Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory
Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L
2016-01-01
We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.
Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory
Gavela, Belen; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Merlo, Luca
2016-09-01
We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in d dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χ PT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to d dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to hbar counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χ PT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT.
Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory
Gavela, B. M.; Jenkins, E. E.; Manohar, A. V.; Merlo, L.
2016-01-01
We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\...
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the maximally symmetric space-time, we perform the Hessian and Hamiltonian analysis and show the presence of a second-class constraint that removes the would-be ghost associated with the temporal component of the vector field. Furthermore, we study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar per...
Generalization Rough Set Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Di; ZHANG Jun-feng; HU Shou-song
2008-01-01
In order to avoid the discretization in the classical rough set theory, a generlization rough set theory is proposed.At first, the degree of general importance of an attribute and attribute subsets are presented.Then, depending on the degree of general importance of attribute, the space distance can be measured with weighted method.At last, a generalization rough set theory based on the general near neighborhood relation is proposed.The proposed theory partitions the universe into the tolerant modules, and forms lower approximation and upper approximation of the set under general near neighborhood relationship, which avoids the discretization in Pawlak's rough set theory.
Generalized Teleparallel Theory
Junior, Ednaldo L B
2015-01-01
We construct a theory in which the gravitational interaction is described only by torsion, but that generalizes the Teleparallel Theory still keeping the invariance of local Lorentz transformations. We show that our theory falls, to a certain limit of a real parameter, in the $f(R)$ Gravity or, to another limit of the same real parameter, in a modified $f(T)$ Gravity, interpolating between these two theories and still can fall on several other theories. We explicitly show the equivalence with $f(R)$ Gravity for cases of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker flat metric for diagonal tetrads, and a metric with spherical symmetry for diagonal and non-diagonal tetrads.
Generalized etale cohomology theories
Jardine, John F
1997-01-01
A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra. This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...
Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. G(o)n(ǖ)l
2004-01-01
@@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.
Generalized teleparallel theory
Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.
2016-07-01
We construct a theory in which the gravitational interaction is described only by torsion, but that generalizes the teleparallel theory still keeping the invariance of local Lorentz transformations in one particular case. We show that our theory falls, in a certain limit of a real parameter, under f(bar{R}) gravity or, in another limit of the same real parameter, under modified f( T) gravity; on interpolating between these two theories it still can fall under several other theories. We explicitly show the equivalence with f(bar{R}) gravity for the cases of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker flat metric for diagonal tetrads, and a metric with spherical symmetry for diagonal and non-diagonal tetrads. We study four applications, one in the reconstruction of the de Sitter universe cosmological model, for obtaining a static spherically symmetric solution of de Sitter type for a perfect fluid, for evolution of the state parameter ω _{DE}, and for the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon.
A Modified Model of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Based on Generalized Evidence Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deyun Zhou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the incomplete knowledge, how to handle the uncertain risk factors in failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA is still an open issue. This paper proposes a new generalized evidential FMEA (GEFMEA model to handle the uncertain risk factor, which may not be included in the conventional FMEA model. In GEFMEA, not only the conventional risk factors, the occurrence, severity, and detectability of the failure mode, but also the other incomplete risk factors are taken into consideration. In addition, the relative importance among all these risk factors is well addressed in the proposed method. GEFMEA is based on the generalized evidence theory, which is efficient in handling incomplete information in the open world. The efficiency and some merit of the proposed method are verified by the numerical example and a real case study on aircraft turbine rotor blades.
Thermo-mechanical buckling analysis of FGM plate using generalized plate theory
Sharma, Kanishk; Kumar, Dinesh; Gite, Anil
2016-05-01
This paper investigates the thermo-mechanical buckling behavior of simply-supported FGM plate under the framework of generalized plate theory (GPT), which includes classical plate theory (CPT), first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) as special cases. The governing equations for FGM plate under thermal and mechanical loading conditions are derived from the principle of virtual displacements and Navier-type solution is assumed for simply supported boundary condition. The efficiency and applicability of presented methodology is illustrated by considering various examples of thermal and mechanical buckling of FGM plates. The closed form solutions in the form of critical thermal and mechanical buckling loads, predicted by CPT, FSDT and HSDT are compared for different side-to-thickness of FGM plate. Subsequently, the effect of material gradation profile on critical buckling parameters is examined by evaluating the buckling response for a range of power law indexes. The effect of geometrical parameters on mechanical buckling of FGM plate under uni-axial and bi-axial loading conditions are also illustrated by calculating the critical load for various values of slenderness ratios. Furthermore a comparative analysis of critical thermal buckling loads of FGM plate for different temperature profiles is also presented. It is identified that all plate theories predicted approximately same critical buckling loads and critical buckling temperatures for thin FGM plate, however for thick FGM plates, CPT overestimates the critical buckling parameters. Moreover the critical buckling loads and critical buckling temperatures of FGM plate are found to be significantly lower than the corresponding homogenous isotropic ceramic plate (n=0).
General Theories of Regulation
Hertog, J.A. den
1999-01-01
This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice theor
Comment on "Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory"
Buchalla, G; Celis, A; Krause, C
2016-01-01
In a recent paper [1] a master formula has been presented for the power counting of a general effective field theory. We first show that this master formula follows immediately from the concept of chiral dimensions (loop counting), together with standard dimensional analysis. Subsequently, [1] has disputed the relevance of chiral counting for chiral Lagrangians, and in particular for the electroweak chiral Lagrangian including a light Higgs boson. As an alternative, a power counting based on `primary dimensions' has been proposed. The difficulties encountered with this scheme led the authors to suggest that even the leading order of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian could not be clearly defined. Here we demonstrate that the concept of primary dimensions is irrelevant for the organization of chiral Lagrangians. We re-emphasize that the correct counting is based on chiral dimensions, or the counting of loop orders, and show how the problems encountered in [1] are resolved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Gilson, Erik; Davidson, Ronald C.
2013-01-01
By extending the recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled transverse beam dynamics, we have constructed the Gaussian beam distribution and its projections with arbitrary mode emittance ratios. The new formulation has been applied to a continuously-rotating quadrupole focusing channel because the basic properties of this channel are known theoretically and could also be investigated experimentally in a compact setup such as the linear Paul trap configuration. The new formulation retains a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory, and thus provides a powerful theoretical tool to investigate coupled transverse beam dynamics in general and more complex linear focusing channels.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, Vanessa S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional em Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Fernando C.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Alvarez, Gustavo B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (EEIMVR/UFF-RJ), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas
2011-07-01
Boron neutron capture therapy - BNCT - is a binary cancer treatment used in brain tumors. The tumor is loaded with a boron compound and subsequently irradiated by thermal neutrons. The therapy is based on the {sup 10}B (n, {alpha}) {sup 7}Li nuclear reaction, which emits two types of high-energy particles, {alpha} particle and the {sup 7}Li nuclei. The total kinetic energy released in this nuclear reaction, when deposited in the tumor region, destroys the cancer cells. Since the success of the BNCT is linked to the different selectivity between the tumor and healthy tissue, it is necessary to carry out a sensitivity analysis to determinate the boron concentration. Computational simulations are very important in this context because they help in the treatment planning by calculating the lowest effective absorbed dose rate to reduce the damage to healthy tissue. The objective of this paper is to present a deterministic method based on generalized perturbation theory (GPT) to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to the {sup 10}B concentration and to estimate the absorbed dose rate by patients undergoing this therapy. The advantage of the method is a significant reduction in computational time required to perform these calculations. To simulate the neutron flux in all brain regions, the method relies on a two-dimensional neutron transport equation whose spatial, angular and energy variables are discretized by the diamond difference method, the discrete ordinate method and multigroup formulation, respectively. The results obtained through GPT are consistent with those obtained using other methods, demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. (author)
Wu, Ning
1998-01-01
In this paper, we will construct a gauge field model, in which the masses of gauge fields are non-zero and the local gauge symmetry is strictly preserved. A SU(N) gauge field model is discussed in details in this paper. In the limit $\\alpha \\longrightarrow 0$ or $\\alpha \\longrightarrow \\infty$, the gauge field model discussed in this paper will return to Yang-Mills gauge field model. This theory could be regarded as theoretical development of Yang-Mills gauge field theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proceeding from the fundamentals of the Riemann geometry and tensor calculus, the physical laws in the Riemann space are formulated and evaluated. Subsequently, Einstein field equations are derived and all important applications of the theory, including topical problems, are dealt with, especially the Schwarzschild metric, gravitational waves, gravitational collapse, black holes, and cosmological models. Relevant fundamental physical problems are discussed in detail, whereas results based on complex mathematical derivations are merely presented. Connections are made with observations and latest numerical data obtained therefrom. In some more demanding chapters on special vector fields, motion groups, and the Petrov classification, methods particularly fruitful in modern research are considered
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Xiujie; Zhang Jixun; Yang Ling; Yang Shikou; Wang Xingli
2016-01-01
The present paper aims to establish a versatile strength theory suitable for elasto-plastic analysis of underground tunnel surrounding rock. In order to analyze the effects of intermediate principal stress and the rock properties on its deformation and failure of rock mass, the generalized nonlinear unified strength theory and elasto-plastic mechanics are used to deduce analytic solution of the radius and stress of tunnel plastic zone and the periphery displacement of tunnel under uniform ground stress field. The results show that: intermediate principal stress coefficient b has significant effect on the plastic range, the magnitude of stress and surrounding rock pressure. Then, the results are compared with the unified strength criterion solution and Mohr–Coulomb criterion solution, and concluded that the generalized nonlinear unified strength criterion is more applicable to elasto-plastic analysis of underground tunnel surrounding rock.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perturbation Methods represent a powerful tool to do sensitivity analysis, and they found many aplications in nuclear engineering.As an introduction to this kind of analysis, we develope a program that apply the Generalized Perturbation Theory or GPT Method to bidimensional system of rectangular geometry.We first consider an homogeneous system of non-multiplying material and then an heterogeneous system with region of multiplying material, with the intention of make concret aplications of perturbation method to nuclear engineering problems.The program, that we called Pert, determines neutron fluxes and importance functions applying the Multigroup Diffusion Theory; and also solves the integrals required to calculate sensitivity coefficients.Using this perturbation methods we could verify the low computational cost required to make this kind of analysis and the simplicity of the equations systems involved, allowing us to make elaborates sensitivity analysis for the responses of our interest
A general methodology for mobility analysis of mechanisms based on constraint screw theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Zhen; LIU JingFang; ZENG DaXing
2009-01-01
It is well known that the traditional Grubler-Kutzbach formula fails to calculate the mobility of some classical mechanisms or many modern parallel robots, and this situation seriously hampers mechani-cal innovation. To seek an efficient and universal method for mobility calculation has been a heated topic in the sphere of mechanism. The modified Grubler-Kutzbach criterion proposed by us achieved success in calculating the mobility of a lot of highly complicated mechanisms, especially the mobility of all recent parallel mechanisms listed by Gogu, and the Bennett mechanism known for its particular difficulty. With wide applications of the criterion, a systematic methodology has recently formed. This paper systematically presents the methodology based on the screw theory for the first time and ana-lyzes six representative puzzling mechanisms. In addition, the methodology is convenient for judgment of the instantaneous or full-cycle mobility, and has become an effective and general method of great scientific value and practical significance. In the first half, this paper introduces the basic screw theory,then it presents the effective methodology formed within this decade. The second half of this paperpresents how to apply the methodology by analyzing the mobility of several puzzling mechanisms.Finally, this paper contrasts and analyzes some different methods and interprets the essential reason for validity of our methodology.
A general methodology for mobility analysis of mechanisms based on constraint screw theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
It is well known that the traditional Grübler-Kutzbach formula fails to calculate the mobility of some classical mechanisms or many modern parallel robots,and this situation seriously hampers mechani-cal innovation.To seek an efficient and universal method for mobility calculation has been a heated topic in the sphere of mechanism.The modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion proposed by us achieved success in calculating the mobility of a lot of highly complicated mechanisms,especially the mobility of all recent parallel mechanisms listed by Gogu,and the Bennett mechanism known for its particular difficulty.With wide applications of the criterion,a systematic methodology has recently formed.This paper systematically presents the methodology based on the screw theory for the first time and ana-lyzes six representative puzzling mechanisms.In addition,the methodology is convenient for judgment of the instantaneous or full-cycle mobility,and has become an effective and general method of great scientific value and practical significance.In the first half,this paper introduces the basic screw theory,then it presents the effective methodology formed within this decade.The second half of this paper presents how to apply the methodology by analyzing the mobility of several puzzling mechanisms.Finally,this paper contrasts and analyzes some different methods and interprets the essential reason for validity of our methodology.
Generalized quasi-dilaton theory
De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji
2013-01-01
Recently the first example of a unitary theory of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity allowing for stable self-accelerating de Sitter solutions was found, extending the quasidilaton theory. In this paper we further generalize this new action for the quasidilaton field by introducing general Lagrangian terms which are consistent with the quasidilaton symmetry while leading to second order equations of motion. We find that the structure of the theory, compared to the simplest stable example, does not change on introducing these new terms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nukala, Madhuri [Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE 851 70, Sundsvall (Sweden); Mendrok, Jana [Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna (Sweden)
2014-12-10
Lateral light scattering simulations of printed dots are analyzed using general radiative transfer theory. We investigated the appearance of a printed paper in relation to the medium parameters like thickness of the paper sample, its optical properties, and the asymmetry factor. It was found that the appearance of a print greatly depends on these factors making it either brighter or darker. A thicker substrate with higher single scattering albedo backed with an absorbing surface makes the dots brighter due to increased number of scattering events. Additionally, it is shown that the optical effects of print also depend on illuminating and viewing angles along with the depth of ink penetration. A larger single scattering angle implies less intensity and the dots appear much blurred due to the shadowing effect prominent when viewed from sides. A fully penetrated dot of the same extinction coefficient as a partial penetrated one is darker due to increased absorption. These results can be used in applications dealing with lateral light scattering.
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY
Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu
2013-01-01
Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal i...
Generalized SU(2) Proca Theory
Allys, Erwan; Rodriguez, Yeinzon
2016-01-01
Following previous works on generalized Abelian Proca theory, also called vector galileon, we investigate the massive extension of a SU(2) gauge theory, i.e. the generalized SU(2) Proca model, which could be dubbed non-Abelian vector galileon. This particular symmetry group permits fruitful applications in cosmology such as inflation driven by gauge fields. Our approach consists in building in a exhaustive way all the Lagrangians containing up to six contracted Lorentz indices. For this purpose, and after identifying by group theoretical considerations all the independent Lagrangians which can be written at these orders, we consider the only linear combinations propagating three degrees of freedom and having healthy dynamics for their longitudinal mode, i.e. whose pure St\\"uckelberg contribution turns into the SU(2) multi-galileon dynamics. Finally, and after having considered the curved space-time expansion of these Lagrangians, we discuss the form of the theory at all subsequent orders.
Solitons in generalized galileon theories
Carrillo-Gonzalez, Mariana; Solomon, Adam R; Trodden, Mark
2016-01-01
We consider the existence and stability of solitons in generalized galileons, scalar field theories with higher-derivative interactions but second-order equations of motion. It has previously been proven that no stable, static solitons exist in a single galileon theory using an argument invoking the existence of zero modes for the perturbations. Here we analyze the applicability of this argument to generalized galileons and discuss how this may be avoided by having potential terms in the energy functional for the perturbations, or by including time dependence. Given the presence of potential terms in the Lagrangian for the perturbations, we find that stable, static solitons are not ruled out in conformal and (A)dS galileons. For the case of DBI and conformal galileons, we find that solitonic solutions moving at the speed of light exist, the former being stable and the latter unstable if the background soliton satisfies a certain condition.
Matrix String Theory As A Generalized Quantum Theory
Minic, Djordje
1997-01-01
Matrix String Theory of Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind can be understood as a generalized quantum theory (provisionally named "quansical" theory) which differs from Adler's generalized trace quantum dynamics. The effective Matrix String Theory Hamiltonian is constructed in a particular fermionic realization of Matrix String Theory treated as an example of "quansical" theory.
Generalized structural theory of freezing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)
Simple Recursion Relations for General Field Theories
Cheung, Clifford; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-01-01
On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-...
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
Stability analysis of nonlinear autonomous systems - General theory and application to flutter
Smith, L. L.; Morino, L.
1975-01-01
The analysis makes use of a singular perturbation method, the multiple time scaling. Concepts of stable and unstable limit cycles are introduced. The solution is obtained in the form of an asymptotic expansion. Numerical results are presented for the nonlinear flutter of panels and airfoils in supersonic flow. The approach used is an extension of a method for analyzing nonlinear panel flutter reported by Morino (1969).
General framework for transfer path analysis: History, theory and classification of techniques
van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis; Rixen, Daniel J.
2016-02-01
Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) designates the family of test-based methodologies to study the transmission of mechanical vibrations. Since the first adaptation of electric network analogies in the field of mechanical engineering a century ago, a multitude of TPA methods have emerged and found their way into industrial development processes. Nowadays the TPA paradigm is largely commercialised into out-of-the-box testing products, making it difficult to articulate the differences and underlying concepts that are paramount to understanding the vibration transmission problem. The aim of this paper is to derive and review a wide repertoire of TPA techniques from their conceptual basics, liberating them from their typical field of application. A selection of historical references is provided to align methodological developments with particular milestones in science. Eleven variants of TPA are derived from a unified framework and classified into three categories, namely classical, component-based and transmissibility-based TPA. Current challenges and practical aspects are discussed and reference is made to related fields of research.
More about wormholes in generalized Galileon theories
Rubakov, V A
2016-01-01
We consider a class of generalized Galileon theories within General Relativity in space-times of more than two spatial dimensions. We show that these theories do not admit stable, static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat and traversable Lorentzian wormholes.
Generalized Einstein theory with fundamental cosmological stress tensor
Anderson, Arlen
1999-01-01
Careful analysis of parametrized variational principles in mechanics and field theory leads to a generalization of Einstein theory that includes a cosmological stress tensor. This generalization also follows by restricting variations of the metric in the Hilbert action to spacetime diffeomorphisms. The equation of motion for the generalized theory is the twice-contracted Bianchi identity while the field equations constitute the stress tensor of the theory. Gravity is interpreted as a cosmolog...
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.
Toposes in General Theory of Relativity
Guts, Alexandr K.; Grinkevich, Egor B.
1996-01-01
We study in this paper different topos-theoretical approaches to the problem of construction of General Theory of Relativity. In general case the resulting space-time theory will be non-classical, different from that of the usual Einstein theory of space-time. This is a new theory of space-time, created in a purely logical manner. Four possibitities are investigated: axiomatic approach to causal theory of space-time, the smooth toposes as a models of Theory of Relativity, Synthetic Theory of ...
Schumpeter's general theory of social evolution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Esben Sloth
The recent neo-Schumpeterian and evolutionary economics appears to cover a much smaller range of topics than Joseph Schumpeter confronted. Thus, it has hardly been recognised that Schumpeter wanted to develop a general theory that served the analysis of evolution in any sector of social life...... as well as the analysis of the evolution of social life as a whole. This paper demonstrates this ambition by studying his first two books (from 1908 and 1912, partly available in recent English translations). Schumpeter's starting point was the Walrasian System, which he generalised for the study of any...
Generalized Liquid Film Atomization Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HeraldoS.Couto; DemetrioBastos－Netto
2000-01-01
The increase of the fuel burning area required by most practical combustion processes in order to guarantee the minimum energy density rate release for their start up and operation is normally achieved by the proper choice among several existing types of atomizers.For instance.impinging and multi-impinging jets atomizers are used in rocket combustion chambers.while splash-plate atomizers find their use when wall film cooling is required.Pressure swirl atomizers,either of simplex or duplex kind,along with Y-jet or SPider Jet atomizers are used in industrial applications and in turbine combustion chambers.Notice.however,that all the types of atomizing devices listed above have one point in common:they are of pre-filming kind.i.e.,befor the droplet spray is generated,a liquid film is formed.This liquid film is broken into unstable ligaments which contract under the action of surface tension forming the droplets.Once the film thickness is estimated.the droplets'SMD(Sauter Mean Diameter)can be calculated.yielding a crucial prameter for the combustion chamber design.However,although this mechanism of droplet fromation has been under study for several decades.most of the available results.are based upon experimental data.valid for a special type of atomizer under the given sepcific conditions only.This work offers a generalized theory for theoretically estimating the SMD of sprays generated by liquid pre-filming atomizers in gereral.
Jiao Sujuan; Li Jun; Hua Hongxing; Shen Rongying
2008-01-01
The spectral element matrix is derived for a straight and uniform beam element having an arbitrary cross-section. The general higher-order beam theory is used, which accurately accounts for the transverse shear deformation out of the cross-sectional plane and antielastic-type deformation within the cross-sectional plane. Two coupled equations of motion are derived by use of Hamilton's principle along with the full three-dimensional constitutive relations. The theoretical expressions of the sp...
70 years of the general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In view of the 70th anniversary of the discovery of the General Theory of Relativity, an analysis was made of the special and general theories. The basic postulates, their consequences in the formulation of the theories, the main results, some aspects related to the experimental verification and its applications are presented, as are some elements of the mathematical formalism of the theories, to facilitate the logical interrelationships between its results and consequences. (author)
General relativity, torsion, and quantum theory
Singh, Tejinder P
2015-01-01
We recall some of the obstacles which arise when one tries to reconcile the general theory of relativity with quantum theory. We consider the possibility that gravitation theories which include torsion, and not only curvature, provide better insight into a quantum theory of gravity. We speculate on how the Dirac equation and Einstein gravity could be thought of as limiting cases of a gravitation theory which possesses torsion.
Bending analysis of a general cross-ply laminate using 3D elasticity solution and layerwise theory
Yazdani Sarvestani, H.; Naghashpour, A.; Heidari-Rarani, M.
2015-12-01
In this study, the analytical solution of interlaminar stresses near the free edges of a general (symmetric and unsymmetric layups) cross-ply composite laminate subjected to pure bending loading is presented based on Reddy's layerwise theory (LWT) for the first time. First, the reduced form of displacement field is obtained for a general cross-ply composite laminate subjected to a bending moment by elasticity theory. Then, first-order shear deformation theory of plates and LWT is utilized to determine the global and local deformation parameters appearing in the displacement fields, respectively. One of the main advantages of the developed solution based on the LWT is exact prediction of interlaminar stresses at the boundary layer regions. To show the accuracy of this solution, three-dimensional elasticity bending problem of a laminated composite is solved for special set of boundary conditions as well. Finally, LWT results are presented for edge-effect problems of several symmetric and unsymmetric cross-ply laminates under the bending moment. The obtained results indicate high stress gradients of interlaminar stresses near the edges of laminates.
Diffusion in the general theory of relativity
Herrmann, Joachim
2010-01-01
The Markovian diffusion theory in the phase space is generalized within the framework of the general theory of relativity. The introduction of moving orthonormal frame vectors both for the position as well the velocity space enables to bypass difficulties in the general relativistic stochastic calculus. The general relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space is derived both in the parametrization of phase space proper time and the coordinate time. The transformation of the obtained diffu...
The generalized second law of thermodynamics in generalized gravity theories
Wu, Shao-Feng; Wang, Bin; Yang, Guo-Hong; Zhang, Peng-Ming
2008-01-01
We investigate the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) in generalized theories of gravity. We examine the total entropy evolution with time including the horizon entropy, the non-equilibrium entropy production, and the entropy of all matter, field and energy components. We derive a universal condition to protect the generalized second law and study its validity in different gravity theories. In Einstein gravity, (even in the phantom-dominated universe with a Schwarzschild black hol...
General Relativity as a constrained Gauge Theory
Cianci, R.; Vignolo, S.; Bruno, D
2006-01-01
The formulation of General Relativity presented in math-ph/0506077 and the Hamiltonian formulation of Gauge theories described in math-ph/0507001 are made to interact. The resulting scheme allows to see General Relativity as a constrained Gauge theory.
General Relativity Theory: Recognition through Time
Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Zhuk, A. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E. V.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.
2015-10-01
The book provides an overview of the current state of the General Relativity Theory on the eve of its centennial. The authors describe briefly the basis of this theory, systematize experimental verifications and outline the main areas of its applications in astrophysics, cosmology and astrometry in the light of the last decade. For researchers and students specializing in the Relativity Theory as well as for anyone interested in Relativity Theory, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology.
Generalizing Boolean Satisfiability II: Theory
Dixon, H E; Luks, E M; Parkes, A J; 10.1613/jair.1555
2011-01-01
This is the second of three planned papers describing ZAP, a satisfiability engine that substantially generalizes existing tools while retaining the performance characteristics of modern high performance solvers. The fundamental idea underlying ZAP is that many problems passed to such engines contain rich internal structure that is obscured by the Boolean representation used; our goal is to define a representation in which this structure is apparent and can easily be exploited to improve computational performance. This paper presents the theoretical basis for the ideas underlying ZAP, arguing that existing ideas in this area exploit a single, recurring structure in that multiple database axioms can be obtained by operating on a single axiom using a subgroup of the group of permutations on the literals in the problem. We argue that the group structure precisely captures the general structure at which earlier approaches hinted, and give numerous examples of its use. We go on to extend the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-...
JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory
Mishra, O P; Vikas kumar; Dixit Garg
2013-01-01
This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST) developed by Yourdon (1989) [Yourdon, E. (1989). Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007) [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007). Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–32...
A general theory of rotorcraft trim
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David A. Peters
1996-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we offer a general theory of rotorcraft trim. The theory is set in the context of control theory. It allows for completely arbitrary trim controls and trim settings for multi-rotor aircraft with tests to ensure that a system is trimmable. In addition, the theory allows for “optimal trim” in which some variable is minimized or maximized rather than set to a specified value. The theory shows that sequential trim cannot work for free flight. The theory is not tied to any particular trim algorithm; but, in this paper, it is exercised with periodic shooting to show how free-flying rotorcraft can be trimmed in a variety of ways (zero yaw, zero pitch, zero roll, minimum power, etc. by use of the general theory. The paper also discusses applications to harmonic balance and auto-pilot trim techniques.
Generalized Quantum Theory and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory
Maroun, Michael Anthony
This dissertation is divided into two main topics. The first is the generalization of quantum dynamics when the Schrodinger partial differential equation is not defined even in the weak mathematical sense because the potential function itself is a distribution in the spatial variable, the same variable that is used to define the kinetic energy operator, i.e. the Laplace operator. The procedure is an extension and broadening of the distributional calculus and offers spectral results as an alternative to the only other two known methods to date, namely a) the functional calculi; and b) non-standard analysis. Furthermore, the generalizations of quantum dynamics presented within give a resolution to the time asymmetry paradox created by multi-particle quantum mechanics due to the time evolution still being unitary. A consequence is the randomization of phases needed for the fundamental justification Pauli master equation. The second topic is foundations of the quantum theory of fields. The title is phrased as ``foundations'' to emphasize that there is no claim of uniqueness but rather a proposal is put forth, which is markedly different than that of constructive or axiomatic field theory. In particular, the space of fields is defined as a space of generalized functions with involutive symmetry maps (the CPT invariance) that affect the topology of the field space. The space of quantum fields is then endowed the Frechet property and interactions change the topology in such a way as to cause some field spaces to be incompatible with others. This is seen in the consequences of the Haag theorem. Various examples and discussions are given that elucidate a new view of the quantum theory of fields and its (lack of) mathematical structure.
Vainshtein mechanism in general disformal gravity theory
Karwan, Khamphee; Jaksri, Saksith
2016-01-01
We consider a theory of gravity in which the action is a result from the general disformal transformation on the Einstein-Hilbert action. We investigate the conditions where this theory can drive an accelerated expansion of the present universe, and then study the Vainshtein mechanism in this theory under such conditions. We find that the Vainshtein mechanism can work if the kinetic terms of the scalar field in the theory take non-canonical forms. Based on the constraint from local gravity experiments, we find that General Relativity is recovered inside the Vainshtein radius which can be of the order of the radius of the Milky Way.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.;
2013-01-01
The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present in molecu......The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present...
Generalized perturbation theory for thermalhydraulics problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Oblow's perturbation expressions are presented for a generic functional in a heat and mass transfer transient problem for a typical subset of nuclear reactor using the generalized perturbation theory formalism proposed by Gandini. (E.G.)
Teaching Evolutionary Theory as General Education.
Todd, Paul
1984-01-01
Provides a rationale for including evolution as part of a college general education curriculum, discussing the content of evolutionary theory, instructional principles, Darwin's contributions, evolution and religion, and the relationship of evolution with current events. (DMM)
General degeneracy in density functional perturbation theory
Palenik, Mark C
2016-01-01
Degenerate perturbation theory from quantum mechanics is inadequate in density functional theory (DFT) because of nonlinearity in the Kohn-Sham potential. We develop the fully general degenerate perturbation theory for DFT without assuming that the degeneracy is required by symmetry. The resulting methodology is applied to the iron atom ground state in order to demonstrate the effects of degeneracy that appears both due to symmetry requirements and accidentally, between different representations of the symmetry group.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.;
2013-01-01
The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present in molecu...
On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories
Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama,Kazunori
2015-01-01
We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is us...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Junfeng; QI; Tao; LI; Zhengguo
2005-01-01
Based on 2D Janbu's generalized procedure of slices (GPS), a new three-dimensional slope stability analysis method has been developed, in which all forces acting on the discretized blocks in static equilibrium are taken into account in all three directions. In this method, the potential sliding mass is divided into rigid blocks and each block is analyzed separately by using both geometric relations and static equilibrium formulations. By introducing force boundary conditions, the stability problem is determined statically. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the stability of slopes with various types of potential sliding surfaces, complicated geological boundaries and stratifications, water pressure, and earthquake loading. This method can also be helpful in determining individual factor of safety and local potential sliding direction for each block. As an extension of 2D Janbu's method, the present method has both the advantages and disadvantages of Janbu's generalized procedure of slices.
Perturbative Double Field Theory on General Backgrounds
Hohm, Olaf
2015-01-01
We develop the perturbation theory of double field theory around arbitrary solutions of its field equations. The exact gauge transformations are written in a manifestly background covariant way and contain at most quadratic terms in the field fluctuations. We expand the generalized curvature scalar to cubic order in fluctuations and thereby determine the cubic action in a manifestly background covariant form. As a first application we specialize this theory to group manifold backgrounds, such as $SU(2) \\simeq S^3$ with $H$-flux. In the full string theory this corresponds to a WZW background CFT. Starting from closed string field theory, the cubic action around such backgrounds has been computed before by Blumenhagen, Hassler and L\\"ust. We establish precise agreement with the cubic action derived from double field theory. This result confirms that double field theory is applicable to arbitrary curved background solutions, disproving assertions in the literature to the contrary.
A nonlinear theory of generalized functions
1990-01-01
This book provides a simple introduction to a nonlinear theory of generalized functions introduced by J.F. Colombeau, which gives a meaning to any multiplication of distributions. This theory extends from pure mathematics (it presents a faithful generalization of the classical theory of C? functions and provides a synthesis of most existing multiplications of distributions) to physics (it permits the resolution of ambiguities that appear in products of distributions), passing through the theory of partial differential equations both from the theoretical viewpoint (it furnishes a concept of weak solution of pde's leading to existence-uniqueness results in many cases where no distributional solution exists) and the numerical viewpoint (it introduces new and efficient methods developed recently in elastoplasticity, hydrodynamics and acoustics). This text presents basic concepts and results which until now were only published in article form. It is in- tended for mathematicians but, since the theory and applicati...
A General Duality Theory for Clones
Kerkhoff, Sebastian
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we generalize clones (as well as their relational counterparts and the relationship between them) to categories. Based on this framework, we introduce a general duality theory for clones and apply it to obtain new results for clones on finite sets.
A parameter-free analysis of the utility of money for the general population under prospect theory
A.S. Booij; G. van de Kuilen
2009-01-01
Extensive data has convincingly demonstrated that expected utility, the reigning economic theory of rational decision making, fails descriptively. This descriptive failure casts doubt on the validity of classical utility measurements. Prospect theory can better explain choice behaviour because it ma
A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: bimetric theories
Lagos, Macarena
2016-01-01
We implement the method developed in [1] to construct the most general parametrised action for linear cosmological perturbations of bimetric theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background, and identify the complete form of the action invariant under diffeomorphism transformations, as well as the number of free parameters characterising this cosmological class of theories. We discuss, in detail, the case without derivative interactions, and compare our results with those found in massive bigravity.
Quantum theory from the perspective of general probabilistic theories
Al-Safi, Sabri Walid
2015-01-01
This thesis explores various perspectives on quantum phenomena, and how our understanding of these phenomena is informed by the study of general probabilistic theories. Particular attention is given to quantum nonlocality, and its interaction with areas of physical and mathematical interest such as entropy, reversible dynamics, information-based games and the idea of negative probability. We begin with a review of non-signaling distributions and convex operational theories, including ?black b...
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2006-01-01
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. At zero temperature and zero frequency......, if the Fermi energy lies in a spectral gap, we rigorously prove theWidom-Streda formula. For free electrons, the transverse conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers...
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations.
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L C; Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten
2016-04-20
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny;
2016-01-01
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact...... calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch...... oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics....
Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree
Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...... and geometry over the field with one element. It also permits the construction of important Arakelov theoretical objects, such as the completion \\Spec Z of Spec Z. In this thesis, we prove a projective bundle theorem for the eld with one element and compute the Chow rings of the generalized schemes Sp\\ec ZN......, appearing in the construction of \\Spec Z....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • The MUSAD code for the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis was developed. • The sensitivity coefficients were derived based on the generalized perturbation theory. • The generalized adjoint flux solver was implemented into DeCART code. • The covariance data were aggregated to the cross section type definition of DeCART. • The uncertainties by MUSAD were investigated on two VHTR problems. - Abstract: A computer code, MUSAD was developed for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on the DeCART neutron transport calculations for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. MUSAD is based on a deterministic method in which the sensitivity coefficients of the multiplication factor and the microscopic cross sections are derived using the generalized perturbation theory. Then, the uncertainties of the reactor physics responses are calculated by the product of the covariance matrix and the sensitivity coefficients. MUSAD has been verified against the uncertainty analyses on several benchmark problems including the GODIVA benchmark problem, the PMR-200 pin-cell, and the MHTGR-350 core benchmark problems. A good agreement in comparison with the reference codes, TSUNAMI and McCARD shows the applicability of MUSAD to the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on the HTGR neutron transport calculations
The general theory of relativity a mathematical exposition
Das, Anadijiban
2012-01-01
The General Theory of Relativity: A Mathematical Exposition will serve readers as a modern mathematical introduction to the general theory of relativity. Throughout the book, examples, worked-out problems, and exercises (with hints and solutions) are furnished. Topics in this book include, but are not limited to: • tensor analysis • the special theory of relativity • the general theory of relativity and Einstein’s field equations • spherically symmetric solutions and experimental confirmations • static and stationary space-time domains • black holes • cosmological models • algebraic classifications and the Newman-Penrose equations • the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations • appendices covering mathematical supplements and special topics Mathematical rigor, yet very clear presentation of the topics make this book a unique text for both university students and research scholars. Anadijiban Das has taught courses on Relativity Theory at The University College of Dublin, Irelan...
Functional analysis theory and applications
Edwards, RE
2011-01-01
""The book contains an enormous amount of information - mathematical, bibliographical and historical - interwoven with some outstanding heuristic discussions."" - Mathematical Reviews.In this massive graduate-level study, Emeritus Professor Edwards (Australian National University, Canberra) presents a balanced account of both the abstract theory and the applications of linear functional analysis. Written for readers with a basic knowledge of set theory, general topology, and vector spaces, the book includes an abundance of carefully chosen illustrative examples and excellent exercises at the
JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O P Mishra
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.
Poisson theory of generalized Bikhoff equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shang Mei; Mei Feng-Xiang
2009-01-01
This paper presents a Poisson theory of the generalized Birkhoff equations,including the algebraic structure of the equations,the sufficient and necessary condition on the integral and the conditions under which a new integral can be deduced by a known integral as well as the form of the new integral.
On Kramers' general theory of Brownian motion
Brinkman, H.C.
1957-01-01
Kramer's general theory of Brownian motion 1) based on a diffusion equation in phase space is discussed from the standpoint of statistical thermodynamics. It is concluded that for particles moving in a medium in equilibrium the restrictions imposed by the second law of thermodynamics limit Kramer's
Nonlinear SUSY General Relativity Theory and Significances
Shima, Kazunari; Tsuda, Motomu
2011-01-01
We show some consequences of the nonlinear supersymmetric general relativity (NLSUSYGR) theory on particle physics, cosmology and their relations. They may give new insights into the SUSY breaking mechanism, dark energy, dark matter and the low enegy superpartner particles which are compatible with the recent LHC data.
On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Generalized semilocal theories and higher Hopf maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In semilocal theories, the vacuum manifold is fibered in a non- trivial way by the action of the gauge group. Here we generalize the original semilocal theory (which was based on the Hopf bundle S3 →S1 S2) to realize the next Hopf bundle S7 →S3 S1, and its extensions S2n+1yieldsS3 HPn. The semilocal defects in this class of theories are classified by π3(S 3), and are interpreted as constrained instantons or generalized sphaleron configurations. We fail to find a field theoretic realization of the final Hopf bundle S15 →S7 S8, but are able to construct other semilocal spaces realizing Stiefel bundles over Grassmanian spaces
Generalized Semilocal Theories and Higher Hopf Maps
Hindmarsh, M; Kephart, T W; Vachaspati, T; Hindmarsh, Mark; Holman, Richard; Kephart, Thomas W.; Vachaspati, Tanmay
1993-01-01
\\def\\mon{S^3\\stackrel{S^1}{\\rightarrow}S^2} \\def\\inst{S^7\\stackrel{S^3}{\\rightarrow}S^4} \\def\\octo{S^{15}\\stackrel{S^7}{\\rightarrow}S^8} In semilocal theories, the vacuum manifold is fibered in a non-trivial way by the action of the gauge group. Here we generalize the original semilocal theory (which was based on the Hopf bundle $\\mon$) to realize the next Hopf bundle $\\inst$, and its extensions $S^{2n+1}\\stackrel{S^3}\\rightarrow \\H P^n$. The semilocal defects in this class of theories are classified by $\\pi_3(S^3)$, and are interpreted as constrained instantons or generalized sphaleron configurations. We fail to find a field theoretic realization of the final Hopf bundle $\\octo$, but are able to construct other semilocal spaces realizing Stiefel bundles over Grassmanian spaces.
Manifest Covariant Hamiltonian Theory of General Relativity
Cremaschini, Claudio
2016-01-01
The problem of formulating a manifest covariant Hamiltonian theory of General Relativity in the presence of source fields is addressed, by extending the so-called "DeDonder-Weyl" formalism to the treatment of classical fields in curved space-time. The theory is based on a synchronous variational principle for the Einstein equation, formulated in terms of superabundant variables. The technique permits one to determine the continuum covariant Hamiltonian structure associated with the Einstein equation. The corresponding continuum Poisson bracket representation is also determined. The theory relies on first-principles, in the sense that the conclusions are reached in the framework of a non-perturbative covariant approach, which allows one to preserve both the 4-scalar nature of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian densities as well as the gauge invariance property of the theory.
Bitopological spaces theory, relations with generalized algebraic structures and applications
Dvalishvili, Badri
2005-01-01
This monograph is the first and an initial introduction to the theory of bitopological spaces and its applications. In particular, different families of subsets of bitopological spaces are introduced and various relations between two topologies are analyzed on one and the same set; the theory of dimension of bitopological spaces and the theory of Baire bitopological spaces are constructed, and various classes of mappings of bitopological spaces are studied. The previously known results as well the results obtained in this monograph are applied in analysis, potential theory, general topology, a
Relativity the special and the general theory
Einstein, Albert
2015-01-01
After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was "to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics." The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. This new edition of Einstein's celebrated book features an authoritative English translation of the text along with an introduction and a reading companion by Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn that examines the evolution of Einstein's thinking and casts his ideas in a broader present-day context. A special chapter explores the history...
The general principles of quantum theory
Temple, George
2014-01-01
Published in 1934, this monograph was one of the first introductory accounts of the principles which form the physical basis of the Quantum Theory, considered as a branch of mathematics. The exposition is restricted to a discussion of general principles and does not attempt detailed application to the wide domain of atomic physics, although a number of special problems are considered in elucidation of the principles. The necessary fundamental mathematical methods - the theory of linear operators and of matrics - are developed in the first chapter so this could introduce anyone to the new theor
Generalized density functional theory for effective potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We demonstrate the existence of different density functionals that retain selected properties of the many-body ground state in the non-interacting density functional solution. We focus on diffusion Monte Carlo applications that require trial wave functions with Fermion optimal nodes. The theory can be extended and used to understand current practices in several electronic structure methods [GW-BSE,CI,EPM] within a generalized density functional framework. The theory justifies and stimulates the search of optimal empirical density functionals and effective potentials but also cautions on the limits of their applicability. The theoretical concepts are tested against a near-analytic model that can be solved to numerical precision
Anisotropic generalized Procrustes analysis
Bennani Dosse, Mohammed; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Ten Berge, Jos M.F.
2011-01-01
Generalized Procrustes analysis is a popular method for matching several configurations by translations, rotations/reflections and scaling constants. It aims at producing a group average from these Euclidean similarity transformations followed by bi-linear approximation of this group average for gra
General Conceptual View on Resource Advantage Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilal Yalcin
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In order to continue for an organization to exist it needs to finance itself for its own resource on the other hand service with considering consumers need and expectations by present them lowest price and highest quality also. Under these conditions these kind of organizations need to analyze the behaviour (nature of the rival organizations and position themselves accordingly in order to get advantage on the rival organizations. In this study, a general conceptual view on resource advantage theory is developed. Theory explains having the lowest cost resources than rival organisations geting advantage with organisation resources, market position, financial performance and evironmental factors. Theory is able to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the organisations and use to have strategic marketing decisions.
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of the magnetic field B. Then the linear term in B of this expansion is written down in terms of the zero......This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse...... magnetic field Green function and the zero field current operator. In the periodic case, the linear term in B of the conductivity tensor is expressed in terms of zero magnetic field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed...
Sturmians and generalized sturmians in quantum theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil
2012-01-01
The theory of Sturmians and generalized Sturmians is reviewed. It is shown that when generalized Sturmians are used as basis functions, calculations on the spectra and physical properties of few-electron atoms can be performed with great ease and good accuracy. The use of many-center Coulomb...... Sturmians as basis functions in calculations on N-electron molecules is also discussed. Basis sets of this type are shown to have many advantages over other types of ETO’s, especially the property of automatic scaling....
On the general theory of quantized fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In my lecture I describe the present stage of the general theory of quantized fields on the example of 5 subjects. They are ordered in the direction from large to small distances. The first one is the by now classical problem of the structure of superselection sectors. It involves the behavior of the theory at spacelike infinity and is directly connected with particle statistics and internal symmetries. It has become popular in recent years by the discovery of a lot of nontrivial models in 2d conformal-field theory, by connections to integrable models and critical behavior in statistical mechanics and by the relations to the Jones' theory of subfactors in von Neumann algebras and to the corresponding geometrical objects (braids, knots, 3d manifolds, ...). At large timelike distances the by far most important feature of quantum field theory is the particle structure. This will be the second subject of my lecture. It follows the technically most involved part which is concerned with the behavior at finite distances. Two aspets, nuclearity which emphasizes the finite density of states in phase space, and the modular structure which relies on the infinite number of degrees of freedom present even locally, and their mutual relations will be treated. The next point, involving the structure at infinitesimal distances, is the connection between the Haag-Kastler framework of algebras of local and the framework of Wightman fields. Finally, problems in approaches to quantum gravity will be discussed, as far as they are accessible by the methods of the general theory of quantized fields. (orig.)
Cosmology in general massive gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state weff has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of weff from -1. Taking into account current limits on weff and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of weff form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory
Effective quantum field theories in general spacetimes
Raab, Andreas
2008-01-01
We introduce regular charts as physical reference frames in spacetime, and we show that general spacetimes can always be fully captured by regular charts. Effective quantum field theories (QFTs) can be conveniently defined in regular reference frames, and the definition is independent of specific background metric and independent of specific regular reference frame. As a consequence, coupling to classical gravity is possible in effective QFTs without getting back-reaction effects. Moreover, w...
Dual symmetry in a generalized Maxwell theory
Brandt, F T; McKeon, D G C
2016-01-01
We examine Podolsky's electrodynamics, which is noninvariant under the usual duality transformation. We deduce a generalization of Hodge's star duality, which leads to a dual gauge field and restores to a certain extent the dual symmetry. The model becomes fully dual symmetric asymptotically when it reduces to the Maxwell theory. We argue that this strict dual symmetry directly implies the existence of the basic invariants of the electromagnetic fields.
Possibilistic systems within a general information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joslyn, C.
1999-06-01
The author surveys possibilistic systems theory and place it in the context of Imprecise Probabilities and General Information Theory (GIT). In particular, he argues that possibilistic systems hold a distinct position within a broadly conceived, synthetic GIT. The focus is on systems and applications which are semantically grounded by empirical measurement methods (statistical counting), rather than epistemic or subjective knowledge elicitation or assessment methods. Regarding fuzzy measures as special provisions, and evidence measures (belief and plausibility measures) as special fuzzy measures, thereby he can measure imprecise probabilities directly and empirically from set-valued frequencies (random set measurement). More specifically, measurements of random intervals yield empirical fuzzy intervals. In the random set (Dempster-Shafer) context, probability and possibility measures stand as special plausibility measures in that their distributionality (decomposability) maps directly to an aggregable structure of the focal classes of their random sets. Further, possibility measures share with imprecise probabilities the ability to better handle open world problems where the universe of discourse is not specified in advance. In addition to empirically grounded measurement methods, possibility theory also provides another crucial component of a full systems theory, namely prediction methods in the form of finite (Markov) processes which are also strictly analogous to the probabilistic forms.
Module theory, extending modules and generalizations
Tercan, Adnan
2016-01-01
The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...
Generalized conservation laws in non-local field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a geometrical treatment of symmetries in non-local field theories, where the non-locality is due to a lack of identification of field arguments in the action. We show that the existence of a symmetry of the action leads to a generalized conservation law, in which the usual conserved current acquires an additional non-local correction term, obtaining a generalization of the standard Noether theorem. We illustrate the general formalism by discussing the specific physical example of complex scalar field theory of the type describing the hydrodynamic approximation of Bose–Einstein condensates. We expect our analysis and results to be of particular interest for the group field theory formulation of quantum gravity. (paper)
General Poincar\\'e Gauge Theory Cosmology
Ho, Fei-Hung; Nester, James M; Yo, Hwei-Jang
2015-01-01
For the quadratic Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity (PG) we consider the FLRW cosmologies using an isotropic Bianchi representation. Here the considered cosmologies are for the general case: all the even and odd parity terms of the quadratic PG with their respective scalar and pseudoscalar parameters are allowed with no \\emph{a priori} restrictions on their values. With the aid of a manifestly homogeneous and isotropic representation, an effective Lagrangian gives the second order dynamical equations for the gauge potentials. An equivalent set of first order equations for the observables is presented. The generic behavior of physical solutions is discussed and illustrated using numerical simulations.
Almost Hadamard matrices: general theory and examples
Banica, Teodor; Zyczkowski, Karol
2012-01-01
We develop a general theory of "almost Hadamard matrices". These are by definition the matrices $H\\in M_N(\\mathbb R)$ having the property that $U=H/\\sqrt{N}$ is orthogonal, and is a local maximum of the 1-norm on O(N). Our study includes a detailed discussion of the circulant case ($H_{ij}=\\gamma_{j-i}$) and of the two-entry case ($H_{ij}\\in\\{x,y\\}$), with the construction of several families of examples, and some 1-norm computations.
100 Years of General Theory of Relativity
2015-01-01
The Symposium will celebrate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's four papers on General Relativity, which he submitted to the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften during November 1915. A review of the history of the creation of Einstein's masterpiece, from its roots in Bern, the important steps forward in Zurich and up to its completion in Berlin will be followed by an extensive overview covering the later developments up to present-day research. This will include discussions on the impact of the theory on our view of the universe as well as on progress in technology for everyday life.
The general physics theory for 21 century
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By solving the coupled system of kinetic equations for interacting system of electrons positrons (holes) and photons (phonons) at high external electric, arbitrary magnetic and at the propagation of strong electromagnetic waves non-equilibrium and non-stationary distribution function of photons (phonons) and charge carriers by taking into account of arbitrary heating and mutual drag of carriers and photons (phonons) was found. Author was sure that received him in 1976 distribution function of photons (phonons) must lay on the basis of Theoretical Physics of 21 Century, as the equilibrium Planck's distribution function of black-body radiation received in 1900 lied on the basis of Quantum Physics of 20 Century. Authors many years mental work (from 1976 till today) confirmed the rightness of searched him way and leads to the conclusion that Kinetic Theory is more general and fundamental theory of nature, which unificated Non-stationary Dynamics (the left-hand side) with Non-stationary Statistical Mechanics (the right-hand side) of Kinetic Equation. It is shown that other sections of Theoretical Physics such as Newtonian, Hamiltonian and Relativistic Classical Mechanics, Quantum Physics, Optics, Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Particle Physics may be received from Kinetic Theory under the special conditions and are the special parts of this theory. The problems such as the irreversibility and instability, the paradox of time, quantum paradox and others are solved. This new General Theory explains all the problems and troubles contents with the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics and relativity. It was found the mechanism of quantization and transition from one energetic level to another,the squeezed effect, the transition of particles wave-packets through the energetic barriers. It is shown the possibility of superluminal motion of light pulses and wave-packets through the medium and photonic barriers. It is well known that the experiments
General Relativity Theory: Tests through Time
Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E.V .; Khmil, S. V.
2006-08-01
Theoretical basis of the General Relativity theory (GR), its experimental tests as well as GR applications were briefly summarized in the new textbook devoted to the World Year of Physics-2005 (authors - Yatskiv Ya.S., Alexandrov A.N., Vavilova I.B., Zhdanov V.I., Kudrya Yu.N., Parnovsky S.L., Fedorova E.V., Khmil S.V., Kyiv:Akademperiodika, 2005, 288 p.). The monograph addresses scientists, post-graduate students, and students specialized in the natural sciences as well as everyone who takes a great interest in GR. Special attention is paid on Relativistic Reference Systems, as an attachment to this book, including attachment to this book where the Resolution of the XXIV IAU General Assembly is given (in Ukrainian).
On the Theory of Generalized Algebraic Transformations
Strecka, Jozef
2010-01-01
This book deals with the theory of generalized algebraic transformations, which is elaborated with the aim to provide a relatively simple theoretical tool that enables an exact treatment of diverse more complex lattice-statistical models. In addition to a brief historical account on the developments of this exact mapping method, the versatility of generalized algebraic transformations will be convincingly evidenced when providing exact results for two different families of exactly solvable models. The family of exactly solved Ising models brings a deeper insight into various aspects closely associated especially with phase transitions and critical phenomena. The second class of exactly solved Ising-Heisenberg models sheds light on striking quantum manifestations of spontaneously long-range ordered systems, which are closely connected with a mutual interplay between quantum and cooperative phenomena.
Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis
Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis
2014-01-01
This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.
General Theory of the Plasmoid Instability
Comisso, L; Huang, Y -M; Bhattacharjee, A
2016-01-01
A general theory of the onset and development of the plasmoid instability is formulated by means of a principle of least time. The scaling relations for the final aspect ratio, transition time to rapid onset, growth rate, and number of plasmoids are derived, and shown to depend on the initial perturbation amplitude $\\left({\\hat w}_0\\right)$, the characteristic rate of current sheet evolution $\\left(1/\\tau\\right)$, and the Lundquist number $\\left(S\\right)$. They are not simple power laws, and are proportional to $S^{\\alpha} \\tau^{\\beta} \\left[\\ln f(S,\\tau,{\\hat w}_0)\\right]^\\sigma$. The detailed dynamics of the instability is also elucidated, and shown to comprise of a period of quiescence followed by sudden growth over a short time scale.
A Generalized Theory of Varying Alpha
Barrow, John D
2011-01-01
In this paper, we formulate a generalization of the simple Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo (BSBM) theory of varying alpha by allowing the coupling constant, \\omega, for the corresponding scalar field \\psi\\ to depend on \\psi. We focus on the situation where \\omega\\ is exponential in \\psi\\ and find the late-time behaviours that occur in matter-dominated and dark-energy dominated cosmologies. We also consider the situation when the background expansion scale factor of the universe evolves in proportion to an arbitrary power of the cosmic time. We find the conditions under which the fine structure `constant' increases with time, as in the BSBM theory, and establish a cosmic no-hair behaviour for accelerating universes. We also find the conditions under which the fine structure `constant' can decrease with time and compare the whole family of models with astronomical data from quasar absorption spectra. Finally, we show that spatial variations on sub-horizon scales can dominate over the cosmological time evolut...
A generalized Theory of Diffusion based on Kinetic Theory
Schaefer, Thomas
2016-01-01
We propose to use spin hydrodynamics, a two-fluid model of spin propagation, as a generalization of the diffusion equation. We show that in the dense limit spin hydrodynamics reduces to Fick's law and the diffusion equation. In the opposite limit spin hydrodynamics is equivalent to a collisionless Boltzmann treatment of spin propagation. Spin hydrodynamics avoids unphysical effects that arise when the diffusion equation is used to describe to a strongly interacting gas with a dilute corona. We apply spin hydrodynamics to the problem of spin diffusion in a trapped atomic gas. We find that the observed spin relaxation rate in the high temperature limit [Sommer et al., Nature 472, 201 (2011)] is consistent with the diffusion constant predicted by kinetic theory.
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
D numbers theory: a generalization of Dempster-Shafer theory
Deng, Xinyang; Deng, Yong
2014-01-01
Dempster-Shafer theory is widely applied to uncertainty modelling and knowledge reasoning due to its ability of expressing uncertain information. However, some conditions, such as exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness constraint, limit its development and application to a large extend. To overcome these shortcomings in Dempster-Shafer theory and enhance its capability of representing uncertain information, a novel theory called D numbers theory is systematically proposed in this paper. Wi...
Generalized principal component analysis
Vidal, René; Sastry, S S
2016-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the latest advances in the mathematical theory and computational tools for modeling high-dimensional data drawn from one or multiple low-dimensional subspaces (or manifolds) and potentially corrupted by noise, gross errors, or outliers. This challenging task requires the development of new algebraic, geometric, statistical, and computational methods for efficient and robust estimation and segmentation of one or multiple subspaces. The book also presents interesting real-world applications of these new methods in image processing, image and video segmentation, face recognition and clustering, and hybrid system identification etc. This book is intended to serve as a textbook for graduate students and beginning researchers in data science, machine learning, computer vision, image and signal processing, and systems theory. It contains ample illustrations, examples, and exercises and is made largely self-contained with three Appendices which survey basic concepts ...
Theory Sessions Documents - 31710 General Linguistics I
Muñoz Baell, Irma María
2012-01-01
Please follow the link below to download all the course materials required for the theory sessions. You will find 1 Student Introductory Assignment, 1 Introductory Activity, 9 Reading Assignments, 11 Team Based Learning Activities, 1Student Peer Review Activity, and 1 Final Week Activity - Academic year 2011-2012 (ECTS credits: 6 (150 hours)). See the Planned Weekly Schedule (Theory sessions).
Optimality theory as a general cognitive architecture
T. Biró; J. Gervain
2011-01-01
It was exactly 25 years ago that Paul Smolensky introduced Harmony Theory (Smolensky, 1986), a framework that would pursue an exciting, but certainly not straight path through linguistics (namely, Optimality Theory) and other cognitive domains. The goal of this workshop is not so much to look back t
The role of Einstein's general relativity theory in today's physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The relationships are discussed of the general relativity theory to other fields of today's physics. Recent results are reported of studies into gravitational radiation, relativistic astrophysics, cosmology and the quantum theory. (Z.M.)
Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diederik eAerts
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.
Are there metric theories of gravity other than General Relativity?
Magnano, Guido
1995-01-01
Current generalizations of the classical Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian formulation of General Relativity are reviewed. Some alternative variational principles are known to reproduce Einstein's gravitational equations, and should therefore be regarded as equivalent descriptions of the same physical model, while other variational principles ("Scalar-tensor theories" and "Higher-derivative theories") are commonly presented as truly alternative physical theories. Such theories, however, are also kn...
Absence of conical singularities in beyond-generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
In Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) scalar-tensor theories, which are outside the domain of second-order Horndeski theories, it is known that there exists a conical singularity in the case where the parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ characterizing the deviation from Horndeski theories approaches a non-vanishing constant at the center of a spherically symmetric body. Meanwhile, it was recently shown that second-order generalized Proca theories with a massive vector field $A^{\\mu}$ can be consistently extended to beyond-generalized Proca theories, which recover the shift-symmetric GLPV theories in the scalar limit $A^{\\mu} \\to \
Generalized Elliptical Distributions: Theory and Applications
Frahm, Gabriel
2004-01-01
The thesis recalls the traditional theory of elliptically symmetric distributions. Their basic properties are derived in detail and some important additional properties are mentioned. Further, the thesis concentrates on the dependence structures of elliptical or even meta-elliptical distributions using extreme value theory and copulas. Some recent results concerning regular variation and bivariate asymptotic dependence of elliptical distributions are presented. Further, the traditional class ...
A General Review of Register Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王航
2014-01-01
<正>Register theory is important in the study of linguistic.It is developed by Halliday who defined it as a variety of language according to use.According to Halliday,language is strained by three variables:field,tenor and mode,which are the three variables of register.Nowadays,more and more researchers are focusing on the application of register theory on specific English
General Relativity Revisited: Generalized Nordstr\\"om Theory
Bengtsson, Johan
2016-01-01
In 1945 Einstein concluded that [1]: 'The present theory of relativity is based on a division of physical reality into a metric field (gravitation) on the one hand, and into an electromagnetic field and matter on the other hand. In reality space will probably be of a uniform character and the present theory be valid only as a limiting case. For large densities of field and of matter, the field equations and even the field variables which enter into them will have no real significance.'. The dichotomy can be resolved by introducing a scalar field/potential algebraically related to the Ricci tensor for which the corresponding metric is free of additional singularities. Hence, although a fundamentally nonlinear theory, the scalar field/potential provides an analytic framework for interacting particles; described by linear superposition. The stress tensor for the scalar field includes both the sources of and the energy-momentum for the gravitational field, and has zero covariant and ordinary divergence. Hence, th...
Kalisz Roman
2014-01-01
The paper discusses a concept of general meaning with reference to various relevant semantic and pragmatic theories. It includes references to Slavic axiological semantics (e.g. Krzeszowski (1997); Puzynina (1992)), Wierzbicka’s (e.g. 1980, 1987) atomic expressions and classical pragmatics theories, such as speech acts, Gricean theory of conversational implicature, politeness theory and and relevance theory.
Molecular vibrational generalized inverse theory and its software
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑重德
1995-01-01
The general concept of flexibility and activity are presented,the generalized inverse theory of molecular vibrations is set up,and the computation software of molecular flexibilities and normal coordinates(MFNC)is elaborately programed.
Multisymplectic effective General Boundary Field Theory
Arjang, Mona
2013-01-01
The transfer matrix in lattice field theory connects the covariant and the initial data frameworks; in spin foam models, it can be written as a composition of elementary cellular amplitudes/propagators. We present a framework for discrete spacetime classical field theory in which solutions to the field equations over elementary spacetime cells may be amalgamated if they satisfy simple gluing conditions matching the composition rules of cellular amplitudes in spin foam models. Furthermore, the formalism is endowed with a multisymplectic structure responsible for local conservation laws. Some models within our framework are effective theories modeling a system at a given scale. Our framework allows us to study coarse graining and the continuum limit.
Geometric theory of fundamental interactions. Generalized electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report a theory of a generalized electromagnetic field is formulated, which is titled so because the singlet state of this field corresponds to the electromagnetic field. A concept of a ground state of the generalized electromagnetic field is introduced and deductive derivation of equations of this field in both geometrical and dynamical form is given. The general covariant Maxwell equations for the electric and magnetic fields are derived. A physical interpretation of the theory of the generalized electromagnetic field is given
The Main General Didactical Principles of Glotoeducological Theory and Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Regina Juškienė
2011-04-01
Full Text Available As a pedagogical discipline glotoeducology is related to didactics, i. e. teaching theory. Three concepts of didactics are being distinguished: teaching, teaching principles and types of teaching activity. The authors limited themselves in their paper on one of them, namely: teaching principles that determine the usage of teaching regularities in the course of implementation of the objectives of teaching and education. The article also provides analysis of interaction of linguodidactical principles with general didactical principles, the impact thereof to teaching of foreign languages.
GENERAL RELATIVITY AND THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the theory of the electromagnetic type of rocket motor. The apparatus consists of a magnetron and a conical cavity in which electromagnetic oscillations are excited. We explain the mechanism of trust in such a device based on Maxwell's theory and the Abraham force. We built a dynamic model of the motor and calculated the optimal parameters. It is shown, that the laws of conservation of momentum and energy for the rocket motor of electromagnetic type are true, taking into account the gravitational field. In simulation, the movement used the theory of relativity. The source of the motion in an electromagnetic drive is the mass conversion in various kinds of radiation. The optimization of the operating parameters of the device is done, namely by the excitation frequency, the magnitude of heat losses of electromagnetic energy by thermal radiation in the IR spectrum, the parameters of heat transfer and forced from the temperature dependence of the resistance of the material of the cavity walls. It was found that the effective conversion of electromagnetic energy in the trust force necessary to minimize the deviation of the excitation frequency of the primary resonance frequency of the cavity. The mechanism of formation of trust under change the metrics of space-time, taking into account the contribution of the Yang-Mills theory and electromagnetic field tensor of energymomentum has been proposed
Generalized Bernoulli numbers on the KO-theory
IMAOKA, MITSUNORI
1996-01-01
The Bernoulli number defined on the generalized cohomology theory is studied, mainly focusing it on complex unoriented theories. We give a concrete formula about it on the KO-theory for the stunted quaternionic quasi-projective space, and apply the formula to represent a factorization of the double transfer map concerning such projective spaces.
Hypermass generalization of Einstein's gravitation theory
Edmonds, J. D., Jr.
1973-01-01
The curvilinear invariant quaternion formalism is examined for curved space time. Einstein's gravitation equation is shown to have a simple and natural form in this notation. The hypermass generalization of particle mass, which was generated in our studies of the Dirac equation, is incorporated in gravitation by generalizing Einstein's equation. Covariance requires that the gravitational constant be generalized to an invariant quaternion when the mass is. The modification appears minor and of no importance cosmologically, unless one begins considering time and mass dependence of G.
Generalized Homotopy theory in Categories with a Natural Cone
Díaz, Francisco J
2012-01-01
In proper homotopy theory, the original concept of point used in the classical homotopy theory of topological spaces is generalized in order to obtain homotopy groups that study the infinite of the spaces. This idea: "Using any arbitrary object as base point" and even "any morphism as zero morphism" can be developed in most of the algebraic homotopy theories. In particular, categories with a natural cone have a generalized homotopy theory obtained through the relative homotopy relation. Generalized homotopy groups and exact sequences of them are built so that respective classical pointed ones are a particular case of these.
General autocatalytic theory and simple model of financial markets
Thuy Anh, Chu; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
2015-06-01
The concept of autocatalytic theory has become a powerful tool in understanding evolutionary processes in complex systems. A generalization of autocatalytic theory was assumed by considering that the initial element now is being some distribution instead of a constant value as in traditional theory. This initial condition leads to that the final element might have some distribution too. A simple physics model for financial markets is proposed, using this general autocatalytic theory. Some general behaviours of evolution process and risk moment of a financial market also are investigated in framework of this simple model.
The multichannel generalization of multiple scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We outline a many-body description of the photoemission and photoabsorption processes that incorporates the multichannel treatment of the atomic dynamical excitations into the framework of the multiple scattering theory. In this way the interplay between excitation dynamics and electronic and geometrical structure of the ground state is elucidated. At the same time this approach provides a theoretical model for the study of the evolution from the adiabetic to the sudden regime. We derive a new multiple scattering expansion that takes into account interchannel transitions as well. As an application we discuss the homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixed-valent compounds, where the theory provides a clue at resolution of the ''threshold puzzle'' and sheds light onto the relation between photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopy
A general theory of comic entertainment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grodal, Torben Kragh
2014-01-01
The article claims that comic entertainment consists of five elements 1. priming of the comic events to come 2. some comic entertainment inputs that creates arousal 3. Entertainment-internal signals of the playful nature of the comic input 4. Appraisal processes in audience members that evaluate...... the input as 'not real but playful', 5. this leads to a change in hedonic tone, and arousal is combined with the release of endorphins (a morphine-based neurotransmitter) that makes the arousal pleasant. The theory of comic entertainment accords with the PECMA flow theory proposed in Grodal: Embodied...... Visions, because the evaluation: playful, not real, influences the muscular directness towards the world that drops. Comic entertainment is further linked to human bonding....
Molder, te H.F.M.
2009-01-01
Available in both print and electronic formats, the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory provides students and researchers with a comprehensive two-volume overview of contemporary communication theory. Reference librarians report that students frequently approach them seeking a source that will prov
Testing General Free Functions in Preferred Scale Theories
Mozaffari, Ali
2016-01-01
Building on previous work, we explore the parameter space of general free functions in non-relativistic modified gravity theories motivated by k-essence and other scalar-tensor theories. Using a few proposed tests, we aim to update Solar System based constraints on these ideas in line with previous theories and suggest their utility in constraining modification to GR, potentially even being able to test k-essence type theories.
General relativitistic theory of quasars, 1
Zakir, Z
2000-01-01
In the paper physics/0007003 it was shown that after a correct definition of the relations between observables in general relativity a horizon and a singularity disappear. The general relativity in physical variables really predicts an existence of supercompact relativistic stars and relativistic galactic nuclei with (light and heavy) barionic and quark contents instead of unphysical black holes. They have the radii near the gravitational radii and emit the spectral lines with high redshifts and the energetic (X- and gamma) photons. The quasars can be naturally interpreted as such relativistic supercompact objects and their high redshifts explained mainly as a gravitational redshift. The existing of the second mechanism of redshift in addition to the Doppler shift leads to a normalization of all parameters of quasars as the compact galactic nuclei. In principle new consequence of general relativity is a prediction that some of quasars may be the relativistic stars in the Galaxy. A short time variability of su...
A general theory of mechanical instabilities in soft solids
Hohlfeld, Evan; Mahadevan, L.
2011-03-01
Some instabilities in soft solids, e.g. buckling and wrinkling, can be detected in linearized analysis. Surprisingly, linearly stable configurations can still have nonlinear instabilities with strictly zero energy barrier. Two examples are cavitation (formation of voids) and sulcification (formation of sharply creased free surface folds), wherein singularities nucleate and grow when a critical strain is achieved. Here we present the first general theory of stability in nonlinearly elastic materials. The theory predicts when singularities spontaneously form, irrespective of linearized analysis, and how these can be controlled with geometry. Such ``hidden'' instabilities arise from the scale-free geometric and constitutive nonlinearities common in soft materials, and can be understood as scale symmetry breaking processes in simple cases. More deeply, even buckling and wrinkling can be traced back to scale-free linear instabilities (loss of ellipticity at an interface) as was first explained by M. A. Biot. We illustrate the theory with simulations and experiments on sulcification. Time allowing we will also discuss fracture and delamination.
General Theory versus ENA Theory: Comparing Their Predictive Accuracy and Scope.
Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony; Hartley, Richard; Walsh, Anthony; Widmayer, Alan; Ratnasingam, Malini
2015-12-01
General theory attributes criminal behavior primarily to low self-control, whereas evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory envisions criminality as being a crude form of status-striving promoted by high brain exposure to androgens. General theory predicts that self-control will be negatively correlated with risk-taking, while ENA theory implies that these two variables should actually be positively correlated. According to ENA theory, traits such as pain tolerance and muscularity will be positively associated with risk-taking and criminality while general theory makes no predictions concerning these relationships. Data from Malaysia and the United States are used to test 10 hypotheses derived from one or both of these theories. As predicted by both theories, risk-taking was positively correlated with criminality in both countries. However, contrary to general theory and consistent with ENA theory, the correlation between self-control and risk-taking was positive in both countries. General theory's prediction of an inverse correlation between low self-control and criminality was largely supported by the U.S. data but only weakly supported by the Malaysian data. ENA theory's predictions of positive correlations between pain tolerance, muscularity, and offending were largely confirmed. For the 10 hypotheses tested, ENA theory surpassed general theory in predictive scope and accuracy.
Dynamics of generalized Palatini theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is known that in f(R) theories of gravity with an independent connection which can be both nonmetric and nonsymmetric, this connection can always be algebraically eliminated in favor of the metric and the matter fields, so long as it is not coupled to the matter explicitly. We show here that this is a special characteristic of f(R) actions, and it is not true for actions that include other curvature invariants. This contradicts some recent claims in the literature. We clarify the reasons for this contradiction.
Conserved Quasilocal Quantities and General Covariant Theories in Two Dimensions
Kummer, W; Widerin, P.
1995-01-01
General matterless--theories in 1+1 dimensions include dilaton gravity, Yang--Mills theory as well as non--Einsteinian gravity with dynamical torsion and higher power gravity, and even models of spherically symmetric d = 4 General Relativity. Their recent identification as special cases of 'Poisson--sigma--models' with simple general solution in an arbitrary gauge, allows a comprehensive discussion of the relation between the known absolutely conserved quantities in all those cases and Noethe...
Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis
Lopez-Gomez, Julian
2001-01-01
This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.
The linear model and hypothesis a general unifying theory
Seber, George
2015-01-01
This book provides a concise and integrated overview of hypothesis testing in four important subject areas, namely linear and nonlinear models, multivariate analysis, and large sample theory. The approach used is a geometrical one based on the concept of projections and their associated idempotent matrices, thus largely avoiding the need to involve matrix ranks. It is shown that all the hypotheses encountered are either linear or asymptotically linear, and that all the underlying models used are either exactly or asymptotically linear normal models. This equivalence can be used, for example, to extend the concept of orthogonality in the analysis of variance to other models, and to show that the asymptotic equivalence of the likelihood ratio, Wald, and Score (Lagrange Multiplier) hypothesis tests generally applies.
General theory of kinetic ballooning modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ballooning mode formalism, previously developed for the ideal MHD problem, is applied here to the kinetic problem in tokamaks. The general two-dimensional equation governing drift and trapped-electron eigenmodes reduces to a one-dimensional integral equation along the lines of force with the radial structure determined by a WKB procedure. Comparisons made between the present one-dimensional code and a previous two-dimensional code embodying identical physical assumptions indicate reasonable agreement. This correspondence holds both for the structure along the field line and for the radial structure in the special case of closely spaced turning points
No-go theorems for generalized chameleon field theories.
Wang, Junpu; Hui, Lam; Khoury, Justin
2012-12-14
The chameleon, or generalizations thereof, is a light scalar that couples to matter with gravitational strength, but whose manifestation depends on the ambient matter density. A key feature is that the screening mechanism suppressing its effects in high-density environments is determined by the local scalar field value. Under very general conditions, we prove two theorems limiting its cosmological impact: (i) the Compton wavelength of such a scalar can be at most ~/= 1 MPc at the present cosmic density, which restricts its impact to nonlinear scales; and (ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time, which precludes the possibility of self-acceleration. These results imply that chameleonlike scalar fields have a negligible effect on the linear-scale growth history; theories that invoke a chameleonlike scalar to explain cosmic acceleration rely on a form of dark energy rather than a genuine modified gravity effect. Our analysis applies to a broad class of chameleon, symmetron, and dilaton theories. PMID:23368302
Generalized additivity in unitary conformal field theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gideon Vos
2015-10-01
Full Text Available It was demonstrated in [2,12] that d=4 unitary CFT's satisfy a special property: if a scalar operator with conformal dimension Δ exists in the operator spectrum, then the conformal bootstrap demands that large spin primary operators have to exist in the operator spectrum of the CFT with a conformal twist close to 2Δ+2N for any integer N. In this paper the conformal bootstrap methods in [1] that were used to find the anomalous dimension of the N=0 operators have been generalized to recursively find the anomalous dimension of all large spin operators of this class. In AdS these operators can be interpreted as the excited states of the product states of objects that were found in other works.
A generalized theory of preferential linking
Hu, Haibo; Liu, Xuan
2013-01-01
There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios, and explore the relation between preferential linking mechanism and network features. We find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic...
On the General Theory of Production Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catalin Angelo Ioan
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we will study from an axiomatic point of view the production functions. Also we will define the main indicators of a production function, extending the classical definitions to n inputs and introducing other new. We will modify the notion of global average productivity and replace it with more realistic indicators. On the other hand, the notion of global rate of substitution will be introduced to the analysis of n goods.
Towards a general theory of driver behaviour.
Fuller, Ray
2005-05-01
Taylor [Taylor, D.H., 1964. Drivers' galvanic skin response and the risk of accident. Ergonomics 7, 439-451] argued that drivers attempt to maintain a constant level of anxiety when driving which Wilde [Wilde, G.J.S., 1982. The theory of risk homeostasis: implications for safety and health. Risk Anal. 2, 209-225] interpreted to be coupled to subjective estimates of the probability of collision. This theoretical paper argues that what drivers attempt to maintain is a level of task difficulty. Naatanen and Summala [Naatanen, R., Summala, H., 1976. Road User Behaviour and Traffic Accidents. North Holland/Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York] similarly rejected the concept of statistical risk as a determinant of driver behaviour, but in so doing fell back on the learning process to generate a largely automatised selection of appropriate safety margins. However it is argued here that driver behaviour cannot be acquired and executed principally in such S-R terms. The concept of task difficulty is elaborated within the framework of the task-capability interface (TCI) model, which describes the dynamic interaction between the determinants of task demand and driver capability. It is this interaction which produces different levels of task difficulty. Implications of the model are discussed regarding variation in performance, resource allocation, hierarchical decision-making and the interdependence of demand and capability. Task difficulty homeostasis is proposed as a key sub-goal in driving and speed choice is argued to be the primary solution to the problem of keeping task difficulty within selected boundaries. The relationship between task difficulty and mental workload and calibration is clarified. Evidence is cited in support of the TCI model, which clearly distinguishes task difficulty from estimates of statistical risk. However, contrary to expectation, ratings of perceived risk depart from ratings of statistical risk but track difficulty ratings almost perfectly. It now
A generalized theory of preferential linking
Hu, Haibo; Guo, Jinli; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofan
2014-12-01
There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How do various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, and present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios. We study the mathematical structure of degree distributions and find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic and inverse tangent functions, and extremely complex network structure will emerge even for very simple sublinear preferential linking. This work not only provides a verifiable origin for the emergence of various network characteristics in social networks, but bridges the micro individuals' behaviors and the global organization of social networks.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Yong(李永); SONG; Jian(宋健); ZHANG; Zhimin(张志民)
2002-01-01
FGM structure is defined as a kind of generalized equivalent structure according to the structure and properties of materials. This paper uses the mature plate theory and the composite material laminate theory in the analysis of FGM structure and thus puts forward a kind of new concept and a new idea. A brand-new theory, the generalized equivalent antisymmetry bending theory, which can be used to analyze the structure and properties of FGM, is formed. In addition, the correctness, reliability and foresightedness of the theory are testified through concrete analysis and calculation of the applicable FGM structure by utilizing the generalized double Fourier series solution on one hand; on the other hand, it is compared with the existing theories and experiments.
Generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy-- Theory and applications in analytical field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DOU; Xiaoming; YUAN; Bo; ZHAO; Haiying; YIN; Guangzhong; Y
2004-01-01
Since the theory of generalized two-dimensional (2-D) correlation spectroscopy was proposed, it has been keenly concerned in scientific research and its analytical method has been widely applied in various analytical fields. The mathematical process to construct generalized 2-D correlation spectroscopy and the physical meaning of 2-D correlation spectral map are described, and three examples in the fields of chemical analysis and molecular biology are provided, such as the component analysis of organic solvent, the analysis of biological molecules in the solvent with different pH values and structural analysis of protein. The theory and analytical method of generalized 2-D correlation spectroscopy are also detailedly commented.
General Form of Dilaton Gravity and Nonlinear Gauge Theory
Ikeda, Noriaki; -I, Izawa K.
1993-01-01
We construct a gauge theory based on general nonlinear Lie algebras. The generic form of `dilaton' gravity is derived from nonlinear Poincar{\\' e} algebra, which exhibits a gauge-theoretical origin of the non-geometric scalar field in two-dimensional gravitation theory.
General Applied Theory of Micropolar thin Elastic Shells
Sargsyan S.H.
2011-01-01
In the present paper on the basis of asymptotically confirmed hypotheses method, depending on the values of physical size-less parameters, there are constructed general applied two-dimensional theories of micropolar shells with independent rotation, constraint rotation, and with “small shift rigidity”. Transverse shift and related deformation are completely taken into account in constructing the mentioned theories.
Why and How to overcome General Equilibrium Theory
Glötzl, Erhard
2015-01-01
For more than 100 years economists have tried to describe economics in analogy to physics, more precisely to classical Newtonian mechanics. The development of the Neoclassical General Equilibrium Theory has to be understood as the result of these efforts. But there are many reasons why General Equilibrium Theory is inadequate: 1. No true dynamics. 2. The assumption of the existence of utility functions and the possibility to aggregate them to one “Master” utility function. 3. The impossibilit...
A QCD Model Using Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; KOU Li-Na
2007-01-01
Generalized Yang-Mills theory has a covariant derivative,which contains both vector and scalar gauge bosons.Based on this theory,we construct a strong interaction model by using the group U(4).By using this U(4)generalized Yang-Mills model,we also obtain a gauge potential solution,which can be used to explain the asymptotic behavior and color confinement.
Behavior, Organization, Substance: Three Gestalts of General Systems Theory
De Florio, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
The term gestalt, when used in the context of general systems theory, assumes the value of "systemic touchstone", namely a figure of reference used to categorize the properties or qualities of a set of systems. Typical gestalts used in biology are those based on anatomical or physiological characteristics, which correspond respectively to architectural and organizational design choices in natural and artificial systems. In this paper we discuss three gestalts of general systems theory: behavi...
Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vuksanović Đorđe M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.
Quantising general relativity using QED theory, an overview and extension
Bell, Sarah B. M.
2004-01-01
We summarise and discuss some of our previous results, which show that Bohr's theory of the one-electron atom may be derived from the theory underpinning Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) or vice versa, and that General Relativity may also be derived from QED theory in the classical limit, if we use Newtonian mechanics in the right frame and self-similar tesseral hierarchies. We circumvent Newton's arguments against Descartes' vortex theory to show that the inverse square law for a force combined...
Quantum mechanical generalization of the balistic electron wind theory
Lacina, A.
1980-06-01
The Fiks' quasiclassical theory of the electron wind force is quantum mechanically generalized. Within the framework of this generalization the space dependence of the electron wind force is calculated in the vicinity of an interface between two media. It is found that quantum corrections may be comparable with or even greater than corresponding quasiclassical values.
Othman, Mohamed I. A.; Said, Samia M.
2012-06-01
The present paper is concerned with effect of mechanical force on generalized thermoelasticity in a fiber-reinforcement. The formulation is applied to generalized thermoelasticity based on the coupled theory, Lord-Shulman theory, and Green-Lindsay theory. The analytical expression of the displacement components, stresses, and temperature are obtained in the physical domain and illustrated graphically using normal mode analysis. Comparisons are made among the three theories for the field quantities in the absence and in the presence of a fiber-reinforcement as well as for different values of mechanical force.
Theory of generalized tautology in revised Kleene system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU; Hongbo
2001-01-01
Karman, Th., Zur theorie der spanungszustnde in plastischen und sandartigen medion, Nachr. Gesellsch. Wissensch., Gttingen, 1909.［17］Szczepinski, W., Introduction to the Mechanics of Plastic Forming of Metals, Netherlands: Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1979.［18］Chen, W. F., Limit Analysis and Soil Plasticity, New York: Elsevier, 1975.［19］Yu, M. H., He, L. N., A new model and theory on yield and failure of materials under complex stress state, Mechanical Behaviors of Materials～6, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991, 3: 841—846.［20］Yu, M. H., New System of Strength Theory (in Chinese), Xi'an: Xi'an Jiaotong Universitry Press, 1992.［21］Yu, M. H., He, L. N., Song, L. Y., Twin shear stress theory and its generalization, Scientia Sinica (Science in China), Series A, 1985, 28(11): 1174—1183.［22］Yu, M. H., Yang, S. Y. et al., Unified elasto-plastic associated and non-associated constitutive model and its engineering applications, Computers and Structures, 1999, 71: 627—636.［23］Ma, G. W., Shoji, I., Plastic limit analysis of circular plates with respect to unified yield criterion, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1998, 40(10): 963.［24］Ma, G. W., Hao, H., Unified plastic limit analyses of circular plates under arbitrary load, Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, 1999, 66(2): 568.［25］Qiang, H. F., Lu, N., Liu, B. J., Unified solutions of crack tip plastic zone under small scale yielding, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 35(1): 34—38.［26］Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., Constitutive descriptions of multiphase poropus media, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(1):11—24.［27］Yang, S. Y., Yu, M. H., An elasto-plastic damage model for saturated and unsaturated geomaterials, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2000, 32(2): 198—206.［28］Cheng, H. X., Li, J. J., Zhang, G. S. et al., Finite element analysis program system HAJIF(X), Chinese Journal of
No-Go Theorems for Generalized Chameleon Field Theories
Wang, Junpu; Khoury, Justin
2012-01-01
The chameleon, or generalizations thereof, is a light scalar that couple to matter with gravitational strength, but whose manifestation depends on the ambient matter density. A key feature is that the screening mechanism suppressing its effects in high-density environments is determined by the local scalar field value. Under very general conditions, we prove two theorems limiting its cosmological impact: i) the Compton wavelength of such a scalar can be at most Mpc at present cosmic density, which restricts its impact to non-linear scales; ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time, which precludes the possibility of self-acceleration. These results imply that chameleon-like scalar fields have a negligible effect on the linear-scale growth history; theories that invoke a chameleon-like scalar to explain cosmic acceleration rely on a form of dark energy rather than a genuine modified gravity effect. Our analysis applies to a broa...
Hyperbolicity of physical theories with application to general relativity
Hilditch, David; Richter, Ronny
2016-08-01
We consider gauge theories from the free evolution point of view, in which initial data satisfying constraints of a theory are given, and because the constraints satisfy a closed evolution system, they remain so. We study a model constrained Hamiltonian theory and identify a particular structure in the equations of motion which we call the standard gauge freedom. The pure gauge subsystem of this model theory is identified, and the manner in which the gauge variables couple to the field equations is presented. We demonstrate that the set of gauge choices that can be coupled to the field equations to obtain a strongly hyperbolic formulation is exactly the set of strongly hyperbolic pure gauges. Consequently we analyze a parametrized family of formulations of general relativity. The generalization of the harmonic gauge formulation to a five parameter family of gauge conditions is obtained.
General theory of light propagation and imaging through the atmosphere
McKechnie, T Stewart
2016-01-01
This book lays out a new, general theory of light propagation and imaging through Earth’s turbulent atmosphere. Current theory is based on the – now widely doubted – assumption of Kolmogorov turbulence. The new theory is based on a generalized atmosphere, the turbulence characteristics of which can be established, as needed, from readily measurable properties of point-object, or star, images. The pessimistic resolution predictions of Kolmogorov theory led to lax optical tolerance prescriptions for large ground-based astronomical telescopes which were widely adhered to in the 1970s and 1980s. Around 1990, however, it became clear that much better resolution was actually possible, and Kolmogorov tolerance prescriptions were promptly abandoned. Most large telescopes built before 1990 have had their optics upgraded (e.g., the UKIRT instrument) and now achieve, without adaptive optics (AO), almost an order of magnitude better resolution than before. As well as providing a more comprehensive and precise under...
An extended Coleman-Noll procedure for generalized continuum theories
Hütter, Geralf
2016-11-01
Within rational continuum mechanics, the Coleman-Noll procedure is established to derive requirements to constitutive equations. Aiming in particular at generalized continuum theories, the present contribution demonstrates how this procedure can be extended to yield additionally the underlying balance equations of stress-type quantities. This is demonstrated for micromorphic and strain gradient media as well as for the microforce theory. The relation between the extended Coleman-Noll procedure and the method of virtual powers is pointed out.
Chiral perturbation theory for nucleon generalized parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik]|[Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Schaefer, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik
2006-08-15
We analyze the moments of the isosinglet generalized parton distributions H, E, H, E of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We discuss in detail the construction of the operators in the effective theory that are required to obtain all corrections to a given order in the chiral power counting. The results will serve to improve the extrapolation of lattice results to the chiral limit. (orig.)
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized $\\Gamma $ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on...
The global formulation of generalized Einstein-Scalar-Maxwell theories
Lazaroiu, C
2016-01-01
We summarize the global geometric formulation of Einstein-Scalar-Maxwell theories twisted by flat symplectic vector bundle which encodes the duality structure of the theory. We describe the scalar-electromagnetic symmetry group of such models, which consists of flat unbased symplectic automorphisms of the flat symplectic vector bundle lifting those isometries of the scalar manifold which preserve the scalar potential. The Dirac quantization condition for such models involves a local system of integral symplectic spaces, giving rise to a bundle of polarized Abelian varieties equipped with a symplectic flat connection, which is defined over the scalar manifold of the theory. Generalized Einstein-Scalar-Maxwell models arise as the bosonic sector of the effective theory of string/M-theory compactifications to four-dimensions, and they are characterized by having non-trivial solutions of "U-fold" type.
General Relativistic Mean Field Theory for rotating nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madokoro, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, Masayuki
1998-03-01
The {sigma}-{omega} model Lagrangian is generalized to an accelerated frame by using the technique of general relativity which is known as tetrad formalism. We apply this model to the description of rotating nuclei within the mean field approximation, which we call General Relativistic Mean Field Theory (GRMFT) for rotating nuclei. The resulting equations of motion coincide with those of Munich group whose formulation was not based on the general relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields. Some numerical results are shown for the yrast states of the Mg isotopes and the superdeformed rotational bands in the A {approx} 60 mass region. (author)
Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamic in Modified Teleparallel Theory
Zubair, M
2016-01-01
This study is conducted to examine the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) in modified teleparallel gravity involving coupling between a scalar field with the torsion scalar and a boundary term. This theory is very useful since it can reproduce other well-known theories in suitable limits. The power law solution is employed to develop the constraints on coupling parameters for different theories of gravity in the background of thermodynamics properties for all potentials. We have also considered the logarithmic entropy corrected relation and discuss the GSLT both on apparent and event horizons. In case of entropy correction, we have constrained the coupling parameters for quartic and inverse potentials.
Generally covariant quantum field theory and scaling limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formulation of a generally covariant quantum field theory is described. It demands the elimination of global features and a characterization of the theory in terms of the allowed germs of families of states. A simple application is the computation of counting rates of accelerated idealized detectors. As a first orientation we discuss here the consequences of the assumption that the states have a short distance scaling limit. The scaling limit at a point gives a reduction of the theory to tangent space. It contains kinematical information but not the full dynamical laws. The reduced theory will, under rather general conditions, be invariant under translations and under a proper subgroup of the linear transformations in tangent space. One interesting possibility is that it is invariant under SLR(4). Then the macroscopic metric must evolve as a cooperative effect in finite size regions. The other natural possibility is that each family (coherent folium) of states defines a microscopic metric by the scaling limit and the tangent space theory reduces to a theory of free massless fields in a Minkowski space. Irrespective of the assumption of a scaling limit we show that the theory can be constructed from strictly local information. (orig.)
The Hamilton-Jacobi Theory, Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity
Sidharth, B G
2005-01-01
The Hamilton-Jacobi theory of Classical Mechanics can be extended in a novel manner to systems which are fuzzy in the sense that they can be represented by wave functions. A constructive interference of the phases of the wave functions then gives us back Classical systems. In a suitable description this includes both Quantum Theory and General Relativity in the well known superspace formulation. However, there are several nuances which provide insight into these latter systems. All this is considered in this paper together with suitable generalization, to cascades of super universes.
GENERAL RELIABILITY THEORY STUDY ON SEMI-FLEXIBLE OUTPUT TYPE AND REPAIRABLE PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马云东; 高宏伟
1996-01-01
This paper puts forward the conceptions of semi-flexible units and semi-flexible system, and builds up the theory of semi-flexible output type and repairable production system general reliability analysis and general reliability design, which discusses the reliability problems of semi-flexible units and semi-flexible system from three aspects of time, task and capacity.
Report on the second SEMAT workshop on general theory of software engineering (GTSE 2013)
Johnson, Pontus; Ralph, Paul; Goedicke, Michael; Ng, Pan-Wei; Stol, Klaas-Jan; Smolander, Kari; Exman, Iaakov; Perry, Dewayne E.
2013-01-01
peer-reviewed Software engineering needs a general theory, i.e., a theory that applies across the field and unifies existing empirical and theoretical work. General theories are common in other domains, such as physics. While many software engineering theories exist, no general theory of software engineering is evident. Consequently, this report reviews the emerging consensus on a general theory in software engineering from the Second SEMAT General Theory of Software E...
Mathematical theory of sedimentation analysis
Fujita, Hiroshi; Van Rysselberghe, P
1962-01-01
Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis presents the flow equations for the ultracentrifuge. This book is organized into two parts encompassing six chapters that evaluate the systems of reacting components, the differential equations for the ultracentrifuge, and the case of negligible diffusion. The first chapters consider the Archibald method for molecular weight determination; pressure-dependent sedimentation; expressions for the refractive index and its gradient; relation between refractive index and concentration; and the analysis of Gaussian distribution. Other chapters deal with th
Generalized non-linear strength theory and transformed stress space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
［1］Yu, M. H., Song, L. Y., Generalization of twin shear stress criterion, Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese), 1983, 17(3): 65-69.［2］Yu, M. H., He, L. N., Song, L. Y., Twin shear stress strength theory and its generalization, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. A, 1985, 28(12): 1113-1120.［3］Yu, M. H., Twin Shear Stress Strength Theory and Its Application (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1998, 60-63.［4］Yu, M. H., He, L. N., A new model and theory on yield and failure of materials under the complex stress state, Mechanical Behavior of Materials-6, London: Pergamon Press, 1991, 3: 841-846.［5］Yu, M. H., He, L. N., Liu, C. Y., Generalized twin shear stress criterion and its generalization, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1992, 37(2): 182-185.［6］Yu, M. H., Unified strength theory for geomaterials and its applications, Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (in Chinese), 1994, 16(2): 1-10.［7］Matsuoka, H., Nakai, T., Stress deformation and strength characteristics of soil under three different principal stresses, Proc. of JSCE, 1974, 232: 59-70.［8］Lade, P. V., Duncan, J. M., Elastoplastic stress-strain theory for cohesionless soil, J. Geotech. Eng. Div., ASCE, 1975, 101(10): 1037-1053.［9］Chowdhury, E. Q., Nakai T., Consequences of the tij-concept and a new modeling approach, Computers and Geotechnics, 1998, 23: 131-164.［10］Pivonka, P., Lackner, R., Mang, H. A., Shapes of loading surfaces of concrete models and their influence on the peak load and failure mode in structural analyses, Int. J. Eng. Sci., 2003, 41: 1649-1665.［11］Aubertin, A., Li, L., Simon, R. A., Multiaxial stress criterion for short-and long-term strength of isotropic rock media, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 2000, 37(8): 1169-1193.［12］Yao, Y. P., Sun, D. A., Application of Lade's criterion to Cam-clay model, ASCE, J. Engrg. Mech., 2000, 126(1): 112-119.［13］Yao, Y. P., Sun, D. A., Application of Lade's criterion to Cam
An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.
Matthews, Charles O.
1992-01-01
Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)
Towards a General Theory of Bilingual Legal Lexicography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Sandro
2003-01-01
As the need for intercultural communication in the field of law has increased, the foundation of a general theory of bilingual legal lexicography must be given priority. This paper introduces, describes and explains the elements necessary for compiling the optimal bilingual law dictionary...
Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Subenoy Chakraborty; Batul Chandra Santra; Nabajit Chakravarty
2003-10-01
In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous ﬂuid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been studied and some assumptions among the physical parameters and solutions have been discussed.
Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating
Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul
2010-01-01
Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…
Eu, Byung Chan
2016-01-01
This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on relativistic theories, it provides a comprehensive picture of the kinetic theory formulated from the viewpoint of nonequilibrium ensembles in both nonrelativistic and, in Vol. 2, relativistic contexts. Theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids) on the basis of irreversible kinetic equations satisfying the H theorem. They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respe...
Theory of generalized tautology in revised Kleene system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper is a complement and extension of the theory of generalized tautology which was first proposed by Wang Guojun in revised Kleene system, Some interesting results are obtained: (i) accessible α+-tautology and generalized contradiction which are dual theory to generalized tautology have been introduced; (ii) congruence partition about has been given in logic system , W, Wk; (iii) in logic system Wk, tautologies can be obtained by employing the upgrade algorithm at most (k+1)/(2) times to an arbitrary formula; (iv) in logic system (W), tautologies cannot be obtained by employing upgrade algorithm to non-tautologies within finitely many times; (v) the deduction rule (1)/(2)+-MP holds in logic system (W).
Dynamical Gravitational Coupling as a Modified Theory of General Relativity
Finster, Felix
2016-01-01
A modified theory of general relativity is proposed, where the gravitational constant is replaced by a dynamical variable in space-time. The dynamics of the gravitational coupling is described by a family of parametrized null geodesics, implying that the gravitational coupling at a space-time point is determined by solving transport equations along all null geodesics through this point. General relativity with dynamical gravitational coupling (DGC) is introduced. We motivate DGC from general considerations and explain how it arises in the context of causal fermion systems. The underlying physical idea is that the gravitational coupling is determined by microscopic structures on the Planck scale which propagate with the speed of light. In order to clarify the mathematical structure, we analyze the conformal behavior and prove local existence and uniqueness of the time evolution. The differences to Einstein's theory are worked out in the examples of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model and the spherically symme...
On a Geometric Theory of Generalized Chiral Elasticity with Discontinuities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we develop, in a somewhat extensive manner, a geometric theory of chiral elasticity which in general is endowed with geometric discontinuities (sometimes referred to as defects. By itself, the present theory generalizes both Cosserat and void elasticity theories to a certain extent via geometrization as well as by taking intoaccount the action of the electromagnetic field, i.e., the incorporation of the electromagnetic field into the description of the so-called microspin (chirality also forms the underlying structure of this work. As we know, the description of the electromagnetic field as a unified phenomenon requires four-dimensional space-time rather than three-dimensional space as its background. For this reason we embed the three-dimensional material space in four-dimensional space-time. This way, the electromagnetic spin is coupled to the non-electromagnetic microspin, both being parts of the completemicrospin to be added to the macrospin in the full description of vorticity. In short, our objective is to generalize the existing continuum theories by especially describing microspin phenomena in a fully geometric way.
On a Geometric Theory of Generalized Chiral Elasticity with Discontinuities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we develop, in a somewhat extensive manner, a geometric theory of chiral elasticity which in general is endowed with geometric discontinuities (sometimes re- ferred to as defects . By itself, the present theory generalizes both Cosserat and void elasticity theories to a certain extent via geometrization as well as by taking into ac- count the action of the electromagnetic field, i.e., the incorporation of the electromag- netic field into the description of the so-called microspin ( chirality also forms the un- derlying structure of this work. As we know, the description of the electromagnetic field as a unified phenomenon requires four-dimensional space-time rather than three- dimensional space as its background. For this reason we embed the three-dimensional material space in four-dimensional space-time. This way, the electromagnetic spin is coupled to the non-electromagnetic microspin, both being parts of the complete mi- crospin to be added to the macrospin in the full description of vorticity. In short, our objective is to generalize the existing continuum theories by especially describing mi- crospin phenomena in a fully geometric way.
Gravitation experiments at Stanford. [using general relativity theory
Lipa, J. A.
1980-01-01
The experimental situation in post-Newtonian gravitation is briefly reviewed in order to reexamine the extent to which experiment supports or refutes general relativity. A description is given of the equivalence principle project, the gyroscope experiment, and the search for gravity waves. It is noted that even though some doubt has been cast on the value of the perihelion advance and the gravitational redshift as precise tests of general relativity in the past few years, many competing theories have been ruled out; in particular, the results from the Viking mission significantly reduce the credibility of the Brans-Dicke theory (Brans and Dicke, 1961). The dimensionless constant omega in this theory is now forced to exceed 50, while the value originally proposed was 6 (omega being infinity in general relativity). It is noted that the gyro experiment described is capable of putting much tighter limits on this parameter, and together with the other experiments in progress will help place gravitational theory on a firmer experimental footing.
GENERALIZED LANDSCAPE THEORY: AGENT-BASED APPROACH TO ALLIANCE FORMATIONS IN CIVIL AVIATION INDUSTRY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kyoichi Kijima
2001-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to generalize Landscape theory proposed by R.Axelrod and, then, to apply it to the civil aviation industry for simulating alliance formations in it. Landscape theory provides a well-known agent-based simulation model for analyzing alliance (or coalition) formation process. When a set N of agents or autonomous decision makers is given, the theory assumes that each agent tries to make a coalition in such a way that the resulting alliance minimizes its frustration. The theory is essentially based on two premises. One is that a propensity is symmetric,i.e., the propensity of agent i toward j is exactly the same as that of j toward i for anyagents i and j in N. The other is that the number of alliances is restricted to two, i.e., at any moment N is partitioned into two parties. Though the two basic premises underpin the theory and make the model simple and operational, they do not always reflect alliance formation processes in a realistic way. A generalized Landscape theory that this paper proposes removes them and allows asymmetric propensity and existence of alliances of any number. Since the premises are essential for the model, the generalization requires a drastic reconstruction of the whole idea of the theory. Finally, we analyze a real alliance formation process in the civil aviation industry.This analysis provides interesting insights about the industry as well as some validation of our generalized Landscape theory.
Density functional theory generalized to degenerate excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper it is shown that the density functional theory can be generalized to systems with degenerate excited states. There is a one-to-one map between the subspace, spanned by the ground state and any one of the first degenerate excited states, and the sum of their densities. But only a one way correspondence exists between external potential and subspace, as well as between external potential and the sum of densities. The extension of the Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham theory for degenerate excited states has also been developed. (author)
General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)
Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)
2016-01-01
This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.
Unitary theories in the work of Mira Fernandes (beyond general relativity and differential geometry)
Lemos, José P S
2010-01-01
An analysis of the work of Mira Fernandes on unitary theories is presented. First it is briefly mentioned the Portuguese scientific context of the 1920s. A short analysis of the extension of Riemann geometries to new generalized geometries with new affine connections, such as those of Weyl and Cartan, is given. Based on these new geometries, the unitary theories of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, proposed by Weyl, Eddington, Einstein, and others are then explained. Finally, the book and one paper on connections and two papers on unitary theories, all written by Mira Fernandes, are analyzed and put in context.
Generalized analysis of molecular variance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caroline M Nievergelt
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Many studies in the fields of genetic epidemiology and applied population genetics are predicated on, or require, an assessment of the genetic background diversity of the individuals chosen for study. A number of strategies have been developed for assessing genetic background diversity. These strategies typically focus on genotype data collected on the individuals in the study, based on a panel of DNA markers. However, many of these strategies are either rooted in cluster analysis techniques, and hence suffer from problems inherent to the assignment of the biological and statistical meaning to resulting clusters, or have formulations that do not permit easy and intuitive extensions. We describe a very general approach to the problem of assessing genetic background diversity that extends the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA strategy introduced by Excoffier and colleagues some time ago. As in the original AMOVA strategy, the proposed approach, termed generalized AMOVA (GAMOVA, requires a genetic similarity matrix constructed from the allelic profiles of individuals under study and/or allele frequency summaries of the populations from which the individuals have been sampled. The proposed strategy can be used to either estimate the fraction of genetic variation explained by grouping factors such as country of origin, race, or ethnicity, or to quantify the strength of the relationship of the observed genetic background variation to quantitative measures collected on the subjects, such as blood pressure levels or anthropometric measures. Since the formulation of our test statistic is rooted in multivariate linear models, sets of variables can be related to genetic background in multiple regression-like contexts. GAMOVA can also be used to complement graphical representations of genetic diversity such as tree diagrams (dendrograms or heatmaps. We examine features, advantages, and power of the proposed procedure and showcase its flexibility by
General theories for the electrical transport properties of carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, L T; Nanda, K K, E-mail: nanda@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)
2011-08-05
We have shown that the general theories of metals and semiconductors can be employed to understand the diameter and voltage dependency of current through metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes, respectively. The current through a semiconducting multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is associated with the energy gap that is different for different shells. The contribution of the outermost shell is larger as compared to the inner shells. The general theories can also explain the diameter dependency of maximum current through nanotubes. We have also compared the current carrying ability of a MWCNT and an array of the same diameter of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and found that MWCNTs are better suited and deserve further investigation for possible applications as interconnects.
A General Theory of Markovian Time Inconsistent Stochastic Control Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Björk, Tomas; Murgochi, Agatha
We develop a theory for stochastic control problems which, in various ways, are time inconsistent in the sense that they do not admit a Bellman optimality principle. We attach these problems by viewing them within a game theoretic framework, and we look for Nash subgame perfect equilibrium points...... examples of time inconsistency in the literature are easily seen to be special cases of the present theory. We also prove that for every time inconsistent problem, there exists an associated time consistent problem such that the optimal control and the optimal value function for the consistent problem....... For a general controlled Markov process and a fairly general objective functional we derive an extension of the standard Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, in the form of a system of on-linear equations, for the determination for the equilibrium strategy as well as the equilibrium value function. All known...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lutsenko Y. V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article briefly reviews the classical concept of functional dependence in mathematics, determines the limitations of this concept for adequate modeling of reality and formulates the problem, consisting in search of such generalization of the concept of func-tions, which is more suitable for the adequate reflec-tion of causal relationships in the real domain. Also, it discusses theoretical and practical solving the prob-lem, consisting in: (a we suggest the universal method of calculating the amount of information in the value of argument about the meaning of the function, i.e. cognitive functions which is independent from the subject area; b we offer software tools: Eidos intelli-gent system, allowing in practice to carry out these calculations, i.e. to build cognitive functions based on a fragmented noisy empirical data of high dimension. We also offer the concepts of nonreducing, partially and completely reduced direct and inverse, positive and negative cognitive functions and the method of formation of reduced cognitive function, which is a generalization of known weighted least-squares meth-od on the basis of observation the amount of infor-mation in the values of the argument about the values of the functions accounting
A Possible Modification of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Shang-Wu
2004-01-01
This article suggests a new metric theory of gravitation, in which metric field is determined not only by matter and nongravitational field but also by vector graviton field, and in principle there is no need to introduce the Einstein's tensor. In order to satisfy automatically the geodesic postulate, an additional coordinate condition is needed.For the spherically symmetric static field, it leads us to quite different conclusions from those of Einstein's general relativity in the interior region of the surface of infinite redshift. Accurate to the first order of GM/r, it obtains the same results about the four experimental tests of general relativity.
Unification of General Relativity with Quantum Field Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NI Jun
2011-01-01
In the frame of quantum field theory, instead of using the action principle, we deduce the Einstein equation from purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime. The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation. Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum. In the action of quantum field theory, only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.%In the frame of quantum field theory,instead of using the action principle,we deduce the Einstein equation trom purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime.The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation.Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum.In the action of quantum field theory,only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.An unified physical theory of all interactions is a long pursued goal for physicists.The unification of electricity and magnetism by Maxwell was a great step in this direction.It is believed that in nature,there are four types of fundamental interactions:the electromagnetic interaction,weak interaction,strong interaction and gravity.Now the electromagnetic,weak and strong interactions are unified using the so-called standard model,[1] based on the Yang-Mills gauge field theory.[2] However,researchers are still not be able to unify gravitation with the other three interactions.
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-Li
2016-01-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic v...
Ultraviolet Fixed Points in Conformal Gravity and General Quadratic Theories
Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Percacci, Roberto
2015-01-01
We study the beta functions for four-dimensional conformal gravity using two different parametrizations of metric fluctuation, linear split and exponential parametrization. We find that after imposing the traceless conditions, the beta functions are the same in four dimensions though the dependence on the dimensions are quite different. This indicates the universality of these results. We also examine the beta functions in general quadratic theory with the Einstein and cosmological terms for ...
Generalized Poisson processes in quantum mechanics and field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Faculte des Sciences de Luminy); Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Sirugue, M.; Sirugue-Collin, M.
1981-11-01
In section 2 we describe more carefully the generalized Poisson processes, giving a realization of the underlying probability space, and we characterize these processes by their characteristic functionals. Section 3 is devoted to the proof of the previous formula for quantum mechanical systems, with possibly velocity dependent potentials and in section 4 we give an application of the previous theory to some relativistic Bose field models.
Renormalization in general theories with inter-generation mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Sirlin, Alberto [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
2011-11-15
We derive general and explicit expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of fermions in parity-nonconserving theories with inter-generation mixing. The mass eigenvalues, the corresponding mass counterterms, and the effect of inter-generation mixing on their determination are discussed. Invoking the Aoki-Hioki-Kawabe-Konuma-Muta renormalization conditions and employing a number of very useful relations from Matrix Algebra, we show explicitly that the renormalized dressed propagators satisfy important physical properties. (orig.)
Gallo, Emanuel
2016-01-01
We present a general approach for the formulation of equations of motion for compact objects in general relativistic theories. The particle is assumed to be moving in a geometric background which in turn is asymptotically flat. By construction, the model incorporates the back reaction due to gravitational radiation generated by the motion of the particle. Our approach differs from other constructions tackling the same kind of problem.
Theory of Nonlocal Point Transformations in General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Tessarotto
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A discussion of the functional setting customarily adopted in General Relativity (GR is proposed. This is based on the introduction of the notion of nonlocal point transformations (NLPTs. While allowing the extension of the traditional concept of GR-reference frame, NLPTs are important because they permit the explicit determination of the map between intrinsically different and generally curved space-times expressed in arbitrary coordinate systems. For this purpose in the paper the mathematical foundations of NLPT-theory are laid down and basic physical implications are considered. In particular, explicit applications of the theory are proposed, which concern (1 a solution to the so-called Einstein teleparallel problem in the framework of NLPT-theory; (2 the determination of the tensor transformation laws holding for the acceleration 4-tensor with respect to the group of NLPTs and the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely, the relationship established via general NLPT between particle 4-acceleration tensors existing in different curved space-times; (3 the construction of the nonlocal transformation law connecting different diagonal metric tensors solution to the Einstein field equations; and (4 the diagonalization of nondiagonal metric tensors.
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-07-01
Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the Adler-Bardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the tree-level action, it is always possible to re-renormalize the divergences and re-fine-tune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized Γ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized Γ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on the gauge-fixing parameters, although the physical quantities remain gauge independent. We discuss nontrivial checks of high-order calculations based on gauge independence and determine how powerful they are.
Smalley, L. L.
1983-01-01
The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.
A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories
Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G; Noller, Johannes
2016-01-01
We present a method for parametrizing linear cosmological perturbations of theories of gravity, around homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds. The method is sufficiently general and systematic that it can be applied to theories with any degrees of freedom (DoFs) and arbitrary gauge symmetries. In this paper, we focus on scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, invariant under linear coordinate transformations. In the case of scalar-tensor theories, we use our framework to recover the simple parametrizations of linearized Horndeski and "Beyond Horndeski" theories, and also find higher-derivative corrections. In the case of vector-tensor theories, we first construct the most general quadratic action for perturbations that leads to second-order equations of motion, which propagates two scalar DoFs. Then we specialize to the case in which the vector field is time-like (\\`a la Einstein-Aether gravity), where the theory only propagates one scalar DoF. As a result, we identify the complete forms of the quadratic act...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Huan-Wu
2005-01-01
Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun.Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004)703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h as well as Boltzmann's kB by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.
Cook, Desmond L.
This document, one of a series of reports examining the possible contribution of other disciplines to evaluation methodology, describes the major elements of general systems theory (GST), cybernetics theory (CT) and management control theory (MCT). The author suggests that MCT encapsulates major concerns of evaluation since it reveals that…
General Strain Theory and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents.
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle
2013-01-01
Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected. PMID:23826511
Generalized cable theory for neurons in complex and heterogeneous media.
Bédard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain
2013-08-01
Cable theory has been developed over the last decade, usually assuming that the extracellular space around membranes is a perfect resistor. However, extracellular media may display more complex electrical properties due to various phenomena, such as polarization, ionic diffusion, or capacitive effects, but their impact on cable properties is not known. In this paper, we generalize cable theory for membranes embedded in arbitrarily complex extracellular media. We outline the generalized cable equations, then consider specific cases. The simplest case is a resistive medium, in which case the equations recover the traditional cable equations. We show that for more complex media, for example, in the presence of ionic diffusion, the impact on cable properties such as voltage attenuation can be significant. We illustrate this numerically, always by comparing the generalized cable to the traditional cable. We conclude that the nature of intracellular and extracellular media may have a strong influence on cable filtering as well as on the passive integrative properties of neurons.
Generalized non-linear strength theory and transformed stress space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO Yangping; LU Dechun; ZHOU Annan; ZOU Bo
2004-01-01
Based on the test data of frictional materials and previous research achievements in this field, a generalized non-linear strength theory (GNST) is proposed. It describes non-linear strength properties on the π-plane and the meridian plane using a unified formula, and it includes almost all the present non-linear strength theories, which can be used in just one material. The shape of failure function of the GNST is a smooth curve between the SMP criterion and the Mises criterion on the π-plane, and an exponential curve on the meridian plane. Through the transformed stress space based on the GNST, the combination of the GNST and various constitutive models using p and q as stress parameters can be realized simply and rationally in three-dimensional stress state.
Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malterud, Kirsti
2016-01-01
positions. Basic theoretical features from the philosophy of science explain why and how this is different from positivism. Reflexivity, including theoretical awareness and consistency, demonstrates interpretative assumptions, accounting for situated knowledge. Different types of theoretical commitment...... of the interpretative paradigm. Associations between paradigms, philosophies, methodologies and methods are examined and different strategies for theoretical commitment presented. Finally, I discuss the impact of theory for interpretation and the development of general practice knowledge. Main points: A scientific...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...
Quantum mechanics in general quantum systems (II): Perturbation theory
Wang, A M
2006-01-01
We propose an improved scheme of perturbation theory based on our exact solution [See: An Min Wang, quant-ph/0611217] in general quantum systems independent of time. Our elementary start-point is to introduce the perturbing parameter as late as possible. Our main skills are Hamiltonian redivision so as to overcome a flaw of the usual perturbation theory, and the perturbing Hamiltonian matrix product decomposition in order to separate the contraction and anti-contraction terms. Our calculational technology is the limit process for eliminating apparent divergences. Our central idea is ``dynamical rearrangement and summation" for the sake of the partial contributions from the high order even all order approximations absorbed in our perturbed solution. Consequently, we obtain the improved forms of the zeroth, first, second and third order perturbed solutions absorbing the partial contributions from the high order even all order approximations of perturbation. Then we deduce the improved transition probability. In...
Unsteady compressible potential flow around lifting bodies - General theory.
Morino, L.
1973-01-01
The general theory of potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green's function method, an integral representation for the velocity potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. This representation reduces properly to the lifting surface theories as well as to other classical mathematical formulas. Under small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point P in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body. Hence, if the point P approaches the surface of the body, the representation reduces to an integrodifferential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body.
Nureev Rustem, M.
2016-01-01
The paper was prepared for the 80-th anniversary of publishing of John Maynard Keynes’ “General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money”. It discusses the stages of the economist’s life, the main books written prior to "The General Theory ...". Particular attention is devoted to the development issues of the monetary policy in the works of "Indian Currency and Finance", ”A Tract on Monetary Reform” and "A Treatise on Money". A special section is dedicated to the analysis of Keynes’ methodolo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kober, Martin
2010-07-01
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Generalized probabilistic theories and conic extensions of polytopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT) provide a general framework that includes classical and quantum theories. It is described by a cone C and its dual C*. We show that whether some one-way communication complexity problems can be solved within a GPT is equivalent to the recently introduced cone factorization of the corresponding communication matrix M. We also prove an analogue of Holevo's theorem: when the cone C is contained in Rn, the classical capacity of the channel realized by sending GPT states and measuring them is bounded by logn. Polytopes and optimising functions over polytopes arise in many areas of discrete mathematics. A conic extension of a polytope is the intersection of a cone C with an affine subspace whose projection onto the original space yields the desired polytope. Extensions of polytopes can sometimes be much simpler geometric objects than the polytope itself. The existence of a conic extension of a polytope is equivalent to that of a cone factorization of the slack matrix of the polytope, on the same cone. We show that all 0/1 polytopes whose vertices can be recognized by a polynomial size circuit, which includes as a special case the travelling salesman polytope and many other polytopes from combinatorial optimization, have small conic extension complexity when the cone is the completely positive cone. Using recent exponential lower bounds on the linear extension complexity of polytopes, this provides an exponential gap between the communication complexity of GPT based on the completely positive cone and classical communication complexity, and a conjectured exponential gap with quantum communication complexity. Our work thus relates the communication complexity of generalizations of quantum theory to questions of mainstream interest in the area of combinatorial optimization. (paper)
Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I
2012-01-01
"Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...
Branes from Moyal Deformation Quantization of Generalized Yang Mills Theories
Castro, C
1999-01-01
It is shown that a Moyal deformation quantization of the SO(4k) Generalized Yang-Mills (GYM) theory action in D=4k dimensions, for spacetime independent field configurations, in the $\\hbar \\to 0$ limit, yields the Dolan-Tchrakian p-brane action after fixing the conformal and world volume reparametrization invariance, associated with the p-brane world volume dimension p+1=4k, embedded in a D=4k target spacetime background. The gauge fields/target spacetime coordinates correspondence is required but no large N limit is necessary.
Study of Thermodynamic Quantities in Generalized Gravity Theories
Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Debnath, Ujjal; Bhattacharya, Samarpita
2011-01-01
In this work, we have studied the thermodynamic quantities like temperature of the universe, heat capacity and squared speed of sound in generalized gravity theories like Brans-Dicke, Ho$\\check{\\text r}$ava-Lifshitz and $f(R)$ gravities. We have considered the universe filled with dark matter and dark energy. Also we have considered the equation of state parameters for open, closed and flat models. We have observed that in all cases the equation of state behaves like quintessence. The tempera...
The two-loop renormalization of general quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis provides a general method to compute all first order corrections to the renormalization group equations. This requires the computation of the first perturbative corrections to the renormalization group β-functions. These corrections are described by Feynman diagrams with two loops. The two-loop renormalization is treated for an arbitrary renormalization field theory. Two cases are considered: 1. the Yukawa sector; 2. the gauge coupling and the scalar potential. In a final section, the breakdown of unitarity in the dimensional reduction scheme is discussed. (Auth.)
General Theory of Spontaneous Emission Near Exceptional Points
Pick, Adi; Miller, Owen D; Hsu, Chia W; Hernandez, Felipe; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Soljacic, Marin; Johnson, Steven G
2016-01-01
Exceptional points (EPs)---non-Hermitian degeneracies where both the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors coalesce---have recently been realized in various optical systems. Here we present a general theory of spontaneous emission near such degeneracies, where standard mode-expansion methods lead to erroneous divergent results. We show that significant (and finite) enhancements for light-matter interaction can occur in systems with gain, whereas in passive systems the enhancement is at most four-fold. Under special conditions, the emission spectral lineshape near the EP becomes a squared Lorentzian, and the enhancement scales quadratically with the resonance lifetime.
The trouble with psychopathy as a general theory of crime.
Walters, Glenn D
2004-04-01
The concept of psychopathy, as defined by Robert Hare, is reviewed with respect to its status as a general theory of crime. A hybrid of the medical pathology model and personality trait approach, the psychopathy concept proposes that a significant portion of serious crime is committed by psychopathic individuals. Hare's version of psychopathy, besides demonstrating weak applicability and a propensity for tautology, is subject to labeling effects, oversimplicity, reductionism, the fundamental attributional error, inattention to context, and disregard for the dynamic nature of human behavior. It is concluded that the psychopathy concept is substantially limited with respect to its ability to describe and clarify general criminal behavior but that it may still have value as a partial explanation for certain types of non-criminal predatory behavior.
General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.
2006-01-01
The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.
Application of Neutrosophic Set Theory in Generalized Assignment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Kar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Neutrosophic Set Theory (NST in solving Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP. GAP has been solved earlier under fuzzy environment. NST is a generalization of the concept of classical set, fuzzy set, interval-valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set. Elements of Neutrosophic set are characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity and also indeterminacy which is a more realistic way of expressing the parameters in real life problem. Here the elements of the cost matrix for the GAP are considered as neutrosophic elements which have not been considered earlier by any other author. The problem has been solved by evaluating score function matrix and then solving it by Extremum Difference Method (EDM [1] to get the optimal assignment. The method has been demonstrated by a suitable numerical example.
A new quantum theory of gravity in the framework of general relativity
Zhu, Chang-Yu; Fan, Heng
2009-01-01
Observed physical phenomena can be described well by quantum mechanics or general relativity. People may try to find an unified fundamental theory which mainly aims to merge gravity with quantum theory. However, difficulty in merging those theories self-consistently still exists, and no such theory is generally accepted. Here we try to propose a quantum theory with space and time in symmetrical positions in the framework of general relativity. In this theory, Dirac matter fields, gauge fields...
Generalized local frame transformation theory for Rydberg atoms in external fields
Giannakeas, P; Robicheaux, F
2016-01-01
A rigorous theoretical framework is developed for a generalized local frame transformation theory (GLFT). A first test application to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field demonstrates dramatic improvement over the first version of the local frame transformation theory developed initially by Fano and Harmin. This revised GLFT theory yields non-trivial corrections because it now includes the full on-shell Hilbert space without adopting the truncations in the original theory. Comparisons of the semi-analytical GLFT Stark spectra with {\\it ab initio} numerical simulations yields errors in the range of a few tens of MHz, an improvement over the original Fano-Harmin theory whose errors are 10-100 times larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet most modern experimental standards.
Barbosa-Cendejas, Nandinii; Kanakoglou, Konstantinos; Paschalis, Joannis E
2011-01-01
In this paper we recall a simple formulation of the stationary electrovacuum theory in terms of the famous complex Ernst potentials, a pair of functions which allows one to generate new exact solutions from known ones by means of the so-called nonlinear hidden symmetries of Lie-Backlund type. This formalism turned out to be very useful to perform a complete classification of all 4D solutions which present two spacetime symmetries or possess two Killing vectors. Curiously enough, the Ernst formalism can be extended and applied to stationary General Relativity as well as the effective heterotic string theory reduced down to three spatial dimensions by means of a (real) matrix generalization of the Ernst potentials. Thus, in this theory one can also make use of nonlinear matrix hidden symmetries in order to generate new exact solutions from seed ones. Due to the explicit independence of the matrix Ernst potential formalism of the original theory (prior to dimensional reduction) on the dimension D, in the case wh...
Einstein's general theory of relativity with modern applications in cosmology
Grøn, Øyvind
2007-01-01
Many of us have experienced the same; fallen and broken something. Yet supposedly, gravity is the weakest of the fundamental forces; it is claimed to be 10-15 times weaker than electromagnetism. Still, every one of us has more or less had a personal relationship with gravity. Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity: With Modern Applications in Cosmology by Oyvind Gron and Sigbjorn Hervik is about gravity and the concept of gravity as Albert Einstein saw it- curved spaces, four-dimensional manifolds and geodesics. The book starts with the 1st principals of relativity and an introduction to Einstein’s field equations. Next up are the three classical tests of the relativity theory and an introduction to black holes. The book contains several topics not found in other textbooks, such as Kaluza-Klein theory, anisotropic models of the universe, and new developments involving brane cosmology. Gron and Hervik have included a part in the book called "Advanced Topics." These topics range from the very edge of resea...
Study of Thermodynamic Quantities in Generalized Gravity Theories
Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Bhattacharya, Samarpita
2011-01-01
In this work, we have studied the thermodynamic quantities like temperature of the universe, heat capacity and squared speed of sound in generalized gravity theories like Brans-Dicke, Ho$\\check{\\text r}$ava-Lifshitz and $f(R)$ gravities. We have considered the universe filled with dark matter and dark energy. Also we have considered the equation of state parameters for open, closed and flat models. We have observed that in all cases the equation of state behaves like quintessence. The temperature and heat capacity of the universe are found to decrease with the expansion of the universe in all cases. In Brans-Dicke and $f(R)$ gravity theories the squared speed of sound is found to exhibit increasing behavior for open, closed and flat models and in Ho$\\check{\\text r}$ava-Lifshitz gravity theory it is found to exhibit decreasing behavior for open and closed models with the evolution of the universe. However, for flat universe, the squared speed of sound remains constant in Ho$\\check{\\text r}$ava-Lifshitz gravity...
Functional integration and gauge ambiguities in generalized abelian gauge theories
Kelnhofer, Gerald
2007-01-01
We consider the covariant quantization of generalized abelian gauge theories on a closed and compact n-dimensional manifold whose space of gauge invariant fields is the abelian group of Cheeger-Simons differential characters. The space of gauge fields is shown to be a non-trivial bundle over the orbits of the subgroup of smooth Cheeger-Simons differential characters. Furthermore each orbit itself has the structure of a bundle over a multi-dimensional torus. As a consequence there is a topological obstruction to the existence of a global gauge fixing condition. A functional integral measure is proposed on the space of gauge fields which takes this problem into account and provides a regularization of the gauge degrees of freedom. For the generalized p-form Maxwell theory closed expressions for all physical observables are obtained. The Greens functions are shown to be affected by the non-trivial bundle structure. Finally the vacuum expectation values of circle-valued homomorphisms, including the Wilson operato...
A generalized preimage theorem in global analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The concept of locally fine point and generalized regular valueof a C1 map between Banach spaces were carried over C1 map between Banach manifolds. Hence the preimage theorem, a principle constructing Banach manifolds in global analysis, is generalized.
Qin, Hong; Burby, J W; Chung, Moses
2015-01-01
The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parameterized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or an U(2) element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetr...
Slab waveguide theory for general multi-slot waveguide
Le, ZiChun; Yin, LiXiang; Zou, Yu; Wu, Xiang
2016-07-01
Optical devices based on slot waveguide are of considerable interest in numerous applications due to the distinct feature of strong electric field confinement in a low-refractive index region. A theoretical model based on multi-slab waveguide theory is used to reveal the physical mechanism of the slot waveguide. The calculation results derived from the basic Helmholtz equation for the conventional single-slot waveguide with a ~2% validation of the effective refractive index are compared to the former experiment results by the Cornell University group. Moreover, we extend the theoretical model to a general multi-slot waveguide. Its electric field distribution and key properties such as optical power confinement factor and enhancement factor in slot are deduced theoretically and fully discussed.
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-01-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to non-trivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling $G_{\\rm eff}$ with matter density perturbations under a quasi-static approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility ...
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2016-01-01
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g., the INMDF [O. Izacard, Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504 (2016)]). One of the main dif...
Cosmology in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of gravity
Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Yumei
2011-02-01
Horava and Melby-Thompson recently proposed a new version of the Horava-Lifshitz theory of gravity, in which the spin-0 graviton is eliminated by introducing a Newtonian prepotential φ and a local U(1) gauge field A. In this paper, we first derive the corresponding Hamiltonian, supermomentum constraints, the dynamical equations, and the equations for φ and A, in the presence of matter fields. Then, we apply the theory to cosmology and obtain the modified Friedmann equation and the conservation law of energy, in addition to the equations for φ and A. When the spatial curvature is different from zero, terms behaving like dark radiation and stiff-fluid exist, from which, among other possibilities, a bouncing universe can be constructed. We also study linear perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with any given spatial curvature k, and we derive the most general formulas for scalar perturbations. The vector and tensor perturbations are the same as those recently given by one of the present authors [A. Wang, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 82, 124063 (2010).] in the setup of Sotiriou, Visser, and Weinfurtner. Applying these formulas to the Minkowski background, we have shown explicitly that the scalar and vector perturbations of the metric indeed vanish, and the only remaining modes are the massless spin-2 gravitons.
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-08-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to nontrivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling Geff with matter density perturbations under a quasistatic approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility for reducing Geff. In fact, within the parameter space, Geff can be even smaller than the Newton gravitational constant G at the late cosmological epoch, with a peculiar phantom dark energy equation of state (without ghosts). The modifications to the slip parameter η and the evolution of the growth rate f σ8 are discussed as well. Thus, dark energy models in the framework of generalized Proca theories can be observationally distinguished from the Λ CDM model according to both cosmic growth and expansion history. Furthermore, we study the evolution of vector perturbations and show that outside the vector sound horizon the perturbations are nearly frozen and start to decay with oscillations after the horizon entry.
Huang, C; Zhou, B H
2016-01-01
This paper gives general intrinsic theory of general large $N_{c}$ QCD, SU(3) QCD, SU(2) hadron-dynamics and U(1) QED gauge field theories in general field theory and progress towards solving the nucleon spin crisis, i.e., presents general large $N_{c}$ QCD's inner structures, gauge invariant angular momenta and new corresponding Coulomb theorem in quark-gluon field interaction systems based on general field theory, and naturally deduces the gauge invariant spin and orbital angular momentum operators of quark and gauge fields with $SU(N_{c})$ gauge symmetry by Noether theorem in general field theory. In the general large $N_{c}$ QCD, we discover not only the general covariant transverse and parallel conditions ( namely, non-Abelian divergence and curl ), but also that this general system has good intrinsic symmetry characteristics. Specially, this paper's generally decomposing gauge potential theory presents a new technique, it should play a votal role in future physics research. Therefore, this paper breakth...
A generalization of λ-mode xenon stability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new method for analyzing xenon transients in nuclear reactors based on λ-mode stability analysis is developed. Like previous work, the new analysis method is based on a linearization of the coupled diffusion, iodine, and xenon equations, but the approach is generalized here to permit flux perturbations that include a component in the fundamental spatial mode and thus a complete expansion of any perturbation. This extension also allows power to be explicitly constrained. The typical constant-reactivity approach to λ-mode analysis appears as a special case of the new generalized theory. (author)
Mathematical analysis, approximation theory and their applications
Gupta, Vijay
2016-01-01
Designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, optimization, and economics, this self-contained volume presents theory, methods, and applications in mathematical analysis and approximation theory. Specific topics include: approximation of functions by linear positive operators with applications to computer aided geometric design, numerical analysis, optimization theory, and solutions of differential equations. Recent and significant developments in approximation theory, special functions and q-calculus along with their applications to mathematics, engineering, and social sciences are discussed and analyzed. Each chapter enriches the understanding of current research problems and theories in pure and applied research.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbero, E.J.
1989-01-01
In this study, a computational model for accurate analysis of composite laminates and laminates with including delaminated interfaces is developed. An accurate prediction of stress distributions, including interlaminar stresses, is obtained by using the Generalized Laminate Plate Theory of Reddy in which layer-wise linear approximation of the displacements through the thickness is used. Analytical as well as finite-element solutions of the theory are developed for bending and vibrations of laminated composite plates for the linear theory. Geometrical nonlinearity, including buckling and postbuckling are included and used to perform stress analysis of laminated plates. A general two dimensional theory of laminated cylindrical shells is also developed in this study. Geometrical nonlinearity and transverse compressibility are included. Delaminations between layers of composite plates are modelled by jump discontinuity conditions at the interfaces. The theory includes multiple delaminations through the thickness. Geometric nonlinearity is included to capture layer buckling. The strain energy release rate distribution along the boundary of delaminations is computed by a novel algorithm. The computational models presented herein are accurate for global behavior and particularly appropriate for the study of local effects.
General Equilibrium and Social Justice: Neoclassical Theory as a Political Philosophy?
Vincent Desreumaux
2013-01-01
We study the willingness of some authors, including H. Varian in the 70’s, to elaborate a theory of justice that would fit standard general equilibrium theory in its Pareto’s canonical version. We first show, through an analysis of market socialism in the 30’s, that the Paretian ethic is based on the value judgment of consumer sovereignty. Then we are able to discuss the specific contribution of Varian, who, by introducing the criterion of equity as envy-freeness, produces a – very specific –...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Nobili
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Three generalizations of the Timoshenko beam model according to the linear theory of micropolar elasticity or its special cases, that is, the couple stress theory or the modified couple stress theory, recently developed in the literature, are investigated and compared. The analysis is carried out in a variational setting, making use of Hamilton’s principle. It is shown that both the Timoshenko and the (possibly modified couple stress models are based on a microstructural kinematics which is governed by kinosthenic (ignorable terms in the Lagrangian. Despite their difference, all models bring in a beam-plane theory only one microstructural material parameter. Besides, the micropolar model formally reduces to the couple stress model upon introducing the proper constraint on the microstructure kinematics, although the material parameter is generally different. Line loading on the microstructure results in a nonconservative force potential. Finally, the Hamiltonian form of the micropolar beam model is derived and the canonical equations are presented along with their general solution. The latter exhibits a general oscillatory pattern for the microstructure rotation and stress, whose behavior matches the numerical findings.
Improved theory of generalized meteo-ballistic weighting factor functions and their use
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Cech
2016-06-01
Full Text Available It follows from the analysis of artillery fire errors that approximately two-thirds of the inaccuracy of indirect artillery fire is caused by inaccuracies in the determination of the meteo parameters included in fire error budget model. Trajectories calculated under non-standard conditions are considered to be perturbed. The tools utilized for the analysis of perturbed trajectories are weighting factor functions (WFFs which are a special kind of sensitivity functions. WFFs are used for calculation of meteo ballistic elements µB (ballistic wind wB, density ρB, virtual temperature τB, pressure pB as well. We have found that the existing theory of WFF calculation has several significant shortcomings. The aim of the article is to present a new, improved theory of generalized WFFs that eliminates the deficiencies found. Using this theory will improve methods for designing firing tables, fire control systems algorithms, and meteo message generation algorithms.
Kinetic derivation of generalized phase space Chern-Simons theory
Hayata, Tomoya
2016-01-01
We study a kinetic theory in $2d$ phase space when all abelian Berry curvatures are nonzero. We derive the complete form of the Poisson brackets, and calculate transports induced by Berry curvatures. Then we construct the low-energy effective theory to reproduce the transports. Such an effective theory is given by the Chern-Simons theory in $1+2d$ dimensions. Some implications of the Chern-Simons theory are also discussed.
A general quantitative theory of forest structure and dynamics.
West, Geoffrey B; Enquist, Brian J; Brown, James H
2009-04-28
We present the first part of a quantitative theory for the structure and dynamics of forests at demographic and resource steady state. The theory uses allometric scaling relations, based on metabolism and biomechanics, to quantify how trees use resources, fill space, and grow. These individual-level traits and properties scale up to predict emergent properties of forest stands, including size-frequency distributions, spacing relations, resource flux rates, and canopy configurations. Two insights emerge from this analysis: (i) The size structure and spatial arrangement of trees in the entire forest are emergent manifestations of the way that functionally invariant xylem elements are bundled together to conduct water and nutrients up from the trunks, through the branches, to the leaves of individual trees. (ii) Geometric and dynamic properties of trees in a forest and branches in trees scale identically, so that the entire forest can be described mathematically and behaves structurally and functionally like a scaled version of the branching networks in the largest tree. This quantitative framework uses a small number of parameters to predict numerous structural and dynamical properties of idealized forests.
Generalized Potts-Models and their Relevance for Gauge Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Wipf
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We study the Polyakov loop dynamics originating from finite-temperature Yang-Mills theory. The effective actions contain center-symmetric terms involving powers of the Polyakov loop, each with its own coupling. For a subclass with two couplings we perform a detailed analysis of the statistical mechanics involved. To this end we employ a modified mean field approximation and Monte Carlo simulations based on a novel cluster algorithm. We find excellent agreement of both approaches. The phase diagram exhibits both first and second order transitions between symmetric, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with phase boundaries merging at three tricritical points. The critical exponents ν and γ at the continuous transition between symmetric and antiferromagnetic phases are the same as for the 3-state spin Potts model.
A general theory of multimetric indices and their properties
Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William
2012-01-01
1. Stewardship of biological and ecological resources requires the ability to make integrative assessments of ecological integrity. One of the emerging methods for making such integrative assessments is multimetric indices (MMIs). These indices synthesize data, often from multiple levels of biological organization, with the goal of deriving a single index that reflects the overall effects of human disturbance. Despite the widespread use of MMIs, there is uncertainty about why this approach can be effective. An understanding of MMIs requires a quantitative theory that illustrates how the properties of candidate metrics relates to MMIs generated from those metrics. 2. We present the initial basis for such a theory by deriving the general mathematical characteristics of MMIs assembled from metrics. We then use the theory to derive quantitative answers to the following questions: Is there an optimal number of metrics to comprise an index? How does covariance among metrics affect the performance of the index derived from those metrics? And what are the criteria to decide whether a given metric will improve the performance of an index? 3. We find that the optimal number of metrics to be included in an index depends on the theoretical distribution of signal of the disturbance gradient contained in each metric. For example, if the rank-ordered parameters of a metric-disturbance regression can be described by a monotonically decreasing function, then an optimum number of metrics exists and can often be derived analytically. We derive the conditions by which adding a given metric can be expected to improve an index. 4. We find that the criterion defining such conditions depends nonlinearly of the signal of the disturbance gradient, the noise (error) of the metric and the correlation of the metric errors. Importantly, we find that correlation among metric errors increases the signal required for the metric to improve the index. 5. The theoretical framework presented in this
On the general theory of the origins of retroviruses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wayengera Misaki
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The order retroviridae comprises viruses based on ribonucleic acids (RNA. Some, such as HIV and HTLV, are human pathogens. Newly emerged human retroviruses have zoonotic origins. As far as has been established, both repeated infections (themselves possibly responsible for the evolution of viral mutations (Vm and host adaptability (Ha; along with interplay between inhibitors and promoters of cell tropism, are needed to effect retroviral cross-species transmissions. However, the exact modus operadi of intertwine between these factors at molecular level remains to be established. Knowledge of such intertwine could lead to a better understanding of retrovirology and possibly other infectious processes. This study was conducted to derive the mathematical equation of a general theory of the origins of retroviruses. Methods and results On the basis of an arbitrarily non-Euclidian geometrical "thought experiment" involving the cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus (sfv from a non-primate species Xy to Homo sapiens (Hs, initially excluding all social factors, the following was derived. At the port of exit from Xy (where the species barrier, SB, is defined by the Index of Origin, IO, sfv shedding is (1 enhanced by two transmitting tensors (Tt, (i virus-specific immunity (VSI and (ii evolutionary defenses such as APOBEC, RNA interference pathways, and (when present expedited therapeutics (denoted e2D; and (2 opposed by the five accepting scalars (At: (a genomic integration hot spots, gIHS, (b nuclear envelope transit (NMt vectors, (c virus-specific cellular biochemistry, VSCB, (d virus-specific cellular receptor repertoire, VSCR, and (e pH-mediated cell membrane transit, (↓pH CMat. Assuming As and Tt to be independent variables, IO = Tt/As. The same forces acting in an opposing manner determine SB at the port of sfv entry (defined here by the Index of Entry, IE = As/Tt. Overall, If sfv encounters no unforeseen effects on
General orbital invariant MP2-F12 theory.
Werner, Hans-Joachim; Adler, Thomas B; Manby, Frederick R
2007-04-28
A general form of orbital invariant explicitly correlated second-order closed-shell Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2-F12) is derived, and compact working equations are presented. Many-electron integrals are avoided by resolution of the identity (RI) approximations using the complementary auxiliary basis set approach. A hierarchy of well defined levels of approximation is introduced, differing from the exact theory by the neglect of terms involving matrix elements over the Fock operator. The most accurate method is denoted as MP2-F12/3B. This assumes only that Fock matrix elements between occupied orbitals and orbitals outside the auxiliary basis set are negligible. For the chosen ansatz for the first-order wave function this is exact if the auxiliary basis is complete. In the next lower approximation it is assumed that the occupied orbital space is closed under action of the Fock operator [generalized Brillouin condition (GBC)]; this is equivalent to approximation 2B of Klopper and Samson [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6397 (2002)]. Further approximations can be introduced by assuming the extended Brillouin condition (EBC) or by neglecting certain terms involving the exchange operator. A new approximation MP2-F12/3C, which is closely related to the MP2-R12/C method recently proposed by Kedzuch et al. [Int. J. Quantum Chem. 105, 929 (2005)] is described. In the limit of a complete RI basis this method is equivalent to MP2-F12/3B. The effect of the various approximations (GBC, EBC, and exchange) is tested by studying the convergence of the correlation energies with respect to the atomic orbital and auxiliary basis sets for 21 molecules. The accuracy of relative energies is demonstrated for 16 chemical reactions. Approximation 3C is found to perform equally well as the computationally more demanding approximation 3B. The reaction energies obtained with smaller basis sets are found to be most accurate if the orbital-variant diagonal Ansatz combined with localized orbitals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nureev Rustem, M.
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper was prepared for the 80-th anniversary of publishing of John Maynard Keynes’ “General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money”. It discusses the stages of the economist’s life, the main books written prior to "The General Theory ...". Particular attention is devoted to the development issues of the monetary policy in the works of "Indian Currency and Finance", ”A Tract on Monetary Reform” and "A Treatise on Money". A special section is dedicated to the analysis of Keynes’ methodology, its logic and structure, influenced by John. E. Moore. The paper reveals the unity and the difference in approaches of A. Marshall and John M. Keynes, and explores new categories of behavioral economics and marginal analysis, which established the success of "General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money", shows the value of Keynes's theory for the further development of macroeconomics. Particular attention is paid to the popularization of Keynes's ideas from the initial interpretations of "The General Theory ..." to the neoclassical synthesis and further to neo-Keynesianism and post-Keynesianism. The paper studies the unity and the distinction between Hicks’ and American Keynesianism. Hicksian assumptions of a savings-investment function have determined the features of the IS-LM model. The contributions to the development of Keynesianism A. Hansen and P. A. Samuelson are also shown, as well as the history of the "Keynesian Cross". A comparative analysis of the neoclassical and Keynesian models of general economic equilibrium is given and analyzes the institutional reasons explaining differences between neoclassical and Keynesian paradigms. A special section is devoted to the Keynesian theory of growth, showing unity and difference of R. Harrod and E. Domar models, along with their impact on the creation of Development Economics. Simplified understanding of Keynes's legacy has caused the emergence of unorthodox Keynesianism. The paper
Antenna theory analysis and design
Balanis, Constantine A
2005-01-01
The discipline of antenna theory has experienced vast technological changes. In response, Constantine Balanis has updated his classic text, Antenna Theory, offering the most recent look at all the necessary topics. New material includes smart antennas and fractal antennas, along with the latest applications in wireless communications. Multimedia material on an accompanying CD presents PowerPoint viewgraphs of lecture notes, interactive review questions, Java animations and applets, and MATLAB features. Like the previous editions, Antenna Theory, Third Edition meets the needs of e
Index analysis approach theory at work
Lowen, R
2015-01-01
A featured review of the AMS describes the author’s earlier work in the field of approach spaces as, ‘A landmark in the history of general topology’. In this book, the author has expanded this study further and taken it in a new and exciting direction. The number of conceptually and technically different systems which characterize approach spaces is increased and moreover their uniform counterpart, uniform gauge spaces, is put into the picture. An extensive study of completions, both for approach spaces and for uniform gauge spaces, as well as compactifications for approach spaces is performed. A paradigm shift is created by the new concept of index analysis. Making use of the rich intrinsic quantitative information present in approach structures, a technique is developed whereby indices are defined that measure the extent to which properties hold, and theorems become inequalities involving indices; therefore vastly extending the realm of applicability of many classical results. The theory is the...
[The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].
Golubev, A G
2009-01-01
Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve.
General theory of regular biorthogonal pairs and its physical operators
Inoue, H.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we introduce a general theory of regular biorthogonal sequences and its physical operators. Biorthogonal sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H are said to be regular if Span {ϕn} and Span {ψn} are dense in H . The first purpose is to show that there exists a non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf in H defined by an orthonormal basis (ONB) f ≡ {fn} in H such that ϕn = Tffn and ψ n = Tf - 1 f n , n = 0, 1, …, and such an ONB f is unique. The second purpose is to define and study the lowering operators Af and Bf † , the raising operators Bf and Af † , and the number operators Nf and Nf † determined by the non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf. These operators connect with quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics and its relatives. This paper clarifies and simplifies the mathematical structure of this framework and minimizes the required assumptions.
A Specific Case of Generalized Einstein-aether Theories
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟新河; 杜小龙
2012-01-01
With the dark energy phenomena explored over a decade, in this present work we discuss a specific case of the generalized Einstein-aether theories, in which the modified Friedmann equation is similar to that in the Dvali- Gabadadze-Porrati （DGP） brahe world model. We compute the joint statistic constraints on model parameters in this specific case by using the recent type Ia supernovae （SNe Ia） data, the cosmic microwave background （CMB） shift parameter data, and the baryonic acoustic oscillations （BAOs） data traced by the S1oan Digital Sky Survey （SDSS）. Furthermore, we analyze other constrains from the observational Hubble parameter data （OHD）. The comparison with the standard cosmological model （cosmological constant A cold dark matter （ACDM） model） is dearly shown; also we comment on the interesting relation between the coupling constant M in this model and the special accelerate scale in the modified Newtonian dynamies （MOND） model initially given by Milgrom with the hope for interpreting the galaxy rotation curves without introducing mysterious dark matter.
Generalized Pauli constraints in reduced density matrix functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole [Peter-Grünberg Institut and Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lathiotakis, Nektarios N. [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Vass. Constantinou 48, GR-11635 Athens (Greece); Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Marques, Miguel A. L. [Institut für Physik Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)
2015-04-21
Functionals of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM) are routinely minimized under Coleman’s ensemble N-representability conditions. Recently, the topic of pure-state N-representability conditions, also known as generalized Pauli constraints, received increased attention following the discovery of a systematic way to derive them for any number of electrons and any finite dimensionality of the Hilbert space. The target of this work is to assess the potential impact of the enforcement of the pure-state conditions on the results of reduced density-matrix functional theory calculations. In particular, we examine whether the standard minimization of typical 1-RDM functionals under the ensemble N-representability conditions violates the pure-state conditions for prototype 3-electron systems. We also enforce the pure-state conditions, in addition to the ensemble ones, for the same systems and functionals and compare the correlation energies and optimal occupation numbers with those obtained by the enforcement of the ensemble conditions alone.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张齐东
2012-01-01
The general will is important concept of Rousseau Social Contract Thoughts. As one of the important content, the general will theory has strong universality, compulsion and justice. The paper thinks that it is of important practical significance to discuss the reality of public will and how to represent the general will and the issue that the public will may lead to the centralization of state power or the tyranny of the majority and other aspects. It is of significance to study Rousseaug general will theory for modem China.%公意是卢梭社会契约思想的重要概念。公意理论作为卢梭社会政治理论的重要内容,具有强烈的普遍性、强迫性和公正性。对公意存在的现实性、公意如何体现、谁的意志代表公意和公意可能导致集权或多数人的暴政等方面的反思具有重要现实意义。在当代,对卢梭的公意思想进行深入探讨也意义深远。
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M D Sharma
2007-08-01
Anisotropic wave propagation is studied in a fluid-saturated porous medium, using two different approaches. One is the dynamic approach of Biot’s theories. The other approach known as homogenisation theory, is based on the averaging process to derive macroscopic equations from the microscopic equations of motion. The medium considered is a general anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid with a viscous fluid saturating its pores of anisotropic permeability. The wave propagation phenomenon in a saturated porous medium is explained through two relations. One defines modified Christoffel equations for the propagation of plane harmonic waves in the medium. The other defines a matrix to relate the relative displacement of fluid particles to the displacement of solid particles. The modified Christoffel equations are solved further to get a quartic equation whose roots represent complex velocities of the four attenuating quasi-waves in the medium. These complex velocities define the phase velocities of propagation and quality factors for attenuation of all the quasi-waves propagating along a given phase direction in three-dimensional space. The derivations in the mathematical models from different theories are compared in order to work out the equivalence between them. The variations of phase velocities and attenuation factors with the direction of phase propagation are computed, for a realistic numerical model. Differences between the velocities and attenuations of quasi-waves from the two approaches are exhibited numerically.
An aeroelastic analysis with a generalized dynamic wake
He, Cheng J.; Peters, David A.
1991-01-01
An aeroelastic model with generalized dynamic wake is developed for application in the integration of aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural optimization of a rotor blade. The investigation is carried out with special attention to efficiency and accuracy of aeroelastic modeling. Each blade is assumed to be an elastic beam undergoing flap bending, lead-lag bending, elastic twist and axial deflections. The nonuniform blade is discretized into finite beam elements, each of which consists of twelve degrees of freedom. Such important blade design variables as pretwist, and chordwise offsets of the blade center of gravity and of the aerodynamic center from the elastic axis have been included in the analysis. Aerodynamic loads are computed from unsteady blade element theory where the rotor three-dimensional unsteady wake is modeled using a generalized dynamic wake theory. The noncirculatory loads based on unsteady thin airfoil theory are also included.
Fundamentals of the fuzzy logic-based generalized theory of decisions
Aliev, Rafik Aziz
2013-01-01
Every day decision making and decision making in complex human-centric systems are characterized by imperfect decision-relevant information. Main drawback of the existing decision theories is namely incapability to deal with imperfect information and modeling vague preferences. Actually, a paradigm of non-numerical probabilities in decision making has a long history and arose also in Keynes’s analysis of uncertainty. There is a need for further generalization – a move to decision theories with perception-based imperfect information described in NL. The languages of new decision models for human-centric systems should be not languages based on binary logic but human-centric computational schemes able to operate on NL-described information. Development of new theories is now possible due to an increased computational power of information processing systems which allows for computations with imperfect information, particularly, imprecise and partially true information, which are much more complex than comput...
Number Theory, Analysis and Geometry
Goldfeld, Dorian; Jones, Peter
2012-01-01
Serge Lang was an iconic figure in mathematics, both for his own important work and for the indelible impact he left on the field of mathematics, on his students, and on his colleagues. Over the course of his career, Lang traversed a tremendous amount of mathematical ground. As he moved from subject to subject, he found analogies that led to important questions in such areas as number theory, arithmetic geometry, and the theory of negatively curved spaces. Lang's conjectures will keep many mathematicians occupied far into the future. In the spirit of Lang's vast contribution to mathematics, th
Toward a General Research Process for Using Dubin's Theory Building Model
Holton, Elwood F.; Lowe, Janis S.
2007-01-01
Dubin developed a widely used methodology for theory building, which describes the components of the theory building process. Unfortunately, he does not define a research process for implementing his theory building model. This article proposes a seven-step general research process for implementing Dubin's theory building model. An example of a…
Methods of Fourier analysis and approximation theory
Tikhonov, Sergey
2016-01-01
Different facets of interplay between harmonic analysis and approximation theory are covered in this volume. The topics included are Fourier analysis, function spaces, optimization theory, partial differential equations, and their links to modern developments in the approximation theory. The articles of this collection were originated from two events. The first event took place during the 9th ISAAC Congress in Krakow, Poland, 5th-9th August 2013, at the section “Approximation Theory and Fourier Analysis”. The second event was the conference on Fourier Analysis and Approximation Theory in the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona, during 4th-8th November 2013, organized by the editors of this volume. All articles selected to be part of this collection were carefully reviewed.
Group theory analysis of braided geometry structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Wei; MA Wensuo
2005-01-01
The braided geometry structures are analyzed with point groups and space groups for which the continuous yarn of the braided preforms is segmented and expressed in some special symbols. All structures of braided material are described and classified with group theory, and new braiding methods are found. The group theory analysis lays the theoretical foundation for optimizing material performance.
Formal analysis of physical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The rules of inference that are made use of in formalization are considered. It is maintained that a physical law represents the universal assertion of a probability, and not the assessment of the probability of a universal assertion. The precision of the apparatus used to collect the experimental evidence is introduced as an essential part of the theoretical structure of physics. This approach allows the author to define the concept of truth in a satisfactory way, abandoning the unacceptable notion of approximate truth. It is shown that a considerable amount of light can be shed on a number of much debated problems arising in the logic of quantum mechanics. It is stressed that the deductive structure of quantum theory seems to be essentially founded on a kind of mixture of different logics. Two different concepts of truth are distinguished within quantum theory, an empirical truth and quantum-logical truth. (Auth.)
Credibility analysis of risk classes by generalized linear model
Erdemir, Ovgucan Karadag; Sucu, Meral
2016-06-01
In this paper generalized linear model (GLM) and credibility theory which are frequently used in nonlife insurance pricing are combined for reliability analysis. Using full credibility standard, GLM is associated with limited fluctuation credibility approach. Comparison criteria such as asymptotic variance and credibility probability are used to analyze the credibility of risk classes. An application is performed by using one-year claim frequency data of a Turkish insurance company and results of credible risk classes are interpreted.
Global analysis of generalized parton distributions -- collider kinematics --
Lautenschlager, Tobias; Schaefer, A
2013-01-01
We utilize H1 and ZEUS data for exclusive electroproduction of photons, $\\rho^0$- and $\\phi$-mesons to access generalized parton distributions at small momentum fraction. To do so, we employ state-of-the art techniques, based on next-to-leading order perturbation theory, flexible model parametrization, and Bayesian inference. We provide a partonic interpretation of our analysis, where emphasize is given to the transverse distribution of sea quarks and gluons.
Fixed point theory, variational analysis, and optimization
Al-Mezel, Saleh Abdullah R; Ansari, Qamrul Hasan
2015-01-01
""There is a real need for this book. It is useful for people who work in areas of nonlinear analysis, optimization theory, variational inequalities, and mathematical economics.""-Nan-Jing Huang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Peng-Cheng [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Huang, Yong-Chang, E-mail: ychuang@bjut.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124 (China)
2012-11-01
This Letter, for the first time, proves that a general invariant velocity is originated from principle of special relativity, namely, discovers origin of the general invariant velocity. When the general invariant velocity is taken as light velocity in current theories, we get the corresponding special theory of relativity. Further, this Letter deduces triple special theories of relativity in cosmology, and cancels the invariant presumption of light velocity. When a kind of matter with the maximally invariant velocity that may be superluminal or equal to light velocity is determined by experiments, then utilizing this Letter's theory, all results of current physical theories are consistent.
Conformal generally covariant quantum field theory. The scalar field and its Wick products
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinamonti, N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-06-15
In this paper we generalize the construction of generally covariant quantum theories given in [R. Brunetti, K. Fredenhagen, R. Verch, Commun. Math. Phys. 237, 31 (2003)] to encompass the conformal covariant case. After introducing the abstract framework, we discuss the massless conformally coupled Klein Gordon field theory, showing that its quantization corresponds to a functor between two certain categories. At the abstract level, the ordinary fields, could be thought as natural transformations in the sense of category theory. We show that, the Wick monomials without derivatives (Wick powers), can be interpreted as fields in this generalized sense, provided a non trivial choice of the renormalization constants is given. A careful analysis shows that the transformation law of Wick powers is characterized by a weight, and it turns out that the sum of fields with different weights breaks the conformal covariance. At this point there is a difference between the previously given picture due to the presence of a bigger group of covariance. It is furthermore shown that the construction does not depend upon the scale {mu} appearing in the Hadamard parametrix, used to regularize the fields. Finally, we briefly discuss some further examples of more involved fields. (orig.)
Zou, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Yong-Chang(Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing University of Technology, 100124, Beijing, China)
2012-01-01
This Letter, i.e. for the first time, proves that a general invariant velocity is originated from the principle of special relativity, namely, discovers the origin of the general invariant velocity, and when the general invariant velocity is taken as the invariant light velocity in current theories, we get the corresponding special theory of relativity. Further, this Letter deduces triple special theories of relativity in cosmology, and cancels the invariant presumption of light velocity, it ...
Development of Generalized Perturbation Theory Capability within the SCALE Code Package
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computational capability has been developed to calculate sensitivity coefficients of generalized responses with respect to cross-section data in the SCALE code system. The focus of this paper is the implementation of generalized perturbation theory (GPT) for one-dimensional and two-dimensional deterministic neutron transport calculations. GPT is briefly summarized for computing sensitivity coefficients for reaction rate ratio responses within the existing framework of the TSUNAMI sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis code package in SCALE. GPT provides the capability to analyze generalized responses related to reactor analysis, such as homogenized cross-sections, relative powers, and conversion ratios, as well as measured experimental parameters such as 28 (epithermal/thermal 238U capture rates) in thermal benchmarks and fission ratios such as 239Pu(n,f)/235U(n,f) in fast benchmarks. The S/U analysis of these experimental integral responses can be used to augment the existing TSUNAMI S/U analysis capabilities for system similarity assessment and data adjustment. S/U analysis is provided for boiling water reactor pin cell as part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling benchmark.
Development of generalized perturbation theory capability within the scale code package
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computational capability has been developed to calculate sensitivity coefficients of generalized responses with respect to cross-section data in the SCALE code system. The focus of this paper is the implementation of generalized perturbation theory (GPT) for one-dimensional and two-dimensional deterministic neutron transport calculations. GPT is briefly summarized for computing sensitivity coefficients for reaction rate ratio responses within the existing framework of the TSUNAMI sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis code package in SCALE. GPT provides the capability to analyze generalized responses related to reactor analysis, such as homogenized cross-sections, relative powers, and conversion ratios, as well as measured experimental parameters such as 28ρ(epithermal/thermal 238U capture rates) in thermal benchmarks and fission ratios such as 239U(n,f)/235U(n,f) in fast benchmarks. The S/U analysis of these experimental integral responses can be used to augment the existing TSUNAMI S/U analysis capabilities for system similarity assessment and data adjustment. S/U analysis is provided for boiling water reactor pin cell as part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling benchmark. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At present, superstring theory is the only candidate to be a unified theory of all fundamental interactions. For this reason, the various aspects of the string theory have been attracting great attention. String theory has a nontrivial gauge symmetry and therefore is an interesting object from the viewpoint of application of general quantization methods. This paper discusses the bosonic string theory. The purpose of this paper is a consistent operator quantization of the theory with the action. The natural basis for it is provided by the method of the generalized canonical quantization
Chemical Principles Revisited: Updating the Atomic Theory in General Chemistry.
Whitman, Mark
1984-01-01
Presents a descriptive overview of recent achievements in atomic structure to provide instructors with the background necessary to enhance their classroom presentations. Topics considered include hadrons, quarks, leptons, forces, and the unified fields theory. (JN)
Dynamical Cobordisms in General Relativity and String Theory
Hellerman, Simeon
2010-01-01
We describe a class of time-dependent solutions in string- or M-theory that are exact with respect to alpha-prime and curvature corrections and interpolate in physical space between regions in which the low energy physics is well-approximated by different string theories and string compactifications. The regions are connected by expanding "domain walls" but are not separated by causal horizons, and physical excitations can propagate between them. As specific examples we construct solutions that interpolate between oriented and unoriented string theories, and also between type II and heterotic theories. Our solutions can be weakly curved and under perturbative control everywhere and can asymptote to supersymmetric at late times.
String theory, scale relativity and the generalized uncertainty principle
Castro, C
1995-01-01
An extension/ modification of the Stringy Heisenberg Uncertainty principle is derived within the framework of the theory of Special Scale-Relativity proposed by Nottale. Based on the fractal structure of two dimensional Quantum Gravity which has attracted considerable interest recently we conjecture that the underlying fundamental principle behind String theory should be based on an extension of Scale Relativity where both dynamics as well as scales are incorporated in the same footing.
Towards a generalized Landau theory of quasi-particles for hot dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis it is tried to construct a Landau quasi-particle theory for relativistic systems, using field-theoretical methods. It includes a perturbative calculation of the pressure of a quark-gluon plasma. It reports the existence of a hitherto unnoticed plasmon contribution of the order g3 due to transverse quasi-gluons. A new and Lorentz covariant formulation of the Landau theory is being developed, for a general relativistic system. A detailed calculation is presented of the observables of a quantum electrodynamical (QED) plasma, in lowest orders of perturbation theory. A transverse plasmon effect is discovered, both analytically and numerically. In addition, the analysis shows quasi-electrons and positrons to be stable excitations at any temperature. This is proven in all orders of perturbation theory. Along with a Landau theory for quark-gluon matter, a linearized kinetic equation is derived for the singlet quark distribution function, with a collision term for soft encounters between quasi-quarks. (Auth.)
A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers
A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng, E-mail: xwu@uabmc.edu, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States); Liu, Hong, E-mail: xwu@uabmc.edu, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers.
Cosmology in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of gravity
Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Yumei
2010-01-01
Horava and Melby-Thompson recently proposed a new version of the Horava-Lifshitz theory of gravity, in which the spin-0 graviton is eliminated by introducing a Newtonian pre-potential $\\phi$ and a local U(1) gauge field $A$. In this paper, we first derive the corresponding Hamiltonian, super-momentum constraints, the dynamical equations, and the equations for $\\phi$ and $A$, in the presence of matter fields. Then, we apply the theory to cosmology, and obtain the modified Friedmann equation an...
Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions
Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan
2010-01-01
Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…
Erlicher, Silvano; Point, Nelly
2006-01-01
International audience A simple way to define the flow rules of plasticity models is the assumption of generalized normality associated with a suitable pseudo-potential function. This approach, however, is not usually employed to formulate endochronic theory and non-linear kinematic (NLK) hardening rules as well as generalized plasticity models. In this paper, generalized normality is used to give a new formulation of these classes of models. As a result, a suited pseudo-potential is intro...
Nami, Mohammad Rahim; Janghorban, Maziar
2013-12-30
In this article, a new higher order shear deformation theory based on trigonometric shear deformation theory is developed. In order to consider the size effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is used. An analytical method is adopted to solve the governing equations for static analysis of simply supported nanoplates. In the present theory, the transverse shear stresses satisfy the traction free boundary conditions of the rectangular plates and these stresses can be calculated from the constitutive equations. The effects of different parameters such as nonlocal parameter and aspect ratio are investigated on both nondimensional deflections and deflection ratios. It may be important to mention that the present formulations are general and can be used for isotropic, orthotropic and anisotropic nanoplates.
Integrated control-system design via generalized LQG (GLQG) theory
Bernstein, Dennis S.; Hyland, David C.; Richter, Stephen; Haddad, Wassim M.
1989-01-01
Thirty years of control systems research has produced an enormous body of theoretical results in feedback synthesis. Yet such results see relatively little practical application, and there remains an unsettling gap between classical single-loop techniques (Nyquist, Bode, root locus, pole placement) and modern multivariable approaches (LQG and H infinity theory). Large scale, complex systems, such as high performance aircraft and flexible space structures, now demand efficient, reliable design of multivariable feedback controllers which optimally tradeoff performance against modeling accuracy, bandwidth, sensor noise, actuator power, and control law complexity. A methodology is described which encompasses numerous practical design constraints within a single unified formulation. The approach, which is based upon coupled systems or modified Riccati and Lyapunov equations, encompasses time-domain linear-quadratic-Gaussian theory and frequency-domain H theory, as well as classical objectives such as gain and phase margin via the Nyquist circle criterion. In addition, this approach encompasses the optimal projection approach to reduced-order controller design. The current status of the overall theory will be reviewed including both continuous-time and discrete-time (sampled-data) formulations.
When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology
Messner, Steven F.
2016-01-01
This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives—Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory—that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally. PMID:27087864
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王惠敏
2012-01-01
Taking the appraisal theory of J·R·Martin as the main research methodology,this paper analyzes the lecture Hugo Rafael Chá vez Frí as made in the UN General Assembly from attitude,engagement and graduation,to reveal the attitude,point of view and position behind the lecture.%以马丁的评价理论为主要研究方法,从态度、介入以及极差三个方面对查韦斯在联合国大会上谴责美国行径的演讲进行分析,从而揭示演讲背后所体现的态度、观点和立场。
The Mössbauer rotor experiment and the general theory of relativity
Corda, Christian
2016-05-01
In the recent paper Yarman et al. (2015), the authors claim that our general relativistic analysis in Corda (2015), with the additional effect due to clock synchronization, cannot explain the extra energy shift in the Mössbauer rotor experiment. In their opinion, the extra energy shift due to the clock synchronization is of order 10-13 and cannot be detected by the detectors of γ-quanta which are completely insensitive to such a very low order of energy shifts. In addition, they claim to have shown that the extra energy shift can be explained in the framework of the so-called YARK gravitational theory. They indeed claim that such a theory should replace the general theory of relativity (GTR) as the correct theory of gravity. In this paper we show that the authors Yarman et al. (2015) had a misunderstanding of our theoretical analysis in Corda (2015). In fact, in that paper we have shown that electromagnetic radiation launched by the central source of the apparatus is redshifted of a quantity 0 . 6 ¯ v2/c2 when arriving to the detector of γ-quanta. This holds independently by the issue that the original photons are detected by the resonant absorber which, in turns, triggers the γ-quanta which arrive to the final detector. In other words, the result in Corda (2015) was a purely theoretical result that is completely independent of the way the experiment is concretely realized. Now, we show that, with some clarification, the results of Corda (2015) hold also when one considers the various steps of the concrete detection. In that case, the resonant absorber detects the energy shift and the separated detector of γ-quanta merely measures the resulting intensity. In addition, we also show that the YARK gravitational theory is in macroscopic contrast with geodesic motion and, in turn, with the weak equivalence principle (WEP). This is in contrast with another claim of the authors of Yarman et al. (2015), i.e. that the YARK gravitational theory arises from the WEP
On the construction of a psychologically based, general theory of observation: an introduction
Nyman, Göte
2013-01-01
The perception-related origins of physical measures and standards are considered within the framework of the general observer theory. The impact of observer characteristics on the development of observer-centric physics, physical concepts and metrics are analyzed. A preliminary theoretical approach is suggested for the construction of a general observer theory and formulation of its relationship to observer-centered physical concepts and theories. The approach makes it possible to construct a theory of the observer, intrinsic in any theory of physics.
Boubaker, K; Colantoni, A; Petkova, P.
2013-01-01
The earliest models used in the study of lattice structures are mean field theories, which do not contain structural dependence. The Lattice Compatibility Theory (LCT) proposes here a novel framework where the measure of the disorder is based on Urbach tailing features and lattice matching features between the host matrix and doping agent intrinsic structures. This study has been implemented on a particular compound (BTO:Co) and refers to the Simha-Somcynsky (SS) theory, a mean field theory w...
A positive formalism for quantum theory in the general boundary formulation
Oeckl, Robert
2012-01-01
We introduce a new "positive formalism" for encoding quantum theories in the general boundary formulation, somewhat analogous to the mixed state formalism of the standard formulation. This makes the probability interpretation more natural and elegant, eliminates operationally irrelevant structure and opens the general boundary formulation to quantum information theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borissova L.
2005-07-01
Full Text Available This research shows that gravitational waves and gravitational inertial waves are linked to a special structure of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor. Proceeding from this a classification of the waves is given, according to Petrov’s classification of Einstein spaces and gravitational fields located therein. The world-lines deviation equation for two free particles (the Synge equation is deduced and that for two force- interacting particles (the Synge-Weber equation in the terms of chronometric invariants - physical observable quantities in the General Theory of Relativity. The main result drawn from the deduced equations is that in the field of a falling gravitational wave there are not only spatial deviations between the particles but also deviations in the time flow. Therefore an effect from a falling gravitational wave can manifest only if the particles located on the neighbouring world-lines (both geodesics and non- geodesics are in motion at the initial moment of time: gravitational waves can act only on moving neighbouring particles. This effect is purely parametric, not of a resonance kind. Neither free-mass detectors nor solid-body detectors (the Weber pigs used in current experiments can register gravitational waves, because the experimental statement (freezing the pigs etc. forces the particles of which they consist to be at rest. In aiming to detect gravitational waves other devices should be employed, where neighbouring particles are in relative motion at high speeds. Such a device could, for instance, consist of two parallel laser beams.
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Lukierski, J
2002-01-01
We describe generalized D=11 Poincar\\'{e} and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with $OSp(1|64)$ superspinors describing BPS preons. The $\\frac{k}{32}$ BPS states as composed out of $n=32 - k$ preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author$^1$.
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Iajkierski, Jerzy
2002-11-01
We describe generalized D = 11 Poincaré and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with OSp(l|64) superspinors describing BPS preons. The (k)/(32) BPS states as composed out of n = 32 - k preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author.
Supersymmetric Background of Type II Theories and Generalized Geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I will present an outline of generalised geometry and I show how it provides a natural description of supersymmetric backgrounds. The discussion will be in slightly different terms to those appearing in the majority of the literature. It appears that: -) generalized geometry is a natural extension of differential geometry, -) we have brackets, metrics, spinors etc, in generalized geometry, and -) N=1 vacuum equations look more natural in this language. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (author)
System Analysis Theory and Applications
Zgurovsky, Mikhail Z
2007-01-01
The foundations of system analysis as an applied scientific methodology assigned for the investigation of complex and highly interdisciplinary problems are provided in this monograph. The basic definitions and the methodological and theoretical basis of formalization and solution processes in various subject domains are presented. The methods of formalizing the system tasks and reducing them to a solvable form under real-world conditions and by taking into account e.g. sets of contradictory purposes, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of information, different kinds of uncertainties
Geometrical hyperbolic systems for general relativity and gauge theories
Abrahams, A M; Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W
1996-01-01
The evolution equations of Einstein's theory and of Maxwell's theory---the latter used as a simple model to illustrate the former--- are written in gauge covariant first order symmetric hyperbolic form with only physically natural characteristic directions and speeds for the dynamical variables. Quantities representing gauge degrees of freedom [the spatial shift vector \\beta^{i}(t,x^{j}) and the spatial scalar potential \\phi(t,x^{j}), respectively] are not among the dynamical variables: the gauge and the physical quantities in the evolution equations are effectively decoupled. For example, the gauge quantities could be obtained as functions of (t,x^{j}) from subsidiary equations that are not part of the evolution equations. Propagation of certain (``radiative'') dynamical variables along the physical light cone is gauge invariant while the remaining dynamical variables are dragged along the axes orthogonal to the spacelike time slices by the propagating variables. We obtain these results by (1) taking a furth...
Cosmological Theories of Special and General Relativity - II
Carmeli, M
2004-01-01
Astronomers measure distances to faraway galaxies and their velocities. They do that in order to determine the expansion rate of the Universe. In Part I of these lectures the foundations of the theory of the expansion of the Universe was given. In this part we present the theory. A formula for the distance of the galaxy in terms of its velocity is given. It is very simple: $r(v)=c\\tau/\\beta\\sinh\\beta v/c$, where $\\tau$ is the Big Bang time, $\\beta =\\sqrt{1-\\Omega_m}$, and $\\Omega_m$ is the mass density of the Universe. For $\\Omega_m<1$ this formula clearly indicates that the Universe is expanding with acceleration, as experiments clearly show.
Quantitative test of general theories of the intrinsic laser linewidth
Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Johnson, Steven G; Stone, A Douglas
2015-01-01
We perform a first-principles calculation of the quantum-limited laser linewidth, testing the predictions of recently developed theories of the laser linewidth based on fluctuations about the known steady-state laser solutions against traditional forms of the Schawlow-Townes linewidth. The numerical study is based on finite-difference time-domain simulations of the semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch lasing equations, augmented with Langevin force terms, and thus includes the effects of dispersion, losses due to the open boundary of the laser cavity, and non-linear coupling between the amplitude and phase fluctuations ($\\alpha$ factor). We find quantitative agreement between the numerical results and the predictions of the noisy steady-state ab initio laser theory (N-SALT), both in the variation of the linewidth with output power, as well as the emergence of side-peaks due to relaxation oscillations.
Geometric measure theory and real analysis
2014-01-01
In 2013, a school on Geometric Measure Theory and Real Analysis, organized by G. Alberti, C. De Lellis and myself, took place at the Centro De Giorgi in Pisa, with lectures by V. Bogachev, R. Monti, E. Spadaro and D. Vittone. The book collects the notes of the courses. The courses provide a deep and up to date insight on challenging mathematical problems and their recent developments: infinite-dimensional analysis, minimal surfaces and isoperimetric problems in the Heisenberg group, regularity of sub-Riemannian geodesics and the regularity theory of minimal currents in any dimension and codimension.
Harmonic analysis and the theory of probability
Bochner, Salomon
2005-01-01
Nineteenth-century studies of harmonic analysis were closely linked with the work of Joseph Fourier on the theory of heat and with that of P. S. Laplace on probability. During the 1920s, the Fourier transform developed into one of the most effective tools of modern probabilistic research; conversely, the demands of the probability theory stimulated further research into harmonic analysis.Mathematician Salomon Bochner wrote a pair of landmark books on the subject in the 1930s and 40s. In this volume, originally published in 1955, he adopts a more probabilistic view and emphasizes stochastic pro
A generalized theory for eccentric and misalignment effects in high-pressure annular seals
Chen, W. C.; Jackson, E. D.
1986-01-01
High-pressure annular seal leakage and dynamic coefficients vary with eccentricity and misalignment. Recent seal leakage data with both concentric and fully eccentric alignments support the seal leakage model with surface roughness and eccentricity effects included. In this paper, the seal dynamic coefficient calculation has been generalized and allows direct calculation of the seal dynamic coefficients at any circumferential location. The generalized solution agrees with the results obtained by using the calculated values of an earlier paper and performing a coordinate transformation. The analysis results coincide with the measured data in showing that the stiffness and damping matrices of seal coefficients are not skew symmetric, and the main diagonal seal coefficients are not equal. The measured direct stiffnesses were found higher than predicted by the concentric seal theory, but this may be explained by the presence of eccentricity in the test operating mode.
Symmetry relations in the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory for lossless negative refractive index media
André Ambrosio, Leonardo
2016-09-01
In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory for negative refractive index (NRI) media and spherical scatterers, extending the well-known concepts and definitions found in the literature involving dielectric or positive refractive index (PRI) particles. The consequences of a negative phase velocity and an anti-parallelism of the wave vector with respect to the Poynting vector are investigated and interpreted in this framework and, together with the symmetries found for the beam-shape coefficients when compared to the conventional PRI case, it is shown that the description of plane waves, Gaussian beams and, more generally, on-axis azimuthally symmetric waves along a NRI medium, their fields and all physical properties can be conveniently correlated with that of dielectric media once the electromagnetic response functions are replaced by their corresponding dielectric counterparts.
A Theory of the Perturbed Consumer with General Budgets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McFadden, Daniel L; Fosgerau, Mogens
subgradients with respect to these perturbations are convex hulls of the utility-maximizing demands. We give necessary as well as sufficient conditions for DGF to be consistent with utility maximization, and establish under quite general conditions that utility-maximizing demands are almost everywhere single......We consider demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers facing general budget constraints whose utilities are perturbed by additive linear shifts in marginal utilities. Budgets are required to be compact but are not required to be convex. We define demand generating functions (DGF) whose...
Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry
2016-01-01
The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…
General proof of entropy principle in Einstein-Maxwell theory
Fang, Xiongjun
2015-01-01
We consider a static self-gravitating charged perfect fluid system in the Einstein-Maxwell theory. Assume Maxwell's equation and the Einstein constraint equation are satisfied, and the temperature of the fluid obeys Tolman's law. Then we prove that the total entropy of the fluid achieves an extremum implies other components of Einstein's equation for any variations of metric and electrical potential with fixed boundary values. Conversely, if Einstein's equation and Maxwell's equations hold, the total entropy achieves an extremum. Our work suggests that the maximum entropy principle is consistent with Einstein's equation when electric field is taken into account.
The Impact of Labov's Contribution to general Linguistic Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Frans; Cornips, Leonie
2016-01-01
century which is Chomskyan theoretical linguistics, i.e. as either a supplement or an alternative. Variation at the level of closely related languages, at the level of the language community, and at the level of the individual, have all been treated by Chomskyans under various headings, thus giving...... evidence that empirical results stemming from variationist sociolinguistics cannot be ignored. However, the treatment has not led to an integration of variation into Chomskyan theory, nor could it. In the final section we outline what a Labovian materialist alternative to Chomskyan idealism could be. We...
Generalize 't Hooft's quantum state of the black hole theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stating from 't Hooft's theory in which the black hole is treated as quantum states with high degeneracy with considerations of the quantum effect of the black hole and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the authors find out that the coordinations near horizon are noncommutative. Using the noncommutative field method, the authors study the non-extreme Reissner-nordstroem macro-black hole, and successfully calculate the black hole entropy and the Hawking temperature. The authors also predict the number of the dynamical freedom of the field and our quantum horizon model supports the Minimal Super-symmetric Standard Model. (authors)
The General Theory of Homogenization A Personalized Introduction
Tartar, Luc
2010-01-01
Homogenization is not about periodicity, or Gamma-convergence, but about understanding which effective equations to use at macroscopic level, knowing which partial differential equations govern mesoscopic levels, without using probabilities (which destroy physical reality); instead, one uses various topologies of weak type, the G-convergence of Sergio Spagnolo, the H-convergence of Francois Murat and the author, and some responsible for the appearance of nonlocal effects, which many theories in continuum mechanics or physics guessed wrongly. For a better understanding of 20th century science,
Contest dynamics general biomechanical theory of contest sports
Sacripanti, Attilio
2008-01-01
In this report it is approched the Contest dynamics as mathematical theory, therefore applicable to all contest sports. Starting with the physical definition of Athlete and Couple of Athlete systems and after singling out the interaction basic parameter, there are analyzed the classes of possible potentials describing the interaction. At the end there are specified the physical bases of mutual interaction between athletes and the trajectories of flight motion. All the matter will be connected to measurable quantities or parameters useful for researchers and trainers.
Generalizations of Karp's theorem to elastic scattering theory
Tuong, Ha-Duong
Karp's theorem states that if the far field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle in R2 is invariant under the group of rotations, then the scatterer is a circle. The theorem is generalized to the elastic scattering problems and the axisymmetric scatterers in R3.
Towards a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems
Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Bujorianu, M.C.
2008-01-01
In this paper we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Mark
Toward a General Theory of Stochastic Hybrid Systems
Bujorianu, L.M.; Lygeros, J.; Blom, H.A.P.; Lygeros, J.
2006-01-01
In this chapter we set up a mathematical structure, called Markov string, to obtaining a very general class of models for stochastic hybrid systems. Markov Strings are, in fact, a class of Markov processes, obtained by a mixing mechanism of stochastic processes, introduced by Meyer. We prove that Ma
Generalized semi-infinite programming: Theory and methods
Still, G.
1999-01-01
Generalized semi-infinite optimization problems (GSIP) are considered. The difference between GSIP and standard semi-infinite problems (SIP) is illustrated by examples. By applying the `Reduction Ansatz', optimality conditions for GSIP are derived. Numerical methods for solving GSIP are considered i
Instability of Static Semi-Closed Worlds in Generalized Galileon Theories
Evseev, O A
2016-01-01
We consider generalized Galileon theories within general relativity in four-dimensional space-time. We provide the argument showing that the generalized Galileons described by a wide class of Lagrangians do not admit stable, static, spherically symmetric semi-closed worlds. We also show that in a class of theories with $p_{\\perp} = - \\rho$ (where $p_{\\perp}$ is transverse pressure and $\\rho$ is energy density), semi-closed worlds, if exist, would be observed as objects of negative mass.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄兴国
2011-01-01
普通高校高职思想政治理论课是对大学生进行系统思想政治教育的主阵地,但目前基于各种原因还存在一些问题。我们应充分认识高职思想政治理论课的意义和特点,分析其中存在的问题,提出增强其实效的路径,这样才有利于思想政治教育目标实现。%Higher vocational ideological and political theory course in genegal colleges is the main front for ideological and political education,but for various reasons,there still exist some problems.A fully understanding of the meaning and characteristics of higher vocational ideological and political theory course and the analysis of the problems existing are of great help to propose the path to enhance its effectiveness and achieve the goal of ideological and political education.
Functional data analysis of generalized regression quantiles
Guo, Mengmeng
2013-11-05
Generalized regression quantiles, including the conditional quantiles and expectiles as special cases, are useful alternatives to the conditional means for characterizing a conditional distribution, especially when the interest lies in the tails. We develop a functional data analysis approach to jointly estimate a family of generalized regression quantiles. Our approach assumes that the generalized regression quantiles share some common features that can be summarized by a small number of principal component functions. The principal component functions are modeled as splines and are estimated by minimizing a penalized asymmetric loss measure. An iterative least asymmetrically weighted squares algorithm is developed for computation. While separate estimation of individual generalized regression quantiles usually suffers from large variability due to lack of sufficient data, by borrowing strength across data sets, our joint estimation approach significantly improves the estimation efficiency, which is demonstrated in a simulation study. The proposed method is applied to data from 159 weather stations in China to obtain the generalized quantile curves of the volatility of the temperature at these stations. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The chase after a world formula is presently the most iridescent task for natural science. By the development of a radical new scientistic theory, unifying not only relativity and quantum theory as also astrophysics and string theory to a common view, the author lances the first serious candidate for a TOE (Theory of Everything) in the scientific discussion. The General Theory of Duality (GDT) offers not only surprising answers to fundamental questions of physics, but also discovers the smallest component of our universe, which is still known since a longer time, which we ignored: Planck's Constant. May be possible that by this book a new world view in physics can be created. (GL)
Generalization of entropy based divergence measures for symbolic sequence analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel A Ré
Full Text Available Entropy based measures have been frequently used in symbolic sequence analysis. A symmetrized and smoothed form of Kullback-Leibler divergence or relative entropy, the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD, is of particular interest because of its sharing properties with families of other divergence measures and its interpretability in different domains including statistical physics, information theory and mathematical statistics. The uniqueness and versatility of this measure arise because of a number of attributes including generalization to any number of probability distributions and association of weights to the distributions. Furthermore, its entropic formulation allows its generalization in different statistical frameworks, such as, non-extensive Tsallis statistics and higher order Markovian statistics. We revisit these generalizations and propose a new generalization of JSD in the integrated Tsallis and Markovian statistical framework. We show that this generalization can be interpreted in terms of mutual information. We also investigate the performance of different JSD generalizations in deconstructing chimeric DNA sequences assembled from bacterial genomes including that of E. coli, S. enterica typhi, Y. pestis and H. influenzae. Our results show that the JSD generalizations bring in more pronounced improvements when the sequences being compared are from phylogenetically proximal organisms, which are often difficult to distinguish because of their compositional similarity. While small but noticeable improvements were observed with the Tsallis statistical JSD generalization, relatively large improvements were observed with the Markovian generalization. In contrast, the proposed Tsallis-Markovian generalization yielded more pronounced improvements relative to the Tsallis and Markovian generalizations, specifically when the sequences being compared arose from phylogenetically proximal organisms.
Generalization of entropy based divergence measures for symbolic sequence analysis.
Ré, Miguel A; Azad, Rajeev K
2014-01-01
Entropy based measures have been frequently used in symbolic sequence analysis. A symmetrized and smoothed form of Kullback-Leibler divergence or relative entropy, the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD), is of particular interest because of its sharing properties with families of other divergence measures and its interpretability in different domains including statistical physics, information theory and mathematical statistics. The uniqueness and versatility of this measure arise because of a number of attributes including generalization to any number of probability distributions and association of weights to the distributions. Furthermore, its entropic formulation allows its generalization in different statistical frameworks, such as, non-extensive Tsallis statistics and higher order Markovian statistics. We revisit these generalizations and propose a new generalization of JSD in the integrated Tsallis and Markovian statistical framework. We show that this generalization can be interpreted in terms of mutual information. We also investigate the performance of different JSD generalizations in deconstructing chimeric DNA sequences assembled from bacterial genomes including that of E. coli, S. enterica typhi, Y. pestis and H. influenzae. Our results show that the JSD generalizations bring in more pronounced improvements when the sequences being compared are from phylogenetically proximal organisms, which are often difficult to distinguish because of their compositional similarity. While small but noticeable improvements were observed with the Tsallis statistical JSD generalization, relatively large improvements were observed with the Markovian generalization. In contrast, the proposed Tsallis-Markovian generalization yielded more pronounced improvements relative to the Tsallis and Markovian generalizations, specifically when the sequences being compared arose from phylogenetically proximal organisms.
A generalized theory on the penetrating boundary conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A generalized formula for penetrating boundary conditions is derived based on the Z-transform. The well-known absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs), such as the Mur's ABC, and Liao's ABC, can be deduced from the formula. Furthermore, some new ABCs can also be deduced from it. The stability of these ABCs are demonstrated via Von Neumann method and their validity is verified by numerical examples.
On the algebraic structure of isotropic generalized elasticity theories
AUFFRAY, Nicolas
2013-01-01
In this paper the algebraic structure of the isotropic nth-order gradient elasticity is investigated. In the classical isotropic elasticity it is well-known that the constitutive relation can be broken down into two uncoupled relations between elementary part of the strain and the stress tensors (deviatoric and spherical). In this paper we demonstrate that this result can not be generalized and since 2nd-order isotropic elasticity there exist couplings between elementary parts of higher-order...
On the algebraical structure of isotropic generalized elasticity theories
AUFFRAY, Nicolas
2013-01-01
International audience In this paper the algebraical structure of the isotropic nth-order gradient elasticity is investigated. In the classical isotropic elasticity it is well-known that the constitutive relation can be broken down into two uncoupled relations between elementary part of the strain and the stress tensors (deviatoric and spherical). In this paper we demonstrate that this result can not be generalized and since 2nd-order isotropic elasticity there exist couplings between elem...
The theory of matrices in numerical analysis
Householder, Alston S
2006-01-01
This text explores aspects of matrix theory that are most useful in developing and appraising computational methods for solving systems of linear equations and for finding characteristic roots. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it assumes an understanding of the general principles of matrix algebra, including the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, characteristic roots and vectors, and linear dependence.An introductory chapter covers the Lanczos algorithm, orthogonal polynomials, and determinantal identities. Succeeding chapters examine norms, bounds, and convergence; localizati
Colombeau's generalized functions and non-standard analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using some methods of the Non-Standard Analysis we modify one of Colombeau's classes of generalized functions. As a result we define a class ε-circumflex of the so-called meta-functions which possesses all good properties of Colombeau's generalized functions, i.e. (i) ε-circumflex is an associative and commutative algebra over the system of the so-called complex meta-numbers C-circumflex; (ii) Every meta-function has partial derivatives of any order (which are meta-functions again); (iii) Every meta-function is integrable on any compact set of Rn and the integral is a number from C-circumflex; (iv) ε-circumflex contains all tempered distributions S', i.e. S' is contained in ε' isomorphically with respect to all linear operations (including the differentiation). Thus, within the class ε-circumflex the problem of multiplication of the tempered distributions is satisfactorily solved (every two distributions in S' have a well-defined product in ε-circumflex). The crucial point is that C-circumflex is a field in contrast to the system of Colombeau's generalized numbers C-bar which is a ring only (C-bar is the counterpart of C-circumflex in Colombeau's theory). In this way we simplify and improve slightly the properties of the integral and notion of ''values of the meta-functions'' as well as the properties of the whole class ε-circumflex itself if compared with the original Colombeau theory. And, what is maybe more important, we clarify the connection between the Non-Standard Analysis and Colombeau's theory of new generalized functions in the framework of which the problem of multiplication of distributions was recently solved. (author). 14 refs
Algebric generalization of symmetry Dirac bracket. Application to field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The A set of observable of a physical system with finite e infinite number of degrees of freedom and submitted to certain constraint conditions, is considered. Using jordan algebra structure on A in relation to bymmetric Poisson bracket obtained by Droz-Vincent, a jordan product is obtained on the A/I quocient set with regard to I ideal generated by constraints of second class. It is shown that this product on A/I corresponds to symmetric Dirac bracket. The developed formulation is applied to a system corresponding to harmonic oscillators, non relativistic field, Rarita-Schwinger field and the possibility of its utilization in fermionic string theories is discussed. (M.C.K.)
Multi-attribute utility theory. Toward a more general framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Optimizing maintenance programs for nuclear power plants is a difficult task. Beyond the reliability of the systems at hand, one has to consider several conflicting objectives such as safety, availability, maintenance costs, personal exposure to radiations, all under risk. Multi-Attributed Utility Theory is a widely used framework to cope with such problems. This procedure is, however, based on a set of axioms which imply an expected utility treatment of risk. It has been shown elsewhere that the risk structure to be considered in such cases does not correspond to behavior consistent with such a treatment of risk, but would rather correspond to a rank dependent evaluation type of model. The question raised is then how to use a multi-attributed scheme of preferences under such conditions. (author)
Correspondence analysis theory, practice and new strategies
Beh, Eric J
2014-01-01
A comprehensive overview of the internationalisation of correspondence analysis Correspondence Analysis: Theory, Practice and New Strategies examines the key issues of correspondence analysis, and discusses the new advances that have been made over the last 20 years. The main focus of this book is to provide a comprehensive discussion of some of the key technical and practical aspects of correspondence analysis, and to demonstrate how they may be put to use. Particular attention is given to the history and mathematical links of the developments made. These links include not just those majo
An Introduction to Wavelet Theory and Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miner, N.E.
1998-10-01
This report reviews the history, theory and mathematics of wavelet analysis. Examination of the Fourier Transform and Short-time Fourier Transform methods provides tiormation about the evolution of the wavelet analysis technique. This overview is intended to provide readers with a basic understanding of wavelet analysis, define common wavelet terminology and describe wavelet amdysis algorithms. The most common algorithms for performing efficient, discrete wavelet transforms for signal analysis and inverse discrete wavelet transforms for signal reconstruction are presented. This report is intended to be approachable by non- mathematicians, although a basic understanding of engineering mathematics is necessary.
Dimensional analysis and group theory in astrophysics
Kurth, Rudolf
2013-01-01
Dimensional Analysis and Group Theory in Astrophysics describes how dimensional analysis, refined by mathematical regularity hypotheses, can be applied to purely qualitative physical assumptions. The book focuses on the continuous spectral of the stars and the mass-luminosity relationship. The text discusses the technique of dimensional analysis, covering both relativistic phenomena and the stellar systems. The book also explains the fundamental conclusion of dimensional analysis, wherein the unknown functions shall be given certain specified forms. The Wien and Stefan-Boltzmann Laws can be si
Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis
McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan
2013-01-01
This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…
Bivariate drought analysis using entropy theory
Hao, Zengchao; Singh, Vijay P
2012-01-01
Drought analysis is important for water resources planning and management. Drought duration and severity are two main characteristics that have often been used for drought analysis, which can be defined using run theory with hydrological variables (e. g., streamflow). A traditional way to characterize the drought duration or severity is based on fitting a probability density function. The drought duration can be modeled by a geometric distribution (discrete) or an exponential distribution ...
Relationship of gauge gravitation theory in Riemann-Cartan spacetime and general relativity theory
Minkevich, A V
2016-01-01
The simplest variant of gauge gravitation theory in Riemann-Cartan spacetime leading to the solution of the problem of cosmological singularity and dark energy problem is investigated. It is shown that this theory by certain restrictions on indefinite parameters of gravitational Lagrangian in the case of usual gravitating systems leads to Einstein gravitational equations with effective cosmological constant.
Some open questions in the theory of generalized permutable subgroups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
A subgroup H of a group G is said to be weakly s-supplemented in G if H has a supplement T in G such that H ∩ T HsG, where HsG is the largest s-permutable subgroup of G contained in H. This paper constructs an example to show that the open questions 6.3 and 6.4 in J Algebra, 315: 192–209 (2007) have negative solutions, and shows that in many cases Question 6.4 is positive. A series of known results are unified and generalized.
An Integration of General Relativity and Relativistic Quantum Theory
Johnson, Joseph E
2016-01-01
In previous work, the author extended the Poincare Lie algebra to include a four position operator as a natural extension to a large fifteen parameter Lie algebra of operators. We here propose to generalize the metric contained in those structure constants to be the Riemann metric as determined by Einstein's equations from the energy momentum tensor. This gives a new type of "Lie" algebra whose structure constants are space-time dependent. One obtains a new type of uncertainty principle in strong gravitational fields and an altered spectra for the hydrogen atom.
A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity
Everitt, C. W. F.
1978-01-01
Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.
Univariate and multivariate general linear models theory and applications with SAS
Kim, Kevin
2006-01-01
Reviewing the theory of the general linear model (GLM) using a general framework, Univariate and Multivariate General Linear Models: Theory and Applications with SAS, Second Edition presents analyses of simple and complex models, both univariate and multivariate, that employ data sets from a variety of disciplines, such as the social and behavioral sciences.With revised examples that include options available using SAS 9.0, this expanded edition divides theory from applications within each chapter. Following an overview of the GLM, the book introduces unrestricted GLMs to analyze multiple regr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classification of second order symmetric tensors in general relativity theory is examined. Having defined the tensors to be classified and considered their role in Einstein's theory, the theory of bivectors is introduced. Known methods of classifying Weyl and Ricci tensors are discussed and spaces admitting symmetries and in particular the restrictions imposed on the Ricci tensor by locally isotropic space-times are considered. Finally the classifications of the Ricci tensor due to Ludwig and Scanlon and Penrose are investigated. (U.K.)
Symmetries in tetrad theories. [of gravitational fields and general relativity
Chinea, F. J.
1988-01-01
The isometry conditions for gravitational fields are given directly at the tetrad level, rather than in terms of the metric. As an illustration, an analysis of the curvature collineations and Killing fields for a twisting type-N vacuum gravitational field is made.
Toward a general theory of conical intersections in systems of identical nuclei
Keating, Sean P.; Mead, C. Alden
1987-02-01
It has been shown previously that the Herzberg-Longuet-Higgins sign change produced in Born-Oppenheimer electronic wave functions when the nuclei traverse a closed path around a conical intersection has implications for the symmetry of wave functions under permutations of identical nuclei. For systems of three or four identical nuclei, there are special features present which have facilitated the detailed analysis. The present paper reports progress toward a general theory for systems of n nuclei. For n=3 or 4, the two key functions which locate conical intersections and define compensating phase factors can conveniently be defined so as to transform under permutations according to a two-dimensional irreducible representation of the permutation group. Since such representations do not exist for n>4, we have chosen to develop a formalism in terms of lab-fixed electronic basis functions, and we show how to define the two key functions in principle. The functions so defined both turn out to be totally symmetric under permutations. We show how they can be used to define compensating phase factors so that all modified electronic wave functions are either totally symmetric or totally antisymmetric under permutations. A detailed analysis is made to cyclic permutations in the neighborhood of Dnh symmetry, which can be extended by continuity arguments to more general configurations, and criteria are obtained for sign changes. There is a qualitative discussion of the treatment of more general permutations.
General theory of intraband relaxation processes in heavily doped graphene
Kupčić, I.
2015-05-01
The frequency and wave-vector-dependent memory function in the longitudinal conductivity tensor of weakly interacting electronic systems is calculated by using an approach based on quantum transport equations. In this paper, we show that there is a close relation between the single-electron self-energy, the electron-hole pair self-energy, and the memory function. It is also shown in which way singular long-range Coulomb interactions, together with other q ≈0 scattering processes, drop out of both the memory function and the related transport equations. The theory is illustrated on heavily doped graphene, which is the prototype of weakly interacting single-band electron-phonon systems. A steplike increase of the width of the quasiparticle peak in angle-resolved photoemission spectra at frequencies of the order of the frequency of in-plane optical phonons is shown to be consistent with the behavior of an intraband plasmon peak in the energy loss spectroscopy spectra. Both anomalies can be understood as a direct consequence of weak electron scattering from in-plane optical phonons.
T-equivariant K-theory of generalized flag varieties.
Kostant, B; Kumar, S
1987-07-01
Let G be a Kac-Moody group with Borel subgroup B and compact maximal torus T. Analogous to Kostant and Kumar [Kostant, B. & Kumar, S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 1543-1545], we define a certain ring Y, purely in terms of the Weyl group W (associated to G) and its action on T. By dualizing Y we get another ring Psi, which, we prove, is "canonically" isomorphic with the T-equivariant K-theory K(T)(G/B) of G/B. Now K(T)(G/B), apart from being an algebra over K(T)(pt.) approximately A(T), also has a Weyl group action and, moreover, K(T)(G/B) admits certain operators {D(w)}w[unk]W similar to the Demazure operators defined on A(T). We prove that these structures on K(T)(G/B) come naturally from the ring Y. By "evaluating" the A(T)-module Psi at 1, we recover K(G/B) together with the above-mentioned structures. We believe that many of the results of this paper are new in the finite case (i.e., G is a finite-dimensional semisimple group over C) as well. PMID:16593856
General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction
Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.
2015-05-01
The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.
General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s−1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction. (paper)
Interior point algorithms theory and analysis
Ye, Yinyu
2011-01-01
The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.
Noncommutative analysis, operator theory and applications
Cipriani, Fabio; Colombo, Fabrizio; Guido, Daniele; Sabadini, Irene; Sauvageot, Jean-Luc
2016-01-01
This book illustrates several aspects of the current research activity in operator theory, operator algebras and applications in various areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. It is addressed to specialists but also to graduate students in several fields including global analysis, Schur analysis, complex analysis, C*-algebras, noncommutative geometry, operator algebras, operator theory and their applications. Contributors: F. Arici, S. Bernstein, V. Bolotnikov, J. Bourgain, P. Cerejeiras, F. Cipriani, F. Colombo, F. D'Andrea, G. Dell'Antonio, M. Elin, U. Franz, D. Guido, T. Isola, A. Kula, L.E. Labuschagne, G. Landi, W.A. Majewski, I. Sabadini, J.-L. Sauvageot, D. Shoikhet, A. Skalski, H. de Snoo, D. C. Struppa, N. Vieira, D.V. Voiculescu, and H. Woracek.
Suicidality among Students: An Experiment of Agnew\\\\\\'s General Strain Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akbar Aliverdinia
2014-05-01
This study examined the impacts of several variables from Agnew’s general strain theory on suicidality. The results suggest that general strain theory is to some extent effective in explaining students' suicidality and can provide a theoretical model for studying suicide. The results of the study show that there is direct and significant relationship between removal of positive stimuli and suicidality, in the sense that by increasing in the likelihood of this variable, the rate of suicidality also increases. So when a person tries to deal with removal of positive stimuli, he or she is more likely to engage in deviant behaviors such as suicide. The results also suggest that students with status strain are more likely to experience suicidality. Likewise, students with relational strain are more likely to experience suicidality. A person who is exposed to more negative relationships with others, will be more likely to committee suicide. Thus, the findings suggest that a positive relationship with family and peers is an important protective factor against suicidality. Multiple regression analysis also shows that independent variables of this study are strong predictors of suicidality, they include removal of positive stimulus (beta coefficient=0/147, status strain (beta coefficient=0/140, relational strain (beta coefficient=0/127.
Numerical verification of similar Cam-clay model based on generalized potential theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钟志辉; 杨光华; 傅旭东; 温勇; 张玉成
2014-01-01
From the mathematical principles, the generalized potential theory can be employed to create constitutive model of geomaterial directly. The similar Cam-clay model, which is created based on the generalized potential theory, has less assumptions, clearer mathematical basis, and better computational accuracy. Theoretically, it is more scientific than the traditional Cam-clay models. The particle flow code PFC3D was used to make numerical tests to verify the rationality and practicality of the similar Cam-clay model. The verification process was as follows: 1) creating the soil sample for numerical test in PFC3D, and then simulating the conventional triaxial compression test, isotropic compression test, and isotropic unloading test by PFC3D; 2) determining the parameters of the similar Cam-clay model from the results of above tests; 3) predicting the sample’s behavior in triaxial tests under different stress paths by the similar Cam-clay model, and comparing the predicting results with predictions by the Cam-clay model and the modified Cam-clay model. The analysis results show that the similar Cam-clay model has relatively high prediction accuracy, as well as good practical value.
Are Singularities Integral to General Theory of Relativity?
Krori, K.; Dutta, S.
2011-11-01
Since the 1960s the general relativists have been deeply obsessed with the possibilities of GTR singularities - blackhole as well as cosmological singularities. Senovilla, for the first time, followed by others, showed that there are cylindrically symmetric cosmological space-times which are free of singularities. On the other hand, Krori et al. have presently shown that spherically symmetric cosmological space-times - which later reduce to FRW space-times may also be free of singularities. Besides, Mitra has in the mean-time come forward with some realistic calculations which seem to rule out the possibility of a blackhole singularity. So whether singularities are integral to GTR seems to come under a shadow.
Relation between quantum effects in General Relativity and embedding theory
Paston, S A
2015-01-01
We present results relevant to the relation between quantum effects in a Riemannian space and on the surface appearing as a result of its isometric embedding in a flat space of a higher dimension. We discuss the mapping between the Hawking effect fixed by an observer in the Riemannian space with a horizon and the Unruh effect related to an accelerated motion of this observer in the ambient space. We present examples for which this mapping holds and examples for which there is no mapping. We describe the general form of the hyperbolic embedding of the metric with a horizon smoothly covering the horizon and prove that there is a Hawking into Unruh mapping for this embedding. We also discuss the possibility of relating two-point functions in a Riemannian space and the ambient space in which it is embedded. We obtain restrictions on the geometric parameters of the embedding for which such a relation is known.
On the algebraic structure of isotropic generalized elasticity theories
Auffray, Nicolas
2013-01-01
In this paper the algebraic structure of the isotropic nth-order gradient elasticity is investigated. In the classical isotropic elasticity it is well-known that the constitutive relation can be broken down into two uncoupled relations between elementary part of the strain and the stress tensors (deviatoric and spherical). In this paper we demonstrate that this result can not be generalized and since 2nd-order isotropic elasticity there exist couplings between elementary parts of higher-order strain and stress tensors. Therefore, and in certain way, nth-order isotropic elasticity have the same kind of algebraic structure as anisotropic classical elasticity. This structure is investigated in the case of 2nd-order isotropic elasticity, and moduli characterizing the behavior are provided.
THEORY AND APPLICATION OF WAVELET ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT LIBRARY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BO Lin; QIN Shuren; LIU Xiaofeng
2006-01-01
Some new theory and algorithms on wavelet analysis are proposed, including continuous wavelet transform (CWT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet package transform (WPT),wavelet denosing and mother wavelet selection, etc. Using the component-based hierarchy mode, the platform for virtual instrument (Ⅵ) is constructed, and the functions such as data sampling, data analysis and data present, etc are provided. Subsequently, the wavelet analysis library is designed and developed. The library consists of expert system, experienced database, development platform and abundant wavelet analysis functional module, which together implement general and special wavelet analysis in the field of mechanical engineering, energy source, transportation and biomedicine, etc.Finally, the wavelet analysis virtual instrument library is applied to detect fault called engine knock.Experimental result indicates that the wavelet analysis virtual instrument library can efficiently solve the engineering problem such as detecting engine knock.
General theory of detection of signal induced in vibrating magnetometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assuming the point dipole approximation only and making use of the vectorial notation, signal (EMF) induced in a single-turn pick-up coil of the vibrating magnetometer are calculated for the case of any orientation of the coil, of vibration axis and of the magnetic moment of the sample. On the basis of formula obtained, three types of measurement geometries have been distinquished and for these the qualitative analysis is made. (author)
Harmonic Analysis Associated with the Generalized q-Bessel Operator
Ahmed Abouelaz; Radouan Daher; El Mehdi Loualid
2016-01-01
In this article, we give a new harmonic analysis associated with the generalized q-Bessel operator. We introduce the generalized $q$-Bessel transform, the generalized q-Bessel translation and the generalized $q$-Bessel convolution product.
A generalized preimage theorem in global analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA; Jipu
2001-01-01
［1］Ma Jipu, (1.2) inverses of operators between Banach spaces and conjugacy theorem, Chinese Annals of Math., B, 1999, 20(1): 57.［2］Ma Jipu, Rank theorem of operators between Banach spaces, Science in China, Ser. A, 2000, 43(1): 1.［3］Ma Jipu, Local conjugacy theorem, rank theorems in advenced calculus and a generalized principle constructing Banach manifolds, Science in China, Ser. A, 2000, 43(12): 1233.［4］Zeidler, A. E., Nonlinear Function Analysis and Its Applications, IV: Applications to Mathematical Physics, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.
D numbers theory: a generalization of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory
Deng, Yong
2014-01-01
Efficient modeling of uncertain information in real world is still an open issue. Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is one of the most commonly used methods. However, the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory has the assumption that the hypothesis in the framework of discernment is exclusive of each other. This condition can be violated in real applications, especially in linguistic decision making since the linguistic variables are not exclusive of each others essentially. In this paper, a new theor...
General theory of peak compression in liquid chromatography.
Gritti, Fabrice
2016-02-12
A new and general expression of the peak compression factor in liquid chromatography is derived. It applies to any type of gradients induced by non-uniform columns (stationary) or by temporal variations (dynamic) of the elution strength related to changes in solvent composition, temperature, or in any external field. The new equation is validated in two ideal cases for which the exact solutions are already known. From a practical viewpoint, it is used to predict the achievable degree of peak compression for curved retention models, retained solvent gradients, and for temperature-programmed liquid chromatography. The results reveal that: (1) curved retention models affect little the compression factor with respect to the best linear strength retention models, (2) gradient peaks can be indefinitely compressed with respect to isocratic peaks if the propagation speed of the gradient (solvent or temperature) becomes smaller than the chromatographic velocity, (3) limitations are inherent to the maximum intensity of the experimental intrinsic gradient steepness, and (4) dynamic temperature gradients can be advantageously combined to solvent gradients in order to improve peak capacities of microfluidic separation devices. PMID:26805599
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oren, T.I.
1982-01-01
Simulation is viewed within the model management paradigm. Major components of simulation systems as well as elements of model management are outlined. Possible synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories are systematized. 21 references.
Generalized Electrodynamics as a Special Case of Metric Independent Stress Theory
Segev, Reuven
2014-01-01
We use a metric invariant stress theory of continuum mechanics to formulate a simple generalization of the the basic variables of electrodynamics and Maxwell's equations to general differentiable manifolds of any dimension, thus viewing generalized electrodynamics as a special case of continuum mechanics. The basic variable is the potential, or a variation thereof, which is represented as an $r$-form in a $d$-dimensional spacetime. The stress for the case of generalized electrodynamics, is as...
General relativity limit of the scalar-tensor theories for traceless matter field
Bhadra, A.
2002-01-01
$\\omega(\\phi) \\to \\infty$ limit of scalar tensor theories are studied for traceless matter source. It is shown that the limit $\\omega(\\phi) \\to \\infty$ does not reduce a scalar tensor theory to general relativity. An exact radiation solution of scalar tensor cosmology under Nordtvedt conditions is obtained for flat Friedmann universe.
Quantum Gravity in Everyday Life: General Relativity as an Effective Field Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burgess Cliff P.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This article is meant as a summary and introduction to the ideas of effective field theory as applied to gravitational systems, ideas which provide the theoretical foundations for the modern use of general relativity as a theory from which precise predictions are possible.
Seidl, Michael; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Savin, Andreas
2007-01-01
We reformulate the strong-interaction limit of electronic density functional theory in terms of a classical problem with a degenerate minimum. This allows us to clarify many aspects of this limit, and to write a general solution, which is explicitly calculated for spherical densities. We then compare our results with previous approximate solutions and discuss the implications for density functional theory.
A U(4) QCD Model Using Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; ZHONG Hai-Yang
2008-01-01
Generalized Yang-Mills theory has a covariant derivative which contains both vector and pseudoscalar gauge bosons.Based on this theory,we construct a U(4) strong interaction model By using this U(4) generalized Yang-Mills model,we obtain that mesons can be realized as the colorless pseudoscalar gauge bosons.We also obtain a gauge potential solution which can be used to explain the asymptotic behavior and color confinement.
Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J
2014-01-01
Traditional derivations of general relativity from the graviton degrees of freedom assume space-time Lorentz covariance as an axiom. In this essay, we survey recent evidence that general relativity is the unique spatially-covariant effective field theory of the transverse, traceless graviton degrees of freedom. The Lorentz covariance of general relativity, having not been assumed in our analysis, is thus plausibly interpreted as an accidental or emergent symmetry of the gravitational sector. From this point of view, Lorentz covariance is a necessary feature of low-energy graviton dynamics, not a property of space-time. This result has revolutionary implications for fundamental physics.
Information theory applications for biological sequence analysis.
Vinga, Susana
2014-05-01
Information theory (IT) addresses the analysis of communication systems and has been widely applied in molecular biology. In particular, alignment-free sequence analysis and comparison greatly benefited from concepts derived from IT, such as entropy and mutual information. This review covers several aspects of IT applications, ranging from genome global analysis and comparison, including block-entropy estimation and resolution-free metrics based on iterative maps, to local analysis, comprising the classification of motifs, prediction of transcription factor binding sites and sequence characterization based on linguistic complexity and entropic profiles. IT has also been applied to high-level correlations that combine DNA, RNA or protein features with sequence-independent properties, such as gene mapping and phenotype analysis, and has also provided models based on communication systems theory to describe information transmission channels at the cell level and also during evolutionary processes. While not exhaustive, this review attempts to categorize existing methods and to indicate their relation with broader transversal topics such as genomic signatures, data compression and complexity, time series analysis and phylogenetic classification, providing a resource for future developments in this promising area.
Arun, K G
2013-01-01
Gravitational Wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test General Relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories like Scalar-Tensor theories, Dynamical Chern-Simons theory and Massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrised gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA config...
General Stationary, Spherically-Symmetric Solutions in the Gauge Theory of Gravity
Francis, M R; Francis, Matthew R.; Kosowsky, Arthur
2003-01-01
This paper provides a concise overview of the gauge theory of gravity, as recently formulated by Lasenby, Doran, and Gull. Instead of representing gravitation via spacetime curvature, the effects of gravity are given by gauge fields in flat spacetime; the gauge group is that of Lorentz transformations plus covariance under diffeomorphisms. The resulting theory is formally similar to the Cartan formulation of general relativity, and we make detailed comparisons with conventional representations of general relativity. We provide a constructive method for solving the field equations in gauge theory gravity, and apply this method to the spherically symmetric case. The most general vacuum solution results, which explicitly displays all coordinate freedom in terms of free functions of radius. Through particular choices of these functions, our general solution reduces to all known metric representations of spherically symmetric, stationary vacuum spacetime. We also obtain the corresponding generalization of the Reis...
Analysis IV integration and spectral theory, harmonic analysis, the garden of modular delights
Godement, Roger
2015-01-01
Analysis Volume IV introduces the reader to functional analysis (integration, Hilbert spaces, harmonic analysis in group theory) and to the methods of the theory of modular functions (theta and L series, elliptic functions, use of the Lie algebra of SL2). As in volumes I to III, the inimitable style of the author is recognizable here too, not only because of his refusal to write in the compact style used nowadays in many textbooks. The first part (Integration), a wise combination of mathematics said to be modern and classical, is universally useful whereas the second part leads the reader towards a very active and specialized field of research, with possibly broad generalizations.
Theory and applications of numerical analysis
Phillips, G M
1996-01-01
This text is a self-contained Second Edition, providing an introductory account of the main topics in numerical analysis. The book emphasizes both the theorems which show the underlying rigorous mathematics andthe algorithms which define precisely how to program the numerical methods. Both theoretical and practical examples are included.* a unique blend of theory and applications* two brand new chapters on eigenvalues and splines* inclusion of formal algorithms* numerous fully worked examples* a large number of problems, many with solutions
Hartle's model within the general theory of perturbative matchings: the change in mass
Reina, Borja
2014-01-01
Hartle's model provides the most widely used analytic framework to describe isolated compact bodies rotating slowly in equilibrium up to second order in perturbations in the context of General Relativity. Apart from some explicit assumptions, there are some implicit, like the "continuity" of the functions in the perturbed metric across the surface of the body. In this work we sketch the basics for the analysis of the second order problem using the modern theory of perturbed matchings. In particular, the result we present is that when the energy density of the fluid in the static configuration does not vanish at the boundary, one of the functions of the second order perturbation in the setting of the original work by Hartle is not continuous. This discrepancy affects the calculation of the change in mass of the rotating star with respect to the static configuration needed to keep the central energy density unchanged.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashworth Mark
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-adherence to clinical guidelines has been identified as a consistent finding in general practice. The purpose of this study was to develop theory-informed, computer-delivered interventions to promote the implementation of guidelines in general practice. Specifically, our aim was to develop computer-delivered prompts to promote guideline adherence for antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections (RTIs, and adherence to recommendations for secondary stroke prevention. Methods A qualitative design was used involving 33 face-to-face interviews with general practitioners (GPs. The prompts used in the interventions were initially developed using aspects of social cognitive theory, drawing on nationally recommended standards for clinical content. The prompts were then presented to GPs during interviews, and iteratively modified and refined based on interview feedback. Inductive thematic analysis was employed to identify responses to the prompts and factors involved in the decision to use them. Results GPs reported being more likely to use the prompts if they were perceived as offering support and choice, but less likely to use them if they were perceived as being a method of enforcement. Attitudes towards using the prompts were also related to anticipated patient outcomes, individual prescriber differences, accessibility and presentation of prompts and acceptability of guidelines. Comments on the prompts were largely positive after modifying them based on participant feedback. Conclusions Acceptability and satisfaction with computer-delivered prompts to follow guidelines may be increased by working with practitioners to ensure that the prompts will be perceived as valuable tools that can support GPs' practice.
Stationary Black Holes in a Generalized Three-Dimensional Theory of Gravity
Sá, P M
1998-01-01
We consider a generalized three-dimensional theory of gravity which is specified by two fields, the graviton and the dilaton, and one parameter. This theory contains, as particular cases, three-dimensional General Relativity and three-dimensional String Theory. Stationary black hole solutions are generated from the static ones using a simple coordinate transformation. The stationary black holes solutions thus obtained are locally equivalent to the corresponding static ones, but globally distinct. The mass and angular momentum of the stationary black hole solutions are computed using an extension of the Regge and Teitelboim formalism. The causal structure of the black holes is described.
A generalized non-local optical response theory for plasmonic nanostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N. Asger; Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn;
2014-01-01
for their description. Here instead we present a comparatively simple semiclassical generalized non-local optical response theory that unifies quantum pressure convection effects and induced charge diffusion kinetics, with a concomitant complex-valued generalized non-local optical response parameter. Our theory...... mechanism that even dominates the widely anticipated short circuiting by quantum tunnelling. We anticipate that our theory can be successfully applied in plasmonics to a wide class of conducting media, including doped semiconductors and low-dimensional materials such as graphene...
A formal framework for a nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation
Hehl, Friedrich W
2009-01-01
The analogy between electrodynamics and the translational gauge theory of gravity is employed in this paper to develop an ansatz for a nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation. Working in the linear approximation, we show that the resulting nonlocal theory is equivalent to general relativity with ``dark matter''. The nature of the predicted ``dark matter'', which is the manifestation of the nonlocal character of gravity in our model, is briefly discussed. It is demonstrated that this approach can provide a basis for the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.
Compositional Data Analysis Theory and Applications
Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera
2011-01-01
This book presents the state-of-the-art in compositional data analysis and will feature a collection of papers covering theory, applications to various fields of science and software. Areas covered will range from geology, biology, environmental sciences, forensic sciences, medicine and hydrology. Key features:Provides the state-of-the-art text in compositional data analysisCovers a variety of subject areas, from geology to medicineWritten by leading researchers in the fieldIs supported by a website featuring R code
General aspects of effective field theories and few-body applications
Hammer, H -W
2016-01-01
Effective field theory provides a powerful framework to exploit a separation of scales in physical systems. In these lectures, we discuss some general aspects of effective field theories and their application to few-body physics. In particular, we consider an effective field theory for non-relativistic particles with resonant short-range interactions where certain parts of the interaction need to be treated nonperturbatively. As an application, we discuss the so-called pionless effective field theory for low-energy nuclear physics. The extension to include long-range interactions mediated by photon and pion-exchange is also addressed.
Color/kinematics duality for general abelian orbifolds of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To explore color/kinematics duality for general representations of the gauge group we formulate the duality for general abelian orbifolds of the SU(N), N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions, which have fields in the bi-fundamental representation, and use it to construct explicitly complete four-vector and four-scalar amplitudes at one loop. For fixed number of supercharges, graph-organized L-loop n-point integrands of all orbifold theories are given in terms of a fixed set of polynomials labeled by L representations of the orbifold group. In contrast to the standard duality-satisfying presentation of amplitudes of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, each graph may appear several times with different internal states. The color and R-charge flow provide a way to deform the amplitudes of orbifold theories to those of more general quiver gauge theories which do not necessarily exhibit color/kinematics duality on their own. Based on the organization of amplitudes required by the duality between color and kinematics in orbifold theories we show how the amplitudes of certain non-factorized matter-coupled supergravity theories can be found through a double-copy construction. We also carry out a comprehensive search for theories with fields solely in the adjoint representation of the gauge group and amplitudes exhibiting color/kinematics duality for all external states and find an interesting relation between supersymmetry and existence of the duality
Erlicher, Silvano; 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2005.03.022
2008-01-01
A simple way to define the flow rules of plasticity models is the assumption of generalized normality associated with a suitable pseudo-potential function. This approach, however, is not usually employed to formulate endochronic theory and non-linear kinematic (NLK) hardening rules as well as generalized plasticity models. In this paper, generalized normality is used to give a new formulation of these classes of models. As a result, a suited pseudo-potential is introduced for endochronic models and a non-standard description of NLK hardening and generalized plasticity models is also provided. This new formulation allows for an effective investigation of the relationships between these three classes of plasticity models.
General relativity the most beautiful of theories : applications and trends after 100 years
2015-01-01
Generalising Newton's law of gravitation, general relativity is one of the pillars of modern physics. On the occasion of general relativity's centennial, leading scientists in the different branches of gravitational research review the history and recent advances in the main fields of applications of the theory, which was referred to by Lev Landau as “the most beautiful of the existing physical theories”.
A new track for unifying general relativity with quantum field theories
Pierre, Christian
2005-01-01
In the perspective of unifying quantum field theories with general relativity,the equations of the internal dynamics of the vacuum and mass structures of a set of interacting particles are proved to be in one-to-one correspondence with the equations of general relativity. This leads us to envisage a high value for the cosmological constant,as expected theoretically.
Generalized Analysis of a Distribution Separation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Separating two probability distributions from a mixture model that is made up of the combinations of the two is essential to a wide range of applications. For example, in information retrieval (IR, there often exists a mixture distribution consisting of a relevance distribution that we need to estimate and an irrelevance distribution that we hope to get rid of. Recently, a distribution separation method (DSM was proposed to approximate the relevance distribution, by separating a seed irrelevance distribution from the mixture distribution. It was successfully applied to an IR task, namely pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF, where the query expansion model is often a mixture term distribution. Although initially developed in the context of IR, DSM is indeed a general mathematical formulation for probability distribution separation. Thus, it is important to further generalize its basic analysis and to explore its connections to other related methods. In this article, we first extend DSM’s theoretical analysis, which was originally based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, to entropy-related measures, including the KL-divergence (Kullback–Leibler divergence, the symmetrized KL-divergence and the JS-divergence (Jensen–Shannon divergence. Second, we investigate the distribution separation idea in a well-known method, namely the mixture model feedback (MMF approach. We prove that MMF also complies with the linear combination assumption, and then, DSM’s linear separation algorithm can largely simplify the EM algorithm in MMF. These theoretical analyses, as well as further empirical evaluation results demonstrate the advantages of our DSM approach.
Higher order Fourier analysis as an algebraic theory II
Szegedy, Balazs
2009-01-01
Our approach to higher order Fourier analysis is to study the ultra product of finite (or compact) Abelian groups on which a new algebraic theory appears. This theory has consequences on finite (or compact) groups usually in the form of approximative statements. The present paper is the second part of a paper in which higher order characters and decompositions were introduced. We generalize the concept of the Pontrjagin dual group and introduce higher order versions of it. We study the algebraic structure of the higher order dual groups. We prove a simple formula for the Gowers uniformity norms in terms of higher order decompositions. We present a simple spectral algorithm to produce higher order decompositions. We briefly study a multi linear version of Fourier analysis. Along these lines we obtain new inverse theorems for Gowers's norms.
Theory of nanolaser devices: Rate equation analysis versus microscopic theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorke, Michael; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Gregersen, Niels;
2013-01-01
A rate equation theory for quantum-dot-based nanolaser devices is developed. We show that these rate equations are capable of reproducing results of a microscopic semiconductor theory, making them an appropriate starting point for complex device simulations of nanolasers. The input...
The group aspect in the physical interpretation of general relativity theory
Antoci, Salvatore
2009-01-01
When, at the end of the year 1915, both Einstein and Hilbert arrived at what were named the field equations of general relativity, both of them thought that their fundamental achievement entailed, inter alia, the realisation of a theory of gravitation whose underlying group was the group of general coordinate transformations. This group theoretical property was believed by Einstein to be a relevant one from a physical standpoint, because the general coordinates allowed to introduce reference frames not limited to the inertial reference frames that can be associated with the Minkowski coordinate systems, whose transformation group was perceived to be restricted to the Poincar\\'e group. Two years later, however, Kretschmann published a paper in which the physical relevance of the group theoretical achievement in the general relativity of 1915 was denied. For Kretschmann, since any theory, whatever its physical content, can be rewritten in a generally covariant form, the group of general coordinate transformatio...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘韵源; 刘嘉; 周家丽; 陈元立
2000-01-01
The concept and statistical methods for weakly correlative factors, influencing the formation and development of chronic dis- eases, are proposed in this paper. By the aid of fuzzy state analysis, the Cross-Product Difference Surn(CPDS)and the Akaike's Infor- mation Criterion(AIC), a general algorithm, clustering fuzzy expo- sure levels and selecting covariates, is designed for solving problems connected with analytical abilities of detecting and recognozing weakly correlative-influencing factors.%论述了“微弱相关影响因素”概念及其在预防医学中 的重要意义，并研究了适宜处理此类资料的统计方法。借助模 糊状态概念、交叉积差和统计量和信息量寻优标准，发展了暴 露水平聚类优化、状态变量选择通用算法，可明显提高检测、识 别微弱相关影响因素的效能与统计分析水准。
A General Setting and Solution of Bellman Equation in Monetary Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli Gan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available As an important tool in theoretical economics, Bellman equation is very powerful in solving optimization problems of discrete time and is frequently used in monetary theory. Because there is not a general method to solve this problem in monetary theory, it is hard to grasp the setting and solution of Bellman equation and easy to reach wrong conclusions. In this paper, we discuss the rules and problems that should be paid attention to when incorporating money into general equilibrium models. A general setting and solution of Bellman equation in monetary theory are provided. The proposed method is clear, is easy to grasp, is generalized, and always leads to the correct results.
A Unification of General Theory of Relativity with Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Huan-Wu
2004-01-01
Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmologically combined conservation laws that work cosmologically long time. We thus modify Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to a theory for varying G, with a tensor term arising naturally from the derivatives or G in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. The modified theory, when applied to cosmology, is consistent with Dirac's large number hypothesis, and gives a theoretical Hubble's relation not contradicting the observational data.For phenomena of duration and distance being short compared with those of the universe, our theory reduces to Einstein's theory with G being constant outside the gravitating matter, and thus also passes the crucial tests of Einstein's theory.
A Unification of General Theory of Relativity with Dirac＇s Large Number Hypothesis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENGHuan-Wu
2004-01-01
Taking a hint from Dirac's large number hypothesis, we note the existence of cosmologically combined conservation laws that work cosmologically long time. We thus modify Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to a theory for varying G, with a tensor term arising naturally from the derivatives of G in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. The modified theory, when applied to cosmology, is consistent with Dirac's large number hypothesis, and gives a theoretical Hubble's relation not contradicting the observational data.For phenomena of duration and distance being short compared with those of the universe, our theory reduces to Einstein's theory with G being constant outside the gravitating matter, and thus also passes the crucial tests of Einstein's theory.
Generalized Einstein-Scalar-Maxwell theories and locally geometric U-folds
Lazaroiu, C I
2016-01-01
We give a global formulation of the coupling of four-dimensional scalar sigma models to Abelian gauge fields for the generalized situation when the "duality structure" of the Abelian gauge theory is described by a flat symplectic vector bundle $(\\mathcal{S},D,\\omega)$ defined over the scalar manifold $\\mathcal{M}$. The construction uses a taming of $(\\mathcal{S}, \\omega)$, which encodes globally the inverse gauge couplings and theta angles of the "twisted" Abelian gauge theory in a manner that makes no use of duality frames. We show that global solutions of the equations of motion of such models give classical locally geometric U-folds. We also describe the groups of duality transformations and scalar-electromagnetic symmetries arising in such models, which involve lifting isometries of $\\mathcal{M}$ to a particular class of flat automorphisms of the bundle $\\mathcal{S}$ and hence differ from expectations based on local analysis. The appropriate version of the Dirac quantization condition involves a discrete ...
Astrophysical data analysis with information field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enßlin, Torsten, E-mail: ensslin@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 München (Germany)
2014-12-05
Non-parametric imaging and data analysis in astrophysics and cosmology can be addressed by information field theory (IFT), a means of Bayesian, data based inference on spatially distributed signal fields. IFT is a statistical field theory, which permits the construction of optimal signal recovery algorithms. It exploits spatial correlations of the signal fields even for nonlinear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems. The alleviation of a perception threshold for recovering signals of unknown correlation structure by using IFT will be discussed in particular as well as a novel improvement on instrumental self-calibration schemes. IFT can be applied to many areas. Here, applications in in cosmology (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure) and astrophysics (galactic magnetism, radio interferometry) are presented.
Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.
2008-01-01
The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…
Contributions to sensitivity analysis and generalized discriminant analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two topics are studied in this thesis: sensitivity analysis and generalized discriminant analysis. Global sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model studies how the output variables of this last react to variations of its inputs. The methods based on the study of the variance quantify the part of variance of the response of the model due to each input variable and each subset of input variables. The first subject of this thesis is the impact of a model uncertainty on results of a sensitivity analysis. Two particular forms of uncertainty are studied: that due to a change of the model of reference, and that due to the use of a simplified model with the place of the model of reference. A second problem was studied during this thesis, that of models with correlated inputs. Indeed, classical sensitivity indices not having significance (from an interpretation point of view) in the presence of correlation of the inputs, we propose a multidimensional approach consisting in expressing the sensitivity of the output of the model to groups of correlated variables. Applications in the field of nuclear engineering illustrate this work. Generalized discriminant analysis consists in classifying the individuals of a test sample in groups, by using information contained in a training sample, when these two samples do not come from the same population. This work extends existing methods in a Gaussian context to the case of binary data. An application in public health illustrates the utility of generalized discrimination models thus defined. (author)
The process of theory analysis: an examination of the nursing theory of Dorothea E. Orem.
Melnyk, K A
1983-01-01
The process of theory analysis is undertaken examining the nursing theory of Dorothea E. Orem on three levels, using the analytic framework devised by Barbara J. Stevens. The commonplaces of the theory are described, the elements and principles are identified, the internal construction is examined, and the theory as a whole is then evaluated in terms of its relationship to modern nursing. PMID:6551778
The parasite-stress theory may be a general theory of culture and sociality.
Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy
2012-04-01
In the target article, we presented the hypothesis that parasite-stress variation was a causal factor in the variation of in-group assortative sociality, cross-nationally and across the United States, which we indexed with variables that measured different aspects of the strength of family ties and religiosity. We presented evidence supportive of our hypothesis in the form of analyses that controlled for variation in freedom, wealth resources, and wealth inequality across nations and the states of the USA. Here, we respond to criticisms from commentators and attempt to clarify and expand the parasite-stress theory of sociality used to fuel our research presented in the target article.
Arun, K. G.; Pai, Archana
2013-01-01
Gravitational wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test general relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories such as scalar-tensor theories, dynamical Chern-Simons theory and massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrized gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA configuration. We also compare the expected bounds on alternative theories of gravity from ground-based and space-based detectors and find that space-based GW detectors can test GR and other theories of gravity with unprecedented accuracies. We then focus on a recent proposal to use singular value decomposition of the Fisher information matrix to improve the accuracies with which post-Newtonian theory can be tested. We extend those results to the case of space-based detector eLISA and discuss its implications.
Improved generalized cell mapping for global analysis of dynamical systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Three main parts of generalized cell mapping are improved for global analysis. A simple method, which is not based on the theory of digraphs, is presented to locate complete self-cycling sets that corre- spond to attractors and unstable invariant sets involving saddle, unstable periodic orbit and chaotic saddle. Refinement for complete self-cycling sets is developed to locate attractors and unstable in- variant sets with high degree of accuracy, which can start with a coarse cell structure. A nonuniformly interior-and-boundary sampling technique is used to make the refinement robust. For homeomorphic dissipative dynamical systems, a controlled boundary sampling technique is presented to make gen- eralized cell mapping method with refinement extremely accurate to obtain invariant sets. Recursive laws of group absorption probability and expected absorption time are introduced into generalized cell mapping, and then an optimal order for quantitative analysis of transient cells is established, which leads to the minimal computational work. The improved method is applied to four examples to show its effectiveness in global analysis of dynamical systems.
Constructivism theory analysis and application to curricula.
Brandon, Amy F; All, Anita C
2010-01-01
Today's nursing programs are struggling to accommodate the changing needs of the health care environment and need to make changes in how students are taught. Using constructivism theory, whereby learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current or past knowledge, leaders in nursing education can make a paradigm shift toward concept-based curricula. This article presents a summary and analysis of constructivism and an innovative application of its active-learning principles to curriculum development, specifically for the education of nursing students.
A generalized theory of sun-climate/weather link and climatic change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We generalize the theory of Sun-Climate/weather links and climatic change developed earlier by the author. On the basis of this theory, we show mathematically that key climatic/weather parameters are continuously subjected to determinable amplitude modulations and other variations which may be useful in climatic prediction work. A number of new and known terrestrial oscillations in climate and atmospheric behaviour in general, including the known quasi-biennial oscillations and many others, are deduced from the theory and accounted for in terms of their causative physical processes. Finally we briefly discuss the possibility of applying the theory to the planets Mars and Venus as well as Saturn's largest satellite, Titan. (author). 30 refs, 1 fig
Towards the understanding of social reality in general theory of institutional facts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Alexander Giraldo Chavarriaga
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a critical interpretation of the general theory of institutional facts, which intents to comprehend, on the basis of a basic regulatory structure with functions assignments, how objective social reality is constructed. We discuss problems, approaches, and theoretical methods employed by Searle, in contrast to sociological constructivism, examining the issues of autoreferentiality of the concept of institutionality, the search for objectivity, the adoption of external realism, the concept of truth, the role of language, and intentionality in the theory. Finally, the author verifies if the theory in question complies with some of the features that a general theory of regulation should have, according to the criteria of René Thom.
A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael
2009-01-01
A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave...... to the previous theory of two-wave mixing, the theory presented here is more general and the application of the theory to the photorefractive materials, Kerr media and semiconductor broad-area amplifiers are described....... equation. The coupled-wave equations can be decoupled as coupled-equations for the intensity and coupled-equations for the phase of both beams, and these two sets of coupled-equations can be solved analytically by using average total intensity in the medium instead of the total intensity. Compared...
Slowly Rotating Anisotropic Neutron Stars in General Relativity and Scalar-Tensor Theory
Silva, Hector O; Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luís C B
2014-01-01
Some models (such as the Skyrme model, a low-energy effective field theory for QCD) suggest that the high-density matter prevailing in neutron star interiors may be significantly anisotropic. Anisotropy is known to affect the bulk properties of nonrotating neutron stars in General Relativity. In this paper we study the effects of anisotropy on slowly rotating stars in General Relativity. We also consider one of the most popular extensions of Einstein's theory, namely scalar-tensor theories allowing for spontaneous scalarization (a phase transition similar to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnetic materials). Anisotropy affects the moment of inertia of neutron stars (a quantity that could potentially be measured in binary pulsar systems) in both theories. We find that the effects of scalarization increase (decrease) when the tangential pressure is bigger (smaller) than the radial pressure, and we present a simple criterion to determine the onset of scalarization by linearizing the scalar-field equation. Ou...
General practitioner residency consultations: video feedback analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Afonso M. Cavaco
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse longitudinally two decades of Portuguese general practi-tioner (GP residents' consultation features, such as consultation length- estimating its major determinants- as well as to compare with GP residents from other Western practices. Methods: This pilot study followed a retrospective and descriptive design, comprising of the analysis of videotaped consultations with real patients from GP residents (southern Portugal, between 1990 and 2008. Main studied variables were consultation length and purpose, participant demographics and residency site characteristics. Results: From 516 residents, 68.0were females, mainly between 26-35 years old (50.6. Female patients' proportion equalled doctors', with the most frequent age group being the 46-65 years old (41.3. The consultation took on average 22 minutes and 22 seconds, with no significant differences by year and residency location. Main consultation purposes were previous scheduling (31.6 and acute symptoms (30.0. Duration was consistently longer than practising GPs from other countries, keeping in mind the supervised practice. Significant and positive predictors of consultation length were number of attendants and patients' frequency at the residency site. Conclusions: South Portugal GP residency program consultations were lengthier in comparison to similar practice in Europe and other Western countries. Length correlated preferably with patient related variables than with professionals', while confirming the longitudinal homogeneity in the residency consultation format for the last two decades.
Beyond This Point There Be Dragons: Developing General Theory in Music Therapy
Carolyn B. Kenny
2003-01-01
This article attempts to address the topic of "general theory" in music therapy. If we look at the history of ideas which serve practice, we know that fields do not survive without substantive theories or maps, which represent unique features, characteristics, attributes of the specific practice. Creative ideas are born out of practice. And we come upon these creative ideas in the territory of discourse.
How unimodular gravity theories differ from general relativity at quantum level
Bufalo, R.; Oksanen, M.; Tureanu, A.
2015-01-01
We investigate path integral quantization of two versions of unimodular gravity. First a fully diffeomorphism-invariant theory is analyzed, which does not include a unimodular condition on the metric, while still being equivalent to other unimodular gravity theories at the classical level. The path integral has the same form as in general relativity (GR), except that the cosmological constant is an unspecified value of a variable, and it thus is unrelated to any coupling constant. When the st...
Beyond This Point There Be Dragons: Developing General Theory in Music Therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolyn B. Kenny
2003-07-01
Full Text Available This article attempts to address the topic of "general theory" in music therapy. If we look at the history of ideas which serve practice, we know that fields do not survive without substantive theories or maps, which represent unique features, characteristics, attributes of the specific practice. Creative ideas are born out of practice. And we come upon these creative ideas in the territory of discourse.
Bosonic Part of 4d N=1 Supersymmetric Gauge Theory with General Couplings: Local Existence
Akbar, Fiki T; Triyanta,; Zen, Freddy P
2013-01-01
In this paper, we prove the local existence of the bosonic part of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theory in four dimensions with general couplings. We start with the Lagrangian of generally coupled vector and chiral multiplets with scalar potential turned on. Then, for the sake of simplicity, we set all fermions vanish at the level of equations of motions, so we only have the bosonic parts of the theory. We apply Segal's general theory to show the local existence of solutions of field equations of motions by taking K\\"ahler potential to be bounded above by U(n) symmetric K\\"ahler potential and the first derivative of gauge couplings to be at most linear growth functions.
A Translation Case Analysis Based on Skopos Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘冬梅
2015-01-01
With the spread of globalization,the role of translation is crucial in cultural,economic,and social communication.The functionalist approaches of translation originated in the 1970s in Germany.They had carried on the reasonable aspects of the traditional theories and broken their restraint,which are very practical.Skopos theory reflects a general shift from predominantly linguistic and rather formal translation theories to a more functionally and socio-culturally oriented concept of translation,which drew inspiration from communication theory,action theory,text linguistics,and text theory,as well as from movements in literary studies towards reception theories.
A Translation Case Analysis Based on Skopos Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘冬梅
2015-01-01
With the spread of globalization,the roleof translation is crucial in cultural,economic,and social communication.The functionalist approaches of translation originated in the 1970s in Germany.They had carried on the reasonable aspects of the traditional theories and broken their restraint,which are very practical.Skopos theory reflects a general shift from predominantly linguistic and rather formal translation theories to a more functionally and socio-culturally oriented concept of translation,which drew inspiration from communication theory,action theory,text linguistics,and text theory,as well as from movements in literary studies towards reception theories.
Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serna, A [Dept. Fisica y Computacion, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E03202-Elche (Spain); Alimi, J-M [LAEC, CNRS-UMR 8631, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F92195-Meudon (France); Navarro, A [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E30071-Murcia (Spain)
2002-03-07
In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function {alpha} (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field ({phi}) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, {alpha}{sub 0}, strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} |{phi}| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bounds on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -19}). By contrast, in scalar-tensor theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} {phi} much larger limits on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -7}) are found.
Kerner, Boris S.
2013-11-01
It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliably used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that the generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular (fixed or stochastic) value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory, we discuss the three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.
Perturbative analysis in higher-spin theories
Didenko, V. E.; Misuna, N. G.; Vasiliev, M. A.
2016-07-01
A new scheme of the perturbative analysis of the nonlinear HS equations is developed giving directly the final result for the successive application of the homotopy integrations which appear in the standard approach. It drastically simplifies the analysis and results from the application of the standard spectral sequence approach to the higherspin covariant derivatives, allowing us in particular to reduce multiple homotopy integrals resulting from the successive application of the homotopy trick to a single integral. Efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by various examples. In particular, it is shown how the Central on-shell theorem of the free theory immediately results from the nonlinear HS field equations with no intermediate computations.
Generalized analysis method for neutron resonance transmission analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron resonance densitometry (NRD) is a non-destructive analysis method, which can be applied to quantify special nuclear materials (SNM) in small particle-like debris of melted fuel that are formed in severe accidents of nuclear reactors such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. NRD uses neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) to quantify SNM and neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) to identify matrix materials and impurities. To apply NRD for the characterization of arbitrary-shaped thick materials, a generalized method for the analysis of NRTA data has been developed. The method has been applied on data resulting from transmission through thick samples with an irregular shape and an areal density of SNM up to 0.253 at/b (≈100 g/cm2). The investigation shows that NRD can be used to quantify SNM with a high accuracy not only in inhomogeneous samples made of particle-like debris but also in samples made of large rocks with an irregular shape by applying the generalized analysis method for NRTA. (author)
Keldysh theory re-examined: Application of the generalized Bessel functions
Bauer, J H
2015-01-01
A derivation of the ionization rate for the hydrogen-like ion in the strong linearly polarized laser field is presented. This derivation utilizes the famous Keldysh probability amplitude in the length gauge (in the dipole approximation) and without Coulomb effects in the final state of the ionized electron. No further approximations are being made, because the amplitude has been expanded in the double Fourier series in a time domain (with the help of the generalized Bessel functions). Thus, our theory has no other limitations characteristic of the original Keldysh theory. We compare our "exact" theory with the original Keldysh one, studying photoionization energy spectra and total ionization rates. We show breakdown of the original Keldysh theory for higher frequencies. In the barrier-suppresion regime the "exact" Keldysh theory gives results closer to well-known numerical or other analytical results.
The non-local 2D generalized Yang-Mills theories on arbitrary surfaces with boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saaidi, Kh [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Avenue, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Azad University, Pasdaran Avenue, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ksaaidi@uok.ac.ir
2008-07-15
The non-local generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories on arbitrary orientable and non-orientable surfaces with boundaries is studied. We obtain the effective action of these theories for the case when the holonomy of the gauge field around the boundary components is near the identity, U{approx_equal}I. Furthermore, by obtaining the effective action at the large-N limit, it is shown that the phase structure of these theories is the same as that obtained for these theories on orientable and non-orientable surfaces without boundaries. It is seen that the {phi}{sup 2} model of these theories on arbitrary orientable and non-orientable surfaces with boundaries have third-order phase transition only on g=0 and r=1 surfaces, with modified area A-tilde+A/2 for orientable and A-bar+A for non-orientable surfaces, respectively.
Hamiltonian analysis of the BFCG theory for a generic Lie 2-group
Mikovic, Aleksandar; Vojinovic, Marko
2016-01-01
We perform a complete Hamiltonian analysis of the BFCG action for a general Lie 2-group by using the Dirac procedure. We show that the resulting dynamical constraints eliminate all local degrees of freedom which implies that the BFCG theory is a topological field theory.
A General Linear Wave Theory for Water Waves Propagating over Uneven Porous Bottoms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
锁要红; 黄虎
2004-01-01
Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green's second identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations currently in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.
Non-Markovian generalization of the Lindblad theory of open quantum systems
Breuer, H P
2006-01-01
A systematic approach to the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems is given by the projection operator techniques of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Combining these methods with concepts from quantum information theory and from the theory of positive maps, we derive a class of correlated projection superoperators that take into account in an efficient way statistical correlations between the open system and its environment. The result is used to develop a generalization of the Lindblad theory to the regime of highly non-Markovian quantum processes in structured environments.
Siegert pseudostate formulation of scattering theory: General three-dimensional case
Krainov, Lev O.; Batishchev, Pavel A.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.
2016-04-01
This paper generalizes the Siegert pseudostate (SPS) formulation of scattering theory to arbitrary finite-range potentials without any symmetry in the three-dimensional (3D) case. The orthogonality and completeness properties of 3D SPSs are established. The SPS expansions for scattering states, outgoing-wave Green's function, scattering matrix, and scattering amplitude, that is, all major objects of scattering theory, are derived. The theory is illustrated by calculations for several model potentials. The results enable one to apply 3D SPSs as a purely discrete basis capable of representing both discrete and continuous spectra in solving various stationary and time-dependent quantum-mechanical problems.
Effective field theory of dark energy: a dynamical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effective field theory (EFT) of dark energy relies on three functions of time to describe the dynamics of background cosmology. The viability of these functions is investigated here by means of a thorough dynamical analysis. While the system is underdetermined, and one can always find a set of functions reproducing any expansion history, we are able to determine general compatibility conditions for these functions by requiring a viable background cosmology. In particular, we identify a set of variables that allows us to transform the non-autonomous system of equations into an infinite-dimensional one characterized by a significant recursive structure. We then analyze several autonomous sub-systems, obtained truncating the original one at increasingly higher dimension, that correspond to increasingly general models of dark energy and modified gravity. Furthermore, we exploit the recursive nature of the system to draw some general conclusions on the different cosmologies that can be recovered within the EFT formalism and the corresponding compatibility requirements for the EFT functions. The machinery that we set up serves different purposes. It offers a general scheme for performing dynamical analysis of dark energy and modified gravity models within the model independent framework of EFT; the general results, obtained with this technique, can be projected into specific models, as we show in one example. It also can be used to determine appropriate ansätze for the three EFT background functions when studying the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in the context of large scale structure tests of gravity
A Variational Deduction of Second Gradient Poroelasticity Part I: General Theory
Sciarra, Giulio; Ianiro, Nicoletta; Madeo, Angela
2010-01-01
Second gradient theories have to be used to capture how local micro heterogeneities macroscopically affect the behavior of a continuum. In this paper a configurational space for a solid matrix filled by an unknown amount of fluid is introduced. The Euler-Lagrange equations valid for second gradient poromechanics, generalizing those due to Biot, are deduced by means of a Lagrangian variational formulation. Starting from a generalized Clausius-Duhem inequality, valid in the framework of second gradient theories, the existence of a macroscopic solid skeleton Lagrangian deformation energy, depending on the solid strain and the Lagrangian fluid mass density as well as on their Lagrangian gradients, is proven.
A Comparative Analysis of Three Unique Theories of Organizational Learning
Leavitt, Carol C.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present three classical theories on organizational learning and conduct a comparative analysis that highlights their strengths, similarities, and differences. Two of the theories -- experiential learning theory and adaptive -- generative learning theory -- represent the thinking of the cognitive perspective, while…
Thought analysis on self-organization theories of MHD plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A thought analysis on the self-organization theories of dissipative MHD plasma is presented to lead to three groups of theories that lead to the same relaxed state of ∇ x B = λB, in order to find an essential physical picture embedded in the self-organization phenomena due to nonlinear and dissipative processes. The self-organized relaxed state due to the dissipation by the Ohm loss is shown to be formulated generally as the state such that yields the minimum dissipation rate of global auto-and/or cross-correlations between two quantities in j, B, and A for their own instantaneous values of the global correlations. (author)
Mass bounds for compact spherically symmetric objects in generalized gravity theories
Burikham, Piyabut; Lake, Matthew J
2016-01-01
We derive upper and lower bounds on the mass-radius ratio of stable compact objects in extended gravity theories, in which modifications of the gravitational dynamics via-{\\' a}-vis standard general relativity are described by an effective contribution to the matter energy-momentum tensor. Our results include the possibility of a variable coupling between the matter sector and the gravitational field and are valid for a large class of generalized gravity models. The generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are expressed in terms of the effective mass, density and pressure, given by the bare values plus additional contributions from the total energy-momentum tensor, and general theoretical limits for the maximum and minimum mass-radius ratios are explicitly obtained. As an applications of the formalism developed herein, we consider compact bosonic objects, described by scalar-tensor gravitational theories with self-interacting scalar field potentials, and charged compact objects, respect...
Philpot, Craig
2001-01-01
This article describes the relationship between the General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Theory. An in-depth understanding of either theory is not required as the relationship between them resides at their most basic levels. Once this relationship has been exposed, it is shown that these two theories do not contradict but rather complement each other. To fortify this understanding the simple method of combining these theories to produce a complete picture of our universe is presented.
Lompay, Robert R.; Petrov, Alexander N.
2013-10-01
The present paper continues the work of Lompay and Petrov [J. Math. Phys. 54, 062504 (2013)] where manifestly covariant differential identities and conserved quantities in generally covariant metric-torsion theories of gravity of the most general type have been constructed. Here, we study these theories presented more concretely, setting that their Lagrangians {L} are manifestly generally covariant scalars: algebraic functions of contractions of tensor functions and their covariant derivatives. It is assumed that Lagrangians depend on metric tensor g, curvature tensor R, torsion tensor T and its first {{nabla }}{T} and second {{nabla }}{{nabla }}{T} covariant derivatives, besides, on an arbitrary set of other tensor (matter) fields {\\varphi } and their first {{nabla }}{\\varphi } and second {{nabla }}{{nabla }}{\\varphi } covariant derivatives: {L}= {L}({g},{R}; {T},{{nabla }}{T},{{nabla }}{{nabla }}{T}; {\\varphi },{{nabla }}{\\varphi },{{nabla }}{{nabla }}{\\varphi }). Thus, both the standard minimal coupling with the Riemann-Cartan geometry and non-minimal coupling with the curvature and torsion tensors are considered. The studies and results are as follow: (a) A physical interpretation of the Noether and Klein identities is examined. It was found that they are the basis for constructing equations of balance of energy-momentum tensors of various types (canonical, metrical, and Belinfante symmetrized). The equations of balance are presented. (b) Using the generalized equations of balance, new (generalized) manifestly generally covariant expressions for canonical energy-momentum and spin tensors of the matter fields are constructed. In the cases, when the matter Lagrangian contains both the higher derivatives and non-minimal coupling with curvature and torsion, such generalizations are non-trivial. (c) The Belinfante procedure is generalized for an arbitrary Riemann-Cartan space. (d) A more convenient in applications generalized expression for the canonical
A Variational Deduction of Second Gradient Poroelasticity Part I: General Theory
Sciarra, Giulio; Dell'Isola, Francesco; Ianiro, Nicoletta; Madeo, Angela
2010-01-01
International audience Second gradient theories have to be used to capture how local micro heterogeneities macroscopically affect the behavior of a continuum. In this paper a configurational space for a solid matrix filled by an unknown amount of fluid is introduced. The Euler–Lagrange equations valid for second gradient poromechanics, generalizing those due to Biot, are deduced by means of a Lagrangian variational formulation. Starting from a generalized Clausius–Duhem inequality, valid i...
A general theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid-protein fluid membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Miao, L.
2005-01-01
We present a general and systematic theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of multi-component fluid membranes, in general, and membranes containing transmembrane proteins, in particular. Developed based on a minimal number of principles of statistical physics and designed to be a meso/macroscopic-sca......-equilibrium phenomena in a range of membrane systems, as discussions in the paper of a few limit cases demonstrate. © EDP Sciences / Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag 2005....
Generalized Theory of One-Dimensional Steady-State Optical Spatial Solitons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hong-Cheng; WANG Xiao-Sheng; SHE Wei-Long
2004-01-01
@@ We present a generalized soliton theory based on the one-dimensional generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation,from which one can easily obtain the bright, dark, and grey soliton waveforms, and their existence curves. We show that the forming conditions of spatial solitons are directly dependent on the relationship between the index perturbation and the intensity, no matter whether the index perturbation is positive or negative. Some relevant examples are presented when the solitons are supported by the photoisomerization nonlinearity.
Error Analysis of English Writing Based on Interlanguage Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李玲
2014-01-01
Language learning process has been hunted by learner’s errors,which is an unavoidable phenomenon.In the 1950s and 1960s,Contractive Analysis (CA) based on behaviorism and structuralism was generally employed in analyzing learners’ errors. CA soon lost its popularity.Error Analysis (EA),a branch of applied linguistics,has made great contributions to the study of second language learning and throws some light on the process of second language learning.Careful study of the errors reveals the common problems shared by the language learners.Writing is important in language learning process.Under Chinese context,English writing is always a difficult question for Chinese teachers and students,so errors in students’ written works are unavoidable.In this thesis,the author studies on error analysis of English writing with the interlanguage theory as its theoretical guidance.
Error Analysis of English Writing Based on Interlanguage Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李玲
2014-01-01
Language learning process has been hunted by learner’s errors,which is an unavoidable phenomenon.In the 1950 s and 1960 s,Contractive Analysis(CA) based on behaviorism and structuralism was generally employed in analyzing learners’ errors.CA soon lost its popularity.Error Analysis(EA),a branch of applied linguistics,has made great contributions to the study of second language learning and throws some light on the process of second language learning.Careful study of the errors reveals the common problems shared by the language learners.Writing is important in language learning process.Under Chinese context,English writing is always a difficult question for Chinese teachers and students,so errors in students’ written works are unavoidable.In this thesis,the author studies on error analysis of English writing with the interlanguage theory as its theoretical guidance.
Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design
Nguyen, Cam
2016-01-01
This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....
Generalized molecular orbital theory: a limited multiconfiguration self-consistent-field-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The generalized molecular orbital (GMO) approach is a limited type of multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) calculation which divides the orbitals of a closed shell molecule into four shells: doubly occupied, strongly occupied, weakly occupied, and unoccupied. The orbitals within each shell have the same occupation number and are associated with the same Fock operator. Thus, the orbital optimization is ideally suited to solution via a coupling operator. The determination of the orbitals is followed by a configuration interaction (CI) calculation within the strongly and weakly occupied shells. Results for BH3 show a striking similarity between the GMO's and the natural orbitals (NO's) from an all singles and doubles CI calculation. Although the GMO approach would not be accurate for an entire potential surface, results for spectroscopic constants of N2 show that it is suitable near the equilibrium geometry. This paper describes the use of the GMO technique to determine the primary orbital space, but a potentially important application may be in the determination of a secondary orbital space following a more accurate MCSCF determination of the primary space
Generalized Analysis Tools for Multi-Spacecraft Missions
Chanteur, G. M.
2011-12-01
Analysis tools for multi-spacecraft missions like CLUSTER or MMS have been designed since the end of the 90's to estimate gradients of fields or to characterize discontinuities crossed by a cluster of spacecraft. Different approaches have been presented and discussed in the book "Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data" published as Scientific Report 001 of the International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland (G. Paschmann and P. Daly Eds., 1998). On one hand the approach using methods of least squares has the advantage to apply to any number of spacecraft [1] but is not convenient to perform analytical computation especially when considering the error analysis. On the other hand the barycentric approach is powerful as it provides simple analytical formulas involving the reciprocal vectors of the tetrahedron [2] but appears limited to clusters of four spacecraft. Moreover the barycentric approach allows to derive theoretical formulas for errors affecting the estimators built from the reciprocal vectors [2,3,4]. Following a first generalization of reciprocal vectors proposed by Vogt et al [4] and despite the present lack of projects with more than four spacecraft we present generalized reciprocal vectors for a cluster made of any number of spacecraft : each spacecraft is given a positive or nul weight. The non-coplanarity of at least four spacecraft with strictly positive weights is a necessary and sufficient condition for this analysis to be enabled. Weights given to spacecraft allow to minimize the influence of some spacecraft if its location or the quality of its data are not appropriate, or simply to extract subsets of spacecraft from the cluster. Estimators presented in [2] are generalized within this new frame except for the error analysis which is still under investigation. References [1] Harvey, C. C.: Spatial Gradients and the Volumetric Tensor, in: Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data, G. Paschmann and P. Daly (eds.), pp. 307-322, ISSI
Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics.
Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M
2016-02-01
Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from-and we bound the work cost of creating-a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.
Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics.
Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M
2016-02-01
Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from-and we bound the work cost of creating-a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments. PMID:26986307
Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics
Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M.
2016-02-01
Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from—and we bound the work cost of creating—a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.
General theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements with optical microprobes RID A-1977-2009
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
FukshanskyKazarinova, N.; Fukshansky, L.; Kuhl, M.;
1997-01-01
Measurements of the radiance distribution and fluence rate within turbid samples with fiber-optic radiance microprobes contain a large variable instrumental error caused by the nonuniform directional sensitivity of the microprobes. A general theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements...
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Torsten
2009-05-13
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan
2010-01-01
A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found...
Large-Sample Theory for Generalized Linear Models with Non-natural Link and Random Variates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jie-li Ding; Xi-ru Chen
2006-01-01
For generalized linear models (GLM), in the case that the regressors are stochastic and have different distributions and the observations of the responses may have different dimensionality, the asymptotic theory of the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the parameters are studied under the assumption of a non-natural link function.
Zeeman-like topologies in Special and General theory of Relativity
Saraykar, R. V.; Janardhan, Sujatha
2014-01-01
This is a short review article in which we discuss and summarize the works of various researchers over past four decades on Zeeman topology and Zeeman-like topologies, which occur in special and general theory of relativity. We also discuss various properties and inter-relationship of these topologies.
Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.
Seeger, Matthew W.
2002-01-01
Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…
Supersymmetry, quantum gauge anomalies and generalized Chern-Simons terms in chiral gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the interplay of anomaly cancellation and generalized Chern-Simons terms in four-dimensional chiral gauge theory. We start with a detailed discussion of generalized Chern-Simons terms with the canellation of anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. With this at hand, we investigate the situation in general N=1 supersymmetric field theories with generalized Chern-Simons terms. Two simple consistency conditions are shown to encode strong constraints on the allowed anomalies for different types of gauge groups. In one major part of this thesis we are going to display to what extent one has to modify the existing formalism in order to allow for the cancellation of quantum gauge anomalies via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. At the end of this thesis we comment on a puzzle in the literature on supersymmetric field theories with massive tensor fields. The potential contains a term that does not arise from eliminating an auxiliary field. We clarify the origin of this term and display the relation to standard D-term potential. In an appendix it is explicitly shown how these low energy effective actions might be connected to the formulation of four-dimensional gauge theories discussed at earlier stages of this thesis. (orig.)
Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment
Marcus, R. A.
1964-01-01
In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.
Quaternion based generalization of Chern-Simons theories in arbitrary dimensions
D'Adda, Alessandro; Shimode, Naoki; Tsukioka, Takuya
2016-01-01
A generalization of Chern-Simons gauge theory is formulated in any dimension and arbitrary gauge group where gauge fields and gauge parameters are differential forms of any degree. The quaternion algebra structure of this formulation is shown to be equivalent to a three Z(2)-gradings structure, thus clarifying the quaternion role in a previous formulation.
PARADIGM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF CYCLES (CRISES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laptev V. N.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The article considers the special role of paradigms in the study (writing of the General theory of cycles. The authors ' task is systematization of knowledge in this area and obtain an objective assessment by means of retrospective material, which shows the change of one paradigm to another
THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR GRANT YEAR 2004
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance our scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES)
On the Chern-Simons State in General Relativity and Modified Gravity Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Chern-Simons state is one solution to quantum constraints of gravity in the context of general relativity (GR) theory if we use Ashtekar's variables and if one orders the constraints with the triads to the left. Six years ago Krasnov introduced a certain class of modified gravity theories by replacing the cosmological constant by a cosmological function of the curvature. If this function is a constant we come back to GR. In this note we review how the Chern-Simons state is one solution to the constraints of GR and we state the problem to face if we wish a generalized Chern-Simons state for the modified Krasnov's theories
The perfect theory a century of geniuses and the battle over general relativity
Ferreira, Pedro G
2014-01-01
Physicists have been exploring, debating, and questioning the general theory of relativity ever since Albert Einstein first presented it in 1915. Their work has uncovered a number of the universe’s more surprising secrets, and many believe further wonders remain hidden within the theory’s tangle of equations, waiting to be exposed. In this sweeping narrative of science and culture, astrophysicist Pedro Ferreira brings general relativity to life through the story of the brilliant physicists, mathematicians, and astronomers who have taken up its challenge. For these scientists, the theory has been both a treasure trove and an enigma, fueling a century of intellectual struggle and triumph.. Einstein’s theory, which explains the relationships among gravity, space, and time, is possibly the most perfect intellectual achievement of modern physics, yet studying it has always been a controversial endeavor. Relativists were the target of persecution in Hitler’s Germany, hounded in Stalin’s Russia, and disdai...
A New Conformal Theory of Semi-Classical Quantum General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available We consider a new four-dimensional formulation of semi-classical quantum general relativity in which the classical space-time manifold, whose intrinsic geometric properties give rise to the effects of gravitation, is allowed to evolve microscopically by means of a conformal function which is assumed to depend on some quantum mechanical wave function. As a result, the theory presented here produces a unified field theory of gravitation and (microscopic electromagnetism in a somewhat simple, effective manner. In the process, it is seen that electromagnetism is actually an emergent quantum field originating in some kind of stochastic smooth extension (evolution of the gravitational field in the general theory of relativity.
A Stylistic Analysis of Register Theory in Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘鑫
2015-01-01
Stylistic analysis refers to the linguistic approach to literature.Stylistics will mainly focus on the register theory,taking Charles Dickens' masterpiece Oliver Twist as a good example to demonstrate how the register theory is embodied in the work.
A Stylistic Analysis of Register Theory in Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘鑫
2015-01-01
Stylistic analysis refers to the linguistic approach to literature.Stylistics will mainly focus on the register theory,taking Charles Dickens’ masterpiece Oliver Twist as a good example to demonstrate how the register theory is embodied in the work.
Using Integrative Propositional Analysis for Evaluating Entrepreneurship Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernadette Wright
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Previous studies have noted a proliferation of disparate theories of entrepreneurship. This makes it difficult to find the best theory for application in teaching, practice, and research. Choosing the right entrepreneurship theories to teach and encourage is critical to providing entrepreneurs with the knowledge they need to succeed. Scholars have recommended integrating entrepreneurship theories across disciplines and across practice; however, rigorous methods to assess and integrate the best theories are lacking. Integrative propositional analysis is an emerging method to assess and improve theories using the theory structure as data, rather than relying on empirical data and opinion alone. This exploratory study pilot tested this approach with a sample of nine entrepreneurship theories. Several insights emerged that entrepreneurship researchers, educators, and practitioners can use to synthesize and improve theories for their specific needs and to collaboratively integrate the best theories from research and experience to create better theories.
Communication: The simplified generalized entropy theory of glass-formation in polymer melts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freed, Karl F. [James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60615 (United States)
2015-08-07
While a wide range of non-trivial predictions of the generalized entropy theory (GET) of glass-formation in polymer melts agree with a large number of observed universal and non-universal properties of these glass-formers and even for the dependence of these properties on monomer molecular structure, the huge mathematical complexity of the theory precludes its extension to describe, for instance, the perplexing, complex behavior observed for technologically important polymer films with thickness below ∼100 nm and for which a fundamental molecular theory is lacking for the structural relaxation. The present communication describes a hugely simplified version of the theory, called the simplified generalized entropy theory (SGET) that provides one component necessary for devising a theory for the structural relaxation of thin polymer films and thereby supplements the first required ingredient, the recently developed Flory-Huggins level theory for the thermodynamic properties of thin polymer films, before the concluding third step of combining all the components into the SGET for thin polymer films. Comparisons between the predictions of the SGET and the full GET for the four characteristic temperatures of glass-formation provide good agreement for a highly non-trivial model system of polymer melts with chains of the structure of poly(n-α olefins) systems where the GET has produced good agreement with experiment. The comparisons consider values of the relative backbone and side group stiffnesses such that the glass transition temperature decreases as the amount of excess free volume diminishes, contrary to general expectations but in accord with observations for poly(n-alkyl methacrylates). Moreover, the SGET is sufficiently concise to enable its discussion in a standard course on statistical mechanics or polymer physics.
Hyland, Michael E
2003-12-01
Extended Network Generalized Entanglement Theory (Entanglement Theory for short) combines two earlier theories based on complexity theory and quantum mechanics. The theory's assumptions are: the body is a complex, self-organizing system (the extended network) that self-organizes so as to achieve genetically defined patterns (where patterns include morphologic as well as lifestyle patterns). These pattern-specifying genes require feedback that is provided by generalized quantum entanglement. Additionally, generalized entanglement has evolved as a form of communication between people (and animals) and can be used in healing. Entanglement Theory suggests that several processes are involved in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Direct subtle therapy creates network change either through lifestyle management, some manual therapies, and psychologically mediated effects of therapy. Indirect subtle therapy is a process of entanglement with other people or physical entities (e.g., remedies, healing sites). Both types of subtle therapy create two kinds of information within the network--either that the network is more disregulated than it is and the network then compensates for this error, or as a guide for network change leading to healing. Most CAM therapies involve a combination of indirect and direct therapies, making empirical evaluation complex. Empirical predictions from this theory are contrasted with those from two other possible mechanisms of healing: (1) psychologic processes and (2) mechanisms involving electromagnetic influence between people (biofield/energy medicine). Topics for empirical study include a hyperfast communication system, the phenomenology of entanglement, predictors of outcome in naturally occurring clinical settings, and the importance of therapist and patient characteristics to outcome.
Communication: The simplified generalized entropy theory of glass-formation in polymer melts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While a wide range of non-trivial predictions of the generalized entropy theory (GET) of glass-formation in polymer melts agree with a large number of observed universal and non-universal properties of these glass-formers and even for the dependence of these properties on monomer molecular structure, the huge mathematical complexity of the theory precludes its extension to describe, for instance, the perplexing, complex behavior observed for technologically important polymer films with thickness below ∼100 nm and for which a fundamental molecular theory is lacking for the structural relaxation. The present communication describes a hugely simplified version of the theory, called the simplified generalized entropy theory (SGET) that provides one component necessary for devising a theory for the structural relaxation of thin polymer films and thereby supplements the first required ingredient, the recently developed Flory-Huggins level theory for the thermodynamic properties of thin polymer films, before the concluding third step of combining all the components into the SGET for thin polymer films. Comparisons between the predictions of the SGET and the full GET for the four characteristic temperatures of glass-formation provide good agreement for a highly non-trivial model system of polymer melts with chains of the structure of poly(n-α olefins) systems where the GET has produced good agreement with experiment. The comparisons consider values of the relative backbone and side group stiffnesses such that the glass transition temperature decreases as the amount of excess free volume diminishes, contrary to general expectations but in accord with observations for poly(n-alkyl methacrylates). Moreover, the SGET is sufficiently concise to enable its discussion in a standard course on statistical mechanics or polymer physics
Communication: The simplified generalized entropy theory of glass-formation in polymer melts.
Freed, Karl F
2015-08-01
While a wide range of non-trivial predictions of the generalized entropy theory (GET) of glass-formation in polymer melts agree with a large number of observed universal and non-universal properties of these glass-formers and even for the dependence of these properties on monomer molecular structure, the huge mathematical complexity of the theory precludes its extension to describe, for instance, the perplexing, complex behavior observed for technologically important polymer films with thickness below ∼100 nm and for which a fundamental molecular theory is lacking for the structural relaxation. The present communication describes a hugely simplified version of the theory, called the simplified generalized entropy theory (SGET) that provides one component necessary for devising a theory for the structural relaxation of thin polymer films and thereby supplements the first required ingredient, the recently developed Flory-Huggins level theory for the thermodynamic properties of thin polymer films, before the concluding third step of combining all the components into the SGET for thin polymer films. Comparisons between the predictions of the SGET and the full GET for the four characteristic temperatures of glass-formation provide good agreement for a highly non-trivial model system of polymer melts with chains of the structure of poly(n-α olefins) systems where the GET has produced good agreement with experiment. The comparisons consider values of the relative backbone and side group stiffnesses such that the glass transition temperature decreases as the amount of excess free volume diminishes, contrary to general expectations but in accord with observations for poly(n-alkyl methacrylates). Moreover, the SGET is sufficiently concise to enable its discussion in a standard course on statistical mechanics or polymer physics.
Hyland, Michael E
2003-12-01
Extended Network Generalized Entanglement Theory (Entanglement Theory for short) combines two earlier theories based on complexity theory and quantum mechanics. The theory's assumptions are: the body is a complex, self-organizing system (the extended network) that self-organizes so as to achieve genetically defined patterns (where patterns include morphologic as well as lifestyle patterns). These pattern-specifying genes require feedback that is provided by generalized quantum entanglement. Additionally, generalized entanglement has evolved as a form of communication between people (and animals) and can be used in healing. Entanglement Theory suggests that several processes are involved in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Direct subtle therapy creates network change either through lifestyle management, some manual therapies, and psychologically mediated effects of therapy. Indirect subtle therapy is a process of entanglement with other people or physical entities (e.g., remedies, healing sites). Both types of subtle therapy create two kinds of information within the network--either that the network is more disregulated than it is and the network then compensates for this error, or as a guide for network change leading to healing. Most CAM therapies involve a combination of indirect and direct therapies, making empirical evaluation complex. Empirical predictions from this theory are contrasted with those from two other possible mechanisms of healing: (1) psychologic processes and (2) mechanisms involving electromagnetic influence between people (biofield/energy medicine). Topics for empirical study include a hyperfast communication system, the phenomenology of entanglement, predictors of outcome in naturally occurring clinical settings, and the importance of therapist and patient characteristics to outcome. PMID:14736363
Harmonic Analysis Associated with the Generalized q-Bessel Operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Abouelaz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we give a new harmonic analysis associated with the generalized q-Bessel operator. We introduce the generalized $q$-Bessel transform, the generalized q-Bessel translation and the generalized $q$-Bessel convolution product.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derives the fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of special and general relativity using matrix calculus, without the help of tensors. Provides necessary mathematical tools in a user-friendly way, either directly in the text or in the appendices. Appendices contain an introduction to classical dynamics as a refresher of known fundamental physics. Rehearses vector and matrix calculus, differential geometry, and some special solutions of general relativity in the appendices. This book is an introduction to the theories of Special and General Relativity. The target audience are physicists, engineers and applied scientists who are looking for an understandable introduction to the topic - without too much new mathematics. The fundamental equations of Einsteins theory of Special and General Relativity are derived using matrix calculus, without the help of tensors. This feature makes the book special and a valuable tool for scientists and engineers with no experience in the field of tensor calculus. In part I the foundations of Special Relativity are developed, part II describes the structure and principle of General Relativity. Part III explains the Schwarzschild solution of spherical body gravity and examines the ''Black Hole'' phenomenon. Any necessary mathematical tools are user friendly provided, either directly in the text or in the appendices.
Generalized linear models with random effects unified analysis via H-likelihood
Lee, Youngjo; Pawitan, Yudi
2006-01-01
Since their introduction in 1972, generalized linear models (GLMs) have proven useful in the generalization of classical normal models. Presenting methods for fitting GLMs with random effects to data, Generalized Linear Models with Random Effects: Unified Analysis via H-likelihood explores a wide range of applications, including combining information over trials (meta-analysis), analysis of frailty models for survival data, genetic epidemiology, and analysis of spatial and temporal models with correlated errors.Written by pioneering authorities in the field, this reference provides an introduction to various theories and examines likelihood inference and GLMs. The authors show how to extend the class of GLMs while retaining as much simplicity as possible. By maximizing and deriving other quantities from h-likelihood, they also demonstrate how to use a single algorithm for all members of the class, resulting in a faster algorithm as compared to existing alternatives. Complementing theory with examples, many of...
Moncada, Albert M.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2008-01-01
Predicting failure in a composite can be done with ply level mechanisms and/or micro level mechanisms. This paper uses the Generalized Method of Cells and High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics theories, coupled with classical lamination theory, as implemented within NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells. The code is able to implement different failure theories on the level of both the fiber and the matrix constituents within a laminate. A comparison is made among maximum stress, maximum strain, Tsai-Hill, and Tsai-Wu failure theories. To verify the failure theories the Worldwide Failure Exercise (WWFE) experiments have been used. The WWFE is a comprehensive study that covers a wide range of polymer matrix composite laminates. The numerical results indicate good correlation with the experimental results for most of the composite layups, but also point to the need for more accurate resin damage progression models.
Generalized N=1 and N=2 structures in M-theory and type II orientifolds
Graña, Mariana
2012-01-01
We consider M-theory and type IIA reductions to four dimensions with N=2 and N=1 supersymmetry and discuss their interconnection. Our work is based on the framework of Exceptional Generalized Geometry (EGG), which extends the tangent bundle to include all symmetries in M-theory and type II string theory, covariantizing the local U-duality group E7. We describe general N=1 and N=2 reductions in terms of SU(7) and SU(6) structures on this bundle and thereby derive the effective four-dimensional N=1 and N=2 couplings, in particular we compute the Kahler and hyper-Kahler potentials as well as the triplet of Killing prepotentials (or the superpotential in the N=1 case). These structures and couplings can be described in terms of forms on an eight-dimensional tangent space where SL(8) contained in E7 acts, which might indicate a description in terms of an eight-dimensional internal space, similar to F-theory. We finally discuss an orbifold action in M-theory and its reduction to O6 orientifolds, and show how the pr...
Disformal invariance of cosmological perturbations in a generalized class of Horndeski theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science,1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)
2015-04-27
It is known that Horndeski theories can be transformed to a sub-class of Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories under the disformal transformation of the metric g{sub μν}→Ω{sup 2}(ϕ)g{sub μν}+Γ(ϕ,X)∇{sub μ}ϕ∇{sub ν}ϕ, where Ω is a function of a scalar field ϕ and Γ is another function depending on both ϕ and X=g{sup μν}∇{sub μ}ϕ∇{sub ν}ϕ. We show that, with the choice of unitary gauge, both curvature and tensor perturbations on the flat isotropic cosmological background are generally invariant under the disformal transformation. By means of the effective field theories encompassing Horndeski and GLPV theories, we obtain the second-order actions of scalar/tensor perturbations and present the relations for physical quantities between the two frames. The invariance of the inflationary power spectra under the disformal transformation is explicitly proved up to next-to-leading order in slow-roll. In particular, we identify the existence of the Einstein frame in which the tensor power spectrum is of the same form as that in General Relativity and derive the condition under which the spectrum of gravitational waves in GLPV theories is red-tilted.
On Multifield Born and Born-Infeld Theories and their non-Abelian Generalizations
Cerchiai, B L
2016-01-01
Starting from a recently proposed linear formulation in terms of auxiliary fields, we study $n$-field generalizations of Born and Born-Infeld theories. In this description the Lagrangian is quadratic in the vector field strengths and the symmetry properties (including the characteristic self-duality) of the corresponding non-linear theory are manifest as on-shell duality symmetries and depend on the choice of the (homogeneous) manifold spanned by the auxiliary scalar fields and the symplectic frame. By suitably choosing these defining properties of the quadratic Lagrangian, we are able to reproduce some known multi-field Born-Infeld theories and to derive new non-linear models, such as the $n$-field Born theory. We also discuss non-Abelian generalizations of these theories obtained by choosing the vector fields in the adjoint representation of an off-shell compact global symmetry group $K$ and replacing them by non-Abelian, $K$-covariant field strengths, thus promoting $K$ to a gauge group.
Applications of model theory to functional analysis
Iovino, Jose
2014-01-01
During the last two decades, methods that originated within mathematical logic have exhibited powerful applications to Banach space theory, particularly set theory and model theory. This volume constitutes the first self-contained introduction to techniques of model theory in Banach space theory. The area of research has grown rapidly since this monograph's first appearance, but much of this material is still not readily available elsewhere. For instance, this volume offers a unified presentation of Krivine's theorem and the Krivine-Maurey theorem on stable Banach spaces, with emphasis on the
Application of portfolio theory in decision tree analysis.
Galligan, D T; Ramberg, C; Curtis, C; Ferguson, J; Fetrow, J
1991-07-01
A general application of portfolio analysis for herd decision tree analysis is described. In the herd environment, this methodology offers a means of employing population-based decision strategies that can help the producer control economic variation in expected return from a given set of decision options. An economic decision tree model regarding the use of prostaglandin in dairy cows with undetected estrus was used to determine the expected return of the decisions to use prostaglandin and breed on a timed basis, use prostaglandin and then breed on sign of estrus, or breed on signs of estrus. The risk attributes of these decision alternatives were calculated from the decision tree, and portfolio theory was used to find the efficient decision combinations (portfolios with the highest return for a given variance). The resulting combinations of decisions could be used to control return variation.
A Translation Case Analysis Based on Skopos Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
盖孟姣
2015-01-01
This paper is a translation case analysis based on Skopos Theory.This paper choose President Xi’s New Year congratulations of 2015 as analysis text and gives the case analysis.This paper focuses on translating the text based on Skopos Theory.
Analyticity properties and thermal effects for general quantum field theory on de Sitter space-time
Bros, J; Moschella, U; Bros, Jacques; Epstein, Henri; Moschella, Ugo
1998-01-01
We propose a general framework for quantum field theory on the de Sitter space-time (i.e. for local field theories whose truncated Wightman functions are not required to vanish). By requiring that the fields satisfy a weak spectral condition, formulated in terms of the analytic continuation properties of their Wightman functions, we show that a geodesical observer will detect in the corresponding ``vacuum'' a blackbody radiation at temperature T=1/(2 \\pi R). We also prove the analogues of the PCT, Reeh-Schlieder and Bisognano-Wichmann theorems.
[Theory of V.A. dogiel on polymerization and oligomerization as a general integration concept].
Makmaev, Iu V
2010-01-01
The theory of V.A. Dogiel on the significance of polymerization and ligomerization processes in the evolution of Protozoa and Metazoa is compared with the paper of I.I. Schmalhauisen (1972) on factors and steps of aromorph evolution. Dogiel's theory is considered as a general integration conception. Four steps are distinguished in the evolution of biological systems: (1) formation of morphofunctional system by units of the lower structural level, (2) polymerization of morphofunctional units of a system, (3) oligomerization of morphofunctional units of system by means of their reduction, uniting, or differentiation, (4) integration and stabilization of a system owing to development of morphofunctional connections between its parts.
Immigration and Outsourcing: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Subhayu Bandoyopadhyay; Wall, Howard J.
2005-01-01
This paper analyzes the issues of immigration and outsourcing in a general-equilibrium model of international factor mobility. In our model, legal immigration is controlled through a quota, while outsourcing is determined both by the firms (in response to market conditions) and through policy-imposed barriers. A loosening of the immigration quota reduces outsourcing, enriches capitalists, leads to losses for native workers, and raises national income. If the nation targets an exogenously dete...
Discrete Multivariate Analysis Theory and Practice Theory and Practice
Bishop, Yvonne M M; Holland, Paul W
2007-01-01
The scientist searching for structure in large systems of data finds inspiration in his own discipline, support from modern computing, and guidance from statistical models. Because large sets of data are likely to be complicated, and because so many approaches suggest themselves, a codification of techniques of analysis, regarded as attractive paths rather than as straitjackets, offers the scientist valuable directions to try. The literature on discrete multivariate analysis, although extensive, is widely scattered. This book brings that literature together in an organized way
Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil
2016-02-28
In aqueous systems with immobilized macromolecules, including biological tissue, the longitudinal spin relaxation of water protons is primarily induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of intra- and intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. We have embarked on a systematic program to develop, from the stochastic Liouville equation, a general and rigorous theory that can describe relaxation by the dipolar EMOR mechanism over the full range of exchange rates, dipole coupling strengths, and Larmor frequencies. Here, we present a general theoretical framework applicable to spin systems of arbitrary size with symmetric or asymmetric exchange. So far, the dipolar EMOR theory is only available for a two-spin system with symmetric exchange. Asymmetric exchange, when the spin system is fragmented by the exchange, introduces new and unexpected phenomena. Notably, the anisotropic dipole couplings of non-exchanging spins break the axial symmetry in spin Liouville space, thereby opening up new relaxation channels in the locally anisotropic sites, including longitudinal-transverse cross relaxation. Such cross-mode relaxation operates only at low fields; at higher fields it becomes nonsecular, leading to an unusual inverted relaxation dispersion that splits the extreme-narrowing regime into two sub-regimes. The general dipolar EMOR theory is illustrated here by a detailed analysis of the asymmetric two-spin case, for which we present relaxation dispersion profiles over a wide range of conditions as well as analytical results for integral relaxation rates and time-dependent spin modes in the zero-field and motional-narrowing regimes. The general theoretical framework presented here will enable a quantitative analysis of frequency-dependent water-proton longitudinal relaxation in model systems with immobilized macromolecules and, ultimately, will provide a rigorous link between relaxation-based magnetic resonance image contrast and molecular parameters
Mass bounds for compact spherically symmetric objects in generalized gravity theories
Burikham, Piyabut; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.
2016-09-01
We derive upper and lower bounds on the mass-radius ratio of stable compact objects in extended gravity theories, in which modifications of the gravitational dynamics via-á-vis standard general relativity are described by an effective contribution to the matter energy-momentum tensor. Our results include the possibility of a variable coupling between the matter sector and the gravitational field and are valid for a large class of generalized gravity models. The generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are expressed in terms of the effective mass, density, and pressure, given by the bare values plus additional contributions from the total energy-momentum tensor, and general theoretical limits for the maximum and minimum mass-radius ratios are explicitly obtained. As applications of the formalism developed herein, we consider compact bosonic objects, described by scalar-tensor gravitational theories with self-interacting scalar field potentials, and charged compact objects, respectively. For Higgs-type models, we find that these bounds can be expressed in terms of the value of the potential at the surface of the compact object. Minimizing the energy with respect to the radius, we obtain explicit upper and lower bounds on the mass, which admits a Chandrasekhar-type representation. For charged compact objects, we consider the effects of the Poincaré stresses on the equilibrium structure and obtain bounds on the radial and tangential stresses. As a possible astrophysical test of our results, we obtain the general bound on the gravitational redshift for compact objects in extended gravity theories and explicitly compute the redshift restrictions for objects with nonzero effective surface pressure. General implications of minimum mass bounds for the gravitational stability of fundamental particles and for the existence of holographic duality between bulk and boundary degrees of freedom are also considered.
Generalized weak-binding relations of compositeness in effective field theory
Kamiya, Yuki
2016-01-01
We study the compositeness of near-threshold states to investigate the internal structure of exotic hadron candidates. Within the framework of effective field theory, Weinberg's weak-binding relation is extended to more general cases by easing several preconditions. First, by evaluating the contribution from the decay channel, we obtain the generalized relation for unstable quasibound states. Next, we generalize the relation to include the nearby CDD (Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson) pole contribution with the help of the Pade approximant. The validity of the estimation with the generalized weak-binding relations is examined by numerical calculations. Finally, by applying the extended relation to Lambda(1405), f0(980) and a0(980), we discuss their internal structure, in comparison with other approaches.
Generalized Geophysical Retrieval and Analysis Tool for Planetary Atmospheres Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CPI proposes to develop an innovative, generalized retrieval algorithm and analysis tool (GRANT) that will facilitate analysis of remote sensing data from both...
Generalization of Einstein-Lovelock theory to higher order dilaton gravity
Konikowska, D
2007-01-01
A higher order theory of dilaton gravity is constructed as a generalization of the Einstein-Lovelock theory of pure gravity. Its Lagrangian contains terms with higher powers of the Riemann tensor and of the first two derivatives of the dilaton. Nevertheless, the resulting equations of motion are quasi-linear in the second derivatives of the metric and of the dilaton. This property is crucial for the existence of brane solutions in the thin wall limit. At each order in derivatives the contribution to the Lagrangian is unique up to an overall normalization. Relations between symmetries of this theory and the O(d,d) symmetry of the string-inspired models are discussed.
2015-01-01
This modern translation of Sophus Lie's and Friedrich Engel's “Theorie der Transformationsgruppen Band I” will allow readers to discover the striking conceptual clarity and remarkably systematic organizational thought of the original German text. Volume I presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory and is mainly directed towards the generalization of ideas drawn from the study of examples. The major part of the present volume offers an extremely clear translation of the lucid original. The first four chapters provide not only a translation, but also a contemporary approach, which will help present day readers to familiarize themselves with the concepts at the heart of the subject. The editor's main objective was to encourage a renewed interest in the detailed classification of Lie algebras in dimensions 1, 2 and 3, and to offer access to Sophus Lie's monumental Galois theory of continuous transformation groups, established at the end of the 19th Century. Lie groups are widespread in mathematics, p...
How unimodular gravity theories differ from general relativity at quantum level
Bufalo, R; Tureanu, A
2015-01-01
We investigate path integral quantization of two versions of unimodular gravity. First a fully diffeomorphism-invariant theory is analyzed, which does not include a unimodular condition on the metric, while still being equivalent to other unimodular gravity theories at classical level. The path integral has the same form as in general relativity (GR), except that the cosmological constant is an unspecified value of a variable, and thus unrelated to any coupling constant. When the state of the universe is a superposition of vacuum states, the path integral is extended to include an integral over the cosmological constant. Second, we analyze the standard unimodular theory of gravity, where the metric determinant is fixed by a constraint. Its path integral differs from the one of GR in two ways: the metric of spacetime satisfies the unimodular condition only in average over space, and both the Hamiltonian constraint and the associated gauge condition have zero average over space. Finally, the canonical relation ...
Introduction to measure theory and functional analysis
Cannarsa, Piermarco
2015-01-01
This book introduces readers to theories that play a crucial role in modern mathematics, such as integration and functional analysis, employing a unifying approach that views these two subjects as being deeply intertwined. This feature is particularly evident in the broad range of problems examined, the solutions of which are often supported by generous hints. If the material is split into two courses, it can be supplemented by additional topics from the third part of the book, such as functions of bounded variation, absolutely continuous functions, and signed measures. This textbook addresses the needs of graduate students in mathematics, who will find the basic material they will need in their future careers, as well as those of researchers, who will appreciate the self-contained exposition which requires no other preliminaries than basic calculus and linear algebra.
Understanding Band Gaps of Solids in Generalized Kohn-Sham Theory
Perdew, John P; Burke, Kieron; Yang, Zenghui; Gross, Eberhard K U; Scheffler, Matthias; Scuseria, Gustavo E; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhang, Igor Ying; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Sun, Jianwei
2016-01-01
The fundamental energy gap of a periodic solid distinguishes insulators from metals and characterizes low-energy single-electron excitations. But the gap in the band-structure of the exact multiplicative Kohn-Sham (KS) potential substantially underestimates the fundamental gap, a major limitation of KS density functional theory. Here we give a simple proof of a new theorem: In generalized KS theory (GKS), the band gap equals the fundamental gap for the approximate functional if the GKS potential operator is continuous and the density change is delocalized when an electron or hole is added. Our theorem explains how GKS band gaps from meta-generalized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) and hybrid functionals can be more realistic than those from GGAs or even from the exact KS potential, It also follows from earlier work. The band edges in the GKS one-electron spectrum are also related to measurable energies. A linear chain of hydrogen molecules provides a numerical illustration.
Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(R,T) theory of gravity
Momeni, D.; Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Myrzakulov, R.
2016-07-01
We present a study of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the scope of the f(R,T) theory of gravity, with R and T representing the Ricci scalar and trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. From the energy-momentum tensor equation for the f(R,T)=R+f(T) case, we calculate the form of the geometric entropy in such a theory. Then, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is quantified and some relations for its obedience in f(R,T) gravity are presented. Those relations depend on some cosmological quantities, as the Hubble and deceleration parameters, and also on the form of f(T).
Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(R,T) theory of gravity
Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R
2015-01-01
We present a study of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the scope of the f(R,T) theory of gravity, with R and T representing the Ricci scalar and trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. From the energy-momentum tensor equation for the f(R,T) = R + f(T) case, we calculate the form of the geometric entropy in such a theory. Then, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is quantified and some relations for its obedience in f(R,T) gravity are presented. Those relations depend on some cosmological quantities, as the Hubble and deceleration parameters, and on the form of f(T).
Thermodynamics of general scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling
Huang, Yumei
2016-01-01
With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we discuss the first law of the thermodynamics on the apparent in the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with the kinetic term of the scalar field non-minimally coupling to Einstein tensor. We show the equivalence between the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and Friedmann equation for the general models, by using a mass-like function which is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass on the apparent horizon. The results further support the universal relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Fredmann equation.
Thermodynamics of general scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling
Huang, YuMei; Gong, YunGui
2016-04-01
With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we discuss the first law of the thermodynamics on the apparent in the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with the kinetic term of the scalar field non-minimally coupling to Einstein tensor. We show the equivalence between the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and Friedmann equation for the general models, by using a mass-like function which is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass on the apparent horizon. The results further support the universal relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equation.
Non-locality in quantum field theory due to general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier; Croon, Djuna; Fritz, Christopher [University of Sussex, Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
We show that general relativity coupled to a quantum field theory generically leads to non-local effects in the matter sector. These non-local effects can be described by non-local higher dimensional operators which remarkably have an approximate shift symmetry. When applied to inflationary models, our results imply that small non-Gaussianities are a generic feature of models based on general relativity coupled to matter fields. However, these effects are too small to be observable in the cosmic microwave background. (orig.)
Gato-Rivera, Beatriz
2008-01-01
In 1998 the Adapted Ordering Method was developed for the study of the representation theory of the superconformal algebras in two dimensions. It allows: to determine the maximal dimension for a given type of space of singular vectors, to identify all singular vectors by only a few coefficients, to spot subsingular vectors and to set the basis for constructing embedding diagrams. In this talk I introduce the present version of the Adapted Ordering Method, published in J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 (2008) 045201, which can be applied to general Lie algebras and superalgebras and their generalizations, provided they can be triangulated.
Gauged motion in general relativity and in Kaluza-Klein theories
Nouri-Zonoz, M; Nouri-Zonoz, Mohammad; Tavanfar, Ali Reza
2003-01-01
In a recent paper [1] a new generalization of Killing motion, the {\\it gauged motion}, has been introduced for stationary spacetimes where it was shown that the physical symmetries of such spacetimes are well described through this new symmetry. In this article after a more detailed study in stationary case we present the definition of gauged motion for general spacetimes. The definition is based on the gauged Lie derivative induced by a threading family of observers and the relevant reparametrization invariance. We also extend the gauged motion to the case of Kaluza-Klein theories.
Current density functional theory using meta-generalized gradient exchange-correlation functionals
Furness, James W.; Verbeke, Joachim; Tellgren, Erik I; Stopkowicz, Stella; Ekström, Ulf; Helgaker, Trygve; Teale, Andrew M.
2015-01-01
We present the self-consistent implementation of current-dependent (hybrid) meta generalized gradient approximation (mGGA) density functionals using London atomic orbitals. A previously proposed generalized kinetic energy density is utilized to implement mGGAs in the framework of Kohn--Sham current density-functional theory (KS-CDFT). A unique feature of the non-perturbative implementation of these functionals is the ability to seamlessly explore a wide range of magnetic fields up to 1 a.u. (...
IS IT NECESSARY TO TEACH THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN GENERAL PHYSICS COURSE
Sergey N. Kolgatin
2015-01-01
The aim of the present investigation is to discuss and study the general structure of the course of Physics at the high school in an extended sense. In a narrower sense, the author wonders about the necessity for inclusion of the section «Theory of Relativity» in the General Physics course, and discusses the possible site of this issue in the order of presentation.Methods. A method for designing Physics course in modern conditions requires certain sophistication from a lecturer. This is due t...
Non-locality in quantum field theory due to general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier, E-mail: x.calmet@sussex.ac.uk; Croon, Djuna, E-mail: d.croon@sussex.ac.uk; Fritz, Christopher, E-mail: c.fritz@sussex.ac.uk [Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9QH, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2015-12-19
We show that general relativity coupled to a quantum field theory generically leads to non-local effects in the matter sector. These non-local effects can be described by non-local higher dimensional operators which remarkably have an approximate shift symmetry. When applied to inflationary models, our results imply that small non-Gaussianities are a generic feature of models based on general relativity coupled to matter fields. However, these effects are too small to be observable in the cosmic microwave background.
On the string actions for the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories
Sugawara, Y
1996-01-01
We study the structures of partition functions of the large N generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) by recasting the higher Casimirs. We clarify the appropriate interpretations of them and try to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam's topological string model describing the ordinary YM_2 \\cite{CMR} to those describing gYM_2. The concept of ''deformed gravitational descendants'' will be introduced for this purpose.
PyR@TE: Renormalization Group Equations for General Gauge Theories
Lyonnet, Florian; Schienbein, Ingo; Staub, Florian; Wingerter, Akin
2013-01-01
Although the two-loop renormalization group equations for a general gauge field theory have been known for quite some time, deriving them for specific models has often been difficult in practice. This is mainly due to the fact that, albeit straightforward, the involved calculations are quite long, tedious and prone to error. The present work is an attempt to facilitate the practical use of the renormalization group equations in model building. To that end, we have developed two completely ind...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When operators of dimension 6 are added to the standard Wilson action in lattice gauge theories, physical positivity is lost in general. We show that a transfer matrix can nevertheless be defined. Its properties are, however, unusual: complex eigenvalues may occur (leading to damped oscillatory behaviour of correlation functions), and there are always contributions in the spectral decomposition of two-point functions that come with a negative weight. (orig.)
The M\\"ossbauer rotor experiment and the the general theory of relativity
Corda, Christian
2016-01-01
This paper is a rebuttal to Eur. Phys. Jour. Plus 130, 191 (2015), which claims that the results in arXiv:1502.04911 (Ann. Phys. 355, 360 (2015)) are incorrect. For this reason, some of the results in arXiv:1502.04911 have been reviewed and clarified. The results in this paper are dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's presentation of the complete General Theory of Relativity to the Prussian Academy.
Strange quark matter attached to string cloud in general scalar tensor theory of gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V U M Rao
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Bianchi type-VI0 space time with strange quark matter attached to string cloud in Nordtvedt [1] general scalar tensor theory of gravitation with the help of a special case proposed by Schwinger [2] is obtained. The field equations have been solved by using the anisotropy feature of the universe in the Bianchi type-VI0 space time. Some important features of the model, thus obtained, have been discussed
Towards the understanding of social reality in general theory of institutional facts
John Alexander Giraldo Chavarriaga
2011-01-01
This paper offers a critical interpretation of the general theory of institutional facts, which intents to comprehend, on the basis of a basic regulatory structure with functions assignments, how objective social reality is constructed. We discuss problems, approaches, and theoretical methods employed by Searle, in contrast to sociological constructivism, examining the issues of autoreferentiality of the concept of institutionality, the search for objectivity, the adoption of external realism...
Stock mechanics: a general theory and method of energy conservation with applications on DJIA
Tuncay, C
2005-01-01
A new method, based on the original theory of conservation of sum of kinetic and potential energy defined for prices is proposed and applied on Dow Jones Industrials Average (DJIA). The general trends averaged over months or years gave a roughly conserved total energy, with three different potential energies, i.e. positive definite quadratic, negative definite quadratic and linear potential energy for exponential rises (and falls), sinusoidal oscillations and parabolic trajectories, respectively. Corresponding expressions for force (impact) are also given. Keywords:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Peter Meincke
1996-01-01
New uniform closed-form expressions for physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents are derived for truncated incremental wedge strips. In contrast to previously reported expressions, the new expressions are well-behaved for all directions of incidence and observation and take a finit...... value for zero strip length. Consequently, the new equivalent edge currents are, to the knowledge of the author, the first that are well-suited for implementation in general computer codes...
LRS Bianchi Type-I Dark Energy Cosmological Models in General Scalar Tensor Theory of Gravitation
D. Neelima; V. U. M. Rao
2013-01-01
Locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I dark energy cosmological model with variable equation of state (EoS) parameter in (Nordtvedt 1970) general scalar tensor theory of gravitation with the help of a special case proposed by (Schwinger 1970) is obtained. It is observed that these anisotropic and isotropic dark energy cosmological models always represent an accelerated universe and are consistent with the recent observations of type-Ia supernovae. Some important features of the m...
He, Lianhua; Liu, Fang; Hautier, Geoffroy; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, J. J.; Rignanese, G. -M.; Zhou, Aihui
2013-01-01
We assess the validity of various exchange-correlation functionals for computing the structural, vibrational, dielectric, and thermodynamical properties of materials in the framework of density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT). We consider five generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) functionals (PBE, PBEsol, WC, AM05, and HTBS) as well as the local density approximation (LDA) functional. We investigate a wide variety of materials including a semiconductor (silicon), a metal (copper), a...
School truancy among Turkish high school students: A test of General Strain Theory
Ozgur Solakoglu; Ugur Orak
2016-01-01
School absenteeism is a complicated problem with a variety of causes. It has been shown to be one of the main predictors of school drop-outs as well as leading to delinquency and criminal behavior in adulthood. This study examines the applicability of General Strain Theory on educational factors by considering truancy as a risk behavior. In this empirical study, we test the explanatory powers of certain kinds of strain, including school strain, economic deprivation, negative life events, ange...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Van Han
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000 assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various approaches: speech act, pragmatics, conversation analysis, variation analysis, and critical discourse analysis. Each approach works in its different domain to discourse. For one dimension, it shares the same assumptions or general problems in discourse analysis with the other approaches: for instance, the explanation on how we organize language into units beyond sentence boundaries, or how language is used to convey information about the world, ourselves and human relationships (Schiffrin 1994: viii. For other dimensions, each approach holds its distinctive characteristics contributing to the vastness of discourse analysis. This paper will mainly discuss two approaches to discourse analysis- conversation analysis and speech act theory- and will attempt to point out some similarities as well as contrasting features between the two approaches, followed by a short reflection on their strengths and weaknesses in the essence of each approach. The organizational and discourse features in the exchanges among three teachers at the College of Finance and Customs in Vietnam will be analysed in terms of conversation analysis and speech act theory.