includes access to national databases and GIS layers maintained by the NatCarb group (e.g., brine geochemistry) and publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS, and Geography Network) into a single system where data are maintained and enhanced at the local level, but are accessed and assembled through a single Web portal to facilitate query, assembly, analysis and display. This project improves the flow of data across servers and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project worked to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO{sub 2} carbon capture and storage data through a single website portal (http://www.natcarb.org/). While the external

  10. Multispectral, hyperspectral, and LiDAR remote sensing and geographic information fusion for improved earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.; Kim, A. M.; Runyon, S. C.; Carlisle, Sarah C.; Clasen, C. C.; Esterline, C. H.; Jalobeanu, A.; Metcalf, J. P.; Basgall, P. L.; Trask, D. M.; Olsen, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Remote Sensing Center (RSC) and research partners have completed a remote sensing pilot project in support of California post-earthquake-event emergency response. The project goals were to dovetail emergency management requirements with remote sensing capabilities to develop prototype map products for improved earthquake response. NPS coordinated with emergency management services and first responders to compile information about essential elements of information (EEI) requirements. A wide variety of remote sensing datasets including multispectral imagery (MSI), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and LiDAR were assembled by NPS for the purpose of building imagery baseline data; and to demonstrate the use of remote sensing to derive ground surface information for use in planning, conducting, and monitoring post-earthquake emergency response. Worldview-2 data were converted to reflectance, orthorectified, and mosaicked for most of Monterey County; CA. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired at two spatial resolutions were atmospherically corrected and analyzed in conjunction with the MSI data. LiDAR data at point densities from 1.4 pts/m2 to over 40 points/ m2 were analyzed to determine digital surface models. The multimodal data were then used to develop change detection approaches and products and other supporting information. Analysis results from these data along with other geographic information were used to identify and generate multi-tiered products tied to the level of post-event communications infrastructure (internet access + cell, cell only, no internet/cell). Technology transfer of these capabilities to local and state emergency response organizations gives emergency responders new tools in support of post-disaster operational scenarios.

  11. OGC Geographic Information Service Deductive Semantic Reasoning Based on Description Vocabularies Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIAO Lizhi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As geographic information interoperability and sharing developing, more and more interoperable OGC (open geospatial consortium Web services (OWS are generated and published through the internet. These services can facilitate the integration of different scientific applications by searching, finding, and utilizing the large number of scientific data and Web services. However, these services are widely dispersed and hard to be found and utilized with executive semantic retrieval. This is especially true when considering the weak semantic description of geographic information service data. Focusing on semantic retrieval and reasoning of the distributed OWS resources, a deductive and semantic reasoning method is proposed to describe and search relevant OWS resources. Specifically, ①description words are extracted from OWS metadata file to generate GISe ontology-database and instance-database based on geographic ontology according to basic geographic elements category, ②a description words reduction model is put forward to implement knowledge reduction on GISe instance-database based on rough set theory and generate optimized instances database, ③utilizing GISe ontology-database and optimized instance-database to implement semantic inference and reasoning of geographic searching objects is used as an example to demonstrate the efficiency, feasibility and recall ration of the proposed description-word-based reduction model.

  12. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible...

  13. Student Perspectives on the Teaching of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Geography Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2015-01-01

    In an era when graduate employability is a key concern, the teaching of geographical information systems (GIS) has become a subject of considerable interest. This paper reports on a study of the GIS student learning experience using student survey data from six UK geography undergraduate programmes. The findings show that although students'…

  14. Web-Based Geographic Information Systems: Experience and Perspectives of Planners and the Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Z. Asligül

    2016-01-01

    Web-based geographic information system (GIS) technology, or web-based GIS, offers many opportunities for public planners and Extension educators who have limited GIS backgrounds or resources. However, investigation of its use in planning has been limited. The study described here examined the use of web-based GIS by public planning agencies. A…

  15. Technology Use in Rwandan Secondary Schools: An Assessment of Teachers' Attitudes towards Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Felicia O.

    2016-01-01

    Technology use is evident in all spheres of human endeavour. Focusing on technology use in education, this paper examines teachers' attitudes towards geographic information system (GIS). An assessment was made of GIS teachers in Rwandan secondary schools. Key areas covered include how GIS is implemented in schools, teachers' attitudes and…

  16. A Curriculum Framework for Geographical Information Science (GISc) Training at South African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, H.; van Niekerk, A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographical information science (GISc) is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. Being a relatively new discipline, universities often provide training as part of geography, surveying, town planning, environmental and computer science programmes. This complicates professional accreditation assessments as the content, outcomes, extent…

  17. An Evaluation of Geographic Information Systems in Social Studies Lessons: Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Elif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), used increasingly in primary and secondary education across the world, in social studies lessons in Turkey. In line with this aim, 14 social studies teachers working in the province of Aydin, Turkey received a 6-hour training course about GIS during the…

  18. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into Secondary Education: A Community-Based Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northon, Cherie

    Teaching secondary students the basics of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) results in a variety of benefits. Conventional secondary educational programs are enhanced, and high school students are provided an opportunity to experience a rapidly expanding field as they plan for college and their professional future. For such projects, stipends…

  19. Student Perspectives on the Teaching of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Geography Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2015-01-01

    In an era when graduate employability is a key concern, the teaching of geographical information systems (GIS) has become a subject of considerable interest. This paper reports on a study of the GIS student learning experience using student survey data from six UK geography undergraduate programmes. The findings show that although students'…

  20. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples at various locations around the college campuses, take geospatial coordinates with a global position systems (GPS) unit, and map their results on a geo-referenced campus map with geographical information systems (GIS) software. Nitrogen dioxide air pollution sampling is used as an…

  1. Teaching Geographical Information Systems in Geography Degrees: A Critical Reassessment of Vocationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Duncan; Clark, Gordon; Davies, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) are in tune with the current ethos of higher education because of their perceived vocational value. However, it is particularly difficult to teach GIS vocationally. This paper critiques the claim of vocationalism. The authors use an innovative method of evaluating a module that enlists its alumni to reflect…

  2. An Assessment of the Use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Teaching Geography in Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Lee Yong; Tan, Geok Chin Ivy; Zhu, Xuan; Wettasinghe, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, geographical information systems (GIS) were introduced to secondary schools in Singapore as a tool for teaching geography at the secondary and junior college levels. However, general observations and feedback from school teachers suggested that only a small number of secondary schools and junior colleges in Singapore were actually using…

  3. GIS in Evaluation: Utilizing the Power of Geographic Information Systems to Represent Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Robinson, David

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to geographic information systems (GIS) and how the technology can be used to enhance evaluation practice. As a tool, GIS enables evaluators to incorporate contextual features (such as accessibility of program sites or community health needs) into evaluation designs and highlights the interactions between…

  4. An Activity-Based Learning Approach for Key Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjeev Kumar; Tait, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the effect of active learning methods of concepts in geographical information systems where students participated in a series of interlocked learning experiences. These activities spanned several teaching weeks and involved the creation of a hand drawn map that was scanned and geo-referenced with locations' coordinates derived…

  5. Renewal of the base model for geographic information of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, C.W.; Janssen, P.; Reuvers, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 a base model for geographic information in the Netherlands was published named NEN 3610. The model consist of a modeling framework (based on the ISO19100 series) and a collection of extensible base classes. In the following years many organizations have built their models in conformance to t

  6. Modifications of the binary space partitioning tree for geographic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, P.J.M. van

    1989-01-01

    We present a Reactive Data Structure, that is, a spatial data structure with detail levels. The two properties, spatial organization and detail levels, are the basis for a Geographic Information System with a multi-scale database. A reactive data structure is a novel type of data structure catering

  7. Integrating Geographic Information Systems in Business School Curriculum: An Initial Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael A.; Arnette, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information systems have experienced rapid growth and user adoption over the last four decades, due to an increasing value to the business community. However, business schools are not teaching geospatial concepts and the related location intelligence to their students. This curriculum decision seems completely at odds with business'…

  8. The effects of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act privacy rule on influenza research using geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norisse Tellman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA privacy rule was enacted to protect patients’ personal health information from undue disclosure. Despite its intention to protect patients, recent reports suggest that HIPAA restrictions may be negatively impacting health research. Quantitative, visual geographical and statistical analysis of zip code geographical information systems (GIS mapping, comparing 3-digit HIPAA-compliant and 5-digit HIPAA-non-compliant simulated data, was chosen to identify and describe the type of distortion that may result. It was found that unmitigated HIPAA compliance with HIPAA mapping rules distorted the GIS zip code data by 28% leading to erroneous results. Thus, compliance with HIPAA privacy rule when mapping may lead investigators to publish erroneous GIS maps.

  9. ATTAINMENT OF MORFOMETRICS PARAMETERS OF BASIN VERSANT BY MEANS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cavalieri Sais

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available River basin is an area of the terrestrial surface that drains water, sediment and dissolved materials for an only exit, in determined point of the river system. The morphometrics aspects analysis in river basin, mainly aspects related to the draining and the relief, can take the briefing and understanding of diverse questions associates to the environment dynamics. The objective of this work was to characterize some morphometrics parameters of the river basin Ribeirão da Cachoeira or Areia Branca using Geographic Information System (GIS. SPRING, GIS used for the execution of this research allowed the fast and efficient manipulation of the information, facilitating and/or automating the attainment given necessary for the characterization of the basin. Considering that the morphometric parameters influence the amount of produced water by runoff and therefore also the quality of the water, this parameters should be considered in environmental planning and management of watersheds in order that we can minimize the impacts of human activities. This basin is important for the city has seen to be the primary funding source of water for urban supply. Thus the use of land should be planned so as not to compromise the water quality of river and its rainfall systems.

  10. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Waterfowl Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_waterfowl_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data represent waterfowl habitats with...

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Crawfish Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_crawfish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data representing major concentration areas for harvested or potentially harvested crawfish and river shrimp in...

  12. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Shorebird Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_shorebird_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebird species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent concentration areas and "hotspots"...

  13. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_fresh_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) fresh marsh data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  14. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  15. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Polygons, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esip_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains polygons representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking...

  16. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Habitats Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_habitats_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types, other...

  17. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Alligator Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_gator_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for American alligator in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent alligator habitats with nest density...

  18. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Seagrass, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_seagrass_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) seagrass data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  19. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Bear Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_bear_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for the Louisiana black bear in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent occupied habitat for this...

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Louisiana Highways, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_primaryroads_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. The dataset includes Interstates, US highways, and Louisiana State...

  1. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  2. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Analysing Rainfall Distribution Patterns in Batu Pahat District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Kaamin, M.; Azizan, N. S.; Sahat, S.; Bukari, S. M.; Mokhtar, M.; Ngadiman, N.; Hamid, N. B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainfall forecasting reports are crucial to provide information and warnings to the population in a particular location. The Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD) is a department that plays an important role in monitoring the situation and issued the statement of changes in weather and provides services such as weather advisories and gives warnings when the situation requires. Uncertain weather situations normally have created panic situation, especially in big cities because of flash floods due to poor drainage management. Usually, local authorities provided rainfall data in tables, and it is difficult to analyse to acquire the rainfall trend. Therefore, Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are commonly used to generate rainfall patterns in visual formation with a combination of characteristics of rainfall data and then can be used by stakeholders to facilitate the process of analysis and forecasting rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of rainfall distribution using GIS applications in Batu Pahat district to assist interested parties to understand and easy to analyse the rainfall data in visual form or mapping form. Rainfall data for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) and monthly data (Dec 2006 - Feb 2007) are provided by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) for 12 stations in the district of Batu Pahat, and rainfall maps in each year was obtained using the interpolation Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method was used in this research. The rainfall map was then analyzed to identify the highest rainfall that was received during the period of study. For the conclusion, this study has proved that rainfall analysis using GIS application is efficient to be used in gaining information of rainfall patterns as the results show that the highest rainfall occurred in 2006 and 2007, and it were the years of major floods occurrence in Batu Pahat district.

  3. The building and development of China`s mine geographic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Guo, D. [China University of Mining and Technology (China)

    1996-06-01

    The mine geographic information system (MGIS) is developed by applying the technique of GIS on the unique features of mines. The functions of the system include: collecting, storing, processing, interrogating, analysing, forecasting, evaluating and outputting the mine spacial information. It provides the scientific data required for planning and decision making in the management of mine production. This paper describes the development of China`s MGIS, and discusses the current status and future developmental strategy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  5. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J; Aday, D Derek; Cope, W Gregory; Kullman, Seth; Rice, James A; Kwak, Thomas J; Law, Mac

    2015-02-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  6. Remote sensing and geographic information system-based African civet habitat mapping in Andracha, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Dagnachew; Suryabhagavan, Karuturi Venkata; Gelet, Melakneh; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing and geographic information systems have enormous applications in ecological studies, particularly in the habitat analysis of wild animals. The present study aimed to evaluate the habitats of the African civet in Andracha, Ethiopia, in order to generate geo-referenced ecological data on the habitats of this species. Habitat evaluation and habitat changes during 1986 to 2012 were analyzed using LANDSAT imageries. In the year 1986, 1017.56 km2 (99.75%) of the study area was covered with forest, but in 2012 only 949.61 km2 (93.09%) had forest cover. There has been a reduction of 5.97% forest cover at a rate of 0.22% per year since 1986. The study area has been classified into three suitability categories based on forest cover, water, settlement/agriculture, road and slope. Currently, 611.07 km2 (59.9%) of the area has dense forest cover, which is less preferred by the African civet, 336.75 km2 (33.01%) is moderately interfered with human activities and is suitable for civets, and 70.56 km2 (6.91%) is degraded forest around human habitats, which is highly preferred by civets. Habitat suitability analysis is useful to predict potential habitats of African civets in Ethiopia and elsewhere in Africa.

  7. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  8. Landslide hazard and risk assessment for Ambon city using landslide inventory and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souisa, Matheus; Hendrajaya, Lilik; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    Ambon Island is a volcanic islands arc and included in the territory of the archipelago of small islands are associated with subduction zones that have a degree of high vulnerability to natural disasters, such as erosion and landslides on the slopes of certain conditions. Landslides that occur various in the city of Ambon, usually occurs during the rainy season so that the impacts that occur not only occurs on site but also off site with amount of large sedimentation. This paper presents the application of digital image analysis techniques and tools Geographic Information Systems to describe the degree of landslide hazard and risk areas in locations Ambon City, Moluccas. The cause of the landslide is analyzed through various thematic layers attribute data for the study area. Landslide hazard zonation assessment is done by using historical data, while the landslide risk analysis is done by using the results of landslide hazard assessment and socioeconomic factors by using geospatial models. The risk assessment of landslides can be used to estimate the risk to the population, property and infrastructure. The study results in the form of a map of landslide hazard and the risk of landslides that act to support urban spatial planning based on disaster mitigation.

  9. Cyber-physical geographical information service-enabled control of diverse in-situ sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

    2015-01-23

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control.

  10. Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-Enabled Control of Diverse In-Situ Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengcheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control.

  11. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess Site Suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge using Stormwater Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, E. K.; Harmon, R. E.; Beganskas, S.; Young, K. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Weir, W. B.; Lozano, S.

    2015-12-01

    We are completing a regional analysis of Santa Cruz and northern Monterey Counties, CA, to assess the conditions amenable to managed aquifer recharge using stormwater runoff. Communities and water supply agencies across CA are struggling to mitigate the ongoing drought and to develop secure and sustainable water supplies to support long-term municipal, agricultural, environmental and other needs. Enhanced storage of groundwater is an important part of this effort in many basins. This work is especially timely because of the recently enacted "Sustainable Groundwater Management Act" (SGMA), which requires the development of groundwater sustainability agencies and implementation of basin management plans in coming decades. Our analysis focuses specifically on the distributed collection of stormwater runoff, a water source that has typically been treated as a nuisance or waste, from drainages having an area on the order of 40-160 hectares. The first part of this project is a geographic information system (GIS) analysis using surface and subsurface data sets. Developing complete and accurate datasets across the study region required considerable effort to locate, assemble, co-register, patch, and reconcile information from many sources and scales. We have complete spatial coverage for surface data, but subsurface data is more limited in lateral extent. Sites that are most suitable for distributed stormwater capture supporting MAR have high soil infiltration capacity, are well-connected to an underlying aquifer with good transmissive and storage properties, and have space to receive MAR. Additional considerations include method of infiltration, slope, and land use and access. Based on initial consideration of surface data and slope, 7% of the complete study region appears to be "suitable or highly suitable" for MAR (in the top third of the rating system), but there is considerable spatial heterogeneity based on the distribution of shallow soils and bedrock geology.

  12. A Geographic Information System Framework for the Management of Sensor Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, David J.; Tritenko, Yury

    2010-01-01

    A prototype Geographic Information System (GIS) framework has been developed to map, manage, and monitor sensors with respect to other geographic features, including land base and in-plant features. The GIS framework supports geographic placement and subsequent discovery, query, and tasking of sensors in a network-centric environment using Web services. The framework couples the GIS feature placement logic of sensors with an extensible ontology which captures the capabilities, properties, protocols, integrity constraints, and other parameters of interest for a large variety of sensor types. The approach is significant in that custom, GIS-based interfaces can be rapidly developed via the integration of sensors and sensor networks into applications without having detailed knowledge of the sensors’ underlying device drivers by leveraging service-oriented computing infrastructure within the GIS framework. PMID:22399881

  13. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Alka B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS using geographic information systems (GIS. The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval. The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre

  14. Development of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System (GIS) for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Herzog; Holly Javedan

    2009-12-31

    In this project a Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) for the US was developed. The GIS stored, integrated, and manipulated information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS was used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. This report documents the key deliverables from the project: (1) Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) Documentation; (2) Stationary CO{sub 2} Source Database; (3) Regulatory Data for CCS in United States; (4) CO{sub 2} Capture Cost Estimation; (5) CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity Tools; (6) CO{sub 2} Injection Cost Modeling; (7) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport Cost Estimation; (8) CO{sub 2} Source-Sink Matching Algorithm; and (9) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport and Cost Model.

  15. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eugenio Hernández-Ávila

    Full Text Available Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  16. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  17. Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai

    2001-04-03

    While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of carbon capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for carbon management analysis.

  18. Quality Assessment - Example of Digital Products of Fundamental Geographic Information of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoqing, D.; Ping, X.

    2013-05-01

    Digital products of fundamental geographic information are the main components of Digital China Geo-spatial Framework (DCGSF for short). More and more mass data were produced and distributed to various users by different agencies and organizations with continuous implementation of fundamental surveying and mapping activities and various specified projects within national Administration of Surveying, Mapping & Geoinformation. Therefore, what about the description and quality assessment used for these products will directly effect the acquisition, delivery, share, and application of data. A quality model, by which quality is assessed through 3 levels of classification of quality elements, quality subelements, and check items, was built in this paper based on ISO 19113 and ISO 19114 so that to make the quality of digital products of fundamental geographic information to be assessed reasonably, and to make the quality assessment tools to be operable in practice. Quality assessment methods respectively for each of quality elements, quality subelements, and check items are presented. Fundamental data of Digital Line Graphs, Digital Elevation Models, Digital Orthophoto Maps, and Digital Raster Maps at the scale of 1:50,000 in DCGSF were used as examples to determine the quality of 9 quality elements, 24 quality subelements, and 68 check items considering the contents and the requirements of various users for these data, as well as the practical experiences in quality assessment. 300 DLGs selected from national key projects of surveying and mapping engineering were used for testing to validate the operability of the results mentioned in this paper. Random sampling is used, when sampling, for each layer, which is layered based on production unit and level of difficulty. Quality checking and quality assessment, and statistical analysis was done for samples in terms of item product and lot products respectively. The results from this test indicated that quality model and

  19. LAND USE PLANNING FOR BEEKEEPING USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN SUKABUMI REGENCY, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varian Triantomo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping is one of the alternative businesses that can be developed without converting the existing land use. Deveoping the business of beekeeping should consider the biophysically suitable area for bees themselves and also for the bee forage availability. The objective of this study was to provide the direction of development area for beekeeping. The methods used consist ofa combination of remote sensing, geographic information system, and analytical hierarchy process. The recommended area for beekeeping in Sukabumi regency consists of two areas: forest and dry land agriculture area. The protected area has two priorities: The first priority area for beekeeping is 3,335.52 ha (6.4%, while second priority is 48,415.22 ha (93.6% that covered 14 sub-districts. The cultivation area has three priorities: First priority area is 1,163.92 ha, second priorityarea is 6,044.98 ha, and third priority area is 2,651.21 ha that covered 9 sub-districts. Based on result of analysis with the existing beekeeping in Sukabumi regency, local government of Sukabumi regency or local farmer could develop program for beekeeping in such as sub district: Cibadak, Cicurug, Cidahu, Ciemas, Cikidang, Ciracap, Cisolok, Kabandungan, Kadudampit, Kalapanunggal, Nagrak, Pelabuhan Ratu, Sukabumi, Sukaraja, Jampang Kulon, Pabuaran, Sagaranten, Surade, and Tegalbuleud.

  20. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Using geographical information system for spatial evaluation of canine extruded disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraban, Constantin; Murino, Carla; Marzatico, Giuseppe; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Fatone, Gerardo; Auletta, Luigi; Miceli, Fabiana; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Disc herniation is one of the most common pathologies of the vertebral column in dogs. The aim of this study was to develop a geographical information system (GIS)-based vertebral canal (VC) map useful for spatial evaluation of extruded disc herniation (EDH) in dogs. ArcGIS® was used to create two-dimensional and three-dimensional maps, in which the VC surface is divided into polygons by lines representing latitude and longitude. Actual locations and directions of the herniated disc material were assessed by a series of 142 computer tomographies of dogs collected between 2005 and 2013. Most EDHs were located on the cervical and transitional regions (thoraco-lumbar and lumbo-sacral) and shown at the level of the ventro- cranial and ventro-central polygons created. Choropleth maps, highlighting the distribution and the location/direction patterns of the EDHs throughout the VC, were produced based on the frequency of the ailment. GIS proved to be a valuable tool in analysing EDH in dogs. Further studies are required for biomechanical analysis of EDH patterns.

  2. HiGIS: An Open Framework for High Performance Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIONG, W.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big data era expose many challenges to geospatial data management, geocomputation and cartography. There is no exception in geographic information systems (GIS community. Technologies and facilities of high performance computing (HPC become more and more feasible to researchers, while mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, and cloud computing are emerging. But traditional GIS need to be improved to take advantages of all these evolutions. We proposed and implemented a GIS married with high performance computing, which is called HiGIS. The goal of HiGIS is to promote the performance of geocomputation by leveraging the power of HPC, and to build an open framework for geospatial data storing, processing, displaying and sharing. In this paper the architecture, data model and modules of the HiGIS system are introduced. A geocomputation scheduling engine based on communicating sequential process was designed to exploit spatial analysis and processing. Parallel I/O strategy using file view was proposed to improve the performance of geospatial raster data access. In order to support web-based online mapping, an interactive cartographic script was provided to represent a map. A demostration of locating house was used to manifest the characteristics of HiGIS. Parallel and concurrency performance experiments show the feasibility of this system.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST ROADS AND DETERMINATION OF ROUTE USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Geographic Information System (GIS is an indispensable software tool in forest planning. In forestry transportation, GIS can manage the data on the road network and solve some problems in transportation, such as route planning. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of the road network and define transport routes using GIS technology. The present research was conducted in a forestry company in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The criteria used to classify the pattern of forest roads were horizontal and vertical geometry, and pavement type. In order to determine transport routes, a data Analysis Model Network was created in ArcGIS using an Extension Network Analyst, allowing finding a route shorter in distance and faster. The results showed a predominance of horizontal geometry classes average (3 and bad (4, indicating presence of winding roads. In the case of vertical geometry criterion, the class of highly mountainous relief (4 possessed the greatest extent of roads. Regarding the type of pavement, the occurrence of secondary coating was higher (75%, followed by primary coating (20% and asphalt pavement (5%. The best route was the one that allowed the transport vehicle travel in a higher specific speed as a function of road pattern found in the study.

  4. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P; Cheng, X; Xue, H; Wang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research.

  5. Comparison of Volunteered Geographic Information Data Contributions and Community Development for Selected World Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zipf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI projects and their crowdsourced data have been the focus of a number of scientific analyses and investigations in recent years. Oftentimes the results show that the collaboratively collected geodata of one of the most popular VGI projects, OpenStreetMap (OSM, provides good coverage in urban areas when considering particular completeness factors. However, results can potentially vary significantly for different world regions. In this article, we conduct an analysis to determine similarities and differences in data contributions and community development in OSM between 12 selected urban areas of the world. Our findings showed significantly different results in data collection efforts and local OSM community sizes. European cities provide quantitatively larger amounts of geodata and number of contributors in OSM, resulting in a better representation of the real world in the dataset. Although the number of volunteers does not necessarily correlate with the general population density of the urban areas, similarities could be detected while comparing the percentage of different contributor groups and the number of changes they made to the OSM project. Further analyses show that socio-economic factors, such as income, can have an impact on the number of active contributors and the data provided in the analyzed areas. Furthermore, the results showed significant data contributions by members whose main territory of interest lies more than one thousand kilometers from the tested areas.

  6. A framework for landfill site selection using geographic information systems and multi criteria decision making technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nur Azriati; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Wibowo, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The solid waste disposal is one of the facilities which can cause harm to human health and also contribute to severe environmental pollution if it is not properly managed. Therefore, an effective decision on a landfill site selection in order to identify the most suitable area as a new landfill is very important. Since 25 years ago, the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has drawn significant interest among researchers. This integrated technique is commonly used for land use planning and selecting a new landfill site is one of the plan. This paper proposes a framework of landfill site selection with a consideration of resource requirement. This framework is developed by using the integration of GIS and MCDA to identify an appropriate location for landfill siting. A list of selection criteria obtained from the literature considered in selecting the best landfill site is also presented. The results of this study could later be used to help the waste management team in developing an efficient solid waste management system.

  7. ArcFVS: An integration of a Geographic Information System and Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bogdan Chivoiu; Guofan Shao; John Moser; Walter L. Mills

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated application program called ArcFVS that links the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and a Geographic Information System (GIS) to realize spatial selection of input files and graphic display of modeling output. Data for testing and running the model came from the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Database and were also collected in field surveys in north-central Indiana. ArcFVS 1.0 is designed using the ArcGIS software from the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) and the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming environment to manipulate ESRI's ArcObjects. The resulting product offers custom functions as commands in a new menu or as tools on a new toolbar. They are used to: select spatially or by attribute the forest plots to be projected by FVS, create the FVS input files for the selected plots and display in a geospatial environment different types of FVS output (text output files, tables with variables of interest and visualization image files). Advantages of ArcFVS 1.0 include the new GIS capabilities, enhanced format translation functions and the standardized programming environment.

  8. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  9. Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling approach to determine the fastest delivery routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaeidi, Mohammad; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Muhamad, Rusnah

    2016-09-01

    This study involves the adoption of the Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling approach to determine the quickest routes for fresh vegetable delivery. During transport, fresh vegetables mainly deteriorate on account of temperature and delivery time. Nonetheless, little attention has been directed to transportation issues in most areas within Kuala Lumpur. In addition, perishable food normally has a short shelf life, thus timely delivery significantly affects delivery costs. Therefore, selecting efficient routes would consequently reduce the total transportation costs. The regression model is applied in this study to determine the parameters that affect route selection with respect to the fastest delivery of fresh vegetables. For the purpose of this research, ArcGIS software with network analyst extension is adopted to solve the problem of complex networks. The final output of this research is a map of quickest routes with the best delivery times based on all variables. The variables tested from regression analysis are the most effective parameters to make the flow of road networks slower. The objective is to improve the delivery services by achieving the least drive time. The main findings of this research are that Land use such as residential area and population as variables are the effective parameters on drive time.

  10. Using geographical information system for spatial evaluation of canine extruded disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daraban

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Disc herniation is one of the most common pathologies of the vertebral column in dogs. The aim of this study was to develop a geographical information system (GIS-based vertebral canal (VC map useful for spatial evaluation of extruded disc herniation (EDH in dogs. ArcGIS® was used to create two-dimensional and three-dimensional maps, in which the VC surface is divided into polygons by lines representing latitude and longitude. Actual locations and directions of the herniated disc material were assessed by a series of 142 computer tomographies of dogs collected between 2005 and 2013. Most EDHs were located on the cervical and transitional regions (thoraco-lumbar and lumbo-sacral and shown at the level of the ven- tro-cranial and ventro-central polygons created. Choropleth maps, highlighting the distribution and the location/direction patterns of the EDHs throughout the VC, were produced based on the frequency of the ailment. GIS proved to be a valuable tool in analysing EDH in dogs. Further studies are required for biomechanical analysis of EDH patterns.

  11. Geographical Information System Model for Potential Mines Data Management Presentation in Kabupaten Gorontalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviana, D.; Tajuddin, A.; Edi, S.

    2017-03-01

    Mining potential in Indonesian is very abundant, ranging from Sabang to Marauke. Kabupaten Gorontalo is one of many places in Indonesia that have different types of minerals and natural resources that can be found in every district. The abundant of mining potential must be balanced with good management and ease of getting information by investors. The current issue is, (1) ways of presenting data/information about potential mines area is still manually (the maps that already capture from satellite image, then printed and attached to information board in the office) it caused the difficulties of getting information; (2) the high cost of maps printing; (3) the difficulties of regency leader (bupati) to obtain information for strategic decision making about mining potential. The goal of this research is to build a model of Geographical Information System that could provide data management of potential mines, so that the investors could easily get information according to their needs. To achieve that goal Research and Development method is used. The result of this research, is a model of Geographical Information System that implemented in an application to presenting data management of mines.

  12. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess the Risk of Hurricane Hazards on the Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Sever, T.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of the Maya civilization spanned across portions of modern day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Paleoclimatic studies suggest this region has been affected by strong hurricanes for the past six thousand years, reinforced by archeological evidence from Mayan records indicating they experienced strong storms. It is theorized hurricanes aided in the collapse of the Maya, damaging building structures, agriculture, and ceasing industry activities. Today, this region is known for its active tropical climatology, being hit by numerous strong storms including Hurricane Dean, Iris, Keith, and Mitch. This research uses a geographic information system (GIS) to model hurricane hazards, and assess the risk posed on the Maya civilization. GIS has the ability to handle various layer components making it optimal for combining parameters necessary for assessing the risk of experiencing hurricane related hazards. For this analysis, high winds, storm surge flooding, non-storm surge related flooding, and rainfall triggered landslides were selected as the primary hurricane hazards. Data sets used in this analysis include the National Climatic Data Center International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardships (IBTrACS) hurricane tracks, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, WorldClim monthly accumulated precipitation, USGS HydroSHEDS river locations, Harmonized World Soil Database soil types, and known Maya site locations from the Electronic Atlas of Ancient Maya Sites. ArcGIS and ENVI software were utilized to process data and model hurricane hazards. To assess locations at risk of experiencing high winds, a model was created using ArcGIS Model Builder to map each storm's temporal wind profile, and adapted to simulate forward storm velocity, and storm frequency. Modeled results were then combined with physical land characteristics, meteorological, and hydrologic data to identify areas likely affected. Certain areas along the eastern

  13. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  14. Boosting Geographic Information System’s Performance Using In-Memory Data Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Rajpal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A typical Geographic Information System(GIS is informationsystem that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares anddisplays geographic information for effective decision making.The focus here is to refine the storing and retrievingcapabilities of any GIS. GIS application have a very highperformance and scalability requirement, such as queryresponse time of less than 3 seconds, 120000 customer sessionsper hour and 100000 data addition/updates per day. Also anideal GIS application always deal with high concurrent load,frequent database access for mostly read only data, and nonlineargrowth of mostly read only data over period of time.These all are the factors which lead to performance impact inthe application. This research proceeds to understand how theIn-Memory Data-Grid solution is better than other solutionsand how can it be leveraged to implement a very highperforming and highly scalable GIS applications.

  15. 增强现实地理信息系统%Augment Reality Geographical Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏; 陈秀万; 张飞舟; 郑宏伟

    2004-01-01

    地理信息系统(Geographical Information System, GIS)与增强现实(Augment Reality, AR)技术的结合将推动户外AR系统的发展,同时也将为地理信息科学的发展开辟新的方向,两者结合的结果即为增强现实地理信息系统(Augment Reality Geographical Information System, ARGIS).作者提出了明确的ARGIS概念、组成结构及研究框架,并进行了详细讨论,另外就其研究背景、相关研究现状及其发展的重要性进行了阐述.

  16. Evaluation of the 3d Urban Modelling Capabilities in Geographical Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, A. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) Technology, which provides successful solutions to basic spatial problems, is currently widely used in 3 dimensional (3D) modeling of physical reality with its developing visualization tools. The modeling of large and complicated phenomenon is a challenging problem in terms of computer graphics currently in use. However, it is possible to visualize that phenomenon in 3D by using computer systems. 3D models are used in developing computer games, military training, urban planning, tourism and etc. The use of 3D models for planning and management of urban areas is very popular issue of city administrations. In this context, 3D City models are produced and used for various purposes. However the requirements of the models vary depending on the type and scope of the application. While a high level visualization, where photorealistic visualization techniques are widely used, is required for touristy and recreational purposes, an abstract visualization of the physical reality is generally sufficient for the communication of the thematic information. The visual variables, which are the principle components of cartographic visualization, such as: color, shape, pattern, orientation, size, position, and saturation are used for communicating the thematic information. These kinds of 3D city models are called as abstract models. Standardization of technologies used for 3D modeling is now available by the use of CityGML. CityGML implements several novel concepts to support interoperability, consistency and functionality. For example it supports different Levels-of-Detail (LoD), which may arise from independent data collection processes and are used for efficient visualization and efficient data analysis. In one CityGML data set, the same object may be represented in different LoD simultaneously, enabling the analysis and visualization of the same object with regard to different degrees of resolution. Furthermore, two CityGML data sets

  17. Applications of geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to conservation of amphibians in northwestern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Palacios González; Elisa Bonaccorso; Monica Papeş

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Andean Chocó in western Ecuador and Colombia is threatened by anthropogenic changes in land cover. The main goal of this study was to contribute to conservation of 12 threatened species of amphibians at a cloud forest site in northwestern Ecuador, by identifying and proposing protection of critical areas. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to quantify land cover changes over 35 years and outline important areas for amphibian cons...

  18. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Barry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.

  19. Open-Source web-based Geographical Information System for health exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.

  20. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ECOLOGY CASE STUDY – ŢARCU MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Török – Oance

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of geographic information systems (GIS for environmental managment and resource planning has increased in recent years. Current ecological theory, in particular ecosystem theoy, is characteriyed by a new better understanding of ecosystem patterns and dynamics. This paper describes some of the basic application methods using GIS in connection with ecological factors constrained by relief in Ţarcu Mountains, Southern Carpathians.

  1. Geographic information system planning for geotechnical and earthquake engineering applications at the Savannah River Site, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-02-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Savannah River Site is in the planning stages of compiling a geological, geophysical, and seismological data base on an industry standard Geographic Information System (GIS). The system will serve as a tool for management and integration of already collected site data,planning for additional investigations, and for special studies such as seismic hazard and risk analyses for the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  2. Geographic information system planning for geotechnical and earthquake engineering applications at the Savannah River Site, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Savannah River Site is in the planning stages of compiling a geological, geophysical, and seismological data base on an industry standard Geographic Information System (GIS). The system will serve as a tool for management and integration of already collected site data,planning for additional investigations, and for special studies such as seismic hazard and risk analyses for the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  3. Traditional anthropology and geographical information systems in the collaborative study of Cassava in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanoff, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Cross-cultural, village-level, and farmer surveys have been used with a geographical information system to describe the distribution and relative importance of cassava (manioc, yuca, Manihot esculenta) in its cultural, economic, and ecological contexts. It presents examples of data management for mapping, sample selection, cross-tabulation of characteristics, combination of data types for indices and hypothesis testing. The methods used are reviewed, and some of the main conclusions of the study are presented.

  4. Geographic Information Systems (GSI) for natural resources planning and management at local government level

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shaoli

    2010-01-01

    Automated geographic information systems were once regarded as a technology that had little to do with most local, especially small, rural communities because of their financial and technological requirements. During the last decade, however, this situation has changed substantially and today both the experts in the GIS applications field and local communities officials have felt that the time for small jurisdictions to take the advantage of computerization in handling spatial dat...

  5. Application of Geographical Information Systems to Lahar Hazard Assessment on an Active Volcanic System

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Lahars (highly dynamic mixtures of volcanic debris and water) have been responsible for some of the most serious volcanic disasters and have killed tens of thousands of people in recent decades. Despite considerable lahar model development in the sciences, many research tools have proved wholly unsuitable for practical application on an active volcanic system where it is difficult to obtain field measurements. In addition, geographic information systems are tools that offer a great potenti...

  6. MetaSurv: Web-Platform Generator for the Monitoring of Health Indicators and Interactive Geographical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Laurent; Moreau, Stéphane; Bonnard, Gaétan

    2005-01-01

    The control of the transmissible epidemics of diseases requires fast and effective tools for data acquisition, analysis, and information feedback to the actors of health like to general public. We present a tool for the fast creation of platforms of monitoring on Internet allowing the collection and the analysis in real time of the epidemic data of any origin with the dynamic and interactive cartographic representation. A Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS) has been designed for communicable diseases monitoring. The Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in an n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System. It allows to access views of communicable diseases. Thus it is a useful tool for supporting health care decision-making for communicable diseases.This tool is based on the 20 years experiment of the Network Sentinels, with the daily participation of the general practitioners.

  7. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_index_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains polygons representing the boundaries of the USGS 1:100,000 topographic maps in the study area of the Louisiana Gulf-Wide Information System...

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Hydrography Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_hydro_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains arcs and polygons representing hydrography for coastal Louisiana. This data set comprises a portion of the Gulf-Wide Information System...

  9. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Cities Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_cities_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains boundaries for municipal areas in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data...

  10. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Parishes, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_parish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains boundaries for parishes in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Managed Lands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_mgt_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains boundaries for managed lands in coastal Louisiana. Feature-specific contact, type, and source information are stored in relational data tables...

  12. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterizations of benthic community data near the Florida Panhandle, 1970-1985 (NODC Accession 0000603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to organize and characterize information about benthic communities and substrates, which are...

  13. Exploring Games and Gameplay as a Means of Accessing and Using Geographical Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Cartwright

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaming computers are now as powerful as their office/industry counterparts, or, in some cases, even more powerful. Gaming strategies and games could provide an innovative means for accessing geographical information, including geographical information accessed via the Web.This paper reports on research undertaken to ascertain the usefulness of implementing a “games” interface for accessing geographical information. Three simple prototype packages were built and subsequently tested to see if access to information via a different interface would enhance information provided to users from a selected user group profile – the “Nintendo” group of users. Ormeling (1993 has identified this group as those users who have been exposed to computer games and thus potentially prefer access to computer-delivered information via this type of interface. The use of the prototypes was compared with the use of a conventional paper map for the same area and evaluations were completed to ascertain: * The general operability of the products; * Whether users preferred other metaphor approaches to traditional map interfaces; * Whether 3D graphic interfaces are preferable to 2D interfaces; and * Whether this type of product provides a better “picture” of reality.It was found that generally users preferred interactive multimedia to using conventional maps. They found that it would be easier for users who were not competent computer users to use a game-like control, and that the cognitive load was generally easier with a 3D interface, compared to a 2D interface.Furthermore, it was possible to conclude that this type of product provided a better understanding of a real place than a conventional map.This paper provides a background to the research, information about how the research was conducted, results from the evaluations and propositions for further research.

  14. Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues

  15. Geographical analysis of 'conflict minerals' utilizing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hark, Richard R., E-mail: hark@juniata.edu [Department of Chemistry, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States); Remus, Jeremiah J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); East, Lucille J. [Applied Spectra, Inc., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Harmon, Russell S. [Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Wise, Michael A. [Department of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013 (United States); Tansi, Benjamin M.; Shughrue, Katrina M. [Department of Chemistry, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States); Dunsin, Kehinde S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Liu, Chunyi [Applied Spectra, Inc., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a means of rapidly distinguishing different geographic sources for a mineral because the LIBS plasma emission spectrum provides information on the chemical composition (i.e. geochemical fingerprint) of a geomaterial. An application of this approach with potentially significant commercial and political importance is the spectral fingerprinting of 'conflict minerals' such as columbite-tantalite ('coltan'). Following a successful pilot study of a columbite-tantalite suite from North America, a more geographically diverse set of 57 samples from 37 locations around the world was analyzed using a commercially available LIBS system. The LIBS spectra were analyzed using advanced multivariate statistical signal processing techniques. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) resulted in a correct place-level geographic classification at success rates above 90%. The possible role of rare-earth elements (REEs) as a factor contributing to the high levels of sample discrimination was explored. These results provide additional evidence that LIBS has the potential to be utilized in the field as a real-time screening tool to discriminate between columbite-tantalite ores of different provenance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of columbite-tantalite using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemometric analysis (PLSDA) affords 90-100% correct sample classification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Possible role of rare-earth elements in the high level of sample discrimination.

  16. Rapid direct analysis to discriminate geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Barbieri, Sara; Zappi, Alessandro; Vichi, Stefania; Conte, Lanfranco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-08-01

    At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of flash gas chromatography electronic nose and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of commercial extra virgin olive oils characterized by a different geographical origin declared in the label. A comparison with solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was also performed. The new method is suitable to verify the geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils based on principal components analysis and discriminant analysis applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables were suitable in discriminating between "100% Italian" and "non-100% Italian" oils. Partial least squares discriminant analysis also allowed prediction of the degree of membership of unknown samples to the classes examined.

  17. Identification of Evacuation Routes in Tacloban City using Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jerico; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Santiago, Joy; Suarez, John Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines is the second most at risk to natural hazards according to the 2014 World Risk Report. On 8 November 2013, category 5 Typhoon Haiyan crossed the central region of the Philippines with maximum sustained wind reaching 315 kph. Considered as one of the strongest typhoons that made landfall in recorded history, Typhoon Haiyan caused USD 8 billion damage to properties, 6,293 deaths, 28,689 injured and 1,061 missing persons. Tacloban City, located in the north-eastern part of the island of Leyte in Eastern Visayas region, is one of the area most devastated by Typhoon Haiyan. The city is susceptible to other natural hazards given its geography, topography and geology. This condition emphasizes the need for preventive measures to avoid further loss of lives and destruction to properties. Evacuation is a mitigating strategy which involves the process of moving people from dangerous places to safer locations. Using Geographic Information System (GIS), a multi-hazard map of Tacloban City was created to determine safe areas for evacuation centers. The optimal route for evacuation was identified using ArcGIS Network Analyst's routing solver based on Dijkstra's algorithm. The medium of transportation used in the analysis is by foot with an average speed of 5.0 kph. Furthermore, the study assumes that all roads are passable and fully functional during the travel period and that there are no structures, trees and other debris that may act as road blockage. The study can be used as a reference in hazard assessment for disaster risk management and evacuation planning. This can be further improved by incorporating behaviour of the affected population and other socio-economic factors, different modes of transportation and detailed analysis of topography.

  18. Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

    2001-10-19

    Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

  19. Geographical information systems and air pollution simulation for Megalopolis' electric power plant in Peloponnese, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophile

    2014-01-01

    The growth and sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS) have propelled us into a new era of environmental analyses. Air pollution is a growing concern in populated areas as many recent studies have associated high levels of pollution with increased illnesses and mortality. The study will focus on the toxicity levels incurred by radioactive lignite-burning Power Generation facilities located in Megalopolis, Greece. An estimate of pollution emissions followed by dispersion simulations for various atmospheric conditions will be given. The exercise will be integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) for defining the emission sources and visualizing the dispersion of pollutants over the geographical terrain. Data samples were collected from vegetation in the surrounding areas and analyzed for radioactivity. High energy levels (up to 4-5 times higher than recommended standards, (UNCEAR, 1982) were found in several samples containing (226)Ra, (232)Th, (234)Th, (40)K and (238)U. The study concludes that air quality and vegetation of the neighbouring areas is adversely affected by industrial waste. Greater pollution controls and air quality monitoring should be applied for the benefit and health of its citizens. Radioactivity in food and water and inhaled air become very dangerous for public health thus, the levels of radioactivity should be kept within UNCEAR 1982 limits.

  20. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables is ...... airborne data. The simulation study shows that canonical information analysis is as accurate as and much faster than algorithms presented in previous work, especially for large sample sizes. URL: http://www.imm.dtu.dk/pubdb/p.php?6270...

  1. Techniques for Representation of Regional Clusters in Geographical In-formation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana REVEIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of visualization techniques adapted for regional clusters presentation in Geographic Information Systems. Clusters are groups of companies and insti-tutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and services. The regional clusters can be visualized by projecting the data into two-dimensional space or using parallel coordinates. Cluster membership is usually represented by different colours or by dividing clusters into several panels of a grille display. Taking into consideration regional clusters requirements and the multilevel administrative division of the Romania’s territory, I used two cartograms: NUTS2- regions and NUTS3- counties, to illustrate the tools for regional clusters representation.

  2. The Scaling of Geographic Space from the Perspective of City and Field Blocks and Using Volunteered Geographic Information

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The scaling of geographic space refers to the fact that for a large geographic area its small constituents or units are much more common than the large ones. This paper develops a novel perspective to the scaling of geographic space using large street networks involving both cities and countryside. Given a street network of an entire country, we decompose the street network into individual blocks, each of which forms a minimum ring or cycle such as city blocks and field blocks. The block sizes demonstrate the scaling property, i.e., there are far more small blocks than large ones. Interestingly, and to our surprise, we find that the mean of all the block sizes can easily separate between small and large blocks- a high percentage (e.g., 90%) of smaller ones and a low percentage (e.g., 10%) of larger ones. Based on this regularity, termed as the head/tail division rule, we propose a natural way of delineating city boundaries by grouping the smaller blocks. The extracted city sizes for the three largest European...

  3. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COASTAL FLORA OF THE AZOV SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative indicators of the coastal flora of the Azov Sea are presented. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described.

  4. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2016-04-20

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  5. SIGNe: A Geographic Information System on the Web for End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Toubiana, Laurent; le Mignot, Loïc; Ben Said, Mohamed; Mugnier, Claude; le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Jaïs, Jean Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS), the SIGNe (Système d'Information Géographique pour la Néphrologie), was designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). This Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in an n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System (MSIS). It allows to access views of ESRD concerning the epidemiology of the demand and the supply of care. It also provides maps matching the offer of care to the demand. It is presented with insights on the design and underlying technologies. It is dedicated to professionals and to public health care decision-makers in the domain of ESRD.

  6. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  7. A New Skid Trail Pattern Design for Farm Tractors Using Linear Programing and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Gumus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm tractor skidding is one of the common methods of timber extraction in Turkey. However, the absence of an optimal skidding plan covering the entire production area can result in time loss and negative environmental impacts. In this study, the timber extraction by farm tractors was analyzed, and a new skid trail pattern design was developed using Linear Programming (LP and Geographical Information Systems (GIS. First, a sample skidding operation was evaluated with a time study, and an optimum skidding model was generated with LP. Then, the new skidding pattern was developed by an optimum skidding model and GIS analysis. At the end of the study, the developed new skid trail pattern was implemented in the study area and tested by running a time study. Using the newly developed “Direct Skid Trail Pattern (DSTP” model, a 16.84% increase in working time performance was observed when the products were extracted by farm tractors compared to the existing practices. On the other hand, the average soil compaction value measured in the study area at depths of 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm was found to be greater in the sample area skid trails than in the control points. The average density of the skid trails was 281 m/ha, while it decreased to 187 m/ha by using the developed pattern. It was also found that 44,829 ton/ha of soil losses were prevented by using the DSTP model; therefore, environmental damages were decreased.

  8. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  9. On the Applicability of Geographic Information Systems for Landing-Site Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, S.

    2013-09-01

    As of 2013, a total number of 45 autonomous lander, sample-return or rover missions have been launched to the Moon, Venus, Mars, and Titan since 1960. Slightly less than 50% of these attempts were successful (see [4] and compilation in figure 1). Reports of the National Research Council (NRC) or recent surveys and roadmaps of space agencies clearly state the importance of autonomous units operating on the surface of other planets as precursors to in-depth robotic analyses and human exploration [1, 2, 3]. The selection of landing sites for autonomously operating planetary probes is a complex task, mainly because of partial gaps in the determinability of surface properties based on remote-sensing data, but also because scientific as well as engineering aspects need to be co-evaluated to provide a basis for a successful and effective mission-operation with measurable scientific output. Science criteria are always related to a set of (planet-specific) surface investigations conducted at a distinct location. Engineering constraints pick up science criteria and form an additional set of requirements within a geospatial context. This context makes it attractive to make use of established tools to geospatially analyse, define and rate locations in terms of a feasibility and safety assessment for lander or rover operations. For terrestrial applications, integration, analysis and evaluation of data from a geospatial domain are today usually conducted using highly modifiable but generic geographic information system (GIS) technology (GIST). GIS allow us to define workflow models related to geospatially defined data and to extract information from such investigations. We here want to discuss how standard demands as put forward by recent mission-planning scenarios can be evaluated using standard GIST, i.e. we want to define adaptable workflows for solving characteristic problems. As a second aim, such a procedure should provide a basis for discussion on how such systems can

  10. Modelling and understanding primary health care accessibility and utilization in rural South Africa: an exploration using a geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanser, Frank; Gijsbertsen, Brice; Herbst, Kobus

    2006-08-01

    Physical access to health care affects a large array of health outcomes, yet meaningfully estimating physical access remains elusive in many developing country contexts where conventional geographical techniques are often not appropriate. We interviewed (and geographically positioned) 23,000 homesteads regarding clinic usage in the Hlabisa health sub-district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used a cost analysis within a geographical information system to estimate mean travel time (at any given location) to clinic and to derive the clinic catchments. The model takes into account the proportion of people likely to be using public transport (as a function of estimated walking time to clinic), the quality and distribution of the road network and natural barriers, and was calibrated using reported travel times. We used the model to investigate differences in rural, urban and peri-urban usage of clinics by homesteads in the study area and to quantify the effect of physical access to clinic on usage. We were able to predict the reported clinic used with an accuracy of 91%. The median travel time to nearest clinic is 81 min and 65% of homesteads travel 1h or more to attend the nearest clinic. There was a significant logistic decline in usage with increasing travel time (p rural/peri-urban counterparts, respectively, after controlling for systematic differences in travel time to clinic. The estimated median travel time to the district hospital is 170 min. The methodology constitutes a framework for modelling physical access to clinics in many developing country settings.

  11. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.

    1995-09-01

    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  12. Assessing Completeness and Spatial Error of Features in Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Stefanidis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the quality and accuracy of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI contributions, and by extension the ultimate utility of VGI data has fostered much debate within the geographic community. The limited research to date has been focused on VGI data of linear features and has shown that the error in the data is heterogeneously distributed. Some have argued that data produced by numerous contributors will produce a more accurate product than an individual and some research on crowd-sourced initiatives has shown that to be true, although research on VGI is more infrequent. This paper proposes a method for quantifying the completeness and accuracy of a select subset of infrastructure-associated point datasets of volunteered geographic data within a major metropolitan area using a national geospatial dataset as the reference benchmark with two datasets from volunteers used as test datasets. The results of this study illustrate the benefits of including quality control in the collection process for volunteered data.

  13. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed.Keywords:  Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community 

  14. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed. Keywords: Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community

  15. REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION APPLIED TO THE FIRST NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION CENSUS OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Image classification will still be a long way in the future, although it has gone almost half a century. In fact, researchers have gained many fruits in the image classification domain, but there is still a long distance between theory and practice. However, some new methods in the artificial intelligence domain will be absorbed into the image classification domain and draw on the strength of each to offset the weakness of the other, which will open up a new prospect. Usually, networks play the role of a high-level language, as is seen in Artificial Intelligence and statistics, because networks are used to build complex model from simple components. These years, Bayesian Networks, one of probabilistic networks, are a powerful data mining technique for handling uncertainty in complex domains. In this paper, we apply Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian Networks (TAN to texture classification of High-resolution remote sensing images and put up a new method to construct the network topology structure in terms of training accuracy based on the training samples. Since 2013, China government has started the first national geographical information census project, which mainly interprets geographical information based on high-resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, this paper tries to apply Bayesian network to remote sensing image classification, in order to improve image interpretation in the first national geographical information census project. In the experiment, we choose some remote sensing images in Beijing. Experimental results demonstrate TAN outperform than Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC and Maximum Likelihood Classification Method (MLC in the overall classification accuracy. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the workload of field workers and improve the work efficiency. Although it is time consuming, it will be an attractive and effective method for assisting office operation of image interpretation.

  16. Remote Sensing Image Classification Applied to the First National Geographical Information Census of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Wen, Zongyong; Zhu, Zhaorong; Xia, Qiang; Shun, Lan

    2016-06-01

    Image classification will still be a long way in the future, although it has gone almost half a century. In fact, researchers have gained many fruits in the image classification domain, but there is still a long distance between theory and practice. However, some new methods in the artificial intelligence domain will be absorbed into the image classification domain and draw on the strength of each to offset the weakness of the other, which will open up a new prospect. Usually, networks play the role of a high-level language, as is seen in Artificial Intelligence and statistics, because networks are used to build complex model from simple components. These years, Bayesian Networks, one of probabilistic networks, are a powerful data mining technique for handling uncertainty in complex domains. In this paper, we apply Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian Networks (TAN) to texture classification of High-resolution remote sensing images and put up a new method to construct the network topology structure in terms of training accuracy based on the training samples. Since 2013, China government has started the first national geographical information census project, which mainly interprets geographical information based on high-resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, this paper tries to apply Bayesian network to remote sensing image classification, in order to improve image interpretation in the first national geographical information census project. In the experiment, we choose some remote sensing images in Beijing. Experimental results demonstrate TAN outperform than Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC) and Maximum Likelihood Classification Method (MLC) in the overall classification accuracy. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the workload of field workers and improve the work efficiency. Although it is time consuming, it will be an attractive and effective method for assisting office operation of image interpretation.

  17. Determining the Effectiveness of Incorporating Geographic Information Into Vehicle Performance Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera White

    2012-04-01

    This thesis presents a research study using one year of driving data obtained from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) located in Sacramento and San Francisco, California to determine the effectiveness of incorporating geographic information into vehicle performance algorithms. Sacramento and San Francisco were chosen because of the availability of high resolution (1/9 arc second) digital elevation data. First, I present a method for obtaining instantaneous road slope, given a latitude and longitude, and introduce its use into common driving intensity algorithms. I show that for trips characterized by >40m of net elevation change (from key on to key off), the use of instantaneous road slope significantly changes the results of driving intensity calculations. For trips exhibiting elevation loss, algorithms ignoring road slope overestimated driving intensity by as much as 211 Wh/mile, while for trips exhibiting elevation gain these algorithms underestimated driving intensity by as much as 333 Wh/mile. Second, I describe and test an algorithm that incorporates vehicle route type into computations of city and highway fuel economy. Route type was determined by intersecting trip GPS points with ESRI StreetMap road types and assigning each trip as either city or highway route type according to whichever road type comprised the largest distance traveled. The fuel economy results produced by the geographic classification were compared to the fuel economy results produced by algorithms that assign route type based on average speed or driving style. Most results were within 1 mile per gallon ({approx}3%) of one another; the largest difference was 1.4 miles per gallon for charge depleting highway trips. The methods for acquiring and using geographic data introduced in this thesis will enable other vehicle technology researchers to incorporate geographic data into their research problems.

  18. A Geographic Information System approach to modeling nutrient and sediment transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Timmins, S.P. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water quality model to quantify nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution that uses a geographic information system (GIS) to link statistical modeling of nutrient and sediment delivery with the spatial arrangement of the parameters that drive the model. The model predicts annual nutrient and sediment loading and was developed, calibrated, and tested on 12 watersheds within the Lake Ray Roberts drainage basin in north Texas. Three physiographic regions are represented by these watersheds, and model success, as measured by the accuracy of load estimates, was compared within and across these regions.

  19. An Overview of Landslide Forecasting Using Wireless Sensor Network and Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are natural disasters cause losses in many human lives and damage properties every year around the globe. Using of physical and electronic monitoring makes possible in prediction and prevention losses from landslide. Today, the wireless sensor network technology has been developed rapidly for landslide predictions. The primary object of this present paper is to overview the landslide prediction method using wireless sensor networks (WSN and geographical information systems (GIS. The paper focuses on various landslide conditioning factors, WSN design requirement, and small scale down slope model similar to study area (hazard location. Landslide prediction database to support warning system are also discussed

  20. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  1. Estimation and allocation of solid waste to bin through geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Gupta, Apurba; Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Devotta, Sukumar

    2005-10-01

    This study presents a geographical information system (GIS)-based procedure for the precise estimation of solid waste generation, computed using the local population density and income group distribution. Using a triangulated irregular network (TIN) in a GIS environment, the procedure further determines the command area for waste allocation to a particular bin which is generally located so the route slopes towards the collection points for ease of transportation by cart pullers. Computational results of bin location, type, size and the frequency of removal are presented for a typical urban area with known population density, income group distribution, road network and topology.

  2. Using a geographic information system to improve childhood lead-screening efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Robert

    2013-06-13

    The Idaho Division of Public Health conducted a pilot study to produce a lead-exposure-risk map to help local and state agencies better target childhood lead-screening efforts. Priority lead-screening areas, at the block group level, were created by using county tax assessor data and geographic information system software. A series of maps were produced, indicating childhood lead-screening prevalence in areas in which there was high potential for exposure to lead. These maps could enable development of more systematically targeted and cost-effective childhood lead-screening efforts.

  3. Another Look at Taurus Littrow: An Interactive Geographic Information System DataBase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Meisburger, J. L.; Nettles, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of data has been amassed for the Apollo 17 landing site, including topography, sample locations, and imagery. These data were compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze their interrelationships more easily. The database will allow the evaluation of the resource potential of the Taurus Littrow region pyroclastic deposits. The database also serves as a catalog for the returned lunar samples. This catalog includes rock type, size, and location. While this project specifically targets the Taurus Littrow region, it is applicable to other regions as well.

  4. Geographic information system documentation of watershed data for Direct/Delayed Response Project. Northeast data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) was designed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to predict the long-term response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. The purpose of the DDRP is to investigate and distinguish the time scales over which surface water systems might change chemically under varying levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP is examining a subset of watersheds sampled as part of the National Surface Water Survey. In the Northeast Region of the United States, 145 watersheds are under study. The DDRP required detailed watershed information on those characteristics thought important relative to the effects of acid deposition. The information was then mapped, then entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The document discusses protocols, guidelines, and standards used to complete GIS entry of the mapping data, and quality control procedures used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

  5. Geographic information system data from ambulances applied in the emergency department: effects on patient reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaber, Nikolaj; Pedersen, Iben Duvald; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (ED) recognize crowding and handover from prehospital to in-hospital settings to be major challenges. Prehospital Geographical Information Systems (GIS) may be a promising tool to address such issues. In this study, the use of prehospital GIS data was implemented...... was displayed in the ED. Data included real-time estimated time of arrival, distance to ED, dispatch criteria, patient data and ambulance contact information. Data was used by coordinating nurses for time activation of TT and MET involved in the initial treatment of severely-injured or critically-ill patients....... DISCUSSION: The contradiction of measured median wait time and nurses perceived improved timing of team activation may result from having both RT- ETA and supplemental patient information not only for seriously-injured or critically-ill patients received by the TT and MET, but for all patients transported...

  6. Geographical analysis of ``conflict minerals'' utilizing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; Remus, Jeremiah J.; East, Lucille J.; Harmon, Russell S.; Wise, Michael A.; Tansi, Benjamin M.; Shughrue, Katrina M.; Dunsin, Kehinde S.; Liu, Chunyi

    2012-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a means of rapidly distinguishing different geographic sources for a mineral because the LIBS plasma emission spectrum provides information on the chemical composition (i.e. geochemical fingerprint) of a geomaterial. An application of this approach with potentially significant commercial and political importance is the spectral fingerprinting of "conflict minerals" such as columbite-tantalite ("coltan"). Following a successful pilot study of a columbite-tantalite suite from North America, a more geographically diverse set of 57 samples from 37 locations around the world was analyzed using a commercially available LIBS system. The LIBS spectra were analyzed using advanced multivariate statistical signal processing techniques. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) resulted in a correct place-level geographic classification at success rates above 90%. The possible role of rare-earth elements (REEs) as a factor contributing to the high levels of sample discrimination was explored. These results provide additional evidence that LIBS has the potential to be utilized in the field as a real-time screening tool to discriminate between columbite-tantalite ores of different provenance.

  7. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH FOR PLAY PORTFOLIOS TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Seyler; John Grube

    2004-12-10

    Oil and gas have been commercially produced in Illinois for over 100 years. Existing commercial production is from more than fifty-two named pay horizons in Paleozoic rocks ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Pennsylvanian. Over 3.2 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Recent calculations indicate that remaining mobile resources in the Illinois Basin may be on the order of several billion barrels. Thus, large quantities of oil, potentially recoverable using current technology, remain in Illinois oil fields despite a century of development. Many opportunities for increased production may have been missed due to complex development histories, multiple stacked pays, and commingled production which makes thorough exploitation of pays and the application of secondary or improved/enhanced recovery strategies difficult. Access to data, and the techniques required to evaluate and manage large amounts of diverse data are major barriers to increased production of critical reserves in the Illinois Basin. These constraints are being alleviated by the development of a database access system using a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach for evaluation and identification of underdeveloped pays. The Illinois State Geological Survey has developed a methodology that is being used by industry to identify underdeveloped areas (UDAs) in and around petroleum reservoirs in Illinois using a GIS approach. This project utilizes a statewide oil and gas Oracle{reg_sign} database to develop a series of Oil and Gas Base Maps with well location symbols that are color-coded by producing horizon. Producing horizons are displayed as layers and can be selected as separate or combined layers that can be turned on and off. Map views can be customized to serve individual needs and page size maps can be printed. A core analysis database with over 168,000 entries has been compiled and assimilated into the ISGS Enterprise Oracle database. Maps of wells with core data have been generated

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Survey Boundaries, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_survey_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector polygons representing survey boundaries for the various data collection efforts used as sources in the larger Louisiana G-WIS database....

  9. Handbook on advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems paradigms and applications in forest landscape modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita N

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in remote-sensing and geographic information systems and applications. It is divided into four parts, focusing on Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Optical Measurements of Forests; Individual Tree Modelling; Landscape Scene Modelling; and Forest Eco-system Modelling. Given the scope of its coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in remote sensing and geographic information systems and applications.

  10. Surface runoff estimation from various land use in Mapili Watershed using SCS Curve Number and Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahayati Yusuf, Sri; Guluda, David; Jayanegara, Trisumitra

    2017-01-01

    Mapili watershed which is located in West Sulawesi is dominated by secondary forest and agriculture land. The condition of the watershed is affected by land use and soil type. Land use is a form of interaction between man and land in order to meet their needs. Soil is function from organism, climate, topographic, material, and time. This information then will affect the hydrological condition in the watershed, especially surface runoff. The objective of study is to analyze the surface runoff in Mapili watershed. SCS curve number method that integrates with geographic information system was used in the analysis. The highest surface runoff value is about 887.6 mm and the highest of surface runoff coefficient is about 0.31.

  11. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Dong; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Norris, Jessie; Wu, Ying; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Huang, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng; Peng, Zhi-Hang

    2014-05-01

    Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  12. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  13. Land use changes in Pak Phanang Basin using satellite images and geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchalermchai, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study defined major changes in land use in Pak Phanang Basin, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province by using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. The land use map conducted by Department of Land Development in 1988 was compared with the land use map interpreted from satelliteimages of Landsat-5 TM acquired in 1995 and 1999. The results revealed that between 1988 to 1999, forest area in the basin decreased by a total of 98.08 km2, a drastic decline of 60% that was changed to rubber plantation area. The rubber area increased about 181.7 km2 or 41%. Shrimp farm area increased by 184.87 km2, equivalent to a high increase of 886% while paddy field area decreased by 248.7 km2, or 16% that was converted to shrimp farm and rubber land. A decline in forest area caused soil erosion. The severe expansion of shrimp farm area caused the salinity and affected nearby paddy field and water source areas, that resulted in degradation of the environment. Application of remote sensing and geographic information system was utilized as a tool for monitoring the land use change and planning proper resource utilization for sustainable development in Pak Phanang Basin.

  14. Public Perception on Disaster Management Using Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi): Case of Uae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoub, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    The number of smart phones that are supported by location facility like Global Positioning System (GPS), Camera and connected to the internet has increased sharply in UAE during the last five years. This increase offers a chance to capitalize on using these devices as resources for data collection, therefore reducing cost. In many cases specific events may happen in areas or at time where there may be no governmental departments to collect such unrepeated events. The current research will showcase various studies that had been conducted on Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) debating various aspects such as accuracy, legal issues, and privacy. This research will also integrate Geographic Information System (GIS), VGI, social media tools, data mining, and mobile technology to design a conceptual framework for promoting public participation in UAE. The data gathered through survey will be helpful in correlating various aspects of VGI. Since there are diverse views about these aspects, policy makers are left undecided in many countries about how to deal with VGI. The assessment of the UAE case will contribute to the age-long debate by examining the willingness of the public to participate. The result will show the public perception to be as sensors for data collection. Additionally, the potential of citizen involvement in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected for VGI applications will also be explored in the paper.

  15. PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT USING VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (VGI: CASE OF UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Yagoub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of smart phones that are supported by location facility like Global Positioning System (GPS, Camera and connected to the internet has increased sharply in UAE during the last five years. This increase offers a chance to capitalize on using these devices as resources for data collection, therefore reducing cost. In many cases specific events may happen in areas or at time where there may be no governmental departments to collect such unrepeated events. The current research will showcase various studies that had been conducted on Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI debating various aspects such as accuracy, legal issues, and privacy. This research will also integrate Geographic Information System (GIS, VGI, social media tools, data mining, and mobile technology to design a conceptual framework for promoting public participation in UAE. The data gathered through survey will be helpful in correlating various aspects of VGI. Since there are diverse views about these aspects, policy makers are left undecided in many countries about how to deal with VGI. The assessment of the UAE case will contribute to the age-long debate by examining the willingness of the public to participate. The result will show the public perception to be as sensors for data collection. Additionally, the potential of citizen involvement in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected for VGI applications will also be explored in the paper.

  16. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of Naharkhoran area in Gorgan using remote sensing and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladi, Jafar; Bozorgnia, Delavar

    2010-10-01

    Ecotourism may be defined as voluntary travels to intact natural areas in order to enjoy the natural attractions as well as to get familiar with the culture of local communities. The main factor contributing to inappropriate land uses and natural resource destruction is overaggregation of ecotourists in some specific natural areas such as forests and rangelands; while other parts remain unvisited due to the lack of a proper propagation about those areas. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of each area would lead to a wider participation of local people in natural resource conservation activities. In order to properly introduce the ecotourism potential areas, at first, we carried out land preparation practices using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques; then, the maps of height, slope and orientation were produced using the digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Afterwards, we overlaid these maps and the ecotourism potential areas were identified on the map. These specified areas were classified into two land uses of mass and alternative ecotourism, with three subclasses (including class1, class2 and an inappropriate class) considered for each land use. To classify the image, the training areas determined on the ground using a GPS device (Ground Positioning System) were transferred on the RS image. Subsequently, the ecotourism potential areas were determined using a hybrid method. At the final phase, these areas were compared with the areas determined on the ecotourism potential map; as a result of this comparison, the overlaid ecotourism potential areas were distinguished on the Geographic information System.

  17. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumalani, S. [Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geography; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geography; Mackey, H.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  18. Remote sensing and geographic information systems in the spatial temporal dynamics modeling of infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Peng

    2006-01-01

    Similar to species immigration or exotic species invasion, infectious disease transmission is strengthened due to the globalization of human activities. Using schistosomiasis as an example, we propose a conceptual model simulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of infectious diseases. We base the model on the knowledge of the interrelationship among the source, media, and the hosts of the disease. With the endemics data of schistosomiasis in Xichang, China, we demonstrate that the conceptual model is feasible; we introduce how remote sensing and geographic information systems techniques can be used in support of spatio-temporal modeling; we compare the different effects caused to the entire population when selecting different groups of people for schistosomiasis control. Our work illustrates the importance of such a modeling tool in supporting spatial decisions. Our modeling method can be directly applied to such infectious diseases as the plague, lyme disease, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The application of remote sensing and geographic information systems can shed light on the modeling of other infectious disease and invasive species studies.

  19. Development and implementation of a low cost micro computer system for LANDSAT analysis and geographic data base applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, N.; Jordon, L.

    1981-01-01

    Since the implementation of the GRID and IMGRID computer programs for multivariate spatial analysis in the early 1970's, geographic data analysis subsequently moved from large computers to minicomputers and now to microcomputers with radical reduction in the costs associated with planning analyses. Programs designed to process LANDSAT data to be used as one element in a geographic data base were used once NIMGRID (new IMGRID), a raster oriented geographic information system, was implemented on the microcomputer. Programs for training field selection, supervised and unsupervised classification, and image enhancement were added. Enhancements to the color graphics capabilities of the microsystem allow display of three channels of LANDSAT data in color infrared format. The basic microcomputer hardware needed to perform NIMGRID and most LANDSAT analyses is listed as well as the software available for LANDSAT processing.

  20. The Creation Of Web-Based Geographical Information System Of Drugstore Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Kosasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties of finding the locations of the drugstores in a certain area often happen. They make the customers’ demands not satisfied. Low competitiveness of the drugstores is another impact. This research aims to create a web-based geographical information system (WebGis on the distribution of all drugstores located in the sub-districts of Pontianak using a web-based mapping approach. It is beneficial to use WebGis because the integrated information (i.e. spatial and non-spatial data can be provided. The information displays are also interactive and ease the customers to know the locations of the drugstores using certain view. Moreover, the system has a maptip feature that can be used to know the information of coordinate points showing the drugstore names, medical schedules, services, insurance, and addresses. The search column can be used to search the information of medicine and of physical appearance of drugstore buildings. Finally, the system maps all drugstores and gives accurate information. Therefore, the customers can analyze and find the drugstores with the nearest distance.

  1. Multi-pipeline geographical information system based on high accuracy inertial surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyz, J.A.; Pettigrew, C. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pino, H.; Gomez, R. [Pemex Refinacion, Mexico City, (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The GIS system developed for the Pemex pipeline network in the Valley of Mexico was described. The system makes it possible to retrieve information on the precise location of pipelines and their features. It also displays their relative position to each other and other landmarks. It is useful in accurately identifying linear features. The system facilitates the management of various pipeline data. The UTM coordinates which are the basis of the geographical information system (GIS) were obtained from Geopig{sup R} inertial and caliper surveys which provided information on pipeline features and anomalies. The information was incorporated into the GIS along with metal loss data from past in-line inspections. The system is based on the ArcView{sup R} GIS Software with the ArcView 3D Analyst{sup TM} extension that makes it possible to view the cartography and pipeline data in 3D. One of the biggest advantages of the GIS system is that it stores a multitude of information from various pipelines into one database which is easy to manage and update. For example, it stores information on pipeline plan, profile, girth weld locations, dents, wall thickness, bending strains, metal loss and other features such as roads, buildings, political boundaries and hydrology. This makes it possible to detect defects and anomalies and helps to eliminate unnecessary excavations. It also helps to plan and schedule pipeline repairs. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Groundwater Potential Assessment Using Geographic Information Systems and Ahp Method (case Study: Baft City, Kerman, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinolabedini, M.; Esmaeily, A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to use Geographical Information Systems (GISs) for determining the best areas having ground water potential in Baft city. To achieve this objective, parameters such as precipitation, slope, fault, vegetation, land cover and lithology were used. Regarding different weight of these parameters effect, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used. After developing informational layers in GIS and weighing each of them, a model was developed. The final map of ground waters potential was calculated through the above-mentioned model. Through applying our developed model four areas having high, average, low potential and without required potential distinguished. Results of this research indicated that 0.74, 41.23 and 45.63 percent of the area had high, average and low potential, respectively. Moreover, 12.38% of this area had no potential. Obtained results can be useful in management plans of ground water resources and preventing excessive exploitation.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBON MANAGEMENT GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard J. Herzog

    2004-03-01

    The Lab for Energy and Environment (LFEE) at MIT is developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) for carbon management. The GIS will store, integrate, and manipulate information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS can be used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. In the first year of this three year project, we focused on two tasks: (1) specifying the system design--defining in detail the GIS data requirements, the types of analyses that can be conducted, and the forms of output we will produce, as well as designing the computer architecture of the GIS and (2) creating the ''core'' datasets--identifying data sources and converting them into a form accessible by the GIS.

  4. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. How to compare movement? A review of physical movement similarity measures in geographic information science and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranacher, Peter; Tzavella, Katerina

    2014-05-27

    In geographic information science, a plethora of different approaches and methods is used to assess the similarity of movement. Some of these approaches term two moving objects similar if they share akin paths. Others require objects to move at similar speed and yet others consider movement similar if it occurs at the same time. We believe that a structured and comprehensive classification of movement comparison measures is missing. We argue that such a classification not only depicts the status quo of qualitative and quantitative movement analysis, but also allows for identifying those aspects of movement for which similarity measures are scarce or entirely missing. In this review paper we, first, decompose movement into its spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal movement parameters. A movement parameter is a physical quantity of movement, such as speed, spatial path, or temporal duration. For each of these parameters we then review qualitative and quantitative methods of how to compare movement. Thus, we provide a systematic and comprehensive classification of different movement similarity measures used in geographic information science. This classification is a valuable first step toward a GIS toolbox comprising all relevant movement comparison methods.

  6. Possibility of Preparing Thematic Maps Through Developing of the Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Husnjak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that nowadays planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality information, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most important forms of information is presented in various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather complex and time-consuming task. However, at present, thanks to, first of all, the GIS technology it is possible to develop corresponding geographic information systems with databases which then allow comparatively simple and quick preparing of necessary thematic maps. The paper first presents the method of developing the Geographic and Land Information System (GLIS of the Karlovac County which, although developed for the purpose of agricultural development, may also be used in the development of forestry, environment protection, physical planning, water management and for soil conservation and regulation. Several examples illustrate the possibilities of preparing of specialised maps based on this GLIS. The basic data for developing of the geographic and land information system were the data of the Basic Soil Maps and topographic maps of the Republic of Croatia at the scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000, and the data from other studies made for the purpose of agricultural development in the area. These data, together with the results of processing and analysing of this data, by digitalisation, generalisation and interpolation, were incorporated into an integrated database of the geographic and land information system by using Microstation, AutoCad, ArcInfo, ArcWiew and Access software and the corresponding hardware. GLIS database consists of two parts. The first part includes the data referring to polygons - pedological contours, and the other part the data on pedological profiles. The base is organised in a way that enable the preparation of different thematic maps, but it can be also used in digital form

  7. Content Analysis of International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education: 18 Years of Academic Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Gillian; Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the history of the "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" (IRGEE) journal in terms of its sustainable future. The development of geographical and environmental education is evaluated, as reflected from the papers published in the journal "IRGEE". A content analysis of all papers and forum sections…

  8. Measuring community integration using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and participatory mapping for people who were once homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dara V; Helfrich, Christine A; Hursh, Norman C; Sally Rogers, E; Gopal, Sucharita

    2014-05-01

    Measures of community integration rely on self-report assessments that often quantify physical or social participation, but fail to capture the individual׳s spatial presence in the community. The current study documents the activity space, or area of daily experiences, of 37 individuals who were once homeless through participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Contrary to expectations, there was no significant relationship between activity space size and community integration measures, except a negative association with physical integration. Further analysis revealed, however, that continued use of homeless services, geographically spread throughout the city, was associated with larger activity space size, but may be counterproductive to social and psychological integration efforts. Analysis of the types of locations identified revealed high importance given to leisure locations and ongoing involvement with medical and mental health locations. Finally, community integration outcomes did not differ significantly by demographics or housing type, but rather degree of family involvement and feeling like home, factors that may have more potential for change.

  9. Shortest route finding by ant system algorithm in web geographical information system-based advanced traveller information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology used in the development of advanced traveller information system (ATIS. This system is designed as a part of web geographical information system (GIS based advanced public transport systems. Web GIS-based ATIS system includes spatial data for the designed functionalities and provides GIS capabilities to the users through the internet. In addition to these functionalities, a route planning algorithm to plan the shortest route between the selected bus transit points is also designed using ant system algorithm and is integrated with web GIS. This study presents the ant system algorithm adopted for the shortest route finding with the methodology developed for the web GIS-based ATIS system for the study area of the city Chandigarh in India using open source software MapServer as web map server. This study also discusses the three-tier logical architecture used in the methodology for providing GIS capabilities to the user over the internet.

  10. Geographic clustering of firms and urban form: a multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoh, Hanna; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2007-04-01

    This paper provides an empirical framework that applies spatial statistics methods to assess the relation between the change in the geographical clustering of firms and the emergence of urban form. We contend that where firms locate and eventually cluster give rise to the way commercial and industrial land uses are organized over space, which in turn defines the shape of urban form. Accordingly, the objectives of our work are twofold: (1) to identify the extent and shape of firm clustering and co-location at the intra-metropolitan level, and (2) examine how the change in the geographic clustering of different industries contributes to decentralization and the evolution of urban form. Spatial statistics methods and tools were vital and helped to fulfill these objectives.

  11. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  12. Impacts of Scale on Geographic Analysis of Health Data: An Example of Obesity Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.

  13. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  14. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  15. Volunteered Geographic Information for Disaster Management with Application to Earthquake Disaster Databank & Sharing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, W. C.; Deng, C.; Nie, N.; Yi, L.

    2017-02-01

    All phases of disaster management require up-to-date and accurate information. Different in-situ and remote sensor systems help to monitor dynamic properties such as air quality, water level or inundated areas. The rapid emergence of web-based services has facilitated the collection, dissemination, and cartographic representation of spatial information from the public, giving rise to the idea of using Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to aid disaster management. In this study, with a brief review on the concept and the development of disaster management, opportunities and challenges for applying VGI in disaster management were explored. The challenges, including Data availability, Data quality, Data management and Legal issues of using VGI for disaster management, were discussed in detail with particular emphasis on the actual needs of disaster management practice in China. Three different approaches to assure VGI data quality, namely the classification and authority design of volunteers, a government-led VGI data acquisition framework for disaster management and a quality assessment system for VGI, respectively, were presented and discussed. As a case study, a prototype of VGI oriented earthquake disaster databank & sharing platform, an open WebGIS system for volunteers and other interested individuals collaboratively create and manage the earthquake disaster related information, was proposed, to provide references for improving the level of earthquake emergency response and disaster mitigation in China.

  16. Field Validation of Food Service Listings: A Comparison of Commercial and Online Geographic Information System Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases. PMID:23066385

  17. Field validation of food service listings: a comparison of commercial and online geographic information system databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-08-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases.

  18. Geographic information system (G.I.S.) research project at Navajo Community College - Shiprock Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazzie, R.; Peter, C.; Aaspas, B.; Isely, D.; Grey, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Navajo and Hopi GIS Project was established to assess the feasibility and impact of implementing GIS techology at Tribal institutions. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories funded the Navajo and Hopi Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) Project and assigned a mentor from LANL to help guide the project for three summer months of 1995. The six organizations involved were: LANL, LLNL, Navajo Community College, Navajo Nation Land Office, Northern Arizona University and San Juan College. The Navajo Land Office provided the system software, hardware and training. Northern Arizona University selected two students to work at Hopi Water Resource Department. Navajo Community College provided two students and two faculty members. San Juan College provided one student to work with the N.C.C. group. This made up two project teams which led to two project sites. The project sites are the Water Resource Department on the Hopi reservation and Navajo Community College in Shiprock, New Mexico.

  19. Coproduction of flood hazard assessment with public participation geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, W. H.; Houston, D.; Schubert, J.; Basolo, V.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Karlin, B.; Goodrich, K.; Contreras, S.; Reyes, A.; Serrano, K.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    While advances in computing have enabled the development of more precise and accurate flood models, there is growing interest in the role of crowdsourced local knowledge in flood modeling and flood hazard assessment. In an effort to incorporate the "wisdom of the crowd" in the identification and mitigation of flood hazard, this public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) study leveraged tablet computers and cloud computing to collect mental maps of flooding from 166 households in Newport Beach, California. The mental maps were analyzed using GIS techniques and compared with professional hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding. The results revealed varying levels of agreement between residents' mental maps and professional model of flood risk in regions with different personal and contextual characteristics. The quantification of agreement using composite indices can help validate professional models, and can also alert planners and decisionmakers of the need to increase flood awareness among specific populations.

  20. Using geographic information system tools to improve access to MS specialty care in Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, William J; Cowper-Ripley, Diane; Litt, Eric R; McDowell, Tzu-Yun; Hoffman, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patients who lived more than 2 hours from the nearest specialty clinic in fiscal year 2007. We demonstrate the utility of using GIS tools in decision-making by providing three examples of how patients' access to care is affected when additional specialty clinics are added. The mapping technique used in this study provides a powerful and valuable tool for policy and planning personnel who are evaluating how to address underserved populations and areas within the VHA healthcare system.

  1. Optimal Cell Towers Distribution by using Spatial Mining and Geographic Information System

    CERN Document Server

    AL-Hamami, Alaa H

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of wireless communication is dramatically changing our life. Mobile telecommunications emerged as a technological marvel allowing for access to personal and other services, devices, computation and communication, in any place and at any time through effortless plug and play. Setting up wireless mobile networks often requires: Frequency Assignment, Communication Protocol selection, Routing schemes selection, and cells towers distributions. This research aims to optimize the cells towers distribution by using spatial mining with Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool. The distribution optimization could be done by applying the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on the image of the area which must be covered with two levels of hierarchy. The research will apply the spatial association rules technique on the second level to select the best square in the cell for placing the antenna. From that the proposal will try to minimize the number of installed towers, makes tower's location feasible, and pr...

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM.

  3. High Level Waste Tank Closure Modeling with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOLLINGER, JAMES

    2004-07-29

    Waste removal from 49 underground storage tanks located in two tank farms involves three steps: bulk waste removal, water washing to remove residual waste, and in some cases chemical cleaning to remove additional residual waste. Not all waste can be completely removed by these processes-resulting in some residual waste loading following cleaning. Completely removing this residual waste would be prohibitively expensive; therefore, it will be stabilized by filling the tanks with grout. Acceptable residual waste loading inventories were determined using one-dimensional groundwater transport modeling to predict future human exposure based on several scenarios. These modeling results have been incorporated into a geographic information systems (GIS) application for rapid evaluation of various tank closure options.

  4. Using a geographical-information-system-based decision support to enhance malaria vector control in zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control.

  5. The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

  6. Evaluation of Eco-Environmental Frangibility Based on Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hua; TAG Heping; LU Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The eco-environmental frangibility is studied by choosing the factors of land use class change and vegetation cover rate, and the equation of eco-environmental frangibility and its evaluation system are established based on remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system technology (GIS). Four different years of TM images are selected to calculate land use change grads and vegetation cover rate, and the relationship between the two factors and eco-environment frangibility index are build, taking Fuzhou as an example. The character of times change and space distribution of eco-environment frangibility are described. The result indicates the area of eco-environment frangibility increased 2.6% in Fuzhou during twelve years, and expands from the region between infield and forest land to forest land in space distribution.

  7. Geographical Information Systems Assessment of Development Disparities Among Romanian Regions of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN DANIEL MANOLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New strategies of the European Union, focused directly on regional development or originated from different areas, but leading to changes in this field, had resulted into a set of indices used to monitor the effects of their implementation. Previous studies suggest that flexible systems perform better and could strengthen the administrative capacity of accessing structural and cohesion funds. Our study used the Geographical Information Systems (GIS to produce hierarchies of the territorial indices at NUTS level II, displayed as charts and maps underlining the disparities between the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental aspects of the development. The results suggest that the regions with a low potential of development are situated in the south of Romania, but, most important, underline the potential of the method to be used as a planning tool in regional development, as its flexibility allows for an input with particular focus from different stakeholders, resulting into the selection of different indices and weights.

  8. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  10. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  11. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  12. Remote sensing and geographic information system for appraisal of salt-affected soils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbachan; Bundela, D S; Sethi, Madhurama; Lal, Khajanchi; Kamra, S K

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of the nature, extent, and spatial distribution of salt-affected soils (SAS) for India and the world is essential for planning and implementing reclamation programs in a timely and cost-effective manner for sustained crop production. The national extent of SAS for India over the last four decades was assessed by conventional and remote sensing approaches using diverse methodologies and class definitions and ranged from 6.0 to 26.1 million hectares (Mha) and 1.2 to 10.1 Mha, respectively. In 1966, an area of 6 Mha under SAS was first reported using the former approach. Three national estimates, obtained using remote sensing, were reconciled using a geographic information system, resulting in an acceptable extent of 6.73 Mha. Moderately and severely salt-encrusted lands having large contiguous area have been correctly mapped, but slightly salt-encrusted land having smaller affected areas within croplands has not been accurately mapped. Recent satellite sensors (e.g., Resourcesat-1, Cartosat-2, IKONOS-II, and RISAT-2), along with improved image processing techniques integrated with terrain and other spatial data using a geographic information system, are enabling mapping at large scale. Significant variations in salt encrustation at the surface caused by soil moisture, waterlogging conditions, salt-tolerant crops, and dynamics of subsurface salts present constraints in appraisal, delineation, and mapping efforts. The article provides an overview of development, identification, characterization, and delineation of SAS, past and current national scenarios of SAS using conventional and remote sensing approaches, reconciliation of national estimates, issues of SAS mapping, and future scope.

  13. Application of Geographic Information System and Remotesensing in effective solid waste disposal sites selection in Wukro town, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedshum, A. A.; Gebresilassie, M. A.; Rulinda, C. M.; Kahsay, G. H.; Tesfay, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    Identifying solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a challenging task to many developing countries. This is a critical problem too in Ethiopia in general and in Wukro town in particular. The existing site for Wukro town is not sufficient in its capacity and it is damaging the environment due to its location, and the type of waste dumped, while the surrounding area is being irrigated. Due to the swift expansion and urbanization developments in Wukro town, it badly needs to develop controlled solid waste dumping site to prevent several contamination problems. This study was conducted first, to assess the existing waste management strategies in Wukro town; and second, to find out the potential waste disposal sites for the town, using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The study exploited the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods to combine necessary factors considered for dumping site selection. The selected method also uses various geographical data including remote sensing data, with GIS spatial analysis tools. Accordingly, site suitability maps for each of the factors were developed in a GIS environment. Results indicate that 12 dumping sites were appropriate and they were further ranked against their suitability in terms of wind direction, proximity to settlement area and distance from the center of the town. Finally, two sites are the best suitable for dumping site. This study indicated that the application of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques are efficient and low cost tools to study and select appropriate dumping site so as to facilitate decision making processes.

  14. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  15. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  16. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado da Silva, Alba Valéria; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  17. Study of Social and Cultural Characteristics of Drug Offenders in Ahwaz Municipal Areas Using Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Fathtabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the social and cultural structure of drug offenses in Ahwaz municipal areas using GIS. Method: The population of the study consisted of drug offenders in Correction and Rehabilitation Center of Ahwaz in 2013. Statistical tests and graphs, including Mean Center test, Standard Deviation Ellipse, Kernel Density Estimation were used in this study. Results: The most important centers of drug crime are in the same border with informal settlement areas, such as Kut Abdullah, Lashkar Abad, and Khashayar (urban areas 5 and 6 of Ahwaz city. In addition, there is a direct relationship between illiteracy rate & population density and crime rate. Discussion and Conclusion: Spatial analysis of geographic crime and punishment can act as a means for security and safety policy making in the fight against drugs.

  18. A database paradigm for the management of DICOM-RT structure sets using a geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weber; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Wang, Jason; Low, Daniel A.; Ruan, Dan

    2014-03-01

    We devise a paradigm for representing the DICOM-RT structure sets in a database management system, in such way that secondary calculations of geometric information can be performed quickly from the existing contour definitions. The implementation of this paradigm is achieved using the PostgreSQL database system and the PostGIS extension, a geographic information system commonly used for encoding geographical map data. The proposed paradigm eliminates the overhead of retrieving large data records from the database, as well as the need to implement various numerical and data parsing routines, when additional information related to the geometry of the anatomy is desired.

  19. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  20. A Focused Crawler for Borderlands Situation Information with Geographical Properties of Place Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Place name is an important ingredient of borderlands situation information and plays a significant role in collecting them from the Internet with focused crawlers. However, current focused crawlers treat place name in the same way as any other common keyword, which has no geographical properties. This may reduce the effectiveness of focused crawlers. To solve the problem, this paper firstly discusses the importance of place name in focused crawlers in terms of location and spatial relation, and, then, proposes the two-tuple-based topic representation method to express place name and common keyword, respectively. Afterwards, spatial relations between place names are introduced to calculate the relevance of given topics and webpages, which can make the calculation process more accurately. On the basis of the above, a focused crawler prototype for borderlands situation information collection is designed and implemented. The crawling speed and F-Score are adopted to evaluate its efficiency and effectiveness. Experimental results indicate that the efficiency of our proposed focused crawler is consistent with the polite access interval and it could meet the daily demand of borderlands situation information collection. Additionally, the F-Score value of our proposed focused crawler increases by around 7%, which means that our proposed focused crawler is more effective than the traditional best-first focused crawler.

  1. Development and evaluation of a geographic information retrieval system using fine grained toponyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Palacio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information retrieval (GIR is concerned with returning information in response to an information need, typically expressed in terms of a thematic and spatial component linked by a spatial relationship. However, evaluation initiatives have often failed to show significant differences between simple text baselines and more complex spatially enabled GIR approaches. We explore the effectiveness of three systems (a text baseline, spatial query expansion, and a full GIR system utilizing both text and spatial indexes at retrieving documents from a corpus describing mountaineering expeditions, centred around fine grained toponyms. To allow evaluation, we use user generated content (UGC in the form of metadata associated with individual articles to build a test collection of queries and judgments. The test collection allowed us to demonstrate that a GIR-based method significantly outperformed a text baseline for all but very specific queries associated with very small query radii. We argue that such approaches to test collection development have much to offer in the evaluation of GIR.

  2. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  3. Mapping risk of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Brazil using Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, L H; Molento, M B; Naumann, C R C; Biondo, A W; Fortes, F S; Savio, D; Malone, J B

    2010-04-19

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is an endemic disease of ruminants that occurs in several countries of South America where it can lead to decreased production and fertility and, in severe cases, animal death. Although very prevalent, information on the epidemiology of the disease is incomplete in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to define the prevalence of F. hepatica in the livers of cattle from slaughterhouses and correlate the data with the animal's origin (climate and altitude) using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The data was used to create an epidemiological map of fasciolosis by state (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná), by municipality (n=530) and by year (2003-2008). Information was analyzed using a databank from slaughterhouses with Federal Inspection Services of the Ministry of Agriculture. The highest cattle infection rate was found in the two most Southern states of Rio Grande do Sul (18.7%) and Santa Catarina (10.1%). Animals from the Campanha region of Rio Grande do Sul and from the central coast area of Santa Catarina had prevalences of greater than 40%. Cattle from low altitudes municipalities were significantly more likely to have the disease (pepidemiology and transmission of F. hepatica in Southern Brazil needed for design of appropriate control measures to control economic impacts. F. hepatica may represent an important source of zoonotic infection of humans as well; therefore these findings may be complemented by future studies on human infections in high risk areas.

  4. Basic mapping principles for visualizing cancer data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Cynthia A

    2006-02-01

    Maps and other data graphics may play a role in generating ideas and hypotheses at the beginning of a project. They are useful as part of analyses for evaluating model results and then at the end of a project when researchers present their results and conclusions to varied audiences, such as their local research group, decision makers, or a concerned public. Cancer researchers are gaining skill with geographic information system (GIS) mapping as one of their many tools and are broadening the symbolization approaches they use for investigating and illustrating their data. A single map is one of many possible representations of the data, so making multiple maps is often part of a complete mapping effort. Symbol types, color choices, and data classing each affect the information revealed by a map and are best tailored to the specific characteristics of data. Related data can be examined in series with coordinated classing and can also be compared using multivariate symbols that build on the basic rules of symbol design. Informative legend wording and setting suitable map projections are also basic to skilled mapmaking.

  5. Integrating emergy evaluation and geographic information systems for monitoring resource use in the Abruzzo region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulselli, Riccardo Maria

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an application of an environmental accounting method, namely emergy evaluation, developed for the monitoring and assessment of environmental resource use by local communities in the Abruzzo Region (Italy). Once quantified and classified according to their origin (renewable or non-renewable, local or external), emergy flows were elaborated through a geographic information system (GIS) that allowed us to represent their spatial distribution throughout the region. Outcomes took the form of patterns in which different emergy intensities, namely empower (unit: seJ yr(-1)), were represented through a graduated grey-scale and visualized on a cartographic basis. The concentration of emergy flows, depending on the activity of local communities, showed variable levels of environmental load in different areas. In particular, spatial zones with homogeneous values of empower density (unit: seJ yr(-1) km(-2))--high, medium and low--were detected in order to identify areas with a similar "thermodynamic" nature, emergy being a thermodynamics based function. This allowed for the representation, at a glance, of a kind of geography that mirrors the behavior of a population settled in an area as additional information for investigating the effects of the use of urban structures and functions and improving our understanding of regional systems. A combined use of emergy evaluation and GIS could thus provide a complementary view of a territorial system and inform policy makers for planning specific strategies of future development.

  6. Geographic Information System Course Design%地理信息系统课程内容设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈占龙; 吴亮; 赵雷

    2015-01-01

    Geographic information system referred to GIS, is one of the most typical examples of information systems. Bas-ed on the basic principles of GIS content and design experimental teaching, so that students can better understand the back-ground and significance of geographic information systems, features and functions, applications and development direction;taught in the classroom will be a fundamental GIS algorithms, such as buffer algorithm, overlay analysis algorithms, data structures and computer combined so students have learned a deeper understanding of data structures, while deepening under-standing of GIS students and initially acquire capacity to use GIS to solve problems.%地理信息系统简称 GIS 是一种最典型的信息系统实例.本文通过对地理信息系统基本原理内容和实验教学的设计,使学生能更好地了解地理信息系统的产生背景与意义、特点与功能、应用领域及发展方向;在课堂讲授中将GIS中基本的算法,如缓冲区算法、叠置分析算法等与计算机数据结构相结合,使得学生对所学的数据结构有更深刻的认识,同时加深学生对GIS的认识,并初步获得利用GIS解决问题的能力.

  7. The Contribution of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Geography Education and Secondary School Students' Attitudes Related to GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artvinli, Eyup

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the place of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in teaching geography, the general level of secondary school students' attitudes towards Geography Information Systems and whether this changes according to different variables. The population of the research consists of the students studying in Istanbul,…

  8. Organ-to-Cell-Scale Health Assessment Using Geographical Information System Approaches with Multibeam Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L; Zeidler, Dirk; Pereira, André F; Hageman, Daniel; Garbowski, Tomasz; Mishra, Sanjay; Gardner, Lauren; Knothe, Ulf R

    2016-07-01

    This study combines novel multibeam electron microscopy with a geographical information system approach to create a first, seamless, navigable anatomic map of the human hip and its cellular inhabitants. Using spatial information acquired by localizing relevant map landmarks (e.g. cells, blood vessels), network modeling will enable disease epidemiology studies in populations of cells inhabiting tissues and organs.

  9. A conceptual model of the automated credibility assessment of the volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N. H.; Jackson, M. J.; Ishak, M. H. I.

    2014-02-01

    The use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in collecting, sharing and disseminating geospatially referenced information on the Web is increasingly common. The potentials of this localized and collective information have been seen to complement the maintenance process of authoritative mapping data sources and in realizing the development of Digital Earth. The main barrier to the use of this data in supporting this bottom up approach is the credibility (trust), completeness, accuracy, and quality of both the data input and outputs generated. The only feasible approach to assess these data is by relying on an automated process. This paper describes a conceptual model of indicators (parameters) and practical approaches to automated assess the credibility of information contributed through the VGI including map mashups, Geo Web and crowd - sourced based applications. There are two main components proposed to be assessed in the conceptual model - metadata and data. The metadata component comprises the indicator of the hosting (websites) and the sources of data / information. The data component comprises the indicators to assess absolute and relative data positioning, attribute, thematic, temporal and geometric correctness and consistency. This paper suggests approaches to assess the components. To assess the metadata component, automated text categorization using supervised machine learning is proposed. To assess the correctness and consistency in the data component, we suggest a matching validation approach using the current emerging technologies from Linked Data infrastructures and using third party reviews validation. This study contributes to the research domain that focuses on the credibility, trust and quality issues of data contributed by web citizen providers.

  10. A State-of-the-Art Review on the Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS has been identified as a promising but challenging topic to transform information towards the generation of knowledge and intelligence. Achievement of integrating these two concepts and enabling technologies will have a significant impact on solving problems in the civil, building and infrastructure sectors. However, since GIS and BIM were originally developed for different purposes, numerous challenges are being encountered for the integration. To better understand these two different domains, this paper reviews the development and dissimilarities of GIS and BIM, the existing integration methods, and investigates their potential in various applications. This study shows that the integration methods are developed for various reasons and aim to solve different problems. The parameters influencing the choice can be summarized and named as “EEEF” criteria: effectiveness, extensibility, effort, and flexibility. Compared with other methods, semantic web technologies provide a promising and generalized integration solution. However, the biggest challenges of this method are the large efforts required at early stage and the isolated development of ontologies within one particular domain. The isolation problem also applies to other methods. Therefore, openness is the key of the success of BIM and GIS integration.

  11. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  12. MAPPING OF ILLITERACY AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS USING GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhana Dwi Bekti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR is a technique that brings the framework of a simple regression model into a weighted regression model. Each parameter in this model is calculated at each point geographical location. The significantly parameter can be used for mapping. In this research GWR model use for mapping Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicators which influence on illiteracy. This problem was solved by estimation GWR model. The process was developing optimum bandwidth, weighted by kernel bisquare and parameter estimation. Mapping of ICT indicators was done by P-value. This research use data 29 regencies and 9 cities in East Java Province, Indonesia. GWR model compute the variables that significantly affect on illiteracy (α = 5% in some locations, such as percent households members with a mobile phone (x2, percent of household members who have computer (x3 and the percent of households who access the internet at school in the last month (x4. Ownership of mobile phone was significant (α = 5% at 20 locations. Ownership of computer and internet access were significant at 3 locations. Coefficient determination at all locations has R2 between 73.05-92.75%. The factors which affecting illiteracy in each location was very diverse. Mapping by P-value or critical area shows that ownership of mobile phone significantly affected at southern part of East Java. Then, the ownership of computer and internet access were significantly affected on illiteracy at northern area. All the coefficient regression in these locations was negative. It performs that if the number of mobile phone ownership, computer ownership and internet access were high then illiteracy will be decrease.

  13. A Novel Geographical Information Systems Framework to Characterize Photovoltaic Deployment in the UK: Initial Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Westacott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, deployment of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV has increased dramatically in recent years. The UK has seen rapid uptake reaching over 500,000 installations totalling 2.8 GWp by 2013. PV can be installed in different market segments (domestic rooftop, non-domestic rooftop and ground-mounted “solar-farms” covering a broad range of system sizes in a high number of locations. It is important to gain detailed understanding of what grid-connected PV deployment looks like (e.g., how it deployed across different geographic areas and market segments, and identify the major drivers behind it. This paper answers these questions by developing a novel geographical information systems (GIS-framework—the United Kingdom Photovoltaics Database (UKPVD—to analyze temporal and spatial PV deployment trends at high resolution across all market segments. Results show how PV deployment changed over time with the evolution of governmental PV policy support. Then spatial trends as function of local irradiation, rurality (as a proxy of building and population density and building footprint (as a proxy for roof-area are analyzed. We find in all market segments, PV deployment is strongly correlated with the level of policy support. Furthermore, all markets show a preference to deploy in rural areas and those with higher irradiation. Finally, local clustering of PV in all market segments was observed, revealing that PV is not spread evenly across areas. This work reveals the complex nature of PV deployment, both spatially and by market segment, reinforcing the need capture this through mapping.

  14. Geographical classification of Epimedium based on HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with multi-ingredients quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Zhou, Guofu; Li, Xiaojuan; Lu, Heng; Meng, Fanyun; Zhai, Huaqiang

    2017-05-01

    A reliable and comprehensive method for identifying the origin and assessing the quality of Epimedium has been developed. The method is based on analysis of HPLC fingerprints, combined with similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-ingredient quantitative analysis. Nineteen batches of Epimedium, collected from different areas in the western regions of China, were used to establish the fingerprints and 18 peaks were selected for the analysis. Similarity analysis, HCA and PCA all classified the 19 areas into three groups. Simultaneous quantification of the five major bioactive ingredients in the Epimedium samples was also carried out to confirm the consistency of the quality tests. These methods were successfully used to identify the geographical origin of the Epimedium samples and to evaluate their quality.

  15. Metadata squared: enhancing its usability for volunteered geographic information and the GeoWeb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Barbara S.; Wolf, Eric B.; Sui, Daniel Z.; Elwood, Sarah; Goodchild, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The Internet has brought many changes to the way geographic information is created and shared. One aspect that has not changed is metadata. Static spatial data quality descriptions were standardized in the mid-1990s and cannot accommodate the current climate of data creation where nonexperts are using mobile phones and other location-based devices on a continuous basis to contribute data to Internet mapping platforms. The usability of standard geospatial metadata is being questioned by academics and neogeographers alike. This chapter analyzes current discussions of metadata to demonstrate how the media shift that is occurring has affected requirements for metadata. Two case studies of metadata use are presented—online sharing of environmental information through a regional spatial data infrastructure in the early 2000s, and new types of metadata that are being used today in OpenStreetMap, a map of the world created entirely by volunteers. Changes in metadata requirements are examined for usability, the ease with which metadata supports coproduction of data by communities of users, how metadata enhances findability, and how the relationship between metadata and data has changed. We argue that traditional metadata associated with spatial data infrastructures is inadequate and suggest several research avenues to make this type of metadata more interactive and effective in the GeoWeb.

  16. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  17. The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netzel P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System. Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south – west part of Poland. In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

  18. Determination of The Water Catchment Area in Semarang City Using a Combination of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) Classification, InSAR and Geographic Information System (GIS) Methods Based On a High-Resolution SPOT 6 Image and Radar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Yudo; Ardi Gunawan, Setyo; Maksum, Zia Ul

    2016-11-01

    Semarang is the biggest city in central Java-Indonesia which has a rapid and massive infrastructure development nowadays. In order to control water resources and flood, the local goverment has been built east and west flood canal in Kaligarang and West Semarang River. One of main problem in Semarang city is the lack of fresh water in dry season because ground water is not rechargeable well. Rechargeable groundwater ability depends on underground water recharge rate and catchment area condition. The objective of the study is to determine condition and classification of water catchment area in Semarang city. The catchment area conditions will be determine by five parameters as follows soil type, land use, slope, ground water potential and rainfall intensity. In this study, we use three methods approach to solve the problem which is segmentation classification to acquire land use classification from high resolution imagery using nearest neighborhood algorithm, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to derive DTM from SAR Imagery and multi criteria weighting and spatial analysis using GIS method. There are three types optical image (ALOS PRISM, SPOT-6 and ALOS PALSAR) to calculate water catchment area condition in Semarang city. For final result, this research will divide the water catchment into six criteria as follows good, naturally normal, early critical, a little bit critical, critical and very critical condition. The result shows that water catchment area condition is in an early critical condition around 2607,523 Ha (33,17 %), naturally normal condition around 1507,674 Ha (19,18 %), a little bit critical condition around 1452,931 Ha (18,48 %), good with 1157,04 Ha (14,72 %), critical with 1058,639 Ha (13,47 %) and very critical with 75,0387 Ha (0,95 %). The distribution of water catchment area conditions in West and East Flood Canal have an irreguler pattern. In northern area of watershed consists of begin to critical, naturally normal and good condition

  19. Geographic Information System-Allocation Model for Forest Path: A Case Study in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Hasmadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forest road planning requires a host of information, particularly the availability of spatial and non-spatial data. The requirement of a planning system or tools to gather, integrate and manipulate all data is essential. The ability of Geographic Information System (GIS to integrate such massive information and develop a spatial model of earth features will lead to time and cost reduction and allows analysis of spatial problems more effective than the traditional method. Approach: The objective of this study was to test the potential of GIS in modeling forest road allocation in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve (AHFR, Selangor, Malaysia. This study is also to compare a road profile (new path generated from GIS approach (new path with existing forest road and allocates the best road path for compartment 2 and 14. Data from digital topographic map was used to generate slope class, elevation class, direction and distance. New road paths were determined using spatial analyst. Several module or technique that used were cost weight, reclassify, raster calculator and shortest path modeling. Results: Results showed that road path generated from GIS technique was shorter and avoid more unnecessary slope and elevation. Road profiles such as elevation, slope and length were analyzed and discussed. Conclusion: The result clearly revealed that GIS has strength and played a vital role in modeling forest road allocation effectively and reduced time consuming.

  20. Geographic Information Systems (GIS Based Village Roads Management Model For Monitoring, Maintenance And Repairing Purposes: Example Of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetiş Şazi Murat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information systems has become a tool that is often used in many fields especially in developed countries, yet in Turkey while it's been recognized and acknowledged by central and local authorities, its use in public services is still in only the crawling stages.Within the borders of Denizli Provincial Administration Roads and Transportation Services Directorship, a GIS-supported study has been undertaken in order to update information on all village roads in the related area of responsibility and service and to aid the Directorship's country infrastructure service with modern and technical methods over different analysis results obtained. In this study, executed with the Strategy Development Directorship, through using developed layers, topographic maps, satellite photos, etc. devised in fact for different purposes, it was aimed to ensure that the service concerning village roads are based on correct and update data. In line with the fast and sensitive analysis results obtained in this study as an attempt to ensure that public resources are used efficiently, it was aimed to put forth a pilot project to be used later on as a product which is thought to serve as a model to help re-plan village road constructions, determine lacking and incomplete cases, thereby establish a complete and integrated management plan.

  1. A geographic information system and multi criteria analysis method for site selection of spent nuclear fuel disposal; Metodologia baseada em sistemas de informacao geografica e analise multicriterio para a selecao de areas para a construcao de um repositorio para o combustivel nuclear usado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian Borges

    2009-07-01

    This thesis aims to develop a site selection methodology for the construction of final repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal, by using geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis. Decision making processes of this kind are often complex, given the great number of space parameters to consider and also the typically conflicting opinions of the diverse stake holders. By using GIS, data from different space parameters can be quickly and reliably stored, treated and analyzed. Multi-criteria techniques allow for the incorporation of different stake holders' opinions. These tools, when jointly used, allow for the decision process to be more transparent, quick and reliable. The method developed was applied to the particular case of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Weights obtained from an expert panel and also by using the Hierarchical Analysis Method and cartographic data were combined in the GIS. The application showed that it is possible not only to select and classify areas as to their aptness for the proposed objective, but also to exclude those clearly inadequate areas, thus optimizing the selection process by reducing the search space and consequently minimizing costs and the time spent in the search. (author)

  2. A Geographic and Functional Network Flow Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    INFORMATION SYSTEMS TOOLS AND DYSTOPIA .......................................................................................................5 B. MODELS OF...17 IV. CASE STUDY: FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS BACKBONE IN DYSTOPIA ...15 Figure 8. A simple fiber-optic backbone network for Dystopia . .....................................19 Figure 9

  3. Land Use Changes in Pak Panang Bay using Arial Photographs and Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipop PRABNARONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates land use changes around Pak Panang Bay, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province by using aerial photographs and geographic information system techniques. The aerial maps on 1:15,000 scale produced by The Royal Thai Survey Department in 1974, 1991 and 2003 were interpreted as a land use map in each year. The land use map of 1974 was then compared to those maps of 1999 and 2003. A prominent result of this study revealed that shrimp farm areas around the bay dramatically increased from zero hectares in 1974 to 1,954 hectares in 1995 and expanded to 2,592 hectares in 2003. An increase in shrimp farm areas in Pak Panang Bay in 2003 concurred with a decrease in 1,114 hectares of mangroves, 918 hectares of paddy fields and 560 hectares of other types of land uses in 1974, respectively. The severe expansion of shrimp farm areas into the mangrove areas has directly affected the eco-system of Pak Panang Bay, which was declared a Ramsar Site in 2000. The results of this study could be used for the management and conservation of the bay in order to meet the regulation standards of the Ramsar Site Convention.

  4. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE DUTCH TOPOGRAPHICAL KEY REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Topographical Key Register has become an open data the amount of users increased enormously. The highest grow was in the private users group. The increasing number of users and their growing demand for high actuality of the topographic data sets motivates the Dutch Kadaster to innovate and improve the Topographical Key Register (BRT. One of the initiatives was to provide a voluntary geographical information project aiming at providing a user-friendly feedback system adjusted to all kinds of user groups. The feedback system is a compulsory element of the Topographical Key Register in the Netherlands. The Dutch Kadaster is obliged to deliver a feedback system and the key-users are obliged to use it. The aim of the feedback system is to improve the quality and stimulate the usage of the data. The results of the pilot shows that the user-friendly and open to everyone feedback system contributes enormously to improve the quality of the topographic dataset.

  6. Feasibility of Close-Range Photogrammetric Models for Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Luke; /Rice U.

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of using close-range architectural photogrammetry as an alternative three dimensional modeling technique in order to place the digital models in a geographic information system (GIS) at SLAC. With the available equipment and Australis photogrammetry software, the creation of full and accurate models of an example building, Building 281 on SLAC campus, was attempted. After conducting several equipment tests to determine the precision achievable, a complete photogrammetric survey was attempted. The dimensions of the resulting models were then compared against the true dimensions of the building. A complete building model was not evidenced to be obtainable using the current equipment and software. This failure was likely attributable to the limits of the software rather than the precision of the physical equipment. However, partial models of the building were shown to be accurate and determined to still be usable in a GIS. With further development of the photogrammetric software and survey procedure, the desired generation of a complete three dimensional model is likely still feasible.

  7. A GIS-based modeling system for petroleum waste management. Geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Huang, G H; Li, J B

    2003-01-01

    With an urgent need for effective management of petroleum-contaminated sites, a GIS-aided simulation (GISSIM) system is presented in this study. The GISSIM contains two components: an advanced 3D numerical model and a geographical information system (GIS), which are integrated within a general framework. The modeling component undertakes simulation for the fate of contaminants in subsurface unsaturated and saturated zones. The GIS component is used in three areas throughout the system development and implementation process: (i) managing spatial and non-spatial databases; (ii) linking inputs, model, and outputs; and (iii) providing an interface between the GISSIM and its users. The developed system is applied to a North American case study. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in groundwater under a petroleum-contaminated site are dynamically simulated. Reasonable outputs have been obtained and presented graphically. They provide quantitative and scientific bases for further assessment of site-contamination impacts and risks, as well as decisions on practical remediation actions.

  8. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  9. The biodiversity management of a marine protected area with a geographic information system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; li, Dongling

    2008-10-01

    This paper focus a very representatively marine protected area (MPA), named Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The MPA is located at East China Sea with 7.6 square kilometers land area, composed of about 50 islands greater than 500 square meters. The waters support particularly high levels of diversity among shellfish, seaweeds, or macro benthic algae and micro-algae. The purpose of the paper is to develop a GIS to manage the biodiversity and to assess the threat. Base geographic data are collected. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae. A spatial database is created to store spatial data including base map, survey site and threat factor distribution. Other biodiversity attribute information is stored in database. Aquiculture, tourism, and human over collection are synthesized as threat factors. The condition of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity at Aquaculture, tourism, environment pollution are analyzed and assessed.

  10. Geographical information system approaches for hazard mapping of dilute lahars on Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, A. R.; Barclay, J.; Herd, R. A.; Phillips, J. C.; Lovett, A. A.; Cole, P.

    2012-08-01

    Many research tools for lahar hazard assessment have proved wholly unsuitable for practical application to an active volcanic system where field measurements are challenging to obtain. Two simple routing models, with minimal data demands and implemented in a geographical information system (GIS), were applied to dilute lahars originating from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Single-direction flow routing by path of steepest descent, commonly used for simulating normal stream-flow, was tested against LAHARZ, an established lahar model calibrated for debris flows, for ability to replicate the main flow routes. Comparing the ways in which these models capture observed changes, and how the different modelled paths deviate can also provide an indication of where dilute lahars, do not follow behaviour expected from single-phase flow models. Data were collected over two field seasons and provide (1) an overview of gross morphological change after one rainy season, (2) details of dominant channels at the time of measurement, and (3) order of magnitude estimates of individual flow volumes. Modelling results suggested both GIS-based predictive tools had associated benefits. Dominant flow routes observed in the field were generally well-predicted using the hydrological approach with a consideration of elevation error, while LAHARZ was comparatively more successful at mapping lahar dispersion and was better suited to long-term hazard assessment. This research suggests that end-member models can have utility for first-order dilute lahar hazard mapping.

  11. Geographic information system for improving maternal and newborn health: recommendations for policy and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Yordanos B; Rawlins, Barbara; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Cunningham, Marc; Ávila, Juan Eugenio Hernández; Ruktanonchai, Corrine Warren; Singh, Kavita; Alford, Sylvia; Thompson, Mira; Dwivedi, Vikas; Moran, Allisyn C; Matthews, Zoe

    2017-01-11

    This correspondence argues and offers recommendations for how Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to maternal and newborn health data could potentially be used as part of the broader efforts for ending preventable maternal and newborn mortality. These recommendations were generated from a technical consultation on reporting and mapping maternal deaths that was held in Washington, DC from January 12 to 13, 2015 and hosted by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) global Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP). Approximately 72 participants from over 25 global health organizations, government agencies, donors, universities, and other groups participated in the meeting.The meeting placed emphases on how improved use of mapping could contribute to the post-2015 United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agenda in general and to contribute to better maternal and neonatal health outcomes in particular. Researchers and policy makers have been calling for more equitable improvement in Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH), specifically addressing hard-to-reach populations at sub-national levels. Data visualization using mapping and geospatial analyses play a significant role in addressing the emerging need for improved spatial investigation at subnational scale. This correspondence identifies key challenges and recommendations so GIS may be better applied to maternal health programs in resource poor settings. The challenges and recommendations are broadly grouped into three categories: ancillary geospatial and MNH data sources, technical and human resources needs and community participation.

  12. Multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Dunn, James E.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple univariate statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. Thus, we developed a multivariate method to model habitat-use potential using a set of female black bear (Ursus americanus) radio locations and habitat data consisting of forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, distance to streams, and forest cover type diversity score in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The model is based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. That statistic is a measure of dissimilarity and represents a standardized squared distance between a set of sample variates and an ideal based on the mean of variates associated with animal observations. Calculations were made with the GIS to produce a map containing Mahalanobis distance values within each cell on a 60- × 60-m grid. The model identified areas of high habitat use potential that could not otherwise be identified by independent perusal of any single map layer. This technique avoids many pitfalls that commonly affect typical multivariate analyses of habitat use and is a useful tool for habitat manipulation or mitigation to favor terrestrial vertebrates that use habitats on a landscape scale.

  13. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  14. Using geographic information systems for radon exposure assessment in dwellings in the Oslo region, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerud, R.; Blaasaas, K.; Ganerød, G.; Daviknes, H. K.; Aune, E.; Claussen, B.

    2014-04-01

    Radon exposures were assigned to each residential address in the Oslo region using a geographic information system (GIS) that included indoor radon measurements. The results will be used in an epidemiologic study regarding leukemia and brain cancer. The model is based on 6% of measured residential buildings. High density of indoor radon measurements allowed us to develop a buffer model where indoor radon measurements found around each dwelling were used to assign a radon value for homes lacking radon measurement. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to study the agreement between radon values from the buffer method, from indoor radon values of measured houses, and from a regression model constructed with radiometric data (eTh, eU) and bedrock geology. We obtained good agreement for both comparisons with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.68. GIS offers a useful variety of tools to study the indoor-radon exposure assessment. By using the buffer method it is more likely that geological conditions are similar within the buffer and this may take more into account the variation of radon over short distances. It is also probable that short-distance-scale correlation patterns express similarities in building styles and living habits. Although the method has certain limitations, we regard it as acceptable for use in epidemiological studies.

  15. Prediction of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination using Geographic Information System and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moqbul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water arsenic contamination is a well known health and environmental problem in Bangladesh. Sources of this heavy metal are known to be geogenic, however, the processes of its release into groundwater are poorly understood phenomena. In quest of mitigation of the problem it is necessary to predict probable contamination before it causes any damage to human health. Hence our research has been carried out to find the factor relations of arsenic contamination and develop an arsenic contamination prediction model. Researchers have generally agreed that the elevated concentration of arsenic is affected by several factors such as soil reaction (pH, organic matter content, geology, iron content, etc. However, the variability of concentration within short lateral and vertical intervals, and the inter-relationships of variables among themselves, make the statistical analyses highly non-linear and difficult to converge with a meaningful relationship. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN comes in handy for such a black box type problem. This research uses Back propagation Neural Networks (BPNN to train and validate the data derived from Geographic Information System (GIS spatial distribution grids. The neural network architecture with (6-20-1 pattern was able to predict the arsenic concentration with reasonable accuracy.

  16. Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83 cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27 cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to "jump" between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians.

  17. Applications of geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to conservation of amphibians in northwestern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Palacios González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of the Andean Chocó in western Ecuador and Colombia is threatened by anthropogenic changes in land cover. The main goal of this study was to contribute to conservation of 12 threatened species of amphibians at a cloud forest site in northwestern Ecuador, by identifying and proposing protection of critical areas. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify land cover changes over 35 years and outline important areas for amphibian conservation. We performed a supervised classification of an IKONOS satellite image from 2011 and two aerial photographs from 1977 and 2000. The 2011 IKONOS satellite image classification was used to delineate areas important for conservation of threatened amphibians within a 200 m buffer around rivers and streams. The overall classification accuracy of the three images was ≥80%. Forest cover was reduced by 17% during the last 34 years. However, only 50% of the study area retained the initial (1977 forest cover, as land was cleared for farming and eventually reforested. Finally, using the 2011 IKONOS satellite image, we delineated areas of potential conservation interest that would benefit the long term survival of threatened amphibian species at the Ecuadorian cloud forest site studied.

  18. Classification of information sources for the study of historical and geographic stages of the settlement process of South-Eastern Ukraine G. O. Taran

    OpenAIRE

    Taran G.O.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of "source for historical and geographical research", "category of historical and geographical sources" as well as issues stadial colonization processes for the territory of South-Eastern Ukraine. Resulted classification of information sources that are served by different scientists. The proposed classification of own comprehensive source for study of historical and geographic stages of settlement in the region of Ukraine.

  19. The geovisualisation window of the temporal and spatial variability for Volunteered Geographic Information activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynska-Gulij, Beata; Myszczuk, Miłosz

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an attempt to design geographical visualisation tools that allow to tackle the immensity of spatial data provided by Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), both in terms of temporal and spatial aspects. In accordance with the assumptions made at the conceptual stage, the final action was the implementation of the window entitled ‘Geovisualisation of the Panoramio.com Activities in District of Poznan 2011’ into the web browser. The concept has been based on a division of the geovisualisation window into three panels, of which the most important - in order to capture spatial variability - have statistical maps at the general level (dot map and choropleth map), while at the detailed level - a dot map on a topographic reference map or tourist map. For two ranges, temporal variability is presented by graphs, while a review of attributes of individual activities of the social website in question is set forward in the table panel. The element that visually interlinks all of the panels is the emphasised individual activity. Problemem podjetym w tych badaniach stało sie wykorzystanie metod z nurtu geograficznej wizualizacji do wskazania cech fenomenu VGI w zakresie zmiennosci czasowo-przestrzennej. Zgodnie z załozeniami poczynionymi w etapie koncepcyjnym finalnym działaniem stało sie zaimplementowanie do przegladarki internetowej okna pod tytułem: ”Geowizualizacja aktywnosci społecznosci Panoramio.com w powiecie poznanskim w 2011 roku”. Koncepcja została oparta na podziale okna geowizualizacji na trzy panele, z których najwazniejsze znaczenie dla uchwycenia zmiennosci przestrzennej na poziomie ogólnym ma kartogram, natomiast na poziomie szczegółowym mapa kropkowa wyswietlana na podkładzie mapy topograficznej lub turystycznej. Zmiennosc czasowa w dwóch zakresach prezentuja wykresy, a przeglad atrybutów poszczególnych aktywnosci prezentowanego portalu społecznosciowego zapewnia tabela. Elementem spajajacym wizualnie wszystkie

  20. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  1. THE USE OF LIDAR AND VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION TO MAP FLOOD EXTENTS AND INUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McDougall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage

  2. The Use of LIDAR and Volunteered Geographic Information to Map Flood Extents and Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.; Temple-Watts, P.

    2012-07-01

    Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage

  3. Urban Development in Ariyalur District, Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (Gis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vasanthi ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is mainly based on visual interpretation of satellite imageries by studying the standard recognition elements such as color, tone, texture, Pattern etc., for the delineation of urban land use of the study area. After the visual interpretation of Satellite imageries direct field checks have been made. The primary data were acquired from the LANDSAT satellite imagery. The supplementary data were generated from the survey of India SOI topographical maps. A base map was prepared using survey of India toposheets having the index of numbers, 58M/4, 7, 8, 11, 12 and 58N/1 on a scale of 1:50,000 as an understanding of this study. Totally 6 toposheets have covered the study area. The geographical features like major road, railway, and drainage system, and elevation information, nature of River, tank, settlements and relevant information were incorporated in the base map. Arc GIS used to integrate the available data sources. LANDSAT MSS (1976, IRS P6-LISS III (2010 satellite data the urban land use classification were attempted. The classification followed here is based on unsupervised classification and interpretation; the data interpreted from the imagery were cross-checked in the field. The change detection in urban land use, between the years 1976, 2010 and for an overall period of 34 years, was made using statistical methods. The entire study area has been many changes in the urban land use. There has been a pronounced decrease in agriculture land, forest land, Fallow land, sandy area are gradually decreased. Water bodies, Residential area, industrial, mining area, road, and water bodies and barren land are increased. The town wise urban land use has been analyzed in this thesis. Finally the total Ariyalur district urban land use studies have been analyzed.

  4. Exploring the Characteristics of an Optimal Design for Inquiry-Based Geography Education with Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Tim T.; van der Schee, Joop A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a kind of computer software that allows people to work with digital maps in a fast and flexible way. In the past decade, more and more geography teachers have become interested in the possibilities of using GIS in secondary education. However, teaching with GIS is complex, and little is known about how to do…

  5. The Impact of Geographic Information Systems on Emergency Management Decision Making at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steven Gray

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) reveal relationships and patterns from large quantities of diverse data in the form of maps and reports. The United States spends billions of dollars to use GIS to improve decisions made during responses to natural disasters and terrorist attacks, but precisely how GIS improves or impairs decision making is not…

  6. Distributed numerical rainfall-runoff modelling in an arid region using Thematic Mapper data and a geographical information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.D.; Menenti, M.; Huygen, J.; Fernandez, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    A transient one-dimensional finite-difference model describing the partitioning of precipitation between surface run-off, soil moisture storage and deep percolation, through the coupling of saturated and unsaturated zones, has been implemented in a geographical information system including data on v

  7. Implementation of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Geography Curriculum in Hong Kong: Current Situations and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Chung; Lai, Edith; Wong, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Using geographic information system (GIS) in teaching and learning geography is an important direction in the secondary geography curriculum in Hong Kong. In the present study, interviews were conducted individually with 28 geography teachers from different secondary schools in Hong Kong, with a view to finding their views on the inclusion of GIS…

  8. Geographical information software and shopper card data, aided in the discovery of a Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak associated with Turkish pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, B; Kennedy, B S; Weimer, A C

    2014-12-01

    In 2011, from August to November, the Monroe County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) investigated 47 salmonellosis cases. Geographical information software (GIS) was used to map the address locations of these cases. The resulting GIS analysis and culture information indicated that there were two distinct clusters of Salmonella that were geographically different. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) testing was run at the New York State Department of Health Wadsworth Laboratory and identified S. Enteritidis (23 cases) and S. Typhimurium (10 cases). The epidemiological investigation identified Turkish pine nuts as the link between ill S. Enteritidis cases. Pine nut samples sent for laboratory testing were a PFGE match to human isolates with S. Enteritidis. A national recall of Turkish pine nuts ensued. A multistate outbreak was identified as a result of the initial investigation of MCDPH, in which 43 people were infected with the outbreak strain from five states. GIS software and shopper card data provided important tools in the epidemiological investigation.

  9. USGS Geographic Names (GNIS) Overlay Map Service from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS developed The National Map (TNM) Gazetteer as the Federal and national standard (ANSI INCITS 446-2008) for geographic nomenclature based on the Geographic Names...

  10. USGS Geographic Names Acquisition Plan Objectives for FY17 from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior - The annual Geographic Names acquisition plan is to collect geographic name data over the United States and its...

  11. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤ 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  12. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Seid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS, statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤0.056 as the inclusion level for the model’s environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  13. Assessment of Geographic Information System (GIS Skills Employed by Graduates from Three Forestry Programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Merry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates the current use of geographic information systems (GIS by forestry program graduates employed in the United States who graduated from university in the past five years. The purpose was to understand what geospatial processes and databases are typically used by field foresters. A survey was designed and sent to recent forestry graduates from Mississippi State University, Oregon State University, and the University of Georgia, with 30% of those surveyed choosing to participate. The majority of forestry graduates surveyed use GIS at least once a week, and the most frequently employed tasks included editing tabular data, adjusting polygon boundaries, buffering and splitting polygons, and querying for spatial and tabular information. Very few overlay or advance spatial analysis tools were noted as used in regular work efforts. Most respondents use digital aerial photographs as reference, along with satellite images. LiDAR is increasingly being used by these foresters, but to a lesser extent. ArcMap and Google Earth were noted as the most commonly used software packages. Most foresters rely on an organization’s technical support staff for assistance. The study results can be used as a guide for academic programs in their efforts to provide timely and effective knowledge on geospatial topics to forestry undergraduate students.

  14. Implementation of a geographical information system in nuclear emergencies; Implementacion de un sistema de informacion geografico en emergencias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaniowski, I.; Telleria, D.; Jordan, O.; Bruno, H.; Boutet, L.; Hernandez, D. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: isadanio@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    From 2003, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (RNA) has worked in the implementation of a Geographical Information System (SIG) for the planning and the intervention in emergencies, with special emphasis in the nuclear emergencies. The main objective of the SIG developed in the ARN is to give the necessary support for the planning, training and application of the actions of radiological protection necessary in front of a nuclear emergency, offering the geo referenced cartographic base, the readiness of logistical resources in the whole country, incorporating results of models of forecast of consequences and environmental measurements during the emergency, facilitating the analysis of this information in real time and facilitating the presentation of results for the decision making. The cartographic base is constituted of demographic, social, economic data identification of main actors interveners in the emergency, vial infrastructure and natural characteristics of the area in question. In this work the main characteristics of the implemented SIG are presented including the conceptual standards of design that contemplate the international requirements for the planning and answer in the event of nuclear emergencies, the current state of the system and the foreseen evolution. A description of the opposing problems during its implementation that can be common to many countries of the region is also presented, as well as the obtained experience of its use in preparation tasks for emergencies and in mocks. (Author)

  15. Application of geographical information system technology to epidemiological surveillance and prevention and cure decision-making for SARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-hui; QU Jing-hui; XU De-zhong; YAN Yong-ping; ZHANG Heng; ZHANG Zhi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To expound geographical information system (GIS) technology is a very important tool when it was employed to assist to present the distribution by time and place and the model of transmission of infectious disease. Methods: We illustrated the assistant decision-making support function of GIS with an example of the spatial decision support system for SARS controlling in Shaanxi province of China which was developed by us. Results: The spatial decision support system established by applying GIS technology fulfilled the needs of real-time collection and management and dissemination SARS information and of surveillance and analysis the epidemic situation of SARS. Conclusion: Occurrence and epidemic of diseases, implement prevention and intervention measures and collocation hygienic resources are all with the characteristic of the variation of time and space, therefore, GIS technology has become a powerful tool for identifying risk factors of diseases, providing clues of causation of diseases, evaluating the effects of intervention measures and drawing a health management plan.

  16. Geospatial Narratives and Their Spatio-Temporal Dynamics: Commonsense Reasoning for High-Level Analyses in Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Bhatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling, analysis and visualization of dynamic geospatial phenomenahas been identified as a key developmental challenge for next-generation GeographicInformation Systems (GIS. In this context, the envisaged paradigmatic extensions tocontemporary foundational GIS technology raises fundamental questions concerning theontological, formal representational and (analytical computational methods that wouldunderlie their spatial information theoretic underpinnings. We present the conceptualoverview and architecture for the development of high-level semantic and qualitativeanalytical capabilities for dynamic geospatial domains. Building on formal methods in theareas of commonsense reasoning, qualitative reasoning, spatial and temporal representationand reasoning, reasoning about actions and change and computational models of narrative,we identify concrete theoretical and practical challenges that accrue in the context offormal reasoning about space, events, actions and change. With this as a basis and withinthe backdrop of an illustrated scenario involving the spatio-temporal dynamics of urbannarratives, we address specific problems and solution techniques chiefly involving qualitativeabstraction, data integration and spatial consistency and practical geospatial abduction.

  17. Data model management, with the use of artificial intelligence, for a geographic information system in the energetic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayi Sánchez Fleitas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Geographic Information System (GIS, named SIGOBE v 3.0, for the electric sector is development. The Integral Management System of the ECIE (SIGECIE and the Integrated Network Management System (SIGERE databases are taxed alfanumeric information. Studies determined the need for a model for data management, contributing to the GIS development, on a conceptual schema domain capable of responding to different user requests, through automatic query as support decision making. To provide the GIS with a conceptual basis an ontology is determined, which will be expressed by logical descriptive, to generate the traits of a case-based reasoning that allows automation of consultations. The final quality of GIS was verified according to the quality standards of the ISO-9126:2002 standard. The proposed model and its functionality contributes to: facilitate decision-making at different levels, perform risk analysis to have the defects of electrical installations, reduce the time of failure to the key areas of the country, organize the travel of trucks more efficiently and locate electrical faults more accurately.

  18. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  19. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Intermediate Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_intermediate_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) intermediate marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index National Heritage Program Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_nhp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data developed from the Louisiana National Heritage Program (NHP) database for coastal Louisiana. Vector...