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Sample records for analysis eletrificacao rural

  1. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge

    1995-07-01

    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  2. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  3. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  4. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  5. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  6. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  7. Rural electrification in Santarem: the contribution of micro hydropower; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Diniz, Janaina Deane de Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA . The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA ) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  8. Costs of elephant grass gasification for rural electric power generation; Custos da gaseificacao de graminea para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos

    2000-07-01

    Biomass gasification is an sustainable option for energy supply, which presents low pollutants emission rate and allows - through the global cycle of growing and consumption of feedstock (vegetables), a balance between consumption and production of carbonic gas, preventing an increase of the carbonic gas levels in the atmosphere. Fluidized bed gasification is a means to increase the energetic use of biomass. A gasifier was built with internal diameter of 400 mm and total height of 4600 mm . The equipment was tested for gasification of elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at a 100 kg/h rate. It was evaluated an adequate diesel-electric-generator to work at hybrid regime, using 70% biomass gas and 30% diesel. With the equipment's construction costs, could be made a first economic feasibility assessment on the pilot-plant to produce electricity by grass gasification (elephant-grass) at rural communities. The annual cost of the investment was estimated. The cost of electricity was calculated as a function of the capital cost and the diesel price. The methods and equations for economic assessment are presented. This study found values between 0,16 and 0,23 R$/kWh for the produced electricity, what points towards the feasibility of this project. (author)

  9. Rural electrical process and the agroindustrial expansion in Goias state, Brazil; Processo de eletrificacao rural e a expansao da agroindustria no extremo sudoeste goiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Josias Manoel [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias (CEFET/GO), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The electric energy is an important tool to rural communities, promoting quality of life through its use at home or as part of the productive process. The Rural Electrical Project of the State of Goias began with the collaboration between The Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) and the Electric Company of the State of Goias. The subject of this paper is to characterize the electric energy use in three farms attended by OECF project, in Rio Verde, Jatai and Mineiro. It was done the checking, analysis and description of situations related to the electric installation, motors starting, conservation and use of alternative energy source. It was evident that all farms use electric motors to several purposes (irrigation, manufacture of ration, triturates, mechanic milking, etc). Two farms used electric fences, while only one used hybrid system. It was verified at the visited farms presented an expressive use of the electric energy in its domestic usage as much as an input to the productive process. (author)

  10. Behaviour of steel zinc and aluminum conductors in rural electricity systems; Comportamento de condutores de aco zincado e de aluminio no sistema de eletrificacao rural (MRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Simone M. da

    1989-12-31

    In the present study, electrical and mechanical properties, the price per unity of weight and the price of rural tariffs were adopted to define the behaviour of steel zinc plated conductors (1 x 3,09 mm, 3 x 2,25 mm) and aluminum conductor steel reinforced n deg o 4. With the help of the kilometer of the line and the Kw/h costs, the values of economical currents for each conductor and the power installed were obtained, varying the distance. Regression analysis were carried out to obtain the values of economically viable current and the number of transformers, in function of the distance. (author). 12 figs., 20 tabs., 35 refs

  11. The rural electric cooperatives in a new scenario of the electric sector; As cooperativas de eletrificacao rural no novo cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], e-mail: macpel@pea.usp.br, e-mail: fribeiro@pea.usp.br, e-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The rural electric cooperatives are agents who have always been on the edge of the electric sector. Now, they must be regularized to the new rules of the electric energy public service established by the 1995 Concessions Law. This work provides an evaluation of the Brazilian rural electric cooperatives regulation apparatus and the regularization public policy applied in Sao Paulo. The evaluation focus is the rural citizen, the electric energy consumer and the citizens who have been excluded from this public service. The interpretation of the problem and the study of the regularization process has led to the evidence that the situation reached an impasse. The thesis is that the attitude of regulatory agencies create a paradox where the cooperatives are not covered by the regulation policies with damage to citizens in these areas. Particularly, given that the Brazilian citizens have won the right of electricity access, the citizen who lives in the cooperative area have no protection by State to do this right effective. This work offers an academic proposal to break this institutional impasse, based on the search of the agents' equilibrium. (author)

  12. Evaluation as a tool for planning: a case study on rural electrification; Avaliacao como instrumento de planejamento: estudo de caso em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The universalization of access of the electric energy is one of the goals established by the Brazilian government so as to attend the rural and urban population. The arrival of electric energy in remote and low income areas allows these populations to reach one of the basic conditions to improve the quality of life and citizenship. In order to achieve this goal efficiently, it is necessary to build tools that make possible the impact and process evaluation, searching the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals, or in the poverty mitigation. The knowledge originated from evaluation impact studies provides an important contribution to the improvement of social programs, and a return to society as how the public fund is being managed, promoting transparency and focus. In this context, tolls are developed so as to support the impact and process evaluation in terms of rural electrification publics policies, using a study case that includes about 23.000 questionnaires in 21 states, considering the moment before the access (ex-ante) and after (ex-post), during the years of 2000 and 2004. (author)

  13. Cost comparison of individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems for rural electrification; Comparacao de custos entre sistemas fotovoltaicos individuais e minicentrais fotovoltaicas para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Vieira, Leonardo dos Santos Reis; Galdino, Marco Antonio Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fleury@cepel.br, lsrv@cepel.br, marcoag@cepel.br; Olivieri, Marta Maria de Almeida; Borges, Eduardo Luis de Paula; Carvalho, Claudio Monteiro de; Lima, Alex Artigiani Neves [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: martaolivieri@eletrobras.com, eduardo_borges@eletrobras.com, claudio.carvalho@eletrobras.com, alex.lima@eletrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    A cost comparison for individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems is made regarding the use of these systems for rural electrification in Northern Brazil. The estimates for maintenance costs were based on existing experience for individual systems already operating in the region. A comparison was also made between modified automotive lead acid batteries commonly used in photovoltaic systems in Brazil and the much more expensive OPzS tubular types. The results of these evaluations show that the maintenance costs are expected to be lower in the case of the mini grids than in individual systems. This is because for a given number of houses to be supplied with electrical energy, they use a smaller number of components subject to failures, like inverters and charge controllers. OPzS batteries are expected to compensate for their higher prices if their predicted operating lifetime can be confirmed under the practical conditions envisaged. (author)

  14. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  15. Adaptation of rural electricity cooperatives in the State of Parana to the scenario of the electric sector; Adaptacao das cooperativas de eletrificacao rural do estado do Parana ao cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], Email: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmenan, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Reisdoerfer, Eli Carlos; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Email: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Rural Electrification Cooperatives (REC) has already played a fundamental role in rural electrification process. Bearing in mind changes in legislation towards specific laws that tend to facilitate energy distribution and trade relations, REC has increased there potential to contribute even more to above mentioned process. The present work intended to assess how REC settled in Parana State have adapted themselves to the privatised electrical business scenario as well as to new legal requirements and the presence of great national and international corporations disputing the energy market. Such new electrical market model favors huge changes to the electrification cooperatives, with the possibility of transforming cooperatives into public service energy with governmental permission. Moreover, it also represents a giant challenge for their insertion and continuity in such new scenario, in as much as the REC classification process as public service companies for electric energy distribution has been carried out for years, added to the scarcity of investments on state cooperatives, therefore restricting electric energy supply to residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  16. The implications of the marketing promotional compound in a cooperative of the rural electrification: the case of CERTAJA-RS; As implicacoes do composto promocional de marketing numa cooperativa de eletrificacao rural: o caso da CERTAJA-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Padilha, Ana Claudia Machado; Silva, Tania Nunes da; Mattos, Paloma [UniversidadeFederal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios

    2006-07-01

    The present study it consisted of analyzing the made up of marketing of the cooperative of agricultural electrification - CERTAJA, aiming at to identify which is the current actions developed and implemented for the cooperative. For this, it was used as analysis object the tools of the made up of marketing, the 4 P's (product, price, point of distribution and promotion), that it was identified by means of questionnaires saw e-mail to the manager of the department of energy, to the vice president, to the responsible one for the financial department and to the assessorship of the press that has fort linking with the department of marketing. As main results it is cited consolidation of communication channels that offer possibility to the social picture to participate of the decisions of the cooperative, as well as having information for way written and said decisions to them of management and administration. The supply of electric energy has as focus the satisfaction of the cooperated ones that they are partner-proprietors of the cooperative, being excellent to offer to these and excessively consuming a product or service that takes care of to its expectations. (author)

  17. 'Click Rural' - the rural program for rural electrification: his effects and implications the western Parana, Brazil after 20 years later; O programa de eletrificacao rural 'Clic rural': seus efeitos e implicacoes na regiao oeste do Parana 20 anos depois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    This study verified through a sampling the technical standard of attendance adopted by the greater program for rural electrification denominated 'Clic Rural' ever implanted in the state of Parana, Brazil, in the period of 1984-1992 at the concession area of COPEL - Parana Energy Company. The work was based on a field research with visits and a questionnaire applied of rural proprietaries.

  18. Electrification of small rural properties in the Cangucu-Brazil city using alternative sources for electricity generation; Eletrificacao de pequenas propriedades rurais do municipio de Cangucu empregando fontes alternativas para a producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecktheuer, Lucio Almeida [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia

    1998-12-31

    This paper aims at specifying and measuring the main alternative electrification system components, such as solar and eolic, which make use of the property`s energetical potential that, to a small extent, do not represent pollution sources to the environment. The results indicated that, the small rural properties of Cangucu country, which present a low daily electric energy consumption, these alternative systems are able to technically and economically supply electric energy and provide reasonable subsidies to electrification projects which can eventually be developed in the country. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A critical analysis of the 'Programa Luz Para Todos' for the electrification of remote communities in the Amazon region; Uma analise critica do Programa Luz Para Todos para a eletrificacao de comunidades isoladas na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao [Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a critical review of 'Luz para Todos' (LpT) as a rural electricity deployment program and its viability as a starter for a development process to isolated communities from Amazon region. We analyzed the functionality using data from the beginning of the program until 2009, as well the methodology and organization of the investments over 'Luz para Todos' program as a development starter, preferably sustainable, for the isolated communities from Amazon region. We concluded that a discussion is mandatory, as well a review of some important points, such as estimation of available financial resources; mechanisms used to motivate electric utilities that serve the isolated communities especially in the Amazon region; and the relationship between energy and development proposed by the program. (author)

  20. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Song

    2015-01-01

    Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second...

  1. Dose forming in rural settlement: family analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is the multifactor statistic families analysis of ingestion dose in rural settlement. The hypothesis of the determining role of a family as of social system in dose forming in rural settlement, has been approved. The most significant social-demographic features of a family influencing dose forming, were detected: the number of members of the family, number of children, average age, education and occupational orientation of the family. Despite their being linked with similar features of the family on the whole, age, education, occupation and gender of master of the family, influence most the dose forming. Young families with many children in which the master is a worker, having frequent contact with forest, have high doses. The knowledge of social structure of families will allow to predict the ingestion dose distribution in rural settlement. (Author)

  2. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second, rural tourism is the granger reason to agricultural food marketing and there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between them. From the VAR model, we can get that rural tourism will promote agricultural food marketing growth. LnRT at lag 1 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.48%; LnRT at lag 2 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.2%, so the effect of rural tourism on agricultural food marketing is obvious.

  3. Analysis of urban - rural population dynamics for China

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, J.

    1991-01-01

    The multiregional demography approach is used in an analysis of the urban - rural population dynamics of China. Multiregional population-accounts and methods of estimation of demographic rates are developed on the basis of the multiregional population-accounts concept. An accounts-based urban - rural population projection model is established and used to project the population of China from 1988 to 2087.

  4. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Beijing Rural Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the status quo of Beijing rural infrastructure, I probe into the SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal. Among them, the strengths of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal are analyzed from two aspects, namely, the strong financial support and great importance attached to by the government; the weaknesses are analyzed in terms of the serious shortage of funds invested and disparate investment in rural infrastructure; the opportunities faced by the rural infrastructure construction are analyzed in terms of support form the macrocontrol of the state and the threats are analyzed from the aspects of land preservation and environmental protection. Thus in order to further promote the Beijing rural infrastructure construction and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction, the following countermeasures are put forward. In the first place, the government should adjust the fiscal policies and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction. In the second place, the laws should be perfected to provide constitutional guarantee for infrastructure construction. In the third place, healthy supervision system of rural infrastructure should be managed well and use well. In the fourth place, the government should attach importance to disparate demands and shift from the unified standard to classified standard. In the fifth place, the government should enforce the supervision on capital and operation so as to improve the service efficiency of capital.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Interaction between Rural Residents' Consumption and Income

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the income and consumption level of farmers is lower than that of urban residents, and in the context of current grave international economic environment, it is very unfavorable to expanding domestic demand and stimulating economic growth. Based on the empirical analysis of rural residents' income and consumption, this paper explores the reasons for lagging consumption of rural residents in China, and finally puts forth the recommendations for increasing farmers' income, prom...

  6. A Multivariate Statistical Approach to the Analysis of Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocchi, Mario; Montresor, Elisa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the definition of an analytical approach for evaluating the dynamics in progress in the agricultural and rural development at a territorial level. For this purpose principal components analysis and cluster analysis were applied and the different methodological approaches reviewed. A two-stage method is also proposed. This could provide the analytical tools to simplify and interpret the results of the territorial analyses, also in order to supply a flex...

  7. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  8. The Grey Correlation Analysis on the Relationship between the Rural Finance and the Rural Economical Growth in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural finance and the rural economy of Sichuan Province from 1999 to 2009 by using the sequential growth rate of the gross value of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery and the sequential growth rate of the per capital total income of rural households as the indicators of rural economic development; and taking the volume of deposit, volume of credit, volume of agricultural credit and the credit volume of township enterprises as the indicators of rural financial development; as well as the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show that there is an obvious positive correlation between them, and the development of country finance has the closest connection with the sequential growth rate of farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production and fishery. The loan scale of township enterprises has the biggest influence on the increase of the rural economy. The countermeasures are put forward, covering optimizing investment structure; supporting the development of township enterprises; encouraging loan; actively lightening the financial difficulties in the process of developing rural economy; innovating and exploring; and promoting the diversified development of rural finance.

  9. SWOT Analysis and Strategic Research on China’s Rural Modern Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the necessity of China’s rural modern industrial development,and points out that developing rural modern industry is the necessary choice of increasing farmers’ income and bridging urban-rural gap;developing rural modern industry is the propeller of promoting rural economic prosperity and holistic economic growth of the nation;developing rural modern industry is the foundation of perfecting various kinds of social undertakings and changing rural appearance.SWOT analysis is conducted on China’s rural modern industrial development.The advantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include human resources advantage,economic development advantage,and policy advantage;the disadvantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include outdated thinking and concept,unsound infrastructure and imperfect system guarantee;the opportunities of China’s rural modern industrial development include great development of agricultural technology,implementation of new countryside construction strategy and development of rural informatization construction;the challenges of China’s rural modern industrial development include the transformation from closed rural environment with weak infrastructure to open rural environment with sound infrastructure,the transformation from traditional agricultural production mode to modern industrial development mode,and the transformation from administrative management model to service-oriented management model.The corresponding strategies are put forward to promote China’s rural modern industrial development at present as follows:change thinking and concept;perfect infrastructure;establish security system and perfect management system;provide good hard and soft foundation for rural industrial development so as to promote rural modern industrial development.

  10. Spatial Analysis of the Evolvement of Urban and Rural Economic Disparity in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The per capita disposable income of urban households and the per capita net income of rural households in Yunnan Province are selected as the variable indices.Data are from the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook.Theil index and RHL value are used to carry out quantitative research on the occurrence,development and change of urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province,China.Regression analysis on the evolvement trend of urban and rural economic disparity and spatial analysis on the convergence and divergence of urban and rural disparity caused by economic growth in Yunnan Province are carried out.Result shows that cities in Yunnan Province show a downward convergence;while rural areas show a downward divergence in the years 1978-2007,causing the economic disparity between urban and rural areas.Therefore,urban and rural disparity increases in Yunnan Province and the development of rural areas lags far behind the development of urban areas.Urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province shows an inverted "U" shape of Kuznets Curve.In order to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural economy,suggestions are put forward,such as adopting the unbalanced development strategy,accelerating the overall economic development,promoting the development of small and medium-sized cities,enhancing the integration of urban and rural economics,appropriately supporting rural areas under poverty,and fully exerting the comparative advantage.

  11. Small rural hospitals: an example of market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, A G; Shelby, R L

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, market segmentation analysis has shown increased popularity among health care marketers, although marketers tend to focus upon hospitals as sellers. The present analysis suggests that there is merit to viewing hospitals as a market of consumers. Employing a random sample of 741 small rural hospitals, the present investigation sought to determine, through the use of segmentation analysis, the variables associated with hospital success (occupancy). The results of a discriminant analysis yielded a model which classifies hospitals with a high degree of predictive accuracy. Successful hospitals have more beds and employees, and are generally larger and have more resources. However, there was no significant relationship between organizational success and number of services offered by the institution. PMID:10111266

  12. Rural Power System Load Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jun-long; Xing Yu; Fu Yu; Xu Yang; Liu Guo-liang

    2015-01-01

    Power load forecasting accuracy related to the development of the power system. There were so many factors influencing the power load, but their effects were not the same and what factors played a leading role could not be determined empirically. Based on the analysis of the principal component, the paper forecasted the demands of power load with the method of the multivariate linear regression model prediction. Took the rural power grid load for example, the paper analyzed the impacts of different factors on power load, selected the forecast methods which were appropriate for using in this area, forecasted its 2014-2018 electricity load, and provided a reliable basis for grid planning.

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Rural Water Sector Policy Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Le Gouais

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the findings of a review of policy and strategy documents published circa 2008 by a diverse set of eleven development partners in the rural water sector. It was carried out as part of the Triple-S (Sustainable Services at Scale Initiative using a Qualitative Document Analysis (QDA approach to assess the extent to which the reviewed documents align with a set of 'building blocks' identified by Triple-S as integral to ensuring sustainable service delivery in the rural water sector. Based on the reviewed documents, the policies of the development partners included in this analysis demonstrate a clear commitment towards a number of important elements believed to be necessary for sustainable service delivery including learning and adaptive management, coordination and collaboration, capacity support for local government, and harmonisation and alignment. However, the analysis of the policy documents results in low scores for planning for asset management (i.e. renewals and recognition and promotion of alternative service delivery options to community management (e.g. Self-supply of, or delegated management to, the private sector. Thus, this study indicates that these areas, considered by Triple-S to be crucial for improving sustainability, are relatively neglected and merit more attention in the policies of organisations.

  14. Multiple regression analysis of the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Wa; Xiao, Hong; Zhuo, Ma

    2009-01-01

    We use the regression analysis method of multivariate statistical analysis to establish a multiple linear regression model about the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during the year 2007. This paper analyzes the internal relation between the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households according to the regression result. Some reasonable suggestions are put forward for raising the income of rural households and stimulating consumption.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal semen analysis in patients of infertility at a rural setup in Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhada Jajoo; Kanika R. Kalyani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Semen analysis is an indispensable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the male partners of infertile couples. Methods: Semen samples were analysed by manual method. Analyses were for volume, viscosity, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, according to WHO guidelines on semen analysis Results: This study, done at a rural setup, at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital has demonstrated that abnormal semen quality is a major factor in our rural setup with 52% of male partne...

  16. Analysis of optimum density of forest roads in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the density of roads in rural properties in the south of the Espírito Santo and compared it with the calculation of the optimal density in forestry companies in steep areas. The work was carried out in six small rural properties based on the costs of roads of forest use, wood extraction and the costs of loss of productive area. The technical analysis included time and movement study and productivity. The economic analysis included operational costs, production costs and returns for different scenarios of productivity (180m.ha-1, 220m.ha-1and 250 m.ha-1. According to the results, all the properties have densities of road well above the optimum, which reflects the lack of criteria in the planning of the forest stands, resulting in a inadequate use of plantation area. Property 1 had the highest density of roads (373.92 m.ha-1 and the property 5 presented the lowest density (111.56 m.ha-1.

  17. Brief Analysis on Institution of Rural Collective Construction Land Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the viewpoint of strengthening the government management and control of rural collective construction land transfer,this paper gives relevant definitions and puts forward institution and policy of construction land for township enterprises and rural housing land. It is expected to provide institutional guarantee for standardizing the market order of rural collective construction land use right transfer.

  18. Discerning applicants’ interests in rural medicine: a textual analysis of admission essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L. Elam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite efforts to construct targeted medical school admission processes using applicant-level correlates of future practice location, accurately gauging applicants’ interests in rural medicine remains an imperfect science. This study explores the usefulness of textual analysis to identify rural-oriented themes and values underlying applicants’ open-ended responses to admission essays. Methods: The study population consisted of 75 applicants to the Rural Physician Leadership Program (RPLP at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Using WordStat, a proprietary text analysis program, applicants’ American Medical College Application Service personal statement and an admission essay written at the time of interview were searched for predefined keywords and phrases reflecting rural medical values. From these text searches, derived scores were then examined relative to interviewers’ subjective ratings of applicants’ overall acceptability for admission to the RPLP program and likelihood of practicing in a rural area. Results: The two interviewer-assigned ratings of likelihood of rural practice and overall acceptability were significantly related. A statistically significant relationship was also found between the rural medical values scores and estimated likelihood of rural practice. However, there was no association between rural medical values scores and subjective ratings of applicant acceptability. Conclusions: That applicants’ rural values in admission essays were not related to interviewers’ overall acceptability ratings indicates that other factors played a role in the interviewers’ assessments of applicants’ acceptability for admission.

  19. Solar PV rural electrification and energy poverty assessment in Ghana: A principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng, G. Y.; Evers, Hans-Dieter; F. O. Akuffo; Braimah, I.; Brew-Hammond, A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between solar photovoltaic (PV) rural electrification and energy poverty was assessed using social, economic and environmental indicator-based questionnaires in 96 solar-electrified and 113 non-electrified households in rural Ghana. The purpose was to assess energy-poverty status of households with and without solar PV systems, and to determine the factors that explain energy-poverty in off-grid rural households. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to construct energy...

  20. Discerning applicants’ interests in rural medicine: a textual analysis of admission essays

    OpenAIRE

    Elam, Carol L.; Anthony D. Weaver; Elmer T. Whittler; Stratton, Terry D.; Linda M. Asher; Scott, Kimberly L.; Wilson, Emery A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite efforts to construct targeted medical school admission processes using applicant-level correlates of future practice location, accurately gauging applicants’ interests in rural medicine remains an imperfect science. This study explores the usefulness of textual analysis to identify rural-oriented themes and values underlying applicants’ open-ended responses to admission essays.Methods: The study population consisted of 75 applicants to the Rural Physician Leadership Progra...

  1. Empirical Analysis of the Role of Urbanization in Driving the Growth of Rural Residents' Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a powerful engine for the growth of rural residents' consumption in China. This paper selects the cross-sectional data concerning 31 provinces (municipalities) in China during 2005-2012, and builds the panel data model of influence of urbanization on rural residents' consumption in China for empirical analysis. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between urbanization and rural residents' consumption level. From the mechanism, urbanization drives t...

  2. AGRARIAM QUESTION, SOCIAL CONFLICTS IN THE COUNTRYSIDE AND RURAL EXTENSION: AN ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORANY RURAL REALYTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITOR MACHADO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a brief reflection on the agrarian question in Brazil, focusing mainly on the social impacts caused by the modernization of agriculture deployed by the military in the last century, in the early 60s, known as the Green Revolution. This development policy, adopted by the military that favored only the large producers and rural entrepreneurs resulted in numerous conflicts in the field, which extended over several regions of Brazil. In this context, the article discusses the policies adopted by the national government to contain such conflicts, among them the creation of the Rural Worker Statute, the occupation of the Amazon and rural extension policies. At the end we emphasize the importance of the main public policies for family farming, such as Social Security and PRONAF (National Program to Strengthen Family Agriculture, which are the result of the struggle of social movements and labor from rural areas.

  3. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  4. ANALYSIS OF RURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF REGION CRISANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a SWOT analysis on the potential of rural tourism in the region Crisana. Crisana region is a historical region delimited at north by the river Somes and Maramures region, at west by the river Tisa, at south by the Mures river and Banat region, and at east by the peaks of the Apuseni Mountains and Transylvania region. Crisana Region stretches on both Romania and Hungary, and we will refer only to the Romanian side of it. Crisana region has an area of 17,717 km2 and if we refer to the current counties, this region includes much of Arad county, without the area between the river Mures and Timis county, north of Hunedoara county Bihor county and part of western Salaj county

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROUMANIAN RURAL TOURISTIC PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BOIŢĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the main aspects and tendencies of the tourism in the context of sustainable development, of the place and importance of rural tourism, the usefulness of using an index system in touristy and rural tourism activity, of measuring the rural tourism activity on a country level and the need to develop it, considering its possible integration into the European touristic market. Furthermore, a new index system, to be applied in the rural tourism is set up, as well as an original structure concerning data processing and analyzing for the data acquired by sampling. These elements are only useful if applied by I.C.T (Touristy Research Institute, by other government- and non-government institutions, or even by companies interested in developing business in rural tourism, or make research work on certain aspects of the rural tourism activity, on the tourists’ behaviour in the context of this type of tourism.

  6. A Statistical Analysis on the Effects of Infrastructure on Rural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuQingjiang; YangHaiyan

    2005-01-01

    Based on statistical analysis, this paper states that four types of rural infrastructure as roads, electrcity,communications, and education have statistically significant effects on agricultural production, nonagricultural production, and farmers' income in China. However, the specifics and the degrees of these influences are different.Therefore, different policies have to be implemented respectively to make full use of the limited funds in China.Meanwhile, the maturity level of rural infrastructure as with rural economic development has regional discrepancy.The levels of maturity decrease from east to west. it is urgent that the current weak situation of the rural Infrastructure in western China needs to be improved.

  7. Utility Analysis on Supply of Rural Public Policies in North Bay Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzhen; LI; Dafeng; YE

    2013-01-01

    From analysis on internal and external motive forces of development in North Bay Economic Zone, it indicates that public policies, as basic methods of government intervening against social and economic activities, are fundamental public goods produced by government. Effective supply of public policies brings rural economic growth, environmental protection and sustainable development, which greatly stimulates rural consumption, expands domestic demand and spurs economic growth, showing significant "multiplier effect". In this situation, this paper studies conditions for rural economic development and social transformation of the North Bay Economic Zone. Results show that social and economic development of rural areas of the North Bay Economic Zone needs scientific, reasonable and effective "public policies".

  8. ANALYSIS OF RURAL TOURISM WEBSITES: THE CASE OF CENTRAL MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Anestis Fotiadis; Linda A. Piper

    2013-01-01

    Our study of rural tourism enterprises in Central Macedonia uses the functional and technical factors posted on Greek official websites during the year 2009 to explore typical guest expectations based on those posted factors and the perceptions of enterprise owners and/or managers in light of those factors. The evaluation of the hotel 74 rural enterprises in Central Macedonia was based on the examination of the importance of functional and technical quality in rural tourism services. The anal...

  9. Do rural development program measures for the encouragement of rural tourism work? A spatial econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Linderhof, Vincent; Reinhard, Stijn

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of Rural Development Program (RDP) measures focusing on tourism have on the growth of tourism and on the economy in rural areas. We first explored tourism in NUT2 regions in the EU with a spatial data analyses and then we applied spatial econometric analyses on tourism where we take into account the RDP spending on the measures that encourage tourism. For the spatial regression analyses, we use the indicators of the CMEF framework. The data were collected from E...

  10. How rural is the EU RDP? An analysis through spatial fund allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Camaioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although representing less than 20% of total CAP expenditure, the Rural Development Policy (RDP 2007-2013 is supposed to support rural areas which are facing new challenges. Currently, many EU rural areas are experiencing major transformations and the traditional urban-rural divide seems outdated (OECD, 2006. Going beyond dichotomous definitions and approaches, the paper applies at EU NUTS 3 level a new composite and comprehensive measure of rurality and peripherality (the PeripheRurality Indicator, PRI: the higher this index, the more rural and peripheral a given region is. Within a Principal Component Analysis (PCA approach, this indicator takes into account both conventional socio-economic indicators and the relevant geographical characteristics of the region. On the basis of this analysis, the paper also puts forward a clusterisation of NUTS 3 regions across Europe and assesses the correlation between the RDP expenditure intensity, the PRI and the different regional clusters. This analysis is aimed at assessing the coherence of RDP fund allocation with the real characteristics of EU rural space.

  11. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Jing; Deng, Liang-ji

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production, poultry farming, rural life and township enterprises, the difference, features, and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province, China. Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding, flowed by crop planting, rural life, and township ent...

  12. The Analysis of Obstacles to Rural Microfinance Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of presenting the terminology and classification of Rural Microfinance, this paper introduces the present situation of China’s rural microfinance development and analyses the factors that hinder the highly efficient and sustainable development of rural microfinance in current China. These factors include the operational risk, the financial resource and the sustainability of development, the regulation issues, and the issue of financial supporting services. This paper also makes several suggestions concerning policy making: the government should vigorously promote innovations in systems and mechanisms as well as products, constantly improve financial supporting services, and put more emphasis on supervision and control, as well as policy support.

  13. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ON MARKET POTENTIAL OF ETHIOPIAN RURAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Shiferaw-Mitiku T.; Shemelis-Zewdie Mersha; Ushadevi K.N.

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia has taken great strides to reduce poverty and increase the welfare of its largely rural, agricultural-based population. Ethiopia, a country with rural based economy mainly from Agriculture sector which contributed with the range of 42.5 percent to 67.25 percent of the GDP for the past two decades (1990-2012). Similarly, the percentage of Rural population against the total population of the country accounts a larger coverage; with 87.38 percent for the year 1990, 85.26percent during 2...

  14. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  15. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ON MARKET POTENTIAL OF ETHIOPIAN RURAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw-Mitiku T.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has taken great strides to reduce poverty and increase the welfare of its largely rural, agricultural-based population. Ethiopia, a country with rural based economy mainly from Agriculture sector which contributed with the range of 42.5 percent to 67.25 percent of the GDP for the past two decades (1990-2012. Similarly, the percentage of Rural population against the total population of the country accounts a larger coverage; with 87.38 percent for the year 1990, 85.26percent during 2000 and 82.46 percent for the year 2013. There is a steadfast growth in the total rural population from 41 million in 1990 and reached to 77.59 million in 2013 with average annual percentage growth rate of 2.8 for the past twenty three years. Very importantly, the major exportable products of the country is generated from the marketing of Agricultural produce such as coffee, khat, live animals, oilseeds, flowers, sesame, and also leather products. Above all, the consumption pattern and preference of rural consumer is changing due to the dynamic nature of marketing. However, marketers are failing to reach this largest target market of the population. This is mainly because, marketers are focusing on designing a product for urban market and when it becomes obsolete, it moves to the rural market. Indeed, it is unethical to override the marketing preference of the rural consumer. Recognizing the marketing requirements of the majority of the population would helps to bring a vibrant economic impact in the development of the nation. The present paper highlighted the major challenges and opportunities of Rural Marketing in Ethiopia, identified ways to explore the untapped Ethiopian Rural Market and identified possible recommendations and policy implications that would help to bring an improved development in the rural Ethiopia. Accordingly, the present article seeks the attention of Policy makers, Investors, Higher education curriculum developers and marketers to

  16. General Equilibrium Analysis of the Spatial Impacts of Rural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Kenneth J.; Psaltopoulos, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    General equilibrium (GE) techniques have recently been used to simulate policy impacts for neighbouring or different rural areas, thus focussing on the important spatial aspect of such policies. A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) represents production, households, government, etc. in matrix form, while computable GE models introduce greater behavioural flexibility at the cost of parameterisation. Several SAM and CGE models have recently been built for rural regions, while others have tried to r...

  17. Research on Rural Consumer Demand in Hebei Province Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the time sequence data concerning influencing factors of rural consumer demand in Hebei Province from 2000 to 2010,this paper uses the principal component analysis method in multiplex econometric statistical analysis,constructs the principal component of consumer demand in Hebei Province,conducts regression on the dependent variable of consumer spending per capita in Hebei Province and the principal component of consumer demand so as to get principal component regression,and then conducts quantitative and qualitative analysis on the principal component.The results show that total output value per capita (yuan),employment rate,and income gap,are correlative with rural residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province positively;consumer price index,upbringing ratio of children,and one-year interest rate are correlative with rural residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province negatively;the ratio of supporting the elderly and medical care spending per capita are correlative with rural residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province positively.The corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to promote residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province as follows:develop county economy in Hebei Province and increase rural residents’ consumer demand;use industry to support agriculture and coordinate urban-rural development;improve rural medical care and health system and resolve actual difficulties of the masses.

  18. Rural tourism spatial distribution based on multi-criteria decision analysis and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxian; Yang, Qingsheng

    2008-10-01

    To study spatial distribution of rural tourism can provide scientific decision basis for developing rural economics. Traditional ways of tourism spatial distribution have some limitations in quantifying priority locations of tourism development on small units. They can only produce the overall tourism distribution locations and whether locations are suitable to tourism development simply while the tourism develop ranking with different decision objectives should be considered. This paper presents a way to find ranking of location of rural tourism development in spatial by integrating multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geography information system (GIS). In order to develop country economics with inconvenient transportation, undeveloped economy and better tourism resource, these locations should be firstly develop rural tourism. Based on this objective, the tourism develop priority utility of each town is calculated with MCDA and GIS. Towns which should be first develop rural tourism can be selected with higher tourism develop priority utility. The method is used to find ranking of location of rural tourism in Ningbo City successfully. The result shows that MCDA is an effective way for distribution rural tourism in spatial based on special decision objectives and rural tourism can promote economic development.

  19. The Chinese Urban-rural Dual Economic Structure Model and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuchuan; XU; Shengping; SHI; Qinghua; HUANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of urban-rural dual economic structure in China,we build a dynamic endogenous urban-rural dual economic model closely linked to China’s reality,and carry out mathematical economics analysis of optimized conditions for urban and rural sectors. The main results show that:(i) The labor growth rate of urban-rural sectors must be greater than the time discount rate,or else there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(ii) The accumulation rate of physical capital and human capital of urban-rural sectors,and the rate of technological progress,need to be greater than the corresponding depreciation rate plus the time discount rate,otherwise there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(iii) The low accumulation rate in the rural sector,and the occurrence of labor outflow,human capital loss and lack of investment,will expand income gap between urban and rural areas,which is a reason for solidification of urban-rural dual economic structure.

  20. Definition of "Rural" Determines the Placement Outcomes of a Rural Medical Education Program: Analysis of Jichi Medical University Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To show the impact of changing the definition of what is "rural" on the outcomes of a rural medical education program. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 643 graduates under obligatory rural service and 1,699 graduates after serving their obligation, all from Jichi Medical University (JMU), a binding rural education program in Japan,…

  1. Towards an integrated analysis of rural systems: the case study of the Alento basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

    2014-05-01

    The role and the functions of rural areas are undergoing considerable change due to economic, social and environmental drivers. The outcome of the transformation is the production of highly heterogeneous landscapes, rural mosaics, which are home to varying degrees of intensity of land-use and processes of deactivation, abandonment and land degradation. The identification of rural mosaics has implications both for determining the impacts on the stock of connected natural resources and for defining measures and policies able to support the resilience of rural territories and the identification of sustainable strategies for development. The study proposes a methodology for the integrated analysis of the rural territory which combines the analysis of land cover dynamics, using GIS, with an assessment of socio-economic dynamics, reconstructed through the combined use of indicators and local history, and which is aware that the differences and peculiarities within rural territories are the result of actions taken over time and of the different adaptive strategies undertaken by communities operating in different fields, under the influence of specific ecologic and environmental conditions. The methodology, applied to a socio-ecological system which is representative of the Mediterranean basin, is proposed as a tool to support the territorialisation of polices, opening the process up to perspectives able to better comprehend the dynamic evolution of rural territories, internalising that evolution in the definition of the instruments and measures to adopt.

  2. Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 μg.m-3 to 46.9 μg.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 μg.m-3 to 93.1 μg.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

  3. Analysis of rural residential energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of rural residential energy consumption in China from 2001 to 2008 and corresponding impacts on climate change is presented in the paper. It is found that rural residential energy consumption has shown obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. The percentage of biomass energy consumption dropped from 81.5% in 2001 to 70.9% in 2008, while the percentage of commercial energy increased from 17.1% to 25.1%. Besides, other renewable energy increased very fast with annual growth rate of 19.8%. Correspondingly, total CO2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption had significant increase from 152.2 Million tons in 2001 to 283.6 Million tons in 2008. The annual growth rate of per capita CO2 emissions was nearly 2 times faster than that of urban area. The major driving force for the consumption of commercial energy was the income of rural farmers, while strong rural energy policies supported the development of renewable energy. To satisfy the goals of energy supply and CO2 emissions reduction in rural areas, it is advised to change the energy structure and improve the energy efficiency, such as to generate electricity using renewable technologies and to replace coal with modern biomass energy for cooking and heating. - Highlights: ► This study analyzed rural residential energy consumption in China 2001–2008. ► It shows obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. ► CO2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption have significant increases. ► Major driving forces are income of rural farmers and rural energy policies. ► Generate electricity using renewable technology and replace coal with modern biomass.

  4. The Multiple Dimensions of Rural Forests: Lessons from a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Genin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural forests are characterized by different levels of formal and nonformal appropriation by rural communities who have generally managed, shaped, or rebuilt these forest formations over many generations with refined local knowledge and practices related to their use and perpetuation. Rural forests are therefore social-ecological systems that contribute to ecosystem and landscapes configuration, definition of rural territories, and sustainability of local livelihoods. Although some studies have attempted to explain their specificities, in specific geographical and social contexts, their characteristics are not well defined as they encompass highly diversified situations. This lack of comprehension of the identity of rural forests is at the heart of the lack of dialogue between forestry policies and rural forest development. Our major aim is to identify universal characteristics of rural forests as well as specificities that can differentiate them. Eleven situations of rural forests were analyzed by means of detailed, harmonized monographs, from developing and developed countries, and localized within contrasting ecological environments (humid tropics, dry forests, temperate forests and socio-economic and public policies contexts. Qualitative data were obtained through a common analytical framework and were encoded with an approach based on the collective appreciation of the group of researchers who developed case studies. These were pooled within a common analysis chart and were processed by means of multivariate analyses. Results were further discussed taking into consideration four major characteristics that emerged from this analysis, and which form the identity of rural forests. These are: 1 specific forest structures and levels of integration in agricultural matrices which are linked historically to overall agroecosystem approaches and practices, 2 a multiscale approach to domestication practices from landscape to individual trees inscribed

  5. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL AND URBAN FARMING HOUSEHOLDS OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin Anjeinu Abu; Aondonenge Soom

    2016-01-01

    The study examined factors affecting household food security status among rural and urban farming households of Benue State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to obtain a sample of 180 respondents, 90 households head each from rural and urban areas. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Food Security Index, Surplus/Food Insecurity Gap, Factor analysis and Probit model. Using calorie i...

  6. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  7. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  8. Demographics and the Rural Ethos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the meaning of "rural" and identifies 31 states having a significant rural character. Discusses certain generalizations about rural America. Provides a demographic analysis with school finance implications. Draws implications for rural school finance policy. (Contains 3 tables.)(PKP)

  9. Contribution of Rural Women to Family Income Through Participation in Microcredit: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdoushi Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural women in Bangladesh have a lower socio-economic status and very limited access to income generating activities due to a number of social, cultural and religious barriers. Consequently, they have less opportunity to contribute to their family income. Rural women are economically dependent and vulnerable and socially discriminated. Microcredit programme provides loans to the rural poor women in order to undertake small financial and business activities that allow them to generate income. This income earning opportunity helps the rural women to contribute to their family income and achieve a level of independence. Approach: In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the impact of microcredit programme on rural womens contribution in improving the household income. The study is based on empirical data collected through interview from the two groups of rural women e.g. with credit and without credit rural women. The with credit respondents represent the rural women who have taken loan from the Grammeen Banks microcredit programme. The results show that the proportion of the with credit rural women who contributed to family income is much higher (19% than that of without credit rural women (10%. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the factors influencing the respondents contribution to the total monthly family income. Results: The multiple regression analysis shows that there were strong positive effects of age of respondent, level of education, family size, earning member, occupation of respondents and also monthly income of respondents while status of marriage has a strong negative effect. It was found that majority of the with credit respondents contribute much higher to the family incomes than the without credit respondents. It was also found that with credit rural women have improved their socio-economic status and income generating activities by participating

  10. Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data%Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yong; Hart Xiangyang; Wang Shumei; Jiang Huayun; Wang Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies factors influencing rural-urban la- bor migration in China, particularly the implementation of rural cooperative medical insurance (RCMI) in the year 2003. With the support of data analysis from the year 2000, 2004 and 2006, clear linear correlations are found between gender, income, health con- dition and rural-urban labor flow, whereas the impact of education and employment status are more complicated. More importantly, results from regression show that the establishment of RCMI in countryside of China not only inhibits rural residents from seeking employment outside the village, but also pulls back rural people who have already worked in cities. When regional dimension is concerned, the pure composite effect of RCMI on rural labor flow is less significant in coastal areas with better economic perfor- mance and medical service.

  11. An Analysis of Public Service Structural Imbalances in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林万龙

    2008-01-01

    Rectifying the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services can effectively boost the efficiency of public funds utilization and the level of public service provision. Based on the findings of a field survey, this article presents a summary of the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services. This paper holds that the structural imbalance is primarily reflected in the dislocation between provision and demand, the unsuitable mode of provision, the monolithic provision mechanism, the excessive focus on construction at the expense of governance and the overemphasis of counties and townships at the cost of villages. Such structural imbalance is principally because of the limited financial strength of government at the grass-roots level due to treasury centralization and the over-dependence of public services on special funds allocated by government at or above provincial level.

  12. Agritourism and the farmer as rural entrepreneur: a UK analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Phelan, Chris; Sharpley, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Farm-based recreation or agritourism is increasingly seen as a diversification strategy to promote a more diverse and sustainable rural economy and to protect farming incomes against market fluctuation. Thus, farmers are increasingly being recognised as entrepreneurial, needing to develop new skills and capabilities to remain competitive. However, few studies have addressed the role of entrepreneurship within the context of the diversified farm tourism business. This paper examines the range ...

  13. THE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ILEANA MORAR (BUMBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure analysis of population by age groups in the rural area of Bucovina desires to create a recent image of the rural population by age groups in the region of Bucovina , provided that after the year 2000 have occurred socio – economic changes with repercussions on the demographic component. The structure analysis by age group will be based on the share of population indicators on the major age groups, the share of population by age and quinquennial gender illustrated by age pyramid, the index of demographic aging and age-dependency ratio. This study is definitely needed in forecasting future regional development objectives and measures.

  14. Role of AYUSH Doctors in Filling the Gap of Health Workforce Inequality in Rural India with Special Reference to National Rural Health Mission: A Situational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paucity of health workforce in rural India has always been a problem. Lack of interest of modern allopathic graduates in serving the rural poor has worsened the situation little more. The National Rural Health Mission brought an innovative concept of mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health tradition by collocating AYUSH doctors at various rural health facilities such as community health centers and primary health centers. In this context a study was aimed, based on secondary data, to make a situational analysis of health workforce in rural India and thereby analyzing the status and role of AYUSH Doctors in filling this gap of health workforce inequality. As on 01/01/2010 there were 61% of Ayurveda, 31.40% of Homoeopathy, 6.50% of Unani, 0.90% of Siddha and 0.20% of Naturopathy doctors serving in India. AYUSH facilities had been collocated in 240 district hospitals, 1716 community health centers and 8938 primary health centers in 2010. About 39.8% District Hospitals (DH, 38% Community Health Centers (CHC and 38.2% Primary Health Centers (PHC had been collocated with AYUSH facilities by 2010. About 30.9 lakhs rural population were being served by district hospitals, 4.3 lakhs of rural population were being served by CHCs and 0.8 lakhs of rural population were being served by PHCs in various states/UTs wherever the corresponding facilities exist. Equitable distribution of health workforce is of paramount importance in achieving both the horizontal and vertical health equity in rural India which is doable with proper implementation of AYUSH workforce.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal semen analysis in patients of infertility at a rural setup in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Jajoo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Semen analysis is an indispensable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the male partners of infertile couples. Methods: Semen samples were analysed by manual method. Analyses were for volume, viscosity, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, according to WHO guidelines on semen analysis Results: This study, done at a rural setup, at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital has demonstrated that abnormal semen quality is a major factor in our rural setup with 52% of male partners of infertile couples having abnormal semen parameters. Conclusion: Male contribution towards infertility is yet to be studied and requires more elaborate research. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 161-164

  16. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...

  17. THE EFFICIENCY FORECAST OF RURAL HUMAN RESOURCES USE BY THE DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel MIHAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of rural human resources (from agriculture, industry, constructions represents the most important production factor in order to achieve economic growth (high GDP. In terms of efficiency, it is more important to assess the way in which the combination of human resources between these three branches contributes to GDP formation. To do this assessment for the period 2013-20120, we applied the nonparametric method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis. This method enables ranking regions based on a series of inputs (rural population occupied in agriculture, industry and constructions and outputs (rural gross domestic product. The data regarding the rural human resources are retrieved from the Amigo data base, the rural GDP Eurostat and the analysis was performed by MAXDATA 6.3 Beta program. The results revealed that, by 2020, if maintaining the 2006-2013 trends, the average technical efficiency will decrease by 5.4%, only the Central and the South-West regions will be performing well and the North-East and North-West regions will become more inefficient. Our results reveal that, in the majority of regions, there is a clear need to reduce the population from agriculture, to increase the population from industry and constructions, and to increase de productivity, to ensure real economic growth.

  18. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  19. The Ambivalence of Community: A Critical Analysis of Rural Education's Oldest Trope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of community has been central to the discourse of rural education for generations. At the same time, community has been and continues to be a deeply problematic concept. I begin this analysis with Raymond Williams's characterization of the idea of community as a uniquely positive concept, arguing that this framing is, as Williams…

  20. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  1. Analysis and Countermeasures on Effective Land Use of Rural Residential Area in Jinan,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong

    2006-01-01

    With the improvement of urbanization and the expansion of urban size, the cultivated land decreases gradually but the demand for urban land increases, thereby resulting in the conflict of land use. Analyzing the status quo of land use of rural residential area, this paper points out that two main problems, namely, the low degree of land use, and the waste of land resources that are prevalent in the rural residential area. Based on the above analysis,the author states that the emphasis on land use will be the plain regions in the future, and adoption of reasonable economic measures will be the new solution to the problems.

  2. Analysis on the Optimization of New Rural Social Endowment Insurance in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the investigation on the status quo of pilot area of rural endowment insurance in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,farmers’ demand on insuance in the new pilot area of rural endowment insurance is expounded from two aspects:farmers’ awareness on insurance is increasing gradually;farmers’ ability on insuring is increasing.The growing demand of farmers on insuring and the conflicts between the supply of rural endowment insurance and the system construction are analyzed.The problems are inadequate input of funds,low level of social security;imperfect fund-collecting mechanism,serious vacancy;low level of fund management and operation,poor ability of inflation-proofing and appreciation;backward laws and regulations and instability of system.On the strength of the analysis above,the government should innovate and compound fund-collecting mechanism;establish "G-C-F" three-pillar model and set up "BSI" the third party custodian;accelerate the legislation of new rural pension system so as to push forward the optimization of new rural pension insurance system in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan.

  3. An Analysis of the Consumer Demand Structure of Rural Residents in Chongqing City in the Context of New Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin; JIA

    2015-01-01

    Using ELES model and econometric methods,in the context of new urbanization,we use the time series data on the consumer spending of rural residents in Chongqing City to perform an empirical analysis of the consumer demand structure of rural residents,reveal the characteristics,differences and changes concerning the consumption structure of rural residents in Chongqing City,and set forth some policy recommendations such as carrying out the new rural construction,optimizing the consumption structure,establishing sound social security system and income growth mechanism,and stabilizing the price level.

  4. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL AND URBAN FARMING HOUSEHOLDS OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Anjeinu Abu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined factors affecting household food security status among rural and urban farming households of Benue State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to obtain a sample of 180 respondents, 90 households head each from rural and urban areas. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Food Security Index, Surplus/Food Insecurity Gap, Factor analysis and Probit model. Using calorie intake method, the result revealed that 53.3% and 62.2% of rural and urban households respectively were food secured. The rural and urban food secure households exceeded the recommended calorie intake by 39% and 42% respectively, while the rural and urban food insecure households fell short of recommended calorie by 24% and 26% respectively. It was also found that income of households head (p<0.10, rural households size (p<0.01, and farm size (p<0.10 had a positive impact on household food security. On the other hand, age of household head (p<0.05 and urban household size (p<0.10 had a negative relationship with household food security. Constraints such as lack of access to credits, inadequate land availability, and poverty, infertility of the soil, lack of non-farm income generating activities, storage and processing problems were identified as some of the factors militating against the achievement of food security in the study area. It was recommended that credit be provided to farming households by government to reduce the constraint of not being able to access credit facilities, the agricultural policies which aimed at promoting farmers access to land and improving farm household productivity be encouraged and that farmers be provided with informal education through extension services on nutritional awareness and non-farm income generating activities.

  5. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  6. Empirical Analysis on the Rural Urbanization Development in Luoyang City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Development status of rural urbanization in Luoyang City is introduced.A total of 6 indices are selected,such as total households in townships,total population in townships,total grain output,financial budget income,balance of savings deposits at the end of the year,and per capita net income of farmers.According to the data in 2009 Luoyang Statistical Yearbook,cluster analysis of 53 designated towns is carried out.Result shows that 53 designated towns are divided into 4 types according to the economic strength.Problems in the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are analyzed,such as imperfect management system,lack of effective economic measures,irrational town layout,unbalanced regional development,inadequate urban infrastructure,limited population absorption,lack of main industry in small towns,insufficient development capital,serious environmental pollution,and great pressure on environmental protection of towns.Countermeasures for the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are put forward.For instance,judging from the dynamic mechanism,Luoyang City should gradually change its dynamic mechanism of urbanization into socialist market system.Judging from the scale of town,Luoyang City should actively develop the central city and cultivate strong counties and key towns.Judging from the function of town,Luoyang should select a special urban development mode with its own characteristics for its development of rural urbanization.

  7. Climate change, agriculture, and poverty: A household level analysis for rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Lopez-Feldman

    2013-01-01

    This note presents results of the relationship between climate change and household level poverty via changes in agricultural income. A Mexican household level data set for the year 2002 is used. Results show that national level analysis can mask significant geographic differences that should be taken into account in the design of policies that aim to decrease rural households' vulnerability to climate change. These findings are a valuable contribution to the limited literature on climate cha...

  8. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development - a Case Study of Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ye; Wang, Fang-min

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example, by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan's rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level. We conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan's rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008. The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high, and the equalization phenomenon o...

  9. An agent-based model to rural-urban migration analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silveira, J J; Penna, T J P; Silveira, Jaylson J.; Espindola, Aquino L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the rural-urban migration phenomena as it is usually observed in economies which are in the early stages of industrialization. The analysis is conducted by means of a statistical mechanics approach which builds a computational agent-based model. Agents are placed on a lattice and the connections among them are described via an Ising like model. Simulations on this computational model show some emergent properties that are common in developing economies, such as a transitional dynamics characterized by continuous growth of urban population, followed by the equalization of expected wages between rural and urban sectors (Harris-Todaro equilibrium condition), urban concentration and increasing of per capita income.

  10. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yu-ling

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations, the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives( Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance . The comparison point out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different and analyzes the differences and similarities of the five accounting elements including ...

  11. Economic analysis of land regeneration programmes through rural cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic analysis of land regeneration programmes is given combining the criteria of financial as well as economic feasibility and sustainability applied to a wood plantation of Mallanahlly TGCS in Karnataka, India. Feasibility is measured in terms of economic benefits to the stakeholders and sustainability through optimal rotation of trees as well as continuous annual income to the stakeholders from such rotations. The plantation programme is evaluated at the perspectives of both TGCS and the society as a whole and it is found that benefit cost ratios are high in both the cases. (K.A.)

  12. Exploration of Rural Informatization and Urban-rural Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status quo of rural informatization and information service,this article conducts analysis and discussion of problems in rural informatization and urban-rural information fusion,using statistics. And corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: building rural information platform; strengthening information literacy training in rural areas and cultivating new farmers; making information network serve production and operation to increase jobs and income for farmers; developing rural e-commerce; enhancing network information security and prevention.

  13. Analysis of Technological Competitiveness for Rural Electrification in the Municipality of Ensenada, Mexico; Analisis de Competitividad Tecnologica para la Electrificacin Rural del Municipio de Ensenada, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corral Osuna, B. C.; Dominguez Bravo, J.; Serrano Cambronero, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present an technological competitiveness analysis for six electricity generation systems conventional and renewable, in order to obtain a proposal for electrification to the rural locations in the municipality of Ensenada, at Northwest of Mexico. To do this, we use the software IntiGIS a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows multi-criteria analysis using: technical, economic, geographic and socio-demographic variables. Ensenada is located in a Mexican state away from the national electric network; and its regional electrical grid is concentrated on a small land area at north having about fifteen hundred rural villages scattered without electricity in the center and south. Therefore, we perform this work in order to provide elements for decision making of subsequent initiatives aimed to solve this lack of basic services. (Author)

  14. Agri-environmental Instruments for an Integrated Rural Policy: An Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.H.C.; Feinerman, E.

    2003-01-01

    The new Rural Development Regulation of the EU reflects the shift of attention within rural areas from agricultural production towards rural development and embraces both farmers and non-farm residents. While agricultural production is required to comply with environmental standards, rural areas als

  15. Determinants of Performance of Drinking-Water Community Organizations: A Comparative Analysis of Case Studies in Rural Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, Róger; Alpízar, Francisco; Schlüter, Achim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an institutional analysis of the underlying factors affecting the performance of drinking-water community organizations in rural areas of Costa Rica. These organizations provide water to more than 60 percent of the total rural population. There is, however, a great disparity in their performance. This research tries to understand how a complex configuration of geophysical characteristics of watersheds and infrastructure as well as governance and socioeconomic attributes of...

  16. Development and analysis of acceptance of a nutrition education package among a rural elderly population: an action research study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar Suzana; Adznam Siti; Rahman Suriah; Yusoff Noor; Yassin Zaitun; Arshad Fatimah; Sakian Noor; Salleh Mohmad; Samah Asnarulkhadi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well known that older adults are often vulnerable to malnutrition. This action research was conducted to develop a nutrition education package for promoting healthy ageing and reducing risk of chronic diseases among older adults in a rural area of Malaysia. Methods This study was designed and conducted in three stages, including needs assessment, development of the package and analysis of acceptance among 33 older adults aged 60 years and over in rural communities, a...

  17. Analysis of driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes on rural and urban roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaoyue Cathy; Tarefder, Rafiqul

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzes driver injury severities for single-vehicle crashes occurring in rural and urban areas using data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. Nested logit models and mixed logit models are developed in order to account for the correlation between severity categories (No injury, Possible injury, Visible injury, Incapacitating injury and fatality) and individual heterogeneity among drivers. Various factors, such as crash and environment characteristics, geometric features, and driver behavior are examined in this study. Nested logit model and mixed logit model reveal similar results in terms of identifying contributing factors for driver injury severities. In the analysis of urban crashes, only the nested logit model is presented since no random parameter is found in the mixed logit model. The results indicate that significant differences exist between factors contributing to driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes in rural and urban areas. There are 5 variables found only significant in the rural model and six significant variables identified only in the urban crash model. These findings can help transportation agencies develop effective policies or appropriate strategies to reduce injury severity resulting from single-vehicle crashes. PMID:27240127

  18. Reasoning about childhood nutritional deficiencies by mothers in rural India: a cognitive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, M; Patel, V L

    1993-10-01

    This study examines reasoning about the cause and treatment of three types of childhood protein energy malnutrition (PEM) by 108 mothers in rural South India. The mothers were interviewed and their explanations of the childhood nutritional problems were verbally recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using cognitive methods of analysis. The results indicated that knowledge and practices associated with traditional systems of Indian medicine prevalent in rural areas greatly influenced the mothers' reasoning. Their explanations were shown to have story-like structures, with sequences of events linked by strong causal explanations. Mothers with higher levels of formal education showed greater verbal use of concepts related to biomedical theories of nutritional disorders. However, their interpretations of these concepts were still based on the traditional theory. The study revealed both positive and negative aspects of traditional knowledge and beliefs for adequate child nutrition and health. The development of improved instructional strategies for nutrition and health education in relation to knowledge organization is discussed in the context of rural India. PMID:8211312

  19. An Explorative Analysis of Children’s Dropouts from Rural Schools of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mehar AKRAM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an explorative analysis about the causes of children’s high proportion of drop-outs from rural schools of Pakistan. For this purpose, simple random sampling technique was used by taking a sample size of 120 respondents from six villages of the rural areas of district Jhang, Pakistan in 2010. The major objectives of the said research were to investigate the socio-economic hurdles of the drop-outs of children from schools, to find out the attitude of parents towards the drop-outs, and finally to suggest the measures for solving the problems regarding drop-outs of rural children from schools. Initially, the pre-testing was done on ten respondents before starting the actual research. As a result of the said research, it was found that there are certain factors, e.g. uneducated parents, teachers’ behavior, low mental ability, bad habits, bad peer group and scarcity of educated people in the community, which not only affects the performance of the children but also ends it in the form of their drop out from school.

  20. The Supply-Demand Analysis and Mechanism Innovation of Chinese Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The connotation of rural public goods is expounded.The rural public goods refer to the products and labors that satisfy the production and living of rural residents,economic growth and social progress.The rural public goods is characterized by non-excludability,non-competitiveness and indispensability of other general public goods.The supply situation of Chinese government to rural public goods is analyzed,as well as the demand situation of rural public goods,which includes farmers’ demand on training,the assistance demand of rural weak groups,farmers’ demand on comfortable living conditions and farmers’ demand on "soft" public goods.The paths for innovating the supply mechanism of rural public goods are put forward,which cover perfecting the decision mechanism of public goods supply;scientifically distributing the supply responsibility of rural public goods;facilitating the reform of each supporting equipment and exploring the multiple capital collecting channels of rural public goods.

  1. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  2. An Analysis on the Disparity of the Private Investment in Human Capital between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The constant growth of human capital is the essential force of Economic growth. The deep research on private investment in urban and rural human capital in Guangxi is necessary for developing economy and narrowing urban-rural gap. Through the analysis on the historic statistics, it is found that there were disparities total quantity and investment structure of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents. By using the ELES model, the marginal investment trend, investment demand, elastic income, own-price elasticity and mutual-price elasticity of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents are analyzed. It is pointed out that income is the key factor that affects the private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents. In Guangxi, the private investment and marginal investment in human capital of urban and township residents are higher than that of rural residents;the own-price elasticity and mutual price elasticity of rural residents’ private investment in human capital are all higher than that of urban residents’.

  3. 义乌乡村旅游之我见%The Analysis and Advice of Yiwu Rural Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅国庆; 吴广艳; 谭剑

    2011-01-01

    Rural tourism is emerging leisure travel form, is relying on agriculture and rural resources developed a kind of return to nature to get relax, cheerful spirit of leisure tourism mode.Based on the analysis of the current situation of yiwu rural tourism, this paper discusses the countermeasures of development of rural tourism.%乡村旅游是新兴的旅游休闲形式,是依托农业与农村资源发展起来的一种回归自然从而获得放松身心、愉悦精神的休闲旅游方式.该文通过对义乌乡村旅游现状的分析,探讨乡村旅游发展的对策.

  4. Analysis of rural household energy supplies in Sri Lanka: energy efficiency, fuel switching and barriers to expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Attalage, Rahula A. [Moratuwa Univ., Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2003-05-01

    A majority of the households in Sri Lanka, as in the case of many developing countries, is concentrated in the rural areas of the country. Unfortunately, very little attention has been paid until recently to analyse and address various issues associated with rural energy supplies, particularly those issues regarding barriers to penetration of clean and convenient sources of energy. This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted through a sample study on domestic energy supplies in rural Sri Lanka with emphasis on cooking and lighting energy requirements. The paper has attempted to highlight policy issues associated with rural energy supplies and possible solutions to them in the context of the country's overall picture of the energy sector. (Author)

  5. Analysis on Behaviour Differentiation and Motive of Rural Households in the Process of Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey data of fixed rural observation points in China,this paper researches the behaviour of rural households in the process of industrialization.It analyses the forcing of industrialization process on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households and motive in detail.The results show that with the development of industrialization,the rational farmers allocate resources according to the goal of income maximization,and the behaviour of rural households differentiates inchmeal.The forcing of industrialization on behaviour of rural households mainly comprises labour distribution of rural households,land inputs of rural households and employment of rural labour forces;the factors of forcing of industrialization on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households are largely reflected in pull and push.

  6. Comparative analysis of employment dynamics in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU, 1980-1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Sjöström, Å.

    1999-01-01

    In this study a comparative analysis of factors hampering and encouraging the development of employment in 9 leading and 9 lagging regions in the EU during the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s is made. Derived from this comparative analysis, some lessons, which leading and lagging rural regions

  7. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  8. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate. PMID:27177395

  9. Analysis on Behaviour Differentiation and Motive of Rural Households in the Process of Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Tian-long

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey data of fixed rural observation points in China, this paper researches the behaviour of rural households in the process of industrialization. It analyses the forcing of industrialization process on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households and motive in detail. The results show that with the development of industrialization, the rational farmers allocate resources according to the goal of income maximization and the behaviour of rural households differe...

  10. Rural-Urban Transition in Central Java: Population and Economic Structural Changes Based on Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwandari Handayani

    2013-01-01

    In Central Java, in addition to the traditional view of urban transition as an aspect of urban industrialization, rural industrialization based on small- to medium-sized enterprises has become a concern, at least since the Indonesian economic crisis in 1997. Combinations of typical urban and rural activities have resulted in certain features of rural-urban transition as the urban population has continued to increase notably. The intention of this paper is to examine how rural-urban transition...

  11. Chinese Rural Reform in 30 Years: An Analysis in Terms of Institutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Cai

    2010-01-01

    Both from history and logic, the rural reform is the starting point for China’s overall economic reform. The gradualism, inherent logical evolution and interest conflict of reform in China all have their origins in rural reform. The thirty-year’s rural reform can be viewed as the adjustment of urban-rural relations by different period. This study adopts the analytical framework of institutional economics to clearly demonstrate the whole logic process of institutional transition, then from the...

  12. Analysis on Present Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Ecotourism in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haiqin; Guan, Yongxiang; Wang, Zichen

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the concept, present situation and form of rural ecotourism. It also preliminarily analyses the existing problems of rural ecotourism. Then countermeasures and suggestions related to the further development of rural ecotourism and the promotion of new countryside construction are put forward, which can be summarized as follows: carrying out multichannel financing, in order to strengthen the development dynamics of rural ecotourism; focusing on cultivation of ecol...

  13. Exploration and analysis of rural primary school teacher’s language violence

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Honglian; Lei Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    As the problem of rural education becomes more and more obvious while the supervision on stay-at-home children’s education becomes more and more difficult, rural primary school teacher’s language violence has become a new big problem today. This paper collected and investigated the improper language used by rural primary school teachers so as to analyze the features, harm, causes and solutions of language violence, trying to explore and analyze rural primary school teacher’s language violence...

  14. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  15. Development of New Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations from the Perspective of Institutional Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua; BAI

    2015-01-01

    Appearance of new rural cooperative economic organizations is the result of institutional change and also important institutional arrangement and innovation promoting rural development of China. At present,development of rural cooperative economic organizations is faced with problems of unsmooth operation and management mechanism,lack of supervision mechanism,internal system defect and imperfect law,weak policy support,and imperfect financial system. In this situation,government should take due responsibility from improving legal system,strengthening policy support,deepening rural market reform,and improving rural financial system.

  16. Colorectal Cancer, Socioeconomic Distribution and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Counties in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamel M Nuhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC ranks second for all cancer related deaths among men and women together and third for either sex when considered separately. Disparities exist in CRC incidence and mortality between rural and urban counties in the USA. This study sought to explore socioeconomic and behavioral factors that may partly explain these observed differences.Methods: Using educational and income levels as measures of socioeconomic status (SES, and average alcohol consumption and smoking frequency as behavioral factors, data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program for analysis were coupled.Results: Results showed statistically significant inequalities for CRC incidence (t = 2.678, p = 0.010 and mortality (t = 2.567, p = 0.013, as well as socioeconomic (i.e., poverty; t = 5.644, p < 0.001 and behavioral (i.e., smoking; t = 2.885, p = 0.006 factors between selected rural and urban counties. Regression analysis for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates at the rural, urban, and national levels yielded relative impacts of smoking frequency, alcohol consumption, and educational level.Conclusions: Health policies aimed at reducing disparities between rural and urban populations in the USA must therefore adequately address SES and behavioral factors.Key words: colorectal cancer, rural health, social determinants of health, health behavior 

  17. Systematic Analysis on Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism: A Case Study of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jing-ming; Li Hui-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on field survey, the thesis analyzes the key factors affecting development of rural tourism systematically,taking Chengdu as an example. These factors include regional economic development level & leisure tradition, tourist market &traffic, tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism, and decision-making behavior. Among them,regional economic development level & leisure tradition and tourist market & traffic are prerequisites for the development of rural tourism which have an impact on tourist's consumption level,consumption custom, operator's investment ability, tourist destination distribution and scale; Tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism are restrictive conditions affecting character and distribution of rural tourism; Government's decision-making behavior is of importance for expansion of scale and popularity of regional rural tourism, meanwhile, operators' decision-making behavior includes investment scale and operational strategies, and for operators from the outside, location selection is included additionally. All these decision-making behaviors are subjective conditions for the development of rural tourism.

  18. Energy, why you want? The human side of rural electrification in a Amazonian community; Energia, pra que te quero? O lado humano da eletrificacao rural em uma comunidade amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Cecilia Geraldes; Almeida, Arthur C.; Monteiro, Jose H.A.; Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Universidade Federal do Para (ENERBIO/DEEC/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao. Grupo de Pesquisa Energia e Meio Ambiente], Emails: cecibasi@ufpa.br, arthur@ufpa.br, jhumberto01@yahoo.com.br, brigida@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents results of research carried out in an isolated community in the Amazon to gauge the demand for electricity. It was prepared a detailed survey of the social customs, habits of work, leisure, their economy, livelihoods and their relationship with the environment. The search result points to the use of electricity in the community as a factor in improving the income, it is possible to buy equipment to grind and crush cassava, to enable production of fruit pulp, to produce ice for conservation of fish and introduction to fish farming for employment generation.

  19. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Toxopeus, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  20. "Joyful Learning" in Rural Indian Primary Schools: An Analysis of Social Control in the Context of Child-Centred Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprakash, Arathi

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to improve the "quality" of education for all in government primary schools in India have seen a shift towards child-centred teaching. This paper examines the "Joyful Learning" programme, an example of a pedagogic reform implemented in rural primary schools in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Through an empirical analysis of…

  1. Analysis of the editorial process of the multidisciplinary rural development journal Tropicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropicultura is a multidisciplinary journal which aims mainly at releasing research results relevant to rural development in developing countries and at improving the investigation capacities of the researchers who submit manuscripts to its editorial board. The operating process of the journal and its consequences on its output during the period 2002-2009 were analyzed by considering mainly the factors influencing the duration of the editorial work and the final acceptance of the manuscripts. The factors taken into consideration were the field of research, the geographic origin of the data analyzed, the language of writing and the country of origin of the authors. The available data were analyzed using descriptive statistic methods. They were also subjected to parametric and non parametric comparisons. During the investigated period, a total of 1,034 papers have been submitted to Tropicultura in different fields of rural development research, with a large proportion of papers in agronomy sensu lato (60%, and livestock production (19%. Most of the papers submitted (85.1% came from Sub-Saharan Africa, followed by North Africa (11.2%, Asia (1.6%, Latin America (1.3%, Europe (0.6%, and Oceania (0.3%. The rate of acceptance (27.4% was very low compared to other journals, mainly because of a poor design of the works or inappropriate research topics. The average time for final decision was 355 days. The non parametric classification analysis retained as major determinants for the acceptance of papers for publication in decreasing order of influence: time before final decision, language, continent, Belgian cooperation priority countries, Belgian cooperation partner countries, and the field of research. The data obtained are discussed in the light of the literature related to the editorial process of other scientific journals, taking into account the peculiarities of Tropicultura related to its history and to the history of the rural development actions

  2. Analysis of the Editorial Process of the Multidisciplinary Rural Development Journal Tropicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropicultura is a multidisciplinary journal which aims mainly at releasing research results relevant to rural development in developing countries and at improving the investigation capacities of the researchers who submit manuscripts to its editorial board. The operating process of the journal and its consequences on its output during the period 2002- 2009 were analysed by considering mainly the factors influencing the duration of the editorial work and the final acceptance of the manuscripts. The factors taken in consideration were: the field of research, the geographic origin of the data analysed, the language of writing and the country of origin of the authors. The available data were analysed using descriptive statistic methods. They were also subjected to parametric and non parametric comparisons. A total of 1,034 papers have been submitted during the investigated period to Tropicultura in different fields of rural development research, with a large proportion of papers in agronomy sensu lato (60%, and livestock production (19%. Most of the papers submitted (85.1% came from Sub-Saharan Africa, followed by North Africa (11.2%, Asia (1.6%, Latin America (0.6% and Europe (0.3%. The rate of acceptance (27.4% was very low compared to other journals, mainly because of a poor design of the works or inappropriate research topics. The average time for final decision was 355 days. The non parametric classification analysis retained as major determinants for the acceptance of papers for publication in decreasing order of influence: (i time before final decision, (ii language, (iii continent, (iv Belgian cooperation priority countries, (v Belgian cooperation partner countries, and (vi the field of research. The data obtained are discussed in the light of the literature related to the editorial process of other scientific journals, taking into account the peculiarities of Tropicultura related to its history and to the history of the rural development

  3. Metabolic syndrome in the rural population of Wardha, Central India: An exploratory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep R Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome - a plausible precondition for type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is also on rise. To understand the mechanistic complexity of metabolic syndrome it is imperative to study the specific contribution of the determinants of metabolic syndrome. Such study can help to identify the most significant factor which may be of use in early detection as well as prevention efforts. Such information is scarcely available from India and especially from rural India. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore for such factor which might be considered crucial for development of such pathogenesis particularly in rural population of Wardha. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising of 300 subjects was carried out in rural area of Primary Health Center, attached to medical college with approximate 31,000 populations. The anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference were measured. Overnight fasting samples were collected for lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and fasting blood glucose levels. The National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel, ATP-III guidelines were used to categorize the study subjects. As many of the variables are highly intercorrelated, exploratory factor analysis was carried out to reduce the data to a smaller number of independent factors that accounts for the most of the variances in the data. Principal component analysis was used as a method of extraction. Results: For both sexes, three factors were extracted accounting for about 71% variance in the measured variables. An adiposity factor which accounted for highest explained variance (28%, was the initial factor extracted. It was loaded positively by waist circumference, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein and negatively loaded by high density lipoprotein. Second factor extracted

  4. RURAL TOURISM PROMOTION ANALYSIS BY ROAD VÂLCEA TOURIST MOTEL "EVRICA" IN COSTESTI VALCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Cristina HONTUŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vâlcea County has no less than three of the nine resorts in the country, recognized nationally and internationally for potential and curative value. In most resorts, there are infrastructure, however, whether belonging to the state sector or private, it is mostly in poor condition. Most accommodation are two stars or less. There is an oversupply of accommodation in terms of quantity and a lack of accommodation in terms of quality. There are also private providers of travel services to private resorts upgrading and expanding their facilities and offer products to meet market expectations. To promote rural tourism in the county of Vâlcea we did an analysis of tourist traffic to the motel "Evrica" from Costeúti, the calculation and interpretation of the most important tourism indicators of tourism demand and supply.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Urban Residents’ Consumption Decision-making Behavior in Rural Tourism Based on Food Circulation Channels Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about urban residents’ rural tourism decision-making and analyze influential factors mechanism based on food circulation channels. The result shows that: first, personal disposable income is the most important factor that will affect consumption decision-making in rural tourism, the regression coefficient of urban residents personal disposable income is 0.071 sec, discretionary time is the most significant variable in urban residents' personal characteristics, the sig value is 0.007 and the regression coefficient is positive; third, infrastructure condition variables' sig value is less than 0.1, the regression coefficient value is -0.029, probably because the city residents to participate in the study area of rural tourism is more focus on rural tourism ecological environment quality and less attention on the infrastructure; finally, the environment quality has high coefficient value as 0.048, means that rural personnel's service quality plays a positive effect. On this basis, we put forward relevant suggestions.

  6. Role of AYUSH Doctors in Filling the Gap of Health Workforce Inequality in Rural India with Special Reference to National Rural Health Mission: A Situational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Janmejaya Samal

    2013-01-01

    Paucity of health workforce in rural India has always been a problem. Lack of interest of modern allopathic graduates in serving the rural poor has worsened the situation little more. The National Rural Health Mission brought an innovative concept of mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health tradition by collocating AYUSH doctors at various rural health facilities such as community health centers and primary health centers. In this context a study was aimed, based on secondary...

  7. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a Pb isotope survey of ∼350 rural topsoils in The Netherlands. • Nearly all studied topsoils contain anthropogenic Pb. • Nature and agricultural soils contain coal/galena, incinerator ash and gasoline Pb. • Agricultural soils also contain fertilizer Pb with characteristic Pb isotope values. • Spatial patterns in the Pb isotope composition of the topsoils are observed. - Abstract: Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of anthropogenic Pb content and anthropogenic Pb sources in rural topsoils is remarkably limited. This study presents results of a survey of approximately 350 topsoil samples from rural locations covering the entire Netherlands, for which the bulk geochemical and Pb isotope compositions were determined. The specific aim of this study is to determine the anthropogenic Pb sources in the topsoils from rural areas in The Netherlands. The spatial distribution of anthropogenic Pb in soils in The Netherlands will be explained in terms of land use and pollution sources. Nearly all studied topsoils display Pb contents that exceed the amount expected based on the soil lithology. The range in Pb isotope ratios of the additional Pb fraction in rural Dutch topsoils is established at 1.056–1.199, 2.336–2.486 and 0.452–0.490 for 206Pb/207Pb, 207Pb/208Pb and 206Pb/208Pb, respectively. Five land use types are distinguished (forest, open nature, moor, arable land and grassland) with distinct isotopic compositions for added Pb. Additional Pb in soils of natural areas (forest, open nature and moor) has on average lower 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb ratios than the agricultural soils (arable land and grassland). Additional Pb in both natural area soils and agricultural soils

  8. An integrated optimization method for river water quality management and risk analysis in a rural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zeng, X T; Nie, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an interval-stochastic-based risk analysis (RSRA) method is developed for supporting river water quality management in a rural system under uncertainty (i.e., uncertainties exist in a number of system components as well as their interrelationships). The RSRA method is effective in risk management and policy analysis, particularly when the inputs (such as allowable pollutant discharge and pollutant discharge rate) are expressed as probability distributions and interval values. Moreover, decision-makers' attitudes towards system risk can be reflected using a restricted resource measure by controlling the variability of the recourse cost. The RSRA method is then applied to a real case of water quality management in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China), where chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Results reveal that uncertainties and risk attitudes have significant effects on both pollutant discharge and system benefit. A high risk measure level can lead to a reduced system benefit; however, this reduction also corresponds to raised system reliability. Results also disclose that (a) agriculture is the dominant contributor to soil loss, TN, and TP loads, and abatement actions should be mainly carried out for paddy and dry farms; (b) livestock husbandry is the main COD discharger, and abatement measures should be mainly conducted for poultry farm; (c) fishery accounts for a high percentage of TN, TP, and COD discharges but a has low percentage of overall net benefit, and it may be beneficial to cease fishery activities in the basin. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired pollution control strategies with the tradeoff between socioeconomic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:26310705

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  10. IMPACTS OF CONCENTRATION IN HOG PRODUCTION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RURAL ILLINOIS: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Miguel I.; Zhang, Liying

    2000-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of increasing concentration of the livestock sector on the economic welfare of rural Illinois. A pooled time-series, cross-sectional model is developed to study the dynamics of structural changes in hog production for the period 1981-1997. The model tests the efficient-market hypothesis on local rural economies. Keywords: hog production, concentration, economic impacts, rural communities

  11. Research and Analysis on Difference in Per Capita Net Income of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XUE; Yeping; ZHU; Huili; YUE

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to understand the variation of difference in per capita net income of rural residents during China’s economic development in recent years. The writer studies and analyzes rural residents’ income gap between 1997 and 2008 with relevant theories of income difference and the calculation of absolute difference index as well as relative difference index and obtains the conclusion that absolute difference of Chinese rural residents’ income experienced an upward trend while relative difference generally remained constant with slight fluctuation and growth, which reflects that rural residents’ income gap is increasing gradually. The writer also puts forward some related proposals and countermeasures.

  12. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Seidaiy

    2013-01-01

    : market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy, housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick, 1987:88, Ziyari, et al., 210:4. In planned economy government has the role of planner, designer and manager (Aghasi, 1996:201, Chadwick, 1987:88, Shucksmith, 2003:213. In Islam's ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency, and eradication of poverty in the society.3– DiscussionTo evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province, first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1; then, in line with goals of research, we will go through the following steps:Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators,Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators,And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators.Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis, analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed. Table 1: Housing IndicatorsROWindicatorsROWindicators1The population of rural areas12The average of infrastructure lifetime2The number of households13The share of households that have a minimum electricity4The family size14The share of households that have a minimum telephone4The number of residential units,15The share of households that have a minimum water piping5The household density in residential units16The share of households that have a minimum gas piping6The density of people in residential units17The share of households that have a minimum central heating and cooling system7The housing shortages18The share of households that have a minimum kitchen8The average of number of rooms in the household19The share of households that have a minimum bathroom9The average of number

  13. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ludwiczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The goal is to increase the level of spatial and information detail of common databases, thus allowing higher accuracy and effectiveness of the analyses needed to achieve the goals of new generation spatial and agriculture planning. Specific in-depth analyses allowed to define techniques useful in order to reduce the increase in survey costs. Moreover, the work reports the main results regarding a multicriteria model for the analysis of the countryside defined by the research. Such model is aimed to assess the various agricultural, environmental and landscape features, vocations, expressions and attitudes, and support the definition and implementation of specific and targeted planning and programming policies.

  14. Contemporary Federal Education Policy and Rural Schools: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Howley, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on contemporary federal education policy as it manifests in rural schools. Rural schools differ appreciably from nonrural schools in terms of organizational systems, structures, and culture. Federal policies that drive school improvement initiatives (e.g., those regulating the functioning of schools and those managing the…

  15. An Analysis on Rural Tourism Development Model in Yi County of Huangshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangye; SONG; Hongna; LI

    2014-01-01

    The Yi County’s rural tourism model has changed a lot,gradually transferring from the single model to the composite model,which integrates sightseeing,touring,entertainment,leisure,vocation,and shopping. This article mainly focuses on the rural tourism development model. Yi County is a typical case for others,which gives a new development model.

  16. SWOT analysis: appraisal of a new tool in European rural development policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knierim, A.; Nowicki, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Strategic policy making for rural regions has gained increasing importance during the last few decades in the European Union. A coherent framework for the development of agricultural and rural policy measures has been made available (Council Decision 2006/144/EC), which integrates Strengths, Weaknes

  17. An Analysis on Rural Tourism Development Model in Yi County of Huangshan City

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, Xiangye; LI, Hongna

    2014-01-01

    The Yi County’s rural tourism model has changed a lot, gradually transferring from the single model to the composite model, which integrates sightseeing, touring, entertainment, leisure, vocation, and shopping. This article mainly focuses on the rural tourism development model. Yi County is a typical case for others, which gives a new development model.

  18. Analysis of Public Private Interplay Frameworks in the Development of Rural Telecommunications Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    was the development of PPI models that can facilitate the facilitation of rural Broadband internet infrastructure in rural areas globally and in the specific potential deployment cases - Ghana and Nigeria. This report is relevant to National policy makers, International Donor Agencies, Telecom Network operators...

  19. Game Analysis on Rural Land Transfer from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The key—to maintaining social stability in rural areas, promoting rural economic development and building a new socialist countryside—is handling correctly the issues of rural land transfer and ironing out the conflicts resulting from the benefits imbalance. In this paper, rural land transfer is categorized into two types: land transfer caused by the collective behavior and land transfer caused by the individual behavior. In the process of land transfer caused by the collective behavior, the conflicts root in the convergence of interest among various rural social strata; while in the process of land transfer caused by the individual behavior, the game between interests and human relationship, reflects the dilemma between rationality and sensibility, which villagers are confronted with.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE SERVICES ROLE IN THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus STOIAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Services include a highly heterogeneous range of economic activities which are characterized by different manufacturing processes, different delivery modalities, service providers and consumers with different behaviors, various market structures. The main characteristic features of the service are: immateriality and intangibility; unable to be stored; simultaneity of production and consumption; inability to be sustainable; inseparability of the services provider and the person of the user; heterogeneity; lack of properties. The study of various classification systems is particularly interesting for understanding the nature and diversity for services, analysis of different systems applicable to services and their evolution over time, and the correlations between services and other economic activities they serve. The market has very different characteristics depending on the type of service, level of competition, and the state can intervene in the market for the normal conduct of market mechanisms. Regulation can take three forms: technical regulations, administrative and price controls. It was also treated the issue service in rural areas by providing classification and analysis in some ways.

  1. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF RURAL AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the status of the groundwater in rural areas of Jaipur city. People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants Natural water resources are being contaminated due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soil, mining processing etc. It is necessary that quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval to prevent various water born diseases. In present analysis physico-chemical parameter of drinking water viz. pH, hardness, TDS, residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, Free CO2 have been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 8 villages of Amber District Jaipur, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature and quality of water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory. The main objective of the present paper is to aware people of concerned area about the water quality and concerned health hazards.

  2. Development and analysis of acceptance of a nutrition education package among a rural elderly population: an action research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Suzana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that older adults are often vulnerable to malnutrition. This action research was conducted to develop a nutrition education package for promoting healthy ageing and reducing risk of chronic diseases among older adults in a rural area of Malaysia. Methods This study was designed and conducted in three stages, including needs assessment, development of the package and analysis of acceptance among 33 older adults aged 60 years and over in rural communities, and 14 health staff members at rural health clinics. Subjects completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic factors and acceptance evaluation of the nutrition education package with respect to content, graphics and design. Data were analysed descriptively using numbers and percentages. Results A nutrition education package comprising a booklet, flipchart and placemats was developed. A total of 42.4% of the older adults expressed that the sentences in the flipchart needed to be simplified and medical terms explained. Terminology (60%, illustrations (20% and nutrition recommendations (20% were the aspects that prevented elderly subjects from fully understanding the booklet. Information on the placemats was easily understood by subjects. Conclusions A well accepted nutrition education package for promoting healthy ageing and reducing risk of chronic diseases was developed that incorporated modifications based on feedback from older adult subjects and health clinic staff in a rural area. It is a tool that can effectively be used for health education in this population.

  3. Sexual and Reproductive Health among Unmarried Rural-Urban Female Migrants in Shanghai China: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijiang Song

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We compared sexual and reproductive health (SRH-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai coming from different regions of China. A total of 944 unmarried rural-urban female migrants were recruited from three districts of Shanghai. We used an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire to collect information from each participant and a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between premarital sex and risk factors. We found the rates of premarital sex, pregnancy and abortion among unmarried rural-urban female migrants were 28.2%, 5.2% and 5.0%, respectively. Participants from the east of China were more likely to engage in premarital sex than those from the mid-west (p < 0.001. The analysis showed premarital sex was associated with age, hometown, education, current residential type, knowledge of sexual physiology and safe sex, attitude to SRH and safe sex, and permissive attitude to sex. Unmarried rural-urban female migrants lack SRH related knowledge and the data suggests high levels of occurrence of premarital sex. The results indicate that programs to promote safe sex, especially to those migrants coming from eastern China, should be a priority.

  4. Exploration and analysis of rural primary school teacher’s language violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Honglian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the problem of rural education becomes more and more obvious while the supervision on stay-at-home children’s education becomes more and more difficult, rural primary school teacher’s language violence has become a new big problem today. This paper collected and investigated the improper language used by rural primary school teachers so as to analyze the features, harm, causes and solutions of language violence, trying to explore and analyze rural primary school teacher’s language violence from perspective of sociology and remind primary school teachers of rethinking. In subjective aspect, this paper hopes to improve rural primary school teacher’s comprehensive quality, establish specification for teacher’s language, lower rural teacher’s vocational burnout and alleviate the psychological pressure that exam-oriented education and rural stay-at-home children impose on teachers. In objective aspect, this paper hopes to enhance the supervision from society and administrative departments for education. All the above measures can be taken to effectively eliminate teacher’s language violence and resolve the crisis.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE DEVELOPMENT REGION WEST, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural communities are characterised mainly by an ageing population, by a decrease of birth rate and by a dependence on agriculture, particularly subsistence agriculture and demi-subsistence agriculture. The policy of rural development of the European Union aims at solving the issues of rural areas through the exploitation of their potential and by ensuring the proper services and infrastructure. Income sources are scarce because of the few jobs and this has major implications on life quality in the rural communities. Therefore, local authorities should be concerned with the development of their own localities and with the improvement of their inhabitants’ life quality and implement successfully some development programmes or projects. The goal of the present paper is to present the most favourable ways of development for the rural communities in the development Region West, Romania, an area confronted with such issues as shortage of jobs and low incomes and where there are discrepancies between the economic developments of the counties making it up. Based on the analyses carried out and on study cases, the authors present the main aspects of the rural areas in the region, pointing out the fact that local authorities should be concerned with the development of their own localities and implement successfully development projects.The authors have reached the conclusion that the development of non-agricultural activities determines the diversification and increase of jobs and, implicitly, the increase of life quality in rural communities.

  6. Systematic Analysis on Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism: A Case Study of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeJing-ming; LiHui-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on field survey, the thesis analyzes the key factors affecting development of rural tourism systematically,taking Chengdu as an example. These factors include regional economic development level & leisure tradition, tourist market & traffic, tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism, and decision-making behavior. Among them,regional economic development level & leisure tradition and tourist market & traffic are prerequisites for the development of rural tourism which have an impact on tourist ''s consumption level,consumption custom, operator''s investment ability, tourist destination distribution and scale; Tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism are restrictive conditions affecting character and distribution of rural tourism; Government''s decision-making behavior is of importance for expansion of scale and popularity of regional rural tourism, meanwhile, operators'' decision-making behavior includes investment scale and operational strategies, and for operators from the outside, location selection is included additionally. All these decision-making behaviors are subjective conditions for the development of rural tourism.

  7. The Empirical Analysis of Difference of Urban-rural Residents’ Marginal Propensity to Consume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data concerning consumption and income in 55 Years of Statistics Chronicle of New China,China Statistical Yearbook,by using econometric model,this paper expounds the reason of shortage of residents’ consumption demand in China and tests the difference of marginal propensity to consume of China’s urban-rural residents.The results show that the urban residents’ marginal propensity to consume is greater than rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume in China,but the urban residents’ marginal propensity to consume tends to decline,while the rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume tends to rise.In terms of urban-rural income structure,consumption structure and consumption of consumer durables,this paper analyzes the reason of the change of urban-rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume,and it can be described from following 3 aspects:first,urban residents’ income is mainly wage and salary,while urban residents’ income is mainly operating net income.The urban residents are conservative towards the expected income,while rural residents are relatively optimistic towards the expected income;second,in comparison with rural residents’ consumption structure,the urban residents’ consumption structure has big proportion of unessential expenditure,so the income elasticity of consumption is big;third,the urban residents’ traditional consumer durables approach saturation,while the rural residents’ traditional consumer durables are still at the period of increase,and the urban residents’ purchase of emerging consumer durables is inhibited,with great fluctuation.Based on research results and actual situation,this paper puts forward that the key of spurring increase of China’s consumption demand is to expand consumption demand of rural residents.

  8. Precautionary motivation and consumption Insurance: Empirical analysis of household consumption behavior in rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chuliang

    2007-01-01

    Based on a bousehold survey in rural China,this paper discuses parameters such as precautionary motive,excess sensitivity,contraption insurance,and inter-temporal substitution in the household consumption function in rural China.The conclusions of the paper indicate that there is a significant precautionary motive in household consumption in rural China,but the function of consumption insurance is very limited,and the consumption is also excessively sensitive to the income change.Such parameters are different among consumers within different groups.

  9. Analysis and Discussion on Property Right of Rural Drinking Water Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenlu; GAO; Jianjun; ZENG

    2014-01-01

    Since rural drinking water projects have diversified investment subjects,complex form,and lacks property right system and policy at national level,there are many difficulties in determining property right of projects in many areas.This not only puzzles competent authorities and specific management institution,but also is unfavorable for long-term full play of project benefit.Combining related laws,regulations,and policies,this paper analyzed and discussed property right of rural drinking water projects.It proposed establishing usufructuary right to replace division of property right,in the hope of helping improve management of rural drinking water projects.

  10. Analysis of Rural Development Factors: A Case Study of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunxi; YAN; Xiaolei; WANG; Xiaoguang; LI

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of survey,drawing on economic growth theory,we analyze the main form of exogenous growth and regional applicability in Hebei Province,and point out that some exogenous driving forces are effective ways to accelerate rural construction,such as " the promotion of agriculture by industry" and " developing the rural areas with the aid of the urban areas". However,human capital,technology,incentive institutional arrangement,agricultural industry clusters and other endogenous growth factors are fundamental to sustainable development of rural construction,so it is necessary to make them play a fundamental role in increasing farmers’ income and promoting agricultural development.

  11. Research and Analysis on Difference in Per Capita Net Income of Chinese Rural Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yan; ZHU, Yeping; YUE, Huili

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to understand the variation of difference in per capita net income of rural residents during China’s economic development in recent years. The writer studies and analyzes rural residents’ income gap between 1997 and 2008 with relevant theories of income difference and the calculation of absolute difference index as well as relative difference index and obtains the conclusion that absolute difference of Chinese rural residents’ income experienced an upward trend while rela...

  12. Commercial agriculture and territorial resistance: Analysis of urban-rural relations in the province of Azuay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Rebai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian province of Azuay, agro-ecology seems to signal towards the rebirth of family agriculture in a context of regional migration. Given changes in land usage and the improvement of peasant economies, we envisage a profound mutation in the rural landscape of Azuay. Notwithstanding, in lieu of a true model of territorial rural development, the term territorial resistance is used as weak regional commercial networks do not allow an adequate integration of a majority of peasants, evidencing the need for a more ambitious vision that takes into account the close ties between rural and urban areas, to assist the insertion of poor peasant farmers into commercial agriculture.

  13. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  14. Effects of a Rural Family Drug Treatment Court Collaborative on Child Welfare Outcomes: Comparison Using Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, McLean D; Green, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that have examined the impact of family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) on child welfare outcomes have produced mixed results. This study evaluates the impact of a rural, FDTC collaborative on child welfare outcomes using propensity score analysis. Findings from the study show that children in the treatment group had longer stays in child welfare custody but were substantially less likely to experience future incidents of maltreatment than those in families with parental substance use disorders without these services. PMID:26827480

  15. Child labor, nutrition, and education in rural India : an economic analysis of parental choice and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio Camillo; Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2001-01-01

    The causes and consequences of child labor are examined within a household decision framework with survival uncertainty and endogenous fertility. The data come from a nationally representative survey of Indian rural households. The complex interactions uncovered by the analysis suggest that mere prohibition of child labor, or the imposition of school attendance, would make things worse, and would be difficult to enforce. Beneficially reducing child labor requires changing the economic environ...

  16. The Reason Rural Lightning Disaster Accident Analysis and Prevention Measures%农村雷灾事故的原因分析及防御措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 尹芬聚; 柳荣植; 李义兰

    2014-01-01

    Lightning disaster is the worst natural disaster in rural kind, which seriously affected the development of rural economy, therefore, strengthen the work of mine has been a target figure of rural County Bureau of Meteorology hard work. From the analysis of several aspects of rural lightning disaster causes and make recommendations several rural lightning.%雷电灾害是农村自然灾害中最为严重的一种,它严重影响着农村经济的发展,因此,加强农村的防雷工作一直是图安县气象局努力工作的目标。从几个方面分析了农村雷灾的原因,并提出几点农村防雷的建议。

  17. Power Quality Experimental Analysis on Rural Home Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jorge Cerqueira Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgeneration is the small-scale generation of heat or electric power or both, by individuals or buildings to meet their own needs. Recently, microgeneration is being regarded as a means to decentralize the power production of renewable energies, reducing the impacts on the grid caused by unexpected energy demands. Given the increase in microgeneration facilities, determining the quantity of energy produced and the power quality assumes growing importance in low, medium, or high voltage facilities. This paper presents a power quality analysis of two different facilities with photovoltaic generation localized in a rural area of Portugal, describing the voltage and frequency behaviour, the harmonic contents, and the total harmonic distortion. Statistical data are presented regarding the number of voltage events and occurrence of dips and swells in both facilities as a percentage of rated voltage. We conclude that some PV systems can severely affect voltage quality, forcing the grid to work at and even above the maximum voltage standard limit.

  18. Profile analysis of rural and urban schoolchildren: life style and postural habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the profile of 7-to-14-year-old male and female schoolchildren with regard to their life style and postural habits. It was carried out through a specific protocol for this project, including open and close questions. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: a parents need to be clarified about their children’s necessity of leisure time; b the schoolchildren studied spend too little time on sports practice and physical activies; c their postural habits revealed a predominance of fetal sleeping position on foam rubber mattresses, the use of backpacks to carry their school materials and the sitting position at the desk with flexed legs and the feet touching the floor; d rural schoolchildren have less leisure time available to practice sports and other specific physical activities because after school time they work with their parents in the fields; e a high rate of spine radiographies was detected.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPEMENT THE RURAL TOURISM SUPPLY ON MOUNTAIN SKOPSKA CRNA GORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Petrovska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia, as a future member of the European Union, is facing an important and difficult task: to promote its tourism supply according to the leading European Countries in order to achieve competitive advantage in tourism market. Alternative forms of tourism are an important part of a tourism supply that could satisfy the specific tourist needs. These include rural tourism for which there is an increased demand every day. Macedonia is a country rich in various resources that are essential for making unique, rich and competent rural tourism supply, created strictly according to the principles of sustainable development. The aim of this paper work is to indicate the importance of the development of rural tourism supply for Macedonia, whereas the objective is to analyze the possibilities of the development of the rural tourism supply in the area of mountain Skopska Crna Gora, in order to develop competitive tourism supply.

  20. Analysis on Present Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Ecotourism in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqin; WANG; Yongxiang; GUAN; Zichen; WANG

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the concept, present situation and form of rural ecotourism. It also preliminarily analyses the existing problems of rural ecotourism. Then countermeasures and suggestions related to the further development of rural ecotourism and promotion of new countryside construction are put forward, which can be summarized as follows: carrying out multichannel financing, in order to strengthen the development dynamics of rural ecotourism; focusing on cultivation of ecological quality consciousness, in order to enhance the protection of resources and the environment; innovating development ideas, in order to create muti-function areas; intensifying the efforts on the training for employee, in order to upgrade comprehensive service level; promoting community participation and intensifying the efforts on the training for farmer, in order to raise farmer’s consciousness about development of ecotourism; strengthening the fusion of ecology and culture.

  1. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Overview State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health Fellows Program Application Volunteer Options NRHA Social Media Rural Health Students Education Liason Program National Rural Task Force NRHA Internships Government Affairs Save Rural ...

  2. Internet and broadband adoption in indigenous communities: An analysis of rural Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska is the largest state in the U.S., but with the nation's lowest population density of only 1.2 persons per square mile. About 15 percent of the population are Alaska Natives. Approximately two-thirds of this indigenous population live in more than 200 villages, most of which are remote settlements without road access. A current broadband infrastructure project in rural southwest Alaska provides an opportunity to gather reliable data on rural broadband adoption and use, and perceived bar...

  3. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Lange; Rosemarie Siebert; Tim Barkmann

    2015-01-01

    Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i) agriculture; (ii) forestry; (iii) water management and (iv) rural planning...

  4. The Free Rider Problem in Community-Based Rural Water Supply: A Game Theoretic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Breier; Martine Visser

    2006-01-01

    Community-based water supply projects in rural South Africa have frequently proved unsustainable, with many communities unable to raise sufficient funds to meet operation and maintenance costs. A key obstacle to cost recovery (and the focus of this paper) is the free rider problem. As rural water services are frequently supplied as a public good, the link between paying for water and receiving it is not as straightforward as it is for private goods, and beneficiaries may have a material incen...

  5. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: A microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef A.; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Livestock of different species fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of type of animal to keep and accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households’ livestock holding to identify determinants of choice of type of animal households’ keep and accumulation of the chosen animals using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia. Dyn...

  6. Understanding rural areas dynamics from a complex perspective. An application of Prospective Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosio Albala, Mateo; Delgado, Maria del Mar

    2008-01-01

    The development of rural areas continues to be an international priority. The urgent need to fight poverty (mainly concentrated in rural areas) in developing countries, and the demand for increasing economic and social cohesion in developed countries, explain this priority on the political agendas of multilateral bodies, the EU and most other countries. When Development Economics was acknowledged as part of the social and economic theory in the 50’s, different theories and models have tried t...

  7. Progress and issues in rural electrification in Bihar, India : a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Hisaya

    2012-01-01

    Rural electrification has been an important part of government policy since India gained independence. However, despite the number of electrified villages expanding rapidly in recent years, there are many that still remain un-electrified. This paper addresses the issue of intra-state disparity in access to electricity and examines the determinants of electrification at the village level using data from a survey conducted in rural Bihar, one of the underdeveloped states in India. An econometri...

  8. Interactive Approaches to Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Teilmann, Kasper Aalling

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation ‘Interactive Approaches to Rural Development’ gives new theoretical and empirical knowledge in the collaboration on development of rural areas and landscapes. From a perspective about the development and the challenges faced, the study analyses which functions that are demanded by the rural areas. Furthermore, the study makes an analysis of the collaboration in an EU financed rural development association; the Local Action Group (LAG). The overall objective ...

  9. TOURISM – IN SUPPORT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT. A CASE STUDY ON TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS IN RURAL AREA (BUTEA, IAȘI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Maria BORDEIANU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a result of a research conducted in a rural area from North-Eastern part of Romania, analyzing the training need in tourism and the level of education of the working population. The goal of the study is to obtain conclusive information as to establish concrete solutions and priorities regarding the diversification and employment reviving in rural areas in the following years (with an orientation in the field of tourism and services. The key aspect is to improve the quality of human resources in rural areas in order to facilitate the access to employment in non-agricultural activities, as an alternative. Along with other measures supported and promoted by the local government, this initiative will help to prevent depopulation of rural areas in the short to medium term. Moreover, the ingredients for a sustainable rural development are the tourism potential proper exploitation and the human resources skills development.

  10. Rurality Evaluation of Rural Tourism Destinations:A Case Study of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Wen-jun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rurality is the source of rural tourism attraction, and rurality evaluation is the most important basis of sustainable development of rural tourism destinations. The rurality evaluation system containing 12 evaluation factors was constructed by 4 element layers which contained geographical environment, economic basis, landscape characteristics and rural atmosphere. Then rurality of 7 typical rural destinations in Liuzhou of Guangxi was analyzed by using the method of gray correlation analysis. The results showed that the rurality of rural tourism destinations ranking result from high to low was ‘Dragon-girl valley, Chengyang Eight Stockade, Xialun Village, Zhongdu Ancient Town, Cormorant Island, Sun Village, Jingquan Leisure Farm’. The results can provide certain references and guidance for rural tourism development in southwest ethnic regions. Finally, it put forward some suggestions on keeping rurality of rural tourism destinations such as strengthening differentiability, maintaining authenticity and creating local atmosphere.

  11. Analysis of rural entrepreneurship under the theorethical approach of resources and capabilities: the case of a rural microbusiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the case of a joint venture stage to determine the successes and failures to undertake this business, based on the theory of resources and skills of entrepreneurship and business. It is intended to answer the question, what were the successes and failures committed by entrepreneurs to run the business plan in this particular case?. The answers were found relating the situations described in the case with the theories of resources and skills and entrepreneurship. The analysis concludes that the empirical knowledge of entrepreneurs, in this case were not sufficient to direct the business to success, and that the lack of structured knowledge and adequate scientific support for this project strongly directed towards the non-permanence on the market

  12. Pre-design and life cycle cost analysis of a hybrid power system for rural and remote communities in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sayed Shah Danish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present situation of the Afghanistan electricity sector, the photovoltaic and diesel generator stand-alone hybrid power system is increasingly attractive for application in rural and remote communities. Thousands of rural communities in Afghanistan depend solely on traditional kerosene for illumination and rarely have access to electricity sources such as DC battery for radio and other small appliances. This study is conducted to offer real-life solution to this problem. The hybrid system is investigated to meet the domestic load demand that is estimated based on the communities’ electricity consumption culture. At first, customary pre-design is pursued. Afterwards, the break-even point and net present value algorithms are applied for economic analysis. That makes this study differ from the previous academic literature. The concepts developed in this study are targeted for a cost-effective hybrid system, which is appropriate for rural and remote residents’ lifestyle change and improvement. Based on the academic research methods, overall analysis procedures can fit as an analogy, especially for developing countries.

  13. Analysis of the effects of agricultural land use change on rural environment and landscape through historical cartography and GIS tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Statuto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human activities and the social and economic transformations occurred during the last century led modifications in the agro-forestry areas. This paper shows a study case study in which the dynamics of land use are analysed using a geographic information system applied to historical maps in order to evaluate the consequences of these land transformations over the last 179 years on the rural environment and landscape. The use of three-dimensional reconstructions, obtained through the creation of different digital terrain model, has allowed to appreciate the landscape modifications, in term of morphological and vegetation variation, determining its aesthetic quality. The analysis shows a common dynamic present in many rural areas of Southern Italy, i.e., the increase of agricultural areas replacing forested surfaces in an older period followed by the further phenomenon of spontaneous re-naturalisation of many of these areas, due to the abandonment of extensive cultivated areas. Moreover, through comparison with historical documents, it was possible to analyse how the agricultural activities influenced the quality of the forest ecosystem. The methodology employed in this study allows a detailed analysis of the processes that occurred in different rural context and the creation of appropriate tools for sustainable land management.

  14. Teaching and Learning in Rural Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Tomàs, Roser Boix; Champollion, Pierre; Duarte, António M.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a review of the literature on rural and mountain education, this article focuses on the importance of the rural territory to the specificity of learning and teaching in rural schools globally. The analysis revealed that rural education has specificities that differentiate it from urban education and that, besides its limitations, offer potential advantages for the processes of teaching and learning for primary education. Moreover, analysis of rural education revealed that it f...

  15. Technical and economical analysis of concepts for using the heat of biogas plants in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the implementation of the EEG in Germany the biogas production becomes an independent branch of industry in the agriculture. At this time more than 90 percent of the biogas plants work with co-generation plant for heat and power with a thermal engine efficiencies of more than 50 percent. Because of the location in the rural area heat costumers with a continuous demand of heat over the whole year are rare. This research had a closer look how to use the heat of biogas production efficiently and also generating profit. The aim of the study was to use heat over the whole year, a profitable heat concept without counting the KWK-bonus and an added value on the farm. During the study the following concepts were analyzed: asparagus production using soil heating, drying equipment for different products, the production of fish in aquaculture, the poultry production and the heated production of tomatoes. The results showed different concepts using heat of biogas plants as efficient for farmers. However with only one concept the aims - to use the heat over the whole year, generating a profitable heat concept without counting the KWK-bonus, add an value on the farm - mostly can not be achieved. The combination of different heat concepts is necessary. In this analysis the poultry production in combination with the dryer can be considered as the most efficient concept. Bearing in mind the benefit which can be generated with a heat concept as well as the higher income and the higher technical efficiency of biogas plants operators should implement an individual concept for their heat.

  16. Efficiency of primary care in rural Burkina Faso. A two-stage DEA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Providing health care services in Africa is hampered by severe scarcity of personnel, medical supplies and financial funds. Consequently, managers of health care institutions are called to measure and improve the efficiency of their facilities in order to provide the best possible services with their resources. However, very little is known about the efficiency of health care facilities in Africa and instruments of performance measurement are hardly applied in this context. Objective This study determines the relative efficiency of primary care facilities in Nouna, a rural health district in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, it analyses the factors influencing the efficiency of these institutions. Methodology We apply a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based on data from a comprehensive provider and household information system. In the first stage, the relative efficiency of each institution is calculated by a traditional DEA model. In the second stage, we identify the reasons for being inefficient by regression technique. Results The DEA projections suggest that inefficiency is mainly a result of poor utilization of health care facilities as they were either too big or the demand was too low. Regression results showed that distance is an important factor influencing the efficiency of a health care institution Conclusions Compared to the findings of existing one-stage DEA analyses of health facilities in Africa, the share of relatively efficient units is slightly higher. The difference might be explained by a rather homogenous structure of the primary care facilities in the Burkina Faso sample. The study also indicates that improving the accessibility of primary care facilities will have a major impact on the efficiency of these institutions. Thus, health decision-makers are called to overcome the demand-side barriers in accessing health care. PMID:22828358

  17. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Derek; Hirvonen, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock-particularly poultry and poultry feces-may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  18. Palliative care nursing in rural and urban community settings: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Sharon; Brazil, Kevin; Wilson, Donna M; Willison, Kathleen; Marshall, Denise; Taniguchi, Alan; Williams, Allison

    2011-07-01

    Nurses have key roles in the coordination and delivery of community-based palliative care. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between rural and urban community nurses' delivery of palliative care services. A survey was distributed to 277 nurses employed by a community agency in Ontario, Canada, and a 60% response rate was obtained. Nurses reported spending 27% of their time providing palliative care. Rural and urban nurses had similar roles in palliative care but rural nurses spent more time travelling and were more confident in their ability to provide palliative care. Both groups of nurses reported moderate job satisfaction and moderate satisfaction with the level of interdisciplinary collaboration in their practice. Several barriers to and facilitators of optimal palliative care provision were identified. The study results provide information about the needs of nurses that practise in these settings and may provide a basis for the development of strategies to address these needs. PMID:21841703

  19. Analysis on Capitalization of Rural Land Ownership in China by Law and Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjuan; LI

    2014-01-01

    To find solutions for legal system for capitalization of rural land ownership in China,this paper studied and analyzed existing problems in rural land system and legal environment using legal theory and transaction cost theory. Results indicated that(i) the restriction of institutional condition upon property right and transaction is more essential,and key points include the relationship of entities of right formed jointly by the state,collective and farmers,accurate positioning of property right structure,and security for land appreciation income right and allocation mechanism;(ii) the land property right structure should select a legal structure with minimum transaction cost. It is concluded that entitling the ownership to a single entity is an economical method to eliminate current conflict of rural land right.

  20. ANALYSIS REGARDING THE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE OF MANAGEMENT HELD BY RURAL ENTREPRENEURS IN SOUTHWEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor TIŢA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investing in human capital and social infrastructure represents the most important concern for the greatentrepreneurs in Romania, aiming to use the complete potential of women and men. The studies in this paper wereperformed in 2012 on a sample of 207 rural entrepreneurs, men and women, where there were pursued withmanagement experts, their knowledge of the values, behavior and entrepreneurial motivations, about managementknowledge and experience about mutual perceptions of business people. The information obtained was processedand stored electronically in order to improve the deficiencies found in rural areas, and to identify their trends in thelabor market. Differences between regions of training, knowledge, perception, adaptation and acceptance ofentrepreneurship training through courses made this research to be beneficial in order to take appropriatemeasures to increase the effectiveness of entrepreneurship in rural SW Oltenia.

  1. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Community Health Tools for Success Am I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Testing New ... provided time during the day to stretch or exercise, sponsored wellness fairs, and awarded recognition for worksite ...

  2. Assessing and Responding to Palliative Care Needs in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from a Model Intervention and Situation Analysis in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Herce, Michael E.; Elmore, Shekinah N; Kalanga, Noel; Keck, James W.; Emily B Wroe; Phiri, Atupere; Mayfield, Alishya; Chingoli, Felix; Jason A Beste; Tengatenga, Listern; Bazile, Junior; Krakauer, Eric L.; Rigodon, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Palliative care is rarely accessible in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Partners In Health and the Malawi government established the Neno Palliative Care Program (NPCP) to provide palliative care in rural Neno district. We conducted a situation analysis to evaluate early NPCP outcomes and better understand palliative care needs, knowledge, and preferences. Methods Employing rapid evaluation methodology, we collected data from 3 sources: 1) chart review of all adult patients from the NP...

  3. Assessing and Responding to Palliative Care Needs in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from a Model Intervention and Situation Analysis in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Herce, Michael E.; Elmore, Shekinah N; Kalanga, Noel; Keck, James W.; Emily B Wroe; Phiri, Atupere; Mayfield, Alishya; Chingoli, Felix; Jason A Beste; Tengatenga, Listern; Bazile, Junior; Krakauer, Eric L.; Rigodon, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Palliative care is rarely accessible in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Partners In Health and the Malawi government established the Neno Palliative Care Program (NPCP) to provide palliative care in rural Neno district. We conducted a situation analysis to evaluate early NPCP outcomes and better understand palliative care needs, knowledge, and preferences. Methods: Employing rapid evaluation methodology, we collected data from 3 sources: 1) chart review of all adult patients from the ...

  4. Maternal Mortality and Distance to Facility-based Obstetric Care in Rural Southern Tanzania: A Secondary Analysis of Cross-sectional Census Data in 226 000 Households.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Claudia Hanson, PhD; Jonathan Cox, PhD; Godfrey Mbaruku, PhD; Fatuma Manzi, PhD; Sabine Gabrysch, PhD; Prof. David Schellenberg, PhD; Prof. Marcel Tanner, PhD; Prof. Carine Ronsmans, DrPH; Prof. Joanna Schellenberg, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to skilled obstetric delivery and emergency care is deemed crucial for reducing maternal mortality. We assessed pregnancy-related mortality by distance to health facilities and by cause of death in a disadvantaged rural area of southern Tanzania. Methods: We did a secondary analysis of cross-sectional georeferenced census data collected from June to October, 2007, in five rural districts of southern Tanzania. Heads of georeferenced households were asked about household d...

  5. A Qualitative Analysis of the Retention and Recruitment of Rural General Practitioners in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Abhaya Kamalakanthan; Sukhan Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Australian estimates of the doctor-to-population ratios for the cities, regional and remote areas seem to exceed the 0.71:1,000 benchmark ratio of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. However, statistics are misleading because they do not account for the time and distance involved to see a doctor in the less densely populated rural and remote areas. This is a qualitative study of the problem of retention and recruitment of rural doctors. In 2006-08, 13 in-depth structured intervi...

  6. Gender Disparity In Rural Literacy : A Micro-level Analysis Of Sangli District

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Gaikwad

    2012-01-01

    India, a developing country in the third world with agrarian economy, has 72.20 percent population living in 6,40,000 villages (2001 Census). In contrast, industrially developed state Maharashtra has 57.57 percent people living in 41,095 villages. The study area, Sangli district has 721 inhabited villages carrying 1,950,306 rural people (75.49%). The rural people has a lower literacy rate (74.14%) than the literacy rate of urban population (84.17%). There is a positive correlation between the...

  7. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  8. The Analysis of Limitation of Engel’s Coefficient——A Case Study of Rural Areas in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing relevant theories of Engel’s coefficient,this paper analyzes the limitation of these theories in practical application currently in China,for example,continuing to use original theory,not in line with reality of China;comparison invalidity in length and breadth,is not conducive to relevant analysis;culling out the special factors easily causes distortion of conclusion.Taking rural areas in Hebei Province as an example,this paper analyzes the limitation of Engel’s coefficient in analyzing the gap of rural economy:in terms of region horizontally,Engel’s coefficient neglects the difference of consumption structure among regions,and difference of economic stages among regions;in terms of time vertically,Engel’s coefficient neglects the periodic change of consumption structure and the ratio change of different families in different periods.According to the reality of China’s rural areas,the correction model of Engel’s coefficient is established as follows.Firstly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation(food+ education+ medical service) /Percentage of total expenditure variation;Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation(food+ education+ medical service) /Percentage of income variation.Secondly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation of food/Percentage of variation of(total expenditure educational expenditure-medical expenditure.Thirdly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation of food/Percentage of total expenditure variation.

  9. Geo-ethical dimension of community's safety: rural and urban population vulnerability analysis methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan; Yuschenko, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    calculate a distribution of losses connected with decision making in land-use is demonstrated. Rural community's vulnerability determines by water availability, quality of soils, effectiveness of land use (including climate change adaptation), intensity of pollutions, crop productivity variations during the period of crop rotation, annual national distribution of crops output, and distance to city centres. It should noted here that "distance to city centres" is not comprehensive indicator of market accessibility in general case: quality and availability of transport infrastructure should be described more detailed on the next stages of analysis. Urban population vulnerability determines by distribution of urban fractures and quality urban environment: density, quality and availability of infrastructure, balance between industrial, residential and recreational zones, effectiveness of urban land use and landscape management, and social policy, particularly, employment. Population density is closely connected with social density, with communications and decision making. Social learning, as the function of social communications, is the way to increase sustainability. Also it possible to say that social sustainability is a function of intensity and efficiency of communications between interlinked and interacted networks in the heterogeneous environment. Therefore the results of study demonstrated that risk management study should includes issues of risk and threats perception, which should be described in framework of appropriate tools and approaches connected with ethical dimension of vulnerability. For instance, problems of accessibility and availability of safety resources in view of social fairness and socio-economic dynamics should be included into future studies in field of risk analysis.

  10. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  11. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  12. Implementation of Ptechls Modules in Rural Malaysian Secondary School: A Needs Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Gelamdin, Rashidah Begum; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that the strategy of matching learning style with certain technology enhances students' learning experience. This study seeks to identify the learning styles among students in a rural secondary school, based on the Felder Silverman Model (1988) which comprises four dimensions (visual/verbal, active/reflective, sequential/global,…

  13. A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural and Urban Veterans' Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard; MacKenzie, Todd A.; West, Alan N.; Wright, Steven; Booth, Brenda M.; Hawthorne, Kara; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cross-sectional studies have identified rural-urban disparities in veterans' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. Purpose: To determine whether longitudinal analyses confirmed that these disparities in veterans' HRQOL scores persisted. Methods: We obtained data from the SF-12 portion of the veterans health administration's…

  14. Enhancing the Analysis of Rural Community Resilience: Evidence from Community land Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerratt, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Resilience, and specifically the resilience of (rural) communities, is an increasingly-ubiquitous concept, particularly in the contexts of resistance to shocks, climate change, and environmental disasters. The dominant discourse concerning (community) resilience centres around bounce-back from external shocks. In this paper, I argue that it is…

  15. Recasting Culture to Undo Gender: A Sociological Analysis of Jeevika in Rural Bihar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal,Paromita; Rao, Vijayendra; Majumdar,Shruti

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together sociological theories of culture and gender to answer the question – how do large-scale development interventions induce cultural change? Through three years of ethnographic work in rural Bihar, the authors examine this question in the context of Jeevika, a World Bank-assisted poverty alleviation project targeted at women, and find support for an integrative view ...

  16. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess body composition in rural Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Hawkesworth, S.; Wright, A.; Fulford, A.J.C.; Jarjou, L.M.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (% FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. Subjects/Methods: One hundred and

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Women Superintendents in Rural and Urban Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Linda Hampton; Grady, Marilyn L.

    This paper reports on the leadership qualities of rural and urban women superintendents. Telephone interviews with 51 randomly selected female superintendents in 29 states examined perceived sources of job satisfaction, the benefits accrued on the job, sense of self-fulfillment in the workplace, and personal strengths. The most frequent responses…

  18. Prediction and Analysis of Chinese Rural Households’ Consumption Level Based on the ARIMA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the software SAS9.2 and the relevant data of consumption level of rural residents in China from 1952 to 2008,the ARIMA model is established.The model is used to analyze and forecast the time series of the consumption level of Chinese rural residents.The results show that in the near future,the consumption level of Chinese rural residents will be further raised.In 2012,the level will break through per capita 5 000 yuan,almost 100 times more than that in the primary time period.But consumption level does not equal to living standard.To let farmers lead a good life,the government should follow the objective laws;take the overall situation into consideration;coordinate the relations among farmers’ consumption level,national subsidies and farmers’ production enthusiasm.Therefore,The paper suggests that the historical and objective factors should be attached more importance to.Besides,raising farmers’ income and allaying farmers’ fear were effective measures in developing the consumptive potential of rural market and promoting the economic sustainable development.

  19. Data Mining Analysis of the Rural Public Library usages in Periyakulam Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jenifer Rathnakumari #1 , P. Sathya *2 , C. Rama Devi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After Independence, due to various efforts in universalization of elementary education, India has experienced growing population of literate and educated citizens. For facilitating these educated citizens with the adequate documentary and knowledge resources, government has established many rural public libraries. These public libraries are the catalysts that strengthen and unite these rural villages. They have been a familiar feature of the rural Indian cultural and community landscape for over 60 years and perform a valuable community service, democratising access to reading information and learning and act as a ‘shop window’ for local authority services. They provide a focal point for community and inter-generational contact, and enable access to learning and an ever-expanding range of information for a wide constituency through an increasingly broad and varied range of media. These rural public libraries have always catered for children and families, as well as for individual readers of all ages. Our case study on the usages of the rural public libraries by the people of Periyakulam municipality, focused on these individual reader’s interest in accessing books from the public libraries of Periyakulam, a small town cum a century old Municipality of Theni district, a southern district of Tamilnadu, India. The researchers have collected data by questioners and interview methods and analysed it using the Apriori algorithm of Data mining techniques. Association rules were used to analyse the item set and results were obtained. The result expressed the public’s interest in reading and selecting books from the public library and the libraries’ involvement in the life of the people.

  20. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  1. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  2. Techno Economic Feasibility Analysis of a Stand-Alone PV System to Electrify a Rural Area Household in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz Kirmani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system to provide the required electricity for a single residential household in India. The complete design of the suggested system is carried out, such that the site radiation data and the electrical load data of a typical household in the considered site are taken into account during the design steps. Also, the life cycle cost (LCC analysis is conducted to assess the economic viability of the system. The results of the study encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of India.

  3. Photochemical modeling of glyoxal at a rural site: observations and analysis from BEARPEX 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Huisman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present roughly one month of high time-resolution, direct, in situ measurements of gas-phase glyoxal acquired during the BEARPEX 2007 field campaign. The research site, located on a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada mountains, is strongly influenced by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs; thus this data adds to the few existing measurements of glyoxal in BVOC-dominated areas. The short lifetime of glyoxal of ~1 h, the fact that glyoxal mixing ratios are much higher during high temperature periods, and the results of a photochemical model demonstrate that glyoxal is strongly influenced by BVOC precursors during high temperature periods.

    A zero-dimensional box model using near-explicit chemistry from the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism v3.1 was used to investigate the processes controlling glyoxal chemistry during BEARPEX 2007. The model showed that MBO is the most important glyoxal precursor (~67 %, followed by isoprene (~26 % and methylchavicol (~6 %, a precursor previously not commonly considered for glyoxal production. The model calculated a noon lifetime for glyoxal of ~0.9 h, making glyoxal well suited as a local tracer of VOC oxidation in a forested rural environment; however, the modeled glyoxal mixing ratios over-predicted measured glyoxal by a factor 2 to 5. Loss of glyoxal to aerosol was not found to be significant, likely as a result of the very dry conditions, and could not explain the over-prediction. Although several parameters, such as an approximation for advection, were found to improve the model measurement discrepancy, reduction in OH was by far the most effective. Reducing model OH concentrations to half the measured values decreased the glyoxal over-prediction from a factor of 2.4 to 1.1, as well as the overprediction of HO2 from a factor of 1.64 to 1.14. Our analysis has shown that glyoxal is particularly sensitive to OH concentration compared to other BVOC oxidation products. This

  4. Recognition and Analysis of the Effective Social Dimensions on the Tendency of Rural Youths to Addiction in Rural Areas of Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajarian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The object of this study was the identification of effective factors and the prevalence of drug use among rural youths. Method: The study was a scientific-comparative research. The sample was 450 rural youths from the city of Isfahan. The related questionnaires were collected in 15 villages of Isfahan city. Findings: Results showed that between family factors and consumption rate, family rift and family dependency and father's occupational status were effective ones. Also, among the social and emotional factors anomaly, tendency to religious issues and friendship with those addicted to drugs have been effective in getting addiated of rural youths. Among personal factors, the increase of education level can act as an effective factor. Conclusion: the results showed that between tnndency to religious factors and consumption rate there is a negative meaning. Similarly, there is a positive meaning among unemployment, stablishing friendship with addicted, being close to urban places and addiction to drugs.

  5. Impact analysis of expanding biomass energy use to rural poverty in tropical Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Masdjidin; Sugino, Tomohide

    2008-01-01

    Since the Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 2005, more attention has been paid to the development of biomass resource use. The tropical Asian countries have large potential for biomass production. In order to reduce imported fuel, the Government of Indonesia is attempting to find alternative renewable energy, particularly in the form of biofuel. The report presents the prospects for biofuel projects and the possible impacts on rural society based on a case study of bioethanol production from...

  6. THE FOOD CHALLENGE IN THE SENEGALESE RURAL ECONOMY AN ANALYSIS OF THE DOMESTIC CEREALS PROMOTION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Gaye, Matar

    1983-01-01

    Since the colonial era, the expansion of the Senegalese economy was greatly sustained by the agricultural sector in which more than three-fourths of the total population were involved. A 2.3 percent average annual growth of total production during the sixties matched the speed at which the agricultural population was growing and the rural economy was engaged in a kind of equilibrium path. During the late sixties and early seventies, the situation began to change with an agricultural productio...

  7. The peasant's rescue from the cadre? An institutional analysis of China's rural tax and fee reform

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Applying a historical institutionalist perspective, this paper examines the genesis, implementation process and impact of the recent Rural Tax and Fee Reform (RTFR) in China. It is posited that the RTFR represents a serious, although inconsistent, attempt to shift the balance of central-local relations toward the centre via stricter regulation of county and subcounty politics. It is further argued that this attempt to restructure the polity is not matched by the adjustment of the policy proce...

  8. Analysis of the editorial process of the multidisciplinary rural development journal Tropicultura

    OpenAIRE

    Thys, E.; Harelimana, G.; Mergeai, G.

    2011-01-01

    Tropicultura is a multidisciplinary journal which aims mainly at releasing research results relevant to rural development in developing countries and at improving the investigation capacities of the researchers who submit manuscripts to its editorial board. The operating process of the journal and its consequences on its output during the period 2002- 2009 were analysed by considering mainly the factors influencing the duration of the editorial work and the final acceptance of the manuscripts...

  9. Recasting culture to undo gender : a sociological analysis of Jeevika in rural Bihar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal,Paromita; Rao, Vijayendra; Majumdar,Shruti

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together sociological theories of culture and gender to answer the question ? how do large-scale development interventions induce cultural change? Through three years of ethnographic work in rural Bihar, the authors examine this question in the context of Jeevika, a World Bank-assisted poverty alleviation project targeted at women, and find support for an integrative view of culture. The paper argues that Jeevika created new ?cultural configurations? by giving economically a...

  10. ANALYSIS REGARDING THE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE OF MANAGEMENT HELD BY RURAL ENTREPRENEURS IN SOUTHWEST OLTENIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Victor TIŢA

    2014-01-01

    Investing in human capital and social infrastructure represents the most important concern for the greatentrepreneurs in Romania, aiming to use the complete potential of women and men. The studies in this paper wereperformed in 2012 on a sample of 207 rural entrepreneurs, men and women, where there were pursued withmanagement experts, their knowledge of the values, behavior and entrepreneurial motivations, about managementknowledge and experience about mutual perceptions of business people. T...

  11. Models for the statistical analysis of trends in rural tourism activity in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Cofas

    2014-01-01

    In Romania, the transition to a market economy led to restructuring in all fields, triggering multiple socioeconomic implications, political and cultural. The stress of urban life has increased, there was a high degree of urbanization and environmental pollution and reduced working week. These changes have affected tourism, holiday destinations for changes to pro-active, run in nature, with positive implications and deep rural tourism activity. Temporary return to nature, the simple way of li...

  12. Decomposition Analysis of Earnings Inequality in Rural India: 2004-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Shantanu; Goel, Deepti; Morissette, René

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the changes in earnings of paid workers (wage earners) in rural India from 2004/05 to 2011/12. Real earnings increased at all percentiles, and the percentage increase was larger at the lower end. Consequently, earnings inequality declined. Recentered Influence Function decompositions show that throughout the earnings distribution, except at the very top, both changes in 'worker characteristics' and in 'returns to these characteristics' increased earnings, with the latter having pla...

  13. Child labour and poverty linkages: A micro analysis from rural Malawian data

    OpenAIRE

    Chiwaula, Levison/S

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of income and asset poverty on child work using the rural sub-sample of the 2004 Malawi Integrated Household Survey. Instrumenting consumption expenditure with a location dummy variable and interacting consumption expenditure with household land-holding size in probit models, the likelihood of child labour is found to relate negatively with household consumption. On the other hand child labour relates positively with household land-holding size for consumption p...

  14. Energy and GHG Analysis of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has taken great efforts to popularize rural household scale biogas digesters, since they are regarded as an effective approach to address energy shortage issues in rural areas and as a potential way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical rural household biogas system, the aim of this study is to systematically quantify its total direct and indirect energy, concentrating on non-renewable energy and the associated GHG emission cost over the entire life cycle to understand its net dynamic benefits. The results show that the total energetic cost for biogas output is 2.19 J/J, of which 0.56 J is from non-renewable energy sources and the GHG emission cost is 4.54 × 10−5 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq, with respect to its design life cycle of 20 years. Correspondingly, a net non-renewable energy saving of 9.89 × 1010 J and GHG emission reduction of 50.45 t CO2-eq can be obtained considering the coal substitution and manure disposal. However, it must be run for at least 10 and 3 years, to obtain positive net non-renewable energy savings and GHG emission reduction benefits, respectively. These results have policy implications for development orientation, follow-up services, program management and even national financial subsidy methods.

  15. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: a microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Tollens, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Livestock fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep and on accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. Using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia, this paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households' livestock holding to identify determinants of choice and accumulation of livestock overtime. Choice is analyzed for a principal animal, the animal that constituted the largest value of livestock assets a household possessed, using a multinomial logit model. Results indicate that rural households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep. Agro-climatic conditions, sex and age of household head, presence of an adult male member in a household, and liquidity are the major factors that influence the type of principal animal households keep. Conditional on the principal animal selected, we analyzed the factors that determine the accumulation of the chosen animals by correcting for selection bias. Area of land cultivated is the most significant factor that explains the number of animals households keep. Other factors include sex of household head, diversification into nonfarm self-employment, and shocks. PMID:21667077

  16. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  17. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  18. Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Kabir

    Full Text Available This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA. CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506 while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001, demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity. A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131. Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.

  19. Family Income and Cash Flow of Rural Households in South East Nigeria: A Comparative and Gender – Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide, O. Adeola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the income generating capacity offarm family’s own resources and examined the vulnerabilityto financial risk among the remote and peri-urban farmingsystems of Imo state. Primary data was collected using thefarming and rural systems approach to randomly select and interview 120 households. Descriptive statistics and Mann whitneytest were used in assessing between group differences while regression analysis was used to test the determinants of familyincome spread within the households. The results showed thatthe farming systems differed significantly in terms of rewards toresource use and efficiency. It also showed that remotely locatedhouseholds were more likely to be vulnerable to financial risks.A comparison of Male and Female Headed Households showedthat the households had similar income generating potentials butwith the cash flow analysis a safe conclusion may be reachedthat Female Headed Household were more financially unhealthy.

  20. [Analysis of Microbial Community in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Rural Sewage Treatment System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bing-jian; Jin, De-cai; Wu, Shang-hua; Yang, Bo; Deng, Ye; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhuang, Xu-liang

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled release and arbitrary irrigation reuse of rural wastewater may lead to water pollution, and the microbial pathogens could threaten the safety of freshwater resources and public health. To understand the microbial community structure of rural wastewater and provide the theory for microbial risk assessment of wastewater irrigation, microbial community diversities in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) process for rural wastewater treatment was studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA gene clone library. Meanwhile, changes of Arcobacter spp. and total bacteria before and after treatment were detected through real-time quantitative PCR. The clone library results showed that there were 73 positive clones included Proteobacteria (91. 80%), Firmicutes (2. 70%), Bacteroidetes (1. 40%), and uncultured bacteria (4. 10%) in the untreated wastewater. The typical pathogenic genus Arcobacter belonging to e-Proteobacteria was the dominant component of the library, accounting for 68. 5% of all clones. The main groups and their abundance in different treatments were significantly distinct. The highest values of species abundance (S), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness (E) were observed in the adjusting tank, which were 43. 0, 3. 56 and 0. 95, respectively. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the copy number of Arcobacter spp. was (1. 09 ± 0. 064 0) x 10(11) copies.L-1 in the untreated sewage, which was consistent with the result of 16S rDNA gene clone library. Compared to untreated wastewater, bacterial copy number in the treated effluent decreased 100 to 1 000 times, respectively, suggesting that MBR treatment system could remove the microbial quantity in such scale. In the recycled water, the physicochemical parameters and indicator bacteria met the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. However, further research is needed to estimate the potential health risks caused by residual pathogenic microorganisms in

  1. Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of China’s Township Electrification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ► China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ► Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrification program. ► The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ► Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ► Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

  2. Feasibility analysis of river off-grid hydrokinetic systems with pumped hydro storage in rural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The option of using hydrokinetic with pumped hydro storage in rural South Africa is examined. • Techno-economic feasibility is conducted in comparison to the system with battery storage systems. • The two schemes are compared in terms of cost of energy produced and technical viability. • Results show that hydrokinetic with pumped hydro is a cost-effective and reliable rural electrification option. - Abstract: Hydrokinetic power generation is currently gaining interest as a cost effective way of supplying isolated areas where reasonable water resource is available. However the seasonal characteristic of the water resource as well as the intermittent fluctuating load demand prevents this power generation system from being entirely reliable without appropriate energy storage system. Few researchers have recently analyzed the use of hydrokinetic systems as standalone or combined with other energy source, however the authors of these researches did not explore other means of storing energy except for traditional battery storage systems. In this study, the most conventional and established storage technology, pumped hydro storage, is proposed to be used in conjunction with a standalone hydrokinetic system in off-grid power supply. The techno-economic feasibility of such combination is analyzed and compared to the option where batteries are considered as storage system. The operation principle of the system is presented; the mathematical model and simulation model are also developed. Simulations are performed using two different types of loads in rural South Africa as case studies to demonstrate the technical cost advantages as well as the cost effectiveness of the proposed supply option. The results reveal that the novel micro-pumped hydro storage based hydrokinetic system is a cost-effective, reliable and environmentally friendly solution to achieve 100% energy autonomy in remote and isolated communities

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE NATURAL POTENTIAL AND OF THE AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES IN THE RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CREŢU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The immediate effect of the application of the Land Law in Călăraşi county agriculture, the restructuring of the the farm units configuration by preponderance of small individual land, reduced the positive implications of the privatization process, resulting in a less viable economic model in terms of resources and efficiency . These structures determined the intensive consume of labour force, which led to the attraction of part of the labor force in other sectors, in agriculture, representing small farmers producing for own consumption and for selling products on the rural market.

  4. Measurement and Analysis of Production Performance of Rural Households in Jinzhai County, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Can

    2004-01-01

    Using a multi-input multi-output production technology and survey data from Jinzhai County, western Anhui Province, China, the author first measured the production performance of rural households - their efficiency, economy of scale, and productivity during 1978-1997, and then related the measured production performance with institutional change, market access, and other factors. Preliminary results show that: 1) performance differs a great deal across households and over time; 2) institutional changes and market accessibility have played a major role in improving performance; 3) depending on the specific resources, their effects are variable.

  5. FARM-LEVEL INCENTIVES FOR FERTILIZER USE IN RWANDA'S KIGALI RURAL PROVINCE: A FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mugabo, Josaphat R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of the main food crops in the context of the current government policy of promoting the use by farmers of improved inputs. This study tried to estimate the magnitudes of costs associated with the use of chemical fertilizer on climbing beans, maize, sorghum and soybeans grown in the province of Kigali rural and the benefits farmers would get by investing their labor and money in these crops. In less detail, this study analyzed some ...

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CHINA'S AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURE, RURAL AREAS AND FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Yongxin; Liu, Zeng-Rung

    2002-01-01

    China is the most populous country in the world. Of its 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world population, about 67% are living in rural areas. Although China is the third largest country in terms of area, the arable land is only 7% of the global amount. With relatively meager endowment, it is undoubtedly a daunting task for the agricultural sector to provide adequate supply to fulfil huge needs for food and other agricultural products. In addition, agriculture development in China confronts wi...

  7. Application of a geographical information system to the feasibility analysis of PV electricity supply in rural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are a wide spread and very valuable tool able to manage and analyse spatial multivariate and interdisciplinary data sources. Their application to the feasibility assessment for the implementation of renewable energy sources is still recent but they have been proven as very adequate decision support elements according to the characteristic dependencies involved in this kind of studies, including site extrinsic (climate, solar and wind resources,...) and intrinsic (electrical feeding patterns, topography, grid proximity,...) variables. This work presents an example of the use of ArcViewTM GIS software in the estimation of feasibility criteria for the adoption of solar photovoltaic electricity supply systems in a rural area located South Eastern Spain taking into account the eventual agronomic and/or dwelling land use and its corresponding energy demand. In this analysis, a set of data sources have been integrated ranging from remote sensed solar radiation to digital elevation models to evaluate correction factors for grid connection costs, apart of crops placement and water demands. The obtained graphical output allows to users and systems installers for an immediate functional and economical estimation of eventual projects related to rural development of the studied zone. (authors)

  8. THE STATE OF THE ART IN RESEARCH INTO RURAL TOURISM IN SPAIN: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Hernández Mogollón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of rural tourism has been addressed from different perspectives, such as geography, sociology, psychology, economics, business management, tourism marketing, etc. This positions it as a multidisciplinary research field of great interest which is growing in strategic importance. However it requires appropriate tools to improve its performance and become more professional. The level of interest it now produces is palpable in the quantitative increase in the attention devoted to it in the scientific literature over recent years. Nevertheless there is a need to improve the quality of this research effort, especially in fields related to economics and the management of businesses and even more so with regard to issues related to marketing, all of which would contribute to a better understanding of issues such as the planning, management and marketing of these destinations and businesses. This paper is an analysis of rural tourism as an area of scientific research that aims to classify the most relevant topics in the field, with particular reference to those that focus on marketing and market research. Its main contribution is a proposal of a research agenda for the coming years.

  9. A SWOT analysis of aquaculture development in rural areas of Iran, an application to Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Moogouei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study various important indices were selected to assess the sustainable aquaculture strategies in rural areas of Iran. In addition the government officials, consultants and managers were surveyed to assess the indices of aquaculture development. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats   analyses were used to make a comprehensive evaluation on internal and external factors, participating the development of aquaculture strategies. The sum of the attractiveness scores from the Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix was approximately 2.55, being larger than 2.5, indicating that the strengths exceed the weaknesses. The sum of the External Factor Evaluation Matrix scores was 3.49, indicating that opportunities were higher than threats. This analysis showed that the development of aquaculture, promotion of new cold-water species production, productivity enhancement, establishment of hatchery facilities and formation of an effective support organization are the most important strategies that should be considered in the studied area. Results obtained on this research help decision makers on work of the aquaculture sector in rural areas of Iran.

  10. Preservative treatment of wood (Pinus oocarpa) for use as poles on electrification net; Tratamento preservativo de madeira (Pinus oocarpa) para uso como postes de linhas de eletrificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeca Filho, Antonio [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Targa, Luiz A. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    1998-12-01

    Four poles, class M, nominal length of 10,0 m, of Pinus oocarpa, treated with hydro soluble immunization, to the copper base, chromium and boron were tested. The poles were treated in the Processing /Wood Laboratory of the UNESP Mechanical Engineering Department, Campus of Bauru. The chemical analysis of the hydro soluble immunization retention and penetration determination was realized at the state of Sao Paulo Technological Research Institute. The used methodology for the poles treatment, supported by modified Boucherie process, consist in to move the the preservation product in aqueous solution, along the shaft of the poles, from one extremity to the another, using hydrostatic pressure to facilitate the operation. The solution shift the sap, and in the end of operation, the tissues before soaked of sap. become soaked by the preservation product. This treatment process requests equipment of easy maintenance and moderate price. I can be manufactured easily by the own farmer and, without difficulty, it can be transferred from a position to another, according to the needs of wood treated, and also the available raw material. With that procedure described it was possible to obtain a satisfactory retention of the immunization product along it shaft of the poles, satisfying the minimum values recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Norms (1984a.). (author)

  11. Empirical Analysis on the Relations between Rural Residents’ Consumption and Economic Growth——A Case of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Liaoning is a granary province with a large agricultural population and great market potential. Expanding rural residents’ consumption becomes a necessity for enlarging domestic demand, solving three agriculture problems and promoting sustainable and rapid economic development. The research shows that since invigorating old industrial base in Liaoning, the contribution rate of rural residents’ consumption to economic motivation is low and unstable, which has become one of the choke points for the development of economy. By using the grey correlation method, the influences of rural residents’ consumption in different periods to GDP per capita are analyzed, the results show that the consumption level of rural residents were increasing, but their contribution rate on economic growth showed the descending tend. The residential expenses stay in the major position of consumption expenses; the education and entertainment products and service consumption play an important role; the growth of transportation and telecommunication is slow; the expenses on medical care are low and its contribution rate on economic growth is relatively weak. The countermeasures on developing rural economy, increasing rural residents’ income, improving rural consumption environment, accelerating rural infrastructure construction, constructing and perfecting rural social security system and expanding rural consumption credit market are put forward to expand rural residents’ consumption demand and realize the sustainable development of economy.

  12. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this facility type. Rural Referral Center (RRC) Rural tertiary hospitals that receive referrals from surrounding rural acute ... rural beneficiaries. Where can I get data and statistics regarding the Medicare program in rural America? MedPAC ...

  13. Analysis of Secondary Separation of China’s Rural Land Rights from the Perspective of Analytical Jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng; SU; Hongjuan; LI

    2015-01-01

    China’s rural land rights are incomplete in structure of land rights and functions due to status restriction. Settling dispute and problem of status in rural land right and function structure is of great significance for determining and guaranteeing subjects of rural land rights. The point connecting and solving rural land circulation issue is demonstration and settlement of status. Separating the status right from rural land property right,namely the secondary separation of right,is to realize such purpose. Currently,China’s rural land right is a bundle of rights,not the right described in property pedigree in strict sense. Using theory of rights of Hohfeld,this paper discussed and analyzed legal relationship of secondary separation of China’s rural land rights,in the hope of realizing real return from practice to theory and to practice again.

  14. A typology of rural areas in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov Natalija; Meredith David; Efstratoglou Sophia

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure) and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method) and cluster an...

  15. A typology of rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov Natalija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis revealed six regions of different sizes and characteristics. Practical considerations reduced this to four types, resulting in a robust scheme which accurately reflects the heterogeneous nature of rural Serbia.

  16. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lange

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i agriculture; (ii forestry; (iii water management and (iv rural planning and development (“cross-sector” representatives. The data were gathered using 60 semi-structured interviews and were analyzed qualitatively. The results indicate that differences in perceptions are greater between stakeholder groups than between regions; regional land management issues shape the framework of negotiations and the redefinition of concepts, whereas stakeholder group affiliations shape mindsets. The economic dimension of sustainability was emphasized, particularly by land managers; however, the social dimension was underrepresented in the statements. Furthermore, there are considerable differences between stakeholder groups in terms of the ways in which the spatial and temporal scales of sustainable land use are perceived. This study underscores the importance of examining stakeholder knowledge and understanding the complexity of land management and its benefits such that consensual management strategies may be developed.

  17. Feasibility analysis of a smart grid photovoltaics system for the subarctic rural region in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei

    A smart grid photovoltaics system was developed to demonstrate that the system is feasible for a similar off-grid rural community in the subarctic region in Alaska. A system generation algorithm and a system business model were developed to determine feasibility. Based on forecasts by the PV F-Chart software, a 70° tilt angle in winter, and a 34° tilt angle in summer were determined to be the best angles for electrical output. The proposed system's electricity unit cost was calculated at 32.3 cents/kWh that is cheaper than current unsubsidized electricity price (46.8 cents/kWh) in off-grid rural communities. Given 46.8 cents/kWh as the electricity unit price, the system provider can break even when 17.3 percent of the total electrical revenue through power generated by the proposed system is charged. Given these results, the system can be economically feasible during the life-cycle period. With further incentives, the system may have a competitive advantage.

  18. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

  19. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  20. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  1. Hiring Social Work Faculty: An Analysis of Employment Announcements with Special Focus on Rural and Urban Differences and 2008 EPAS Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Paul Force-Emery

    2013-01-01

    An 11-month long analysis of social work faculty position advertisements examined differences in job descriptions between past and present findings, rural- and urban-located social work programs, doctorate and nondoctorate conferring institutions, and public and private institutions. Additionally, this investigation addressed 2008 Educational…

  2. Rural physicians' perspectives on cervical and breast cancer screening: a gender-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F; Stewart, D E; Cameron, J I; Hyman, I

    2001-03-01

    Several studies highlight the role of physicians in determining cervical and breast cancer screening rates, and some urban studies report higher screening rates by female physicians. Rural women in North America remain underscreened for breast and cervical cancers. This survey was conducted to determine if there were significant gender differences in practices and perceptions of barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among rural family physicians in Ontario, Canada. One hundred ninety-one family physicians (response rate 53.1%) who practiced in rural areas, small towns, or small cities completed a mail questionnaire. The physicians' mean age was 44.4 years (SD 9.9), and mean number of years in practice was 16.6 years (SD 10.3). Over 90% of physicians reported that they were very likely to conduct a Pap test and clinical breast examination (CBE) during a periodic health examination, and they had high levels of confidence and comfort in performing these procedures. Male (68%) and female (32%) physicians were similar in their likelihood to conduct screening, levels of confidence and comfort, and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines. However, the self-reported screening rates for Pap tests and CBE performed during last year were higher for female than male physicians (p < 0.01). Male physicians reported they were asked more frequently by patients for a referral to another physician to perform Pap tests and CBE (p < 0.001). Also, male physicians perceived patients' embarrassment as a stronger barrier to performing Pap tests (p < 0.05) and CBE (p < 0.01) than female physicians. No gender differences were observed in screening rates or related barriers to mammography referrals. These findings suggest that physicians' gender plays a role in sex-sensitive examination, such as Pap tests and CBE. There is a need to facilitate physician-patient interactions for sex-sensitive cancer screening examinations by health education initiatives

  3. Strategies with photovoltaic systems in Bolivia from the analysis of a pilot plan for rural energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Fuentes, M.H. [Energetica - Energia para el Desarrollo, Cochabamba (Bolivia); Morales Udaeta, M.E.; Ferreira Affonso, O.; Ribeiro Galvao, L.C. [GEPEA-USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper objective is to show the policy and economics Bolivian rural electrification across the pilot plan named Inti K'anchay, using promotion of meetings among the agents; development of a credit structure and the concept of self-electrification; and reduction of differential costs. As a result of the Pilot plan 500 new systems have been installed, of which 446 have been installed by private companies. Environmental impacts have been reduced, as a consequence, though the substitution of diesel, candles and LPG. One conclusion is the fact that the organization of the user communities has been useful for the phases of identification, promotion and initial installation, notwithstanding the fact that, as time goes by and the installation becomes more familiar, the operation of the systems and management of the loans, for instance, tend to turn into individual chores rather than group activities. (authors)

  4. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  5. Can rural electric cooperatives survive in a restructured US electric market? An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the ability of rural electric distribution cooperatives to continue operating in their present form in a restructured electricity market. More specifically, I develop and estimate a quadratic cost model, which, unlike many of the cost functions employed in studies of this nature, conforms to all of the properties of a proper cost function. Using 1996 data, I find that these firms are not operating in a cost-minimizing fashion. This finding seems to occur because each is too small in terms of the quantity of electricity distributed. As a result, mergers between these firms could yield substantial savings and help ensure their survival in their present form in a deregulated market

  6. Strategies with photovoltaic systems in Bolivia from the analysis of a pilot plan for rural energization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper objective is to show the policy and economics Bolivian rural electrification across the pilot plan named Inti K'anchay, using promotion of meetings among the agents; development of a credit structure and the concept of self-electrification; and reduction of differential costs. As a result of the Pilot plan 500 new systems have been installed, of which 446 have been installed by private companies. Environmental impacts have been reduced, as a consequence, though the substitution of diesel, candles and LPG. One conclusion is the fact that the organization of the user communities has been useful for the phases of identification, promotion and initial installation, notwithstanding the fact that, as time goes by and the installation becomes more familiar, the operation of the systems and management of the loans, for instance, tend to turn into individual chores rather than group activities. (authors)

  7. Use of acai core as possibility of sustainable development of rural areas, the sustainable agriculture and rural electrification in Para state, Brazil; Uso do caroco de acai como possibilidade de desenvolvimento sustentavel do meio rural, da agricultura familiar e de eletrificacao rural no estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ivete Teixeira da; Almeida, Arthur da Costa [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: pjulio@ufpa.br; Monteiro, Jose Humberto Araujo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao; Silva, Isa Maria Oliveira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Meteorologia; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The core of acai comes from a palm tree native to the Amazon, which grows in clumps. It is composed of several stems, reaching to form up to 25 feet in each clump. From Its fruits is obtained a drink (juice) and consumed daily by people in the Para state, especially the capital Belem and riverside communities. The state of Para is the largest producer of acai with 112,676 tons/year of fruit. Of this total 93.521 tons/year is residue (seed), or approximately 83 %. The community of Maroon that lives on the margin of the Genipauba River, in Abaetetuba, in Para state, has no electricity and is a major producer of acai, which is traded during the season 'in natura'. This paper presents the sustainable use of seeds, a byproduct of processing the fruits of acai. With appropriate methodology, natural pellets were obtained without compression, the acai biofuels. The work presents the technological innovation that has this type of pellet. The calorific value of the core, obtained in the laboratory, was in medium 4.505 kcal/kg and the average potential energy around 40.800 MWh/month. The pellets have great potential for export due to their use. It can be used in gasifiers, boilers for power generation, mechanical and gas ovens at bakeries, biomass stoves, replacing old coal irons, etc..

  8. A Statistical Analysis on the Effects of Infrastructure on Rural Economic Development%基础设施影响农村经济发展的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠晴江; 杨海燕

    2005-01-01

    Based on statistical analysis, this paper states that four types of rural infrastructure as roads, electricity,communications, and education have statistically significant effects on agricultural production, nonagricultural production, and farmers' income in China. However, the specifics and the degrees of these influences are different.Therefore, different policies have to be implemented respectively to make full use of the limited funds in China.Meanwhile, the maturity level of rural infrastructure as with rural economic development has regional discrepancy.The levels of maturity decrease from east to west. It is urgent that the current weak situation of the rural infrastructure in western China needs to be improved.

  9. Analysis on the Changes of Temperature and Heat Resources in Rural Area of Chaoyang in Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the change characteristics of temperature and heat resources in rural area of Chaoyang in western Liaoning. [Method] Based on the data from rural meteorological station in Chaoyang in western Liaoning from 1966 to 2010, the change characteristics of temperature and heat resources in rural area in Chaoyang were analyzed by means of serial correlation and climate tendency method, so as to master its climate situation. [Result] The annual average value of daily average temperat...

  10. Employment, Income and Labour Supply Decision of Rural Households : An Economic Analysis of MGNREGS in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, T. Sivasakthi; Balasubramanian, R.; Kumar, B. Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    In India, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGMGNREGS) is one of the major rural development programmes. It provides guaranteed employment to the rural households for 100 days in a year. This paper has attempted to find out the employment status, income and labour supply decision of the participants and non-participants of MGNREGS in Tamil Nadu. It has also studied the household nutritional security of these households. The study has revealed that the number of migran...

  11. An Analysis of the Role of Self-Employment in the Economic Development of the Rural Northeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Bashir; Tesfa Gebremedhin; Jerald Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Generating employment and alleviating poverty are the biggest challenges for regional economic growth in rural areas of the Northeastern United States. Despite the revival of the economy in much of the nation’s heartland, rural areas are still suffering from high poverty and unemployment rates. Self-employment, a measure of entrepreneurship, indicates an opportunity for rural communities to improve quality of life and accelerate regional economic development. Taking into consideration the pro...

  12. Robust Stability Analysis for the New Type Rural Social Endowment Insurance System with Minor Fluctuations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new type rural social endowment insurance system is one of the important policy arrangements in public welfare field in China. Quantitative research is theoretically and practically important for studying the new type rural social endowment insurance system. In this paper, based on the modern control theory, the linear control model for the new type rural social endowment insurance system is set up, and then the robust stability for the new type rural social endowment insurance system of China with minor fluctuations is discussed by using the linear control model.

  13. Toward a Transdisciplinary Rural Education Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapel, Christopher J.; DeYoung, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the representation of rural education research orientations--defined in terms of methodological approach, academic focus and place-consciousness--within the literature and across academic disciplines. A content analysis of 155 abstracts from articles published in the Journal of Research in Rural Education and Rural Sociology…

  14. Analysis of a survey on young doctors' willingness to work in rural Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szócska Miklós

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The severe shortage of qualified healthcare staff in Hungary cannot be quickly or easily overcome. There is not only a lack of human resources for health, but significant inequalities are widespread, including in geographical distribution. This disparity results in severe problems regarding access to and performance of health care services. In this context, this report, based on research carried out in 2008, deals with a particularly relevant matter: the willingness of young doctors to work outside Budapest (the capital of Hungary. Methods We conducted a survey with voluntary questionnaires and focus group interviews at each of the four Hungarian medical schools, concerning career plans and related incentives among young medical doctors. In all, 524 residents responded to the question concerning their willingness to work in rural areas, and there were seven focus group interviews, with 3-7 participants in each group. The number of residents' places in Hungary were 832, 682, and 785 in 2006/2007, 2007/2008, and 2008/2009, respectively. Results The majority of those surveyed would like to work in Budapest or a large town. Fewer than 7% were willing to work in a town with less than 50 000 inhabitants. Most young doctors would like to work in a teaching hospital (i.e. an accredited training site for medical students and postgraduate trainees or a major regional hospital. Conclusions The current system of medical training in Hungary tends to produce doctors who want to live in big cities and work in central hospitals. Rural regions and non-in-patient service alternatives seem either not to be targeted or seen as unattractive work places. More doctors would be willing to work in smaller towns and villages if in-hospital training was altered and if doctors were offered adequate incentives as part of a comprehensive human resource strategy (high salaries, high professional standards, good working environment, reasonable workload. If

  15. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic ...... limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.......Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  16. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  17. Analysis of different types of poisoning in a tertiary care hospital in rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Sarala, N; Venkatarathnamma, P N; Kumar, T N

    2011-01-01

    The global problem of acute poisoning has steadily increased over the past few years. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Better preventive and management strategies can be developed if the incidence and pattern of acute poisoning is known. The study aims at analyzing the pattern, cause and mortality rate of poisoning. The study was conducted in a rural area in South India. This retrospective study was conducted from January 2003-December 2003. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Out of the 225 cases 139 were males and 86 females. Poisoning was common in the age group of 21-30 years which was 84 cases and 11-20 years was 73 cases. The poisons consumed were as follows: Organophosphorous 135 cases, aluminum and zinc phosphide 50 cases, phenobarbitone 18 cases, benzodiazepines 7 cases, paracetamol 2 cases, miscellaneous 13 cases. 94% were suicides and 6% accidental. Mortality rate was 12.8%. Establishment of strict policies against the sale and availability of pesticides and over the counter drugs is an effective way to control organophosphorous and drug poisoning. PMID:21036199

  18. Analysis of a rural family-practice-based evening clinic staffed by a PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E; Sophocles, A M

    1984-02-01

    A family practice in rural Breckenridge, Colorado began an evening clinic during the winter months of 1981-82 to serve the extra 1,000 to 2,000 residents that that community accommodated each year during the ski season. The clinic was staffed by a PA, who was aided by an office assistant, on weekdays from 5 P.M. to 10 P.M.; after 10 P.M., the PA took calls at home until the office again opened at 9 A.M. The pilot program was successful enough to warrant continuation. This article analyzes the Breckenridge Medical Center's experience during that first year with a PA-staffed evening clinic, in terms of morbidity profile of the after-hours cases, the amount of physician involvement required, the economic aspects of maintaining evening hours, and the ratio of day to evening patients that can be expected. The authors conclude that their extended office hours have proven to be an effective, affordable solution to their practice's after-hours medical care problem. PMID:10314588

  19. Preventing waterborne diseases: analysis of a community health worker program in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neal; Mutukkanu, Thingalraj; Nadimuthu, Alexander; Thiyagaran, Initha; Sullivan-Marx, Eileen

    2012-04-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programs have become popular tools in reducing the burden of childhood illnesses. However, the efficacy of CHWs in facilitating behavior change, as a means of preventing waterborne diseases, remains unclear. Using a household survey (n = 225),in rural Tamil Nadu, South India, we assessed the effects of a CHW program on knowledge, attitudes and practices related to diarrheal illness through comparison with a control population that was not enrolled in the program. The CHW program in the experimental village entailed behavior change aimed at preventing diarrheal illness through home visits, community events and health education. Correlates of four key variables on knowledge of drinking water contamination and behavior change were examined by using logistic regression models. We found that while the program was effective in raising awareness of drinking water contamination, it did not significantly increase hygiene and water sanitation practices in the village community in comparison to the control population. Furthermore, villagers enrolled in the CHW program were unable to recognize the connections between contaminated drinking water and disease. The results of our survey indicated the CHW program did not significantly affect behavior in the experimental village. Possible shortcomings in the program are discussed. PMID:21922165

  20. Analysis of 88 nephrectomies in a rural tertiary care center of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrectomy is not an uncommon surgery in day-to-day practice of urology. Trauma is the most common cause of emergency nephrectomy. On the other hand, elective nephrectomy is done for both benign and malignant diseases of the kidney. This study has been performed to know the different causes of nephrectomy in a rural, tertiary care center of India. In our series, we have studied all the elective nephrectomies done in our hospital during a period of eight years. We have analyzed 88 cases of nephrectomies regarding their age, sex, laterality of disease, and histopathologic report of the nephrectomy specimens. Out of 88 cases, 61 were males and 27 were females. In our series, 62.5% cases of nephrectomies were done for benign causes and 37.5% cases for malignant causes. Among the benign causes, neglected pelviureteric junction obstruction was the leading cause, followed by calculus disease resulting in obstruction. On the other hand, renal cell carcinoma was the most common malignant pathology requiring nephrectomy.

  1. Food Security in Rural Areas of Vaishali District, India: A Household Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sajjad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security has been one of the major developmental objectives in India. Though India has sufficient food production yet the achievement did not percolate down to households.This paper reports on an investigation into the food security status in Vaishali district of Bihar. Data were gathered across 16 administrative divisions in the district and eventually959 farmers’ households were sampled using stratified random sampling techniques. This allowed computing composite food security index to assess the relative status of foodsecurity of the sampled farmers. The findings revealed that 75 % of the sampled households have low food security. Within farmers’ categories, most of the large farmers had high food security. Medium farmers experienced moderate food security while semimedium, small and marginal farmers were having low food security. Bivariate regression analyses between food security and its components of all the farmers shows foodavailability has a major impact on food security as 93 % variation in food security is explained by variation in food availability. The study suggested that priority should be accorded for creating rural employment opportunities, providing infrastructure forincreasing production and creating awareness of education for long term sustainability of food security in the study area.Key words : Food security components, Food security, India

  2. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.

  3. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  4. The ecocultural context and child behavior problems: A qualitative analysis in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh Prasad; Wissow, Lawrence S; Jordans, Mark J D; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-06-01

    Commonly used paradigms for studying child psychopathology emphasize individual-level factors and often neglect the role of context in shaping risk and protective factors among children, families, and communities. To address this gap, we evaluated influences of ecocultural contextual factors on definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems and examined how contextual knowledge can inform culturally responsive interventions. We drew on Super and Harkness' "developmental niche" framework to evaluate the influences of physical and social settings, childcare customs and practices, and parental ethnotheories on the definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems in a community in rural Nepal. Data were collected between February and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling strategy targeting parents (N = 10), teachers (N = 6), and community leaders (N = 8) familiar with child-rearing. Results were supplemented by focus group discussions with children (N = 9) and teachers (N = 8), pile-sort interviews with mothers (N = 8) of school-aged children, and direct observations in homes, schools, and community spaces. Behavior problems were largely defined in light of parents' socialization goals and role expectations for children. Certain physical settings and times were seen to carry greater risk for problematic behavior when children were unsupervised. Parents and other adults attempted to mitigate behavior problems by supervising them and their social interactions, providing for their physical needs, educating them, and through a shared verbal reminding strategy (samjhaune). The findings of our study illustrate the transactional nature of behavior problem development that involves context-specific goals, roles, and concerns that are likely to affect adults' interpretations and responses to children's behavior. Ultimately, employing a developmental niche framework will elucidate setting

  5. Understanding an improved cookstove program in rural Mexico: An analysis from the implementers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of innovations in rural areas depends, among many different factors, on the way development workers approach a community. Through a qualitative research methodology this study documented the adoption of a new technology, by following an improved cookstove implementation program carried out by a Mexican NGO. This technology reduces fuel consumption and addresses health impacts of indoor air pollution caused by the widespread use of traditional biomass fuels in open fires in developing countries. Different demographic and socio-economic factors have been analyzed to explain the low success rates implementation projects have faced worldwide, but there are almost no studies that examine the problem from the perspective of implementers. The aim of this study was to understand how the different visions of the individuals involved in an implementation program affect its outcome. Findings showed that the NGO work was constrained by the need to meet the commitment with sponsors. The adoption rates did not change between the first and the second stage of the project, even though the approach towards users was very different. A lack of a shared vision among the work team towards the project was found and the existence of two main perspectives among program workers—broadly described as people-centered and technology-centered—, gave place to differences in attitudes towards the program. - Highlights: ► This study assesses a Mexican NGO ICS implementation program that followed three distinct approaches. ► The first two had similar adoption rates despite their different approaches towards the users. ► An improvement in the technology proved to be more important in raising the adoption rates. ► Two visions were observed among stakeholders: people-centered and technology-centered. ► The NGO work was constrained by the need to meet the commitments with sponsors.

  6. Assessment of providers' referral decisions in Rural Burkina Faso: a retrospective analysis of medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilboudo Tegawende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A well-functioning referral system is fundamental to primary health care delivery. Understanding the providers' referral decision-making process becomes critical. This study's aim was to assess the correctness of diagnoses and appropriateness of the providers' referral decisions from health centers (HCs to district hospitals (DHs among patients with severe malaria and pneumonia. Methods A record review of twelve months of consultations was conducted covering eight randomly selected HCs to identify severe malaria (SM cases among children under five and pneumonia cases among adults. The correctness of the diagnosis and appropriateness of providers' referral decisions were determined using the National Clinical Guidebook as a 'gold standard'. Results Among the 457 SM cases affecting children under five, only 66 cases (14.4% were correctly diagnosed and of those 66 correctly diagnosed cases, 40 cases (60.6% received an appropriate referral decision from their providers. Within these 66 correctly diagnosed SM cases, only 60.6% were appropriately referred. Among the adult pneumonia cases, 5.9% (79/1331 of the diagnoses were correctly diagnosed; however, the appropriateness rate of the provider's referral decision was 98.7% (78/79. There was only one case that should not have been referred but was referred. Conclusions The adherence to the National Guidelines among the health center providers when making a diagnosis was low for both severe malaria cases and pneumonia cases. The appropriateness of the referral decisions was particularly poor for children with severe malaria. Health center providers need to be better trained in the diagnostic process and in disease management in order to improve the performance of the referral system in rural Burkina Faso.

  7. The Role of Islamic Rural Bank in Financing the SMEs: Customer Perspective Analysis (Case Study of Amanah Ummah Bank in Bogor City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Syauqi Beik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic problems faced by small scale and medium enterprises (SMEs in Indonesia is the availability of financing access provided by financial institutions including banking institution. There are three types of Islamic bank operating in Indonesia presently: Islamic commercial bank, Islamic banking unit and Islamic rural bank. Providing the SMEs with sufficient financing source is highly required. This paper attempts to observe empirically the role that have been played by Islamic rural bank in financing the SMEs, by taking case study of Amanah Ummah Bank, the best Islamic rural bank in the country. Thirty small and medium entrepreneurs have been selected as the sample of the research, and have been deeply interviewed on September and October 2008. Descriptive statistics, IPA (Importance Performance Analysis and CSI (Customer Satisfaction Index methods have been used as analytical methods. The results show that the financing given by the bank does really help the SMEs. There are three factors, which are important, and which have satisfied the SMEs. These are easiness of bank’s requirements, the speed of financing approval, and bank’s services. In general, the respondents are of the view that the bank has shown a good performance.Keywords : SMEs, Islamic rural bank, customers’ perception

  8. From "Migrant Workers Boom" to "Migrant Workers Scarcity"——Analysis of Institutional Bottleneck of Rural Surplus Labors Transfer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through description of three-steps characteristic of dual economic theory and its practical significance to the process of industrialization and urbanization in China,and making comparative analysis between important criterion of "Lewis turning point" and current situation of rural surplus labors market in China,we can find that there exists a great deal of surplus labors in rural areas in our country,improvement of peasant income is the result of external interference of government,and demographic dividend in our country hasn’t finished.These phenomena go against the theory of "Lewis turning point".So it can prove that "Lewis turning point" in China hasn’t come yet.The paper points out the major factors of coexistence of "migrant workers scarcity" and labors redundancy in our country.The first one is structure contradiction of labors market;the second one is law of supply-demand of labors market;the third one is institutional barrier which hinders labors in free flow of census register and social guarantee.Therefore,if we want to realize successful transfer of rural surplus labors and the goal of industrialization and urbanization,we must promote upgrading of industrial structure,change the style of economic growth and realize harmonious development of regional economy in macrocosmic level;And in microcosmic level,we should eliminate institutional barrier which hinders transfer of rural surplus labors.

  9. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Modica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning.

    In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC transformations and dynamics occurred over the period 1955–2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy, an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes.

    Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes.

    Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1 kernel density analysis of settlements; (2 analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban–rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Fazio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning. In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC transformations and dynamics that occurred over the period 1955–2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy, an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c to examine the relationship between urban–rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d to investigate the evolution of urban–rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes. Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes. Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban–rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1 kernel density analysis of settlements; (2 analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method; (3 analysis of

  11. 新农村建设下浙江省乡村旅游发展探析%Analysis of Rural Tourism Development of Zhejiang Province under New Rural Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 骆高远

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyzing rural tourism of Zhejiang Province, the problems in rural tourism were analyzed, the development channels and strategies of rural tourism in Zhejiang Province were put forward.%通过对浙江省乡村旅游现状的剖析,分析了存在的问题,提出了发展途径和策略.

  12. Simplified analysis of energy efficiency of a rural school in La Pampa - Argentina - during its Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Inés Marcilese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study of this work is a rural school in La Pampa Region of Argentina where the energy efficiency of a construction system of traditional local use is compared to that of its improved version, based on passive design systems during its life cycle. In addition, Greenhouse Gas Emissions saving values are estimated according to the energy matrix of Argentina. The energy efficiency of a building involves the overall consumption for its construction process (extraction, transport and assembly of materials, on-site installation, maintenance and dismantling, recycling and final disposal of waste. Knowing this data in the preliminary stage can be of benefit since it would allow to evaluate the selected materials in terms of energy saving and cost in order to recover its value during its life cycle and introduce other design alternatives. At present there are significant problems derived from resource shortage. The analysis of the LC should be a significant contribution to the construction field concerning the awareness of energy saving and efficiency and thus fostering sustainable development of society.

  13. Qualitative analysis of parents′ experience of hearing loss of their school going children of a rural area of Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash B Thakre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Qualitative research methods provide a means of collecting and interpreting narrative or observational data about such interactions, leading to a deeper understanding of the process of health care delivery. This approach was used to clarify key themes from parents′ comments about challenges on paths to detect hearing impairment. Materials and Methods: An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design is used. In-depth interviews by using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGD were held with parents, and other study groups. A study was conducted in Deaf Dum Rural School, Saoner, Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India. Purposive voluntary sampling is utilized. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews and FGD were conducted in private rooms. A FGD guide covered open-ended comments to the set of questions. Results: Parents of 65 children (59% replied to the questionnaire. Out of them, 55 (85.6% were the parents of school children resides in the hostel. The majority of the children have profound hearing impairment (75.86%. Theme analysis revealed perceptions about causes, ways, and means of early detection, and powerful emotions experienced by parents at FGD. Conclusions: Reaching beyond numerical analyses, qualitative studies allow for expression of junior doctors, Deaf and Dump School teacher and parents′ thoughts, feelings, and experiences. This study provides a means of collecting and interpreting narrative or observational data.

  14. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugha Ruairí

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education. Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91, feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66, having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66, and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99 were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90 or

  15. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  16. Analysis of THE Income Gap among Rural Residents in Shaanxi Province%陕西省农村居民收入差距分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒿建华

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis on the current status of the income gap among rural residents in Shaanxi Province, it is found out that the income of rural residents in Shaanxi Province of China is not only lower than the average income level of China, but also is far lower than the income level of urban residents and the income level of rural residents in developed areas. The low income is mainly caused by the increasing income gap among income groups and the income gap among rural residents in different areas. Based on this, causations for the income gap among rural residents are analyzed from three aspects of the cultural difference, the regional economic difference, and the industrial structure difference.Countermeasures for narrowing the income gap and increasing the farmers' income in Shaanxi Province are put forward.%通过对陕西省农村居民收入差距现状分析发现,陕西省农村居民收入不仅低于全国平均收入水平,更远远低于发达地区农村居民收入水平和城镇居民收入水平,在低收入的背后是各收入组、各地区间农村居民收入差距拉大的事实.在此基础上,从文化差异、地区经济差异和产业结构差异3个方面阐述了陕西省农村居明收入差距产生的原因,并提出了缩小收入差距,增加陕西农民收入的对策.

  17. 乡村旅游发展模式探析%Analysis of development models for rural tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白聪霞

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the development of the current rural tourism,the paper analyzes various problems in the current rural tourism development,points out the infrastructure construction should be undertaken and the protection planning for the rural resorts be enhanced,and indicates the development models for the future rural tourism,so as to direct the practice.%结合当前乡村旅游的发展情况,针对目前乡村旅游发展中存在的各种问题进行了分析,在此基础上提出了搞好基础设施建设,加强对乡村景观的保护规划等对策,并阐述了未来乡村旅游的发展模式,以期指导实践。

  18. 乡村旅游中文化资本的经济分析%The economic analysis on cultural capital of rural tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倬; 梁欣

    2012-01-01

      作为现代旅游产业发展与升级的新业态,乡村旅游内涵着多元价值值得发掘。但一直以来该领域真正意义上以文化作为资本要素的理论阙如,造成乡村旅游与文化的隔裂。本文旨在尝试论证乡村旅游的“乡村性”这一核心吸引力内涵的文化资源及其资源资本化的基础上,基于乡村旅游的需求者“文化人”人性假设的需求,将文化资本做出相应权重纳入乡村旅游生产、投资的资本要素视阈中进行经济分析,以期获得审视乡村旅游经济发展的新视角。%  As the development of modern tourism and the new format upgrades , Rural Tourism connotation with plural value is worth exploring.The theory deficiency of the field on the true meaning of cultural capital as a factor of capital area, causes the separation of rural tourism and cultural .This paper attempts to demonstrate the culture resources of rural tourism and the capitalization of these resources based on the core attraction of rural tourism ———“the village nature” and also based on “the Culture Man” hypothesis of the demander of rural tourism;to make the corresponding weights of cultural capital into the rural tourism field in the view of the capital in economic analysis , so as to obtain a new perspective of the development of rural tourism economic .

  19. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES IN RURAL JAIPUR: THE FIRST SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the Indian Population. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with traumatic brain injury and their clinical outcomes following admission to a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in India. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital based analysis of 1713 patients of Traumatic Brain Injury [TBI] admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery in a tertiary health centre in Jaipur from January 2014 to August 2015. METHOD The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed and data collected on age, sex, mechanism of injury, severity of injury Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Outcome (GOS score, Computed Tomography (CT scan results, modality of management and type of surgical intervention and outcome. RESULTS Among the 1713 patients admitted, age of patients varied >1 year to 92 years (mean age 21 years, majority of TBI’s were reported in the age group 20–29 years (34.38%, followed by 30–39 years (26.97%, 40–49 years (16.70%, p value <0.05. Most of the patients were male (63.46%, mostly unmarried. Majority lived in sub-urban areas (51.26% followed by rural (26.85% and urban (21.89%. Patients were mostly from middle class (46.58% and poor socio-economic background (42.62%, upper class only accounted for 10.8% of the cases. In terms of occupation, servicemen and farmers accounted for the majority (54.73%. Patients were brought to the hospital mainly by known persons (68% and rest by bystanders and policemen. The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic accidents (RTA 1199 (69.99%, followed by assault 251 (14.65%, 15.35% accounted for fall from height and fall of object on head. Mean hospital stay was 7.6±9.3 days (range <1 day to 87 days. In our study, patients were classified by GCS as mild TBI in 983(57.38% patients; moderate in 488 (28.48% and severe in 242 (14.12. 1481 (86.46% patients

  1. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A GUIDE FOR THE MARKETING PRACTITIONER INVOLVED IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ooijen, Rudy

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to develop a general framework for rural development in which marketing will play a major role. This framework could make the "learning by doing" process more efficient and effective. Specific goals of this paper are to provide the reader with: (1) a better overall understanding of the rural development and marketing development process, (2) an analysis of approaches used by rural development projects in their effort to improve rural marketing, and (3) a sy...

  2. Rural energy assessment and potential alternative energy resources & technologies in rural areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an in-depth review and critical analysis of the various rural energy resources and their socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It also explores the potential alternative energy resources and affordable technologies for rural people and as well as their potential socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods. The review of the consumption aspect ...

  3. Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng, G. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Solar PV light provides school children living in off-grid rural communities theopportunity to have clean and bright lighting to study after sunset. On the contrary, lightingprovided from poor sources can pollute and adversely affect human eyes during reading andwriting. Using indicator-based questionnaires in cross-sectional surveys, households with andwithout solar PV lighting were surveyed in off-grid rural communities in Ghana. The studyinvestigated lighting and children’s studies after s...

  4. Project management competence analysis in rural communities through territorial representation: application to Aymara women communities in Puno (Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Merino, Susana; Ríos Carmenado, Ignacio de los

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of technical, contextual and behavioral competences is a prerequisite for sustainable development and strengthening of rural communities. Territorial display of the status of these skills helps to design the necessary learning, so its inclusion in planning processes is useful for decision making. The article discusses the application of visual representation of competences in a rural development project with Aymara women communities in Peru. The results show an improvement of ...

  5. The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control

    OpenAIRE

    Asa Auta; Banwat, Samuel B

    2011-01-01

    Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websi...

  6. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    OpenAIRE

    S. E. Seidaiy; Z. Hedayati Moghaddam; E. Fathi; M. Jamshidi; A. Jamshidi

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionNowadays housing and its related issues are considered as a global issue and planners and policy makers in different countries are trying to solve its problems (Buckley, et al., 2005:237). Among different factors involved in rural settlement structures housing is one of the most important ones (Sartipipor, 2010:125). In Iran, the issue of rural housing, on different aspects, has been affected by urban housing. Despite the efforts made to improve it, and giving p...

  7. Empirical Analysis on the Relations between Rural Residents' Consumption and Economic Growth - A Case of Liaoning Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yanan; LI Fei; Wei, Wenhui

    2011-01-01

    Liaoning is a granary province with a large agricultural population and great market potential. Expanding rural residents’ consumption becomes a necessity for enlarging domestic demand, solving three agriculture problems and promoting sustainable and rapid economic development. The research shows that since invigorating old industrial base in Liaoning, the contribution rate of rural residents' consumption to economic motivation is low and unstable, which has become one of the choke points f...

  8. Socioeconomic factors differentiating maternal and child health-seeking behavior in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Becker Stan; Shah Nirali M; Amin Ruhul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been an increasing availability and accessibility of modern health services in rural Bangladesh over the past decades. However, previous studies on the socioeconomic differentials in the utilization of these services were based on a limited number of factors, focusing either on preventive or on curative modern health services. These studies failed to collect data from remote rural areas of the different regions to examine the socioeconomic differentials in health...

  9. Satisfaction Analysis of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in the Surrounding Rural Areas of Nanning%南宁市周边农村新型农村合作医疗制度满意度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敦林; 黄菊铃; 朱平华

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析南宁市周边参合农民对新型农村合作医疗制度的满意度情况及影响因素,为完善新农合政策提供建议.方法:采取分层随机抽样的方法,以110户农村常住家庭为对象,通过问卷调查与访谈获取信息.结果:调查对象参合率为98.2%,对新农合总体印象满意率为89.8%.影响满意度的主要因素包括政策宣传知晓程度、报销比例、报销范围、报销手续、定点医疗机构服务水平与就医环境等.结论:新农合制度的宣传方式还需多样化、简易化;逐步提高住院报销比例,扩大报销范围,简化报销手续;改善基层定点医疗机构的服务状况与就医环境,培养专业的管理人才.%Obiective:Analysis of Nanning City farmers to new rural cooperative medical system satisfaction and influencing factors,for new rural cooperative medical advice.Methods:The research adopted stratified random sampling and survey 110 households in the rural resident families through a questionnaire survey and interviews with a combination of access to information.Results:Survey participation rate is 98.2%,on the new overall satisfaction 89.8%.Influence farmer participation satisfaction are the main factors including policy advocacy and awareness,the proportion of claims,the scope of claims,claims handling,designated medical institutions and the level of service of medical treatment environment in five aspects.Conclusion:The new rural cooperative medical system has yet to be further improved:Propaganda way diversification,simplification; Gradually improve the reimbursement ratio,expand the scope of reimbursement,simplify the procedures for reimbursement; Improvement of grassroots medical institutions and thelevel of service of medical treatment environment ; cultivating the professional management talents of the social medical insurance.

  10. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of Integrated Renewable Energy System for Power Generation: A Hypothetical Study of Rural Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility analysis and study of integrated renewable energy (IRE using solar photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine (WT system in a hypothetical study of rural health clinic in Borno State, Nigeria. Electrical power consumption and metrology data (such as solar radiation and wind speed were used for designing and analyzing the integrated renewable energy system. The health clinic facility energy consumption is 19 kWh/day with a 3.4 kW peak demand load. The metrological data was collected from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA website and used to analyze the performance of electrical generation system using HOMER program. The simulation and optimization results show that the optimal integrated renewable energy system configuration consists of 5 kW PV array, BWC Excel-R 7.5 kW DC wind turbine, 24 unit Surrette 6CS25P battery cycle charging, and a 19 kW AC/DC converter and that the PV power can generate electricity at 9,138 kWh/year while the wind turbine system can generate electricity at 7,490 kWh/year, giving the total electrical generation of the system as 16,628 kWh/year. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for uninterruptable power performance in the health clinic. The economics analysis result found that the integrated renewable system has total NPC of 137,139 US Dollar. The results of this research show that, with a low energy health facility, it is possible to meet the entire annual energy demand of a health clinic solely through a stand-alone integrated renewable PV/wind energy supply.

  11. Combining multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis to describe the diversity of rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Colucci, D.; Baudron, F.; Righi, E.; Corbeels, M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Stefanini, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Capturing agricultural heterogeneity through the analysis of farm typologies is key with regard to the design of sustainable policies and to the adoptability of new technologies. An optimal balance needs to be found between, on the one hand, the requirement to consider local stakeholder and expert k

  12. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  13. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cocco da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  14. Comparison of quality of life between urban and rural gastric cancer patients and analysis of influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tian; Zhen-Chun Chen; Bin Wu; Xin Meng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The conception of quality of life has been widely accepted by clinic doctors. Evaluations of the treatment effect of chronic diseases have been changed to depend not only on the survival time, but also on the quality of life of the patients. Fuzhou City and Changle County are highincidence areas of the gastric cancer in Fujian Province.The aims of this research were to compare the quality of life of urban patients with that of rural patients and analyze the factors influencing quality of life of gastric cancer patients in Fujian Province.METHODS: The samples were drawn with cluster sampling. The urban sample consisted of 162 patients aged 25 to 75 with 143 males and 19 females. The rural sample consisted of 200 patients aged 32 to 78 with 166 males and 34 females. The patients in both the urban and rural areas were investigated, and their scores on 21 items reflecting the quality of life were measured. The methods of ttest and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data.RESULTS: The average total scores of quality of life of the urban patients and rural patients were 64.11 and 68.69respectively. There was a significant difference between the means of two samples (P = 0.0004). Seven variables in the regression model estimated by the urban sample and 4 variables in the model by the rural sample were at the level of significance α = 0.05. Family income, nutrition and rehabilitating exercise were selected into both the urban and rural regression models.CONCLUSION: Most of the gastric cancer patients have poor quality of life in Fujian Province and the rural patients have lower quality of life than that of urban patients. The patients having more family income have better quality of life, and enhanced nutrition and doing rehabilitating exercise are helpful in improving the quality of life of the gastric cancer patients.

  15. Rural development drivers and public policy formulation: the use of prospective structural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Serrano, Maria del Mar; Amador-Hidalgo, Francisco; Ambrosio Albala, Mateo

    2010-01-01

    Traditional economic development theories have struggled to identify, in a comprehensive manner, the drivers and constraints that explain singular development paths and lead to spatial inequalities. Assuming that development patterns are territory-specific, the research hypothesis is that public policies should have a better understanding of territorial dynamics in order to propose strategies efficient to trigger changes. This paper applies the use of Prospective Structural Analysis (PSA), a ...

  16. A SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE RURAL AREA IN THE WESTERN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB; Teodor MATEOC; Camelia MĂNESCU; Ada-Flavia CRISTINA; Caius GO.A; Ioan GRAD

    2014-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper points out the fact that we need to make fundamental improvements in the Western Region if we want to be able to face the future challenges generated by new investments with a view to increase economic activities, to improve institutional activities, and to make short-term specific investments in both human resources and infrastructure. The authors of this paper have reached the conclusion that the Western Region needs investments in the business environme...

  17. Analysis of Farmers' Financial Demand and Rural Financial Supply from a Sociological Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeJingzhong; ZhuYanjie; YangHongping

    2005-01-01

    After analysis of Baoshi Village farmers' financial demand, the loan supply from formal financial institutions and the current situation and causes of informal finance, we can draw the following conclusions: loans from formal financial institutions in the village have mainly gone to the farmers who are richer or enjoy higher social capital. Those farmers, relying on their own strengths and superior social networks, have access to formal loans. Ordinary farmers, especially those who are poorer or have inadequate human capital,

  18. Analysis on Inter-Provincial Disparities of China's Rural Education and Convergence Rate: Empirical Analysis on 31 Provinces' (Municipalities') Panel Data from 2001 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tongwei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze inter-provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside…

  19. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by

  20. Profile analysis of rural and urban schoolchildren: life style and postural habits

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff; Carlos Aparecido Zamai; Daniel Hirayama; Dartel Ferrari de Lima,; Janice Disner Silva; Inácio Brandl Neto; Maria das Graças Anguera Lima; Ademir Schmidt; Cristiane Rabaiolli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the profile of 7-to-14-year-old male and female schoolchildren with regard to their life style and postural habits. It was carried out through a specific protocol for this project, including open and close questions. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: a) parents need to be clarified about their children’s necessity of leisure time; b) the schoolchildren studied spend too little time on sports practice and physical activies; c...

  1. Socio-economic analysis of fuelwood use in a rural area of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article is based on the socio-economic analysis of fuelwood use in 70 villages in Trabzon, Turkey. Energy requirements of the 70 villages studied are subsidized considerably by the surrounding forest in the form of firewood. It was noticed that the amount of fuelwood consumption in the 70 villages was 171 371 m3 in 1990. The total amount of fuelwood per house provided by the forest enterprise was 12 212 m3 in the same year and, therefore, the amount of illegal fuelwood consumption was 159 160 m3. This study showed that the amount of fuelwood provided by the forest enterprise for each house in the villages was only 7% of the amount of fuelwood in the villages used. Finally, the economic, social, cultural, legal, technical, managerial and psychological reasons for the illegal fuelwood consumption from the State Forests have been studied and necessary and appropriate solutions have been proposed. (author)

  2. Social acceptance of wind energy development and planning in rural communities of Australia: A consumer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social acceptance is necessary for widespread adoption of new renewable energy technologies. A lack of social acceptance by local community residents is a barrier to increasing the renewable energy mix and targets in Australia. This study empirically evaluated predictor importance of key constructs of social acceptance, using responses from a sample of 226 survey respondents in Australia. Regression analysis suggest that ‘Concerns with wind turbines’ was the predictor most strongly correlated with Social Acceptance, followed by ‘Annoyance with wind turbines’, and then ‘Consultation with stakeholders’. Implications of the study and recommendations for consideration by various interest groups (such as policy makers, and potential entrepreneurs) are discussed. This research contributes to theory building rather than theory testing of social acceptance of wind energy development

  3. SURVIVAL MODELS AND RISK FACTORS OF BREAST FEEDING IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF TAKESTAN-INTRODUCING SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Eshraghian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by using the Survival models, survival functions for the time from birth to the event of using formula (i.e. the time that baby in fed by breast milk in urban and rural areas of Takestan (Iran, Winter 1998 are reported. Later the relation between the mentioned time and some factors are also discussed. The Kaplan-Meire Method and Cox Regression are used in this paper as well. 480 babies from urban areas and 720 from rural areas were chosen to be included in this research. It was shown that 7.7% of babies in urban and 6.5% in rural areas were fed by formula. The mean time of feeding by breast milk, before using formula, in urban and rural areas was 2.5 and 2 months, respectively. It was also shown that the survival functions of time that a baby fed by breast milk was not significantly different in urban and rural areas (P=0.50. The survival functions of the mentioned time in different sexes for both urban (P = 0.62 and rural (P = 0.62 areas were not significantly different. It was also shown that in urban areas the discussed survival functions were significantly different. In different mother's age groups (P = 0.03 and in groups of mothers with and without a job (P = 0.0001. Cox Regression showed that the hazard of a baby, belonged to a mother whit a job, being fed by formula was 6.31 times of a baby, belonged to a mother without a job. It also showed that the babies of older mothers were more at risk of being fed by formula. The mean time of using breast milk for mothers with and without a job was 17 and 23 months, respectively.

  4. From “Migrant Workers Boom†to “Migrant Workers Scarcity†—Analysis of Institutional Bottleneck of Rural Surplus Labors Transfer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qin

    2010-01-01

    Through description of three-steps characteristic of dual economic theory and its practical significance to the process of industrialization and urbanization in China, and making comparative analysis between important criterion of "Lewis turning point" and current situation of rural surplus labors market in China, we can find that there exists a great deal of surplus labors in rural areas in our country, improvement of peasant income is the result of external interference of government, and d...

  5. The School Going Child Worker: An Analysis of Poverty, Asset Inequality and Child Education in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sanjukta

    2009-01-01

    In examining child work and education in rural India, I find that Parental education and hours of non household child work demonstrate a U shaped relationship. I contend this is due to weak labor markets for skilled workers in rural India that creates a “high education trap.” This results in poverty and perpetuation of child work in households with highly educated parents. School attendance is feasible even for child workers, but is conditional on continuity of enrollment. At 30 hours of non ...

  6. Task-sharing or public finance for the expansion of surgical access in rural Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrime, Mark G; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Desalegn, Dawit; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Despite a high burden of surgical disease, access to surgical services in low- and middle-income countries is often limited. In line with the World Health Organization's current focus on universal health coverage and equitable access to care, we examined how policies to expand access to surgery in rural Ethiopia would impact health, impoverishment and equity. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Deterministic and stochastic models of surgery in rural Ethiopia were constructed, utilizing pooled estimates of costs and probabilities from national surveys and published literature. Model calibration and validation were performed against published estimates, with sensitivity analyses on model assumptions to check for robustness. Outcomes of interest were the number of deaths averted, the number of cases of poverty averted and the number of cases of catastrophic expenditure averted for each policy, divided across wealth quintiles. Health benefits, financial risk protection and equity appear to be in tension in the expansion of access to surgical care in rural Ethiopia. Health benefits from each of the examined policies accrued primarily to the poor. However, without travel vouchers, many policies also induced impoverishment in the poor while providing financial risk protection to the rich, calling into question the equitable distribution of benefits by these policies. Adding travel vouchers removed the impoverishing effects of a policy but decreased the health benefit that could be bought per dollar spent. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:26719347

  7. Analysis of Child Labour among Rural Household of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alao Bashir Idowu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is on analysis of child labour determinants among the farming households of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 120 respondents from the target group using a three-stage sampling procedure and analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic model. Results showed that 85% of the respondents are male. The mean age of the respondent is 58 years 74.16% of them are married. Religions of the respondent are 40%, 53.33%, and 6.67% for Christianity, Islam and traditional religions respectively. 43.33% of the households have no formal education. The average household size is 11. The average farm size of the respondent is 9.12ha. The mean income per household is less than N150 ($1 per day. Age of the household head and the farm size were significant at 5%. Age of household head, household size and number of male child in the house respectively have positive coefficients. Gender of household head, educational level, number of female child and household income has negative coefficients. This implies that as these variables increase child labour will reduce.

  8. The Use of the Health Disparities Calculator in Analysis of the Lung Cancer Burden in Urban and Rural Populations in the Świętokrzyskie Province (Poland: 1999–2010

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    Krzyżak Michalina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was a comparative analysis of the burden of lung cancer in urban and rural areas in the Świętokrzyskie Province in the years 1999–2010. The material for the study accounted for information about the number of new cases of lung cancer obtained from the Świętokrzyskie Cancer Registration Office in Kielce and data from the Central Statistical Office concerning the number of deaths due to lung cancer in the years 1999–2010. Crude and age-standardized incidence, mortality, and potential years of life lost rates were calculated separately for groups of men and women in urban and rural areas. A comparative analysis of coefficients in urban and rural areas based on Rate Ratio (RR and Rate Difference (RD was performed by using the Health Disparities Calculator. The average annual incidence of lung cancer among men was 18% lower in the urban population than in the rural, while the mortality rate was 16% lower. For women, the incidence and mortality rates were higher in urban areas as opposed to rural areas – by 48% and 54% respectively. The comparative analysis of the burden of lung cancer showed great diversity between urban and rural populations in the Świętokrzyskie Province.

  9. 农村精英的协同发展与困境解析——基于浙江乡村旅游文化内涵建设的研究%Coordinated Development of the Rural Elite and the Trouble Analysis --Based on the Cultural Connotation Construction of Rural Tourism in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石群

    2012-01-01

    Culture is the soul of tourism, the low quality of rural tourism root causes is caused by the weak of the rural tourism and cultural connotation. It' s a keenly promoted synergies in the process of all to strengthen the cultural connotations of rural tourism. From the perspective of the dynamic analysis, the rural elite is the role of the construction and deconstruction in the construction of cultural connotations of rural tourism, taking the revival of Bamboo Dragon as example. To address and respond to rural tourism and cultural connotation construction, a balance of power should boost rural tourism and cultural elite connotation of cuhural construction; Second, we must strengthen the unity of the elite and the people, encourage community participation in construction of rural tourism and cultural connotations.%文化是旅游的灵魂,乡村旅游文化内涵的单薄是造成乡村旅游品质低下的根本原因。加强乡村旅游文化内涵建设是一个多方联动的过程,以安吉"竹叶龙"复兴为例,从动态的视角剖析农村精英在乡村旅游文化内涵建设中的建构与消解作用。正视和应对乡村旅游文化内涵建设,一要以精英均势助推乡村旅游文化内涵建设;二要加强精英与民众的团结,鼓励社区参与乡村旅游文化内涵建设。

  10. Risk assessment and decision making about in-labour transfer from rural maternity care: a social judgment and signal detection analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyne Helen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of respecting women’s wishes to give birth close to their local community is supported by policy in many developed countries. However, persistent concerns about the quality and safety of maternity care in rural communities have been expressed. Safe childbirth in rural communities depends on good risk assessment and decision making as to whether and when the transfer of a woman in labour to an obstetric led unit is required. This is a difficult decision. Wide variation in transfer rates between rural maternity units have been reported suggesting different decision making criteria may be involved; furthermore, rural midwives and family doctors report feeling isolated in making these decisions and that staff in urban centres do not understand the difficulties they face. In order to develop more evidence based decision making strategies greater understanding of the way in which maternity care providers currently make decisions is required. This study aimed to examine how midwives working in urban and rural settings and obstetricians make intrapartum transfer decisions, and describe sources of variation in decision making. Methods The study was conducted in three stages. 1. 20 midwives and four obstetricians described factors influencing transfer decisions. 2. Vignettes depicting an intrapartum scenario were developed based on stage one data. 3. Vignettes were presented to 122 midwives and 12 obstetricians who were asked to assess the level of risk in each case and decide whether to transfer or not. Social judgment analysis was used to identify the factors and factor weights used in assessment. Signal detection analysis was used to identify participants’ ability to distinguish high and low risk cases and personal decision thresholds. Results When reviewing the same case information in vignettes midwives in different settings and obstetricians made very similar risk assessments. Despite this, a wide range of

  11. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Hu, Haijing

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics, the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed, and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality, rather than take “household register†measures to solve the problem simply.

  12. Cultural and gender issues related to HIV/AIDS prevention in rural Swaziland: a focus group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G; Glass, Laurie K; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2002-02-01

    HIV/AIDS is a serious public health problem in Swaziland, a small land-locked Southern African country. The epidemic affects all subpopulations, but women are increasingly at risk for contracting the disease. Focus groups were conducted in a rural area to obtain qualitative information on the rural dimensions of HIV/AIDS, vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, and sociocultural factors influencing the spread of AIDS. Five themes were identified from analyses of the focus groups that are relevant in developing an AIDS prevention program for this population in Swaziland. Implications for future research and health care practice focus on gender-sensitive cultural research (e.g., women and men's roles and responsibilities in rural Swaziland society) and how social, economic, and cultural factors impact the spread of AIDS. Recommendations include reorienting and allocating resources for health, education, and social services to address the relative neglect of rural areas and strengthening policies and programs to achieve the equal participation of all women in all aspects of society's decisions. Specifically, policies related to economic and food security should result in programs to improve local access by women to all resources. PMID:11868964

  13. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  14. Sexual and reproductive health among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai China: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yao, Wen; Shang, Meili; Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Ma, Jin; Wang, Jin; Song, Huijiang

    2013-08-01

    We compared sexual and reproductive health (SRH)-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai coming from different regions of China. A total of 944 unmarried rural-urban female migrants were recruited from three districts of Shanghai. We used an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire to collect information from each participant and a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between premarital sex and risk factors. We found the rates of premarital sex, pregnancy and abortion among unmarried rural-urban female migrants were 28.2%, 5.2% and 5.0%, respectively. Participants from the east of China were more likely to engage in premarital sex than those from the mid-west (p premarital sex was associated with age, hometown, education, current residential type, knowledge of sexual physiology and safe sex, attitude to SRH and safe sex, and permissive attitude to sex. Unmarried rural-urban female migrants lack SRH related knowledge and the data suggests high levels of occurrence of premarital sex. The results indicate that programs to promote safe sex, especially to those migrants coming from eastern China, should be a priority. PMID:23939391

  15. What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

  16. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh-An innovation system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh.

  17. The Performance of Latinos in Rural Public Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Test Scores in Grades 3, 6, and 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Steve; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines effects of socioeconomic status, school funding, English proficiency, and Latino population concentration on achievement scores of students in grades 3, 6, and 12 in 66 rural California school districts. Performance on the California Assessment Program was predicted primarily by parental socioeconomic status, and, unexpectedly, improved…

  18. Recreation, Tourism, and Rural Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Richard J.; Brown, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of recreation and tourism has been both praised and criticized as a rural development strategy. This study uses regression analysis to assess the effect of recreation and tourism development on socioeconomic conditions in rural recreation counties. The findings imply that recreation and tourism development contributes to rural well-being, increasing local employment, wage levels, and income, reducing poverty, and improving education and health. But recreation and tourism develop...

  19. Health and economic benefits of scaling up a home-based neonatal care package in rural India: a modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Colson, Abigail R; Verma, Amit; Megiddo, Itamar; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 900 000 newborn children die every year in India, accounting for 28% of neonatal deaths globally. In 2011, India introduced a home-based newborn care (HBNC) package to be delivered by community health workers across rural areas. We estimate the disease and economic burden that could be averted by scaling up the HBNC in rural India using IndiaSim, an agent-based simulation model, to examine two interventions. In the first intervention, the existing community health worker network begins providing HBNC for rural households without access to home- or facility-based newborn care, as introduced by India's recent programme. In the second intervention, we consider increased coverage of HBNC across India so that total coverage of neonatal care (HBNC or otherwise) in the rural areas of each state reaches at least 90%. We find that compared with a baseline of no coverage, providing the care package through the existing network of community health workers could avert 48 [95% uncertainty range (UR) 34-63] incident cases of severe neonatal morbidity and 5 (95% UR 4-7) related deaths, save $4411 (95% UR $3088-$5735) in out-of-pocket treatment costs, and provide $285 (95% UR $200-$371) in value of insurance per 1000 live births in rural India. Increasing the coverage of HBNC to 90% will avert an additional 9 (95% UR 7-12) incident cases, 1 death (95% UR 0.72-1.33), and $613 (95% UR $430-$797) in out-of-pocket expenditures, and provide $55 (95% UR $39-$72) in incremental value of insurance per 1000 live births. Intervention benefits are greater for lower socioeconomic groups and in the poorer states of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. PMID:26561440

  20. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczynski Julie C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex

  1. DOES RURAL JOB GROWTH LEAD THE ECONOMY OUT OF RECESSION?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Henderson, Jason R.; Foster, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of rural and non-rural job growth to investigate if job growth starts in rural places, making it one of the leading indicators of economic growth. Empirical results provide mixed evidence. The mixed results of the Granger non-causality tests could be sensitive to the non-rural area definition. The relationship between rural job growth and non-rural job growth is not restricted to post-recession periods. Analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics data suggests the ...

  2. TOURIST MOTIVATION FOR RURAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  3. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Lobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1 individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2 health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3 dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas.

  4. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, German; Lapo, Maria Del Carmen; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1) individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2) health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3) dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas. PMID:27192023

  5. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; AOYAMA, ATSUKO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to e...

  6. Development, implementation, and analysis of adverse drug reaction monitoring system in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in Narketpally, Telangana

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Shareef; C. D. M. Naidu; Shrinivas R. Raikar; Y. Venkata Rao; U. Devika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are the fourth leading cause of mortality and a great concern in therapeutics. Pharmacovigilance is more important in India as the health care system is inadequate with poor doctor-patient ratio, high incidence of self-medication, and presence of counterfeit drugs. The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the pattern of ADR occurring in a rural tertiary care hospital with a newly established pharmacovigilance center and to identify the...

  7. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim; M. Baiquni; S. Ritohardoyo; Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1) examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2) describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey tech...

  8. An Analysis of the Impact of Strategic Marketing on Profitability of Rural Banks – A Case Study of Dangme Bank

    OpenAIRE

    George K. Amoako; Kwasi Dartey-Baah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence strategic marketing in relation to profitability in rural banking in Ghana. The research was conducted to see how management and employees follow strategic marketing programmes in delivering superior quality service to their customers and how customers view the service that they receive from the bank. Data was collected from primary and secondary sources. The research revealed that strategic marketing has an effect on the prof...

  9. Can Joint Forest Management Programme Sustain Rural Life: A Livelihood Analysis from Community-based Forest Management Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nimai

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study assesses the impact of community-based initiative under gender sensitive joint forest management (JFM) programme on sustainable rural livelihoods (SRL) across the socio-economic groups of forest fringe community based on JFM and non-JFM villages. The study suggests that strong livelihood sustainability criteria within the SRL framework meets for all marginal landholding and landless categories of households, which live below poverty line and that are almost dependent on f...

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Behaviours of Rural Areas at Provincial Level Using Public Data of Gross Domestic Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Guangfeng; Li, Yiyang;

    2013-01-01

    A spatial approach that incorporates three economic components and one environmental factor has been developed to evaluate the dynamic behaviours of the rural areas at a provincial level. An artificial fish swarm algorithm with variable population size (AFSAVP) is proposed for the spatial problem......, and the results have shown that the modelling method based on GDP data can assess the spatial dynamic behaviours and can be taken as an operational tool for the policy planners....

  11. Simplified analysis of energy efficiency of a rural school in La Pampa - Argentina - during its Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Inés Marcilese; Jorge Daniel Czajkowski

    2015-01-01

    The case study of this work is a rural school in La Pampa Region of Argentina where the energy efficiency of a construction system of traditional local use is compared to that of its improved version, based on passive design systems during its life cycle. In addition, Greenhouse Gas Emissions saving values are estimated according to the energy matrix of Argentina. The energy efficiency of a building involves the overall consumption for its construction process (extraction, transport and assem...

  12. Vulnerability of rural households to climate change and extremes: Analysis of Chepang households in the Mid-Hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Piya, Luni; Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Joshi, Niraj Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities, who are dominantly dependent upon natural resources, have always been adjusting their livelihood against the vagaries of climate. With the global climate change, these communities have been placed in greater vulnerability as the weather and extreme events have become more unpredictable. In order to formulate suitable policy measures to address their livelihood, assessment of local level vulnerability is very important. This paper analyzes the micro-level vulnerability of ru...

  13. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amoran, Olorunfemi E

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. This study was therefore designed to determine the recent prevalence and identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in a rural town in Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women attending the primary health care in Sagamu lo...

  14. Colorectal Cancer, Socioeconomic Distribution and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Counties in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kaamel M Nuhu; Justin T McDaniel; Juan I Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks second for all cancer related deaths among men and women together and third for either sex when considered separately. Disparities exist in CRC incidence and mortality between rural and urban counties in the USA. This study sought to explore socioeconomic and behavioral factors that may partly explain these observed differences.Methods: Using educational and income levels as measures of socioeconomic status (SES), and average alcohol consumption and s...

  15. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk fac-tors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang; ZHOU Ji-hong; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; YUAN Dan-feng; GAO Zhi-ming; Dai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan’an district (urban) and Jiangjin district (rural) of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Methods: Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan’an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traf...

  16. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    German Lobos; Maria del Carmen Lapo; Berta Schnettler

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1)...

  17. Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Hawaiian Youth of as a Function of Drug Offerers and Substances: A Community Stakeholder Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Kulis, Stephen; Delp, Justin A.; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the variations in drug resistance strategies endorsed by community members for rural Native Hawaiian youth in drug-related problem situations. Community stakeholders completed a Web-based survey focused on drug-related problem scenarios and their matched set of responses developed by middle/intermediate school youth in prior research. Mean differences were examined based on drug offerers described in the scenarios (i.e., peers/friends, cousins, and parents) and the substan...

  18. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H.; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  19. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures. PMID:26920156

  20. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  1. Risk Communication in Rural Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Kay Sather; Kimball, Sarah

    1997-01-01

    Risk communication is a methodology recommended for rural special education professionals who communicate with parents and teachers. Using rural special education examples, the steps of risk-based decision making are described: hazard identification, hazard assessment, risk assessment, risk management, risk analysis, and risk communication.…

  2. Xinjiang Rural Population Aging Trend Forecast and Analysis The Influences of Rural Economic Development%新疆农村人口老龄化趋势预测及其影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吐热尼古丽·阿木提; 阿里木江·阿不来提

    2012-01-01

    农村人口老龄化是新疆农村社会经济发展的必然产物。随着新疆农村医疗卫生条件的改善及农村青壮年向城市转移新疆农村人口老龄化日趋严峻。新疆农村人口老龄化具有“未富先老”,老龄化速度快,区域之间发展不平衡等特点。新疆农村人口的老龄化必然会对新疆的农业生产、社会保障及计划生育工作带来严峻的挑战。面对薪疆农村人口老龄化我们应做到未雨绸缭,完善农村养老保险制度、发展老龄产业、积极开发农村银色人力资源。%The aging of the rural population of rural social and economic development in Xinjiang inevi- table outcome. With the average rural population in Xinjiang increased late life, the family pension function weaken and young adults in rural areas to cities, worsening the aging rural population in Xin)iang. Ageing rural population in Xinjiang has "old before getting rich", aging fast, and uneven development be- tween regions and so on. Aging of the rural population in Xinjiang is bound to agricultural production, so- cial security and family planning work will pose serious challenges. We face an aging rural population in Xinjiang should improve the rural old--age insurance system, the development industry for the elderly; promote the traditional old--age culture, to build a wide range of old--age security model.

  3. Rural resident household food consumption patterns in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city:an analysis based on ELES Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Demand for food plays an important role in the adjustment of prices for agricultural products and for adjusting agricultural structure.By using the extended linear expenditure system(ELES),we analyzed the food consumption structure of rural residents in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city,and determined the basic food-consumption demand,the marginal propensity of consumption,the income elasticities of demand,and the own-price and cross-price elasticities of local rural residents,all of which illustrate the influencing factors on food consumption of rural residents and for forecasting the food-consumption structure.Those analyses show the following:the rural residents’ expenditure on household basic food consumption reaches about 7,050.35 Yuan;the marginal propensities of consumption of fruits and vegetables are relatively high(0.062 and 0.106,respectively),followed by meat(0.044);the demands for various foods are increasing as income increases,with the largest income elasticity of demand corresponding to fruits(1.354) and the lowest to cereal(0.310);fruits and vegetables have relatively high own-price elasticities(respectively-0.879 and-0.442),with the cereal having the lowest one(-0.184).An increase in cereal prices would greatly affect demand for other products;with the rising size of rural households,the consumption for meat is decreasing whereas it is increasing for cereal.The improvement of household education levels will lead to the increase of fruit consumption(E = 0.297),which indicates that people will pay more attention to diet and nutrition structure with the improvement of education.Further,although the amount of cereal expenditure is continually growing,the share will be declining with the increase of household income in 2006-2012.For all these reasons,therefore,the government should encourage the cultivation of economic crops and guide the development of stockbreeding to ensure the stability of cereal output.In order to attain the balance between

  4. Missouri Rural School Board Governance and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Zach; Webster, Amanda Beeler

    2009-01-01

    Through research, data collection, and analysis, this descriptive project examined rural Missouri school board governance practices. The study focused on Missouri rural schools with a student population of 400 to 1000. Effective school board members, as questionnaire respondents, were identified as having served rural Missouri school districts…

  5. Analysis of Chinese Urban and Rural Differences in Consumer Preferences Based on AIDS Model%基于AIDS模型的中国城乡消费偏好差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晗; 任保平

    2012-01-01

    Market segmentation from the urban and rural purchasing power imbalance in urban and rural differences in urban and rural consumer preferences, and urban-rural differences in consumer preferences are reflected in changes in consumption structure of urban and rural areas. In this paper, a reflection of the consumption structure of urban-rural differences in China's AIDS model of the eight categories of goods 2004- 2010 provincial consumer panel data empirical analysis, and further calculate the elasticity of urban and rural household consumption expenditure, consumer price elasticity and marginal share. The results show that, in addition to food consumption are reflected as "necessities" feature, the urban and rural consumer goods are there other differences in the nature of urban residents prefer the "enjoyment" Consumer preferences for rural residents more "safe" consumption. To establish urban and rural commerce and distribution, should be adopted to improve farmers' income and promote the equalization of basic public services to reduce the consumption level and consumption structure of urban and rural differences.%城乡二元市场分割来自于城乡购买力不平衡与城乡消费偏好差异,而城乡消费偏好差异反映在城乡消费结构变迁中。本文通过一个反映城乡消费结构差异的AIDS模型对中国2004—2010年的八类商品消费的省际面板数据进行了实证分析,并进一步计算城乡居民消费的支出弹性、价格弹性和边际消费份额。研究结果表明,除食品类消费均体现为“必需品”特征外,城乡其他消费品类均存在性质上的差异,城市居民更偏好“享受型”消费而农村居民更加偏好“安全型”消费。要建立统筹城乡的商贸流通体系,应通过提高农民收入和推进基本公共服务均等化来缩小城乡消费水平和消费结构差异。

  6. Prioritization: A Means of Achieving Positive Rural Development In Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural development occupies a priority place in agenda of Nigeria’s national development. However, the gap between scarce and stingy allocation of resources by Governments and rural people’s needs calls for prioritization in the areas of investment with regards to rural development. This paper examined the priority areas for rural development in Nigeria. Data on the needs of rural dwellers were randomly collected in 2006, 2008 and 2010 respectively. The rural dwellers were interviewed in each of the years using questionnaire and oral discussions. The questionnaire centered on rural dwellers needs among many alternatives such as Irrigation Facility, Roads, Markets, Portable Water Supply, Clinics/Hospitals, Electricity, Loan, Schools/Education and farm inputs. Analysis of variance, (ANOVA using the general linear models procedure was used in data analysis. Results show that majority of rural farmers’ needs are in order of preference Potable Water Supply, Roads, Farm Inputs, Loan and Schools/Education. The implication is that future rural development projects and Programs if directed towards these areas will help to accelerate the improvement of rural dwellers welfare and help to reduce the number of rural to urban migrating, resulting in rural stability and integrated rural development.

  7. Comparative analysis of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school children and rural farmers in Obollo-Eke, Enugu State, Nigeria:Implications for control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Celestine Chidi Ogbonna; Geme Urge Dori; Emeka Innocent Nweze; Gilbert Muoneke; Innocent Ejike Nwankwo; Nkiru Akputa

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence, sex-age related intensity of urinary schistosomiasis and to compare such parameters among rural school children and rural farmers in selected communities in Obollo-Eke located in Southeast, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 1 337 school children and farmers was conducted in Obollo-Eke community between September 2006 and July 2007. Demographic data of subjects was collected using a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. Urine samples were collected and examined for haematuria and ova of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) using Medi-test Combi 9 and sedimentation technique respectively. Results:The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis based on microscopic examination of the urine sediment for the ova of S. haematobium was 17.5%while the prevalence of haematuria was 15.6%. Infection intensity varied from light to heavy. In general, the prevalence was higher among males (20.8%) than females (14.6%;P>0.05) and was slightly higher among primary school children (18.0%;n=762) than farmers (16.9%;n=575;P>0.05).The age-specific prevalence of schistosomiasis among the study subjects ranged from 8.3%to 21.2%in 0-5 years and 11-15 years age groups respectively. Conclusions:Haematuria and mean egg/10 mL urine (r= 0.95;P<0.01) showed that both procedures are reliable for the diagnosis of the disease and can be used to ascertain the prevalence of the disease in any community. The comparative analysis of urinary bilharziasis among primary school children and rural farmers demonstrated that the infection is moderately high in these two risk population groups at Obollo-Eke. A robust intervention strategy is clearly needed.

  8. Education, Migration and Source Community Incomes in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Karpestam, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Residents in rural China doubt the benefits from education, yet there is empirical evidence supporting positive effects in urban and rural areas. This paper investigates whether education affects a variety of income attainment indicators for households in rural China, using a household survey from the provinces of Hebei and Liaoning. The analysis estimates education effects for household residents, but also for temporary migrants (rural-urban migrants) and children who have moved permanently ...

  9. Determinants of profitability of Polish rural micro-enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Strielkowski, Wadim; Rausser, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Rural micro-enterprises are an important factor in sustainable rural development in post-transitional Eastern Europe. This paper deals with determining the key factors influencing profitability in rural micro-enterprises in Poland. The research design was based on a questionnaire survey of 300 rural micro-enterprises in food-processing sector in rich and poor Polish provinces. The analysis carried out in this study is centered around the Polish EU accession in May 2004. Similar to other relat...

  10. Rural regions in the EU: exploring differences in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Terluin, Ida Joke

    2001-01-01

    Search for driving forces behind economic development in rural regions of the EU From a recent OECD analysis, it appeared that there were dynamic rural regions which showed an employment performance above the national average during the 1980s, and that there were also rural regions whose employment growth lagged behind. This observation directly prompts the following question: why do some rural regions show a higher employment performance than others? Can the sectoral mix of employment explai...

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM IN HUNGARIAN RURAL SUB-REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Korodi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This secondary research on rural sub-regional tourism investigates the individual quantitative factors influencing it and the connections between them. The analysis concentrates on the economic and touristic potential of rural sub-regions as well as on the performance of tourism. Based on the method of comparison against the average, rural sub-regions were classified according to their possible strategies of tourism development. The tourism of rural sub-regions is fundamentally independent fr...

  12. Business productivity and area productivity in rural England

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Don John; Curry, Nigel; Plumridge, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new DEFRA definition of rural. We find labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less sparse) rural areas compared to urban areas. Labour productivity in less sparse and urban areas appears to depend on similar factors. Labour productivity in sparse areas strongly relates to a different industrial...

  13. Assessing and responding to palliative care needs in rural sub-Saharan Africa: results from a model intervention and situation analysis in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Herce

    Full Text Available Palliative care is rarely accessible in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Partners In Health and the Malawi government established the Neno Palliative Care Program (NPCP to provide palliative care in rural Neno district. We conducted a situation analysis to evaluate early NPCP outcomes and better understand palliative care needs, knowledge, and preferences.Employing rapid evaluation methodology, we collected data from 3 sources: 1 chart review of all adult patients from the NPCP's first 9 months; 2 structured interviews with patients and caregivers; 3 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders.The NPCP enrolled 63 patients in its first 9 months. Frequent diagnoses were cancer (n = 50, 79% and HIV/AIDS (n = 37 of 61, 61%. Nearly all (n = 31, 84% patients with HIV/AIDS were on antiretroviral therapy. Providers registered 112 patient encounters, including 22 (20% home visits. Most (n = 43, 68% patients had documented pain at baseline, of whom 23 (53% were treated with morphine. A majority (n = 35, 56% had ≥1 follow-up encounter. Mean African Palliative Outcome Scale pain score decreased non-significantly between baseline and follow-up (3.0 vs. 2.7, p = 0.5 for patients with baseline pain and complete pain assessment documentation. Providers referred 48 (76% patients for psychosocial services, including community health worker support, socioeconomic assistance, or both. We interviewed 36 patients referred to the NPCP after the chart review period. Most had cancer (n = 19, 53% or HIV/AIDS (n = 10, 28%. Patients frequently reported needing income (n = 24, 67% or food (n = 22, 61%. Stakeholders cited a need to make integrated palliative care widely available.We identified a high prevalence of pain and psychosocial needs among patients with serious chronic illnesses in rural Malawi. Early NPCP results suggest that comprehensive palliative care can be provided in rural Africa by integrating disease

  14. SWOT Analysis of Rural Leisure Tourism in Qingdao%青岛市乡村休闲旅游 SWOT 分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁金胜

    2015-01-01

    The development of rural leisure tourism in Qingdao is analyzed with SWOT analysis method .The results show that Qingdao has abundant resources ,advanced economy ,convenient transportation and so on ,but it also has some disadvantages such as lower cognitive level ,outdated rural infrastructure ,serious product homogeneity ,obvious seasonal characteristics ,lack of talents and so on .Although there are such new development opportunities as the form of the new focus of tourism , the release of encouraging policies , the support of the new socialist rural construction ,it also faces threats of the competition from the surrounding areas and the deterioration of ecological environment.On this basis,a series of feasible suggestions are put forward such as increasing the cognitive level , perfecting rural infrastructure ,creating characteristic brands ,protecting resources ,cultivating talents and so on .%运用SWOT 分析法对青岛市乡村休闲旅游发展进行分析,结果显示:青岛具有资源丰富、经济发达、交通便利等优势,但同时也存在认识水平不高、农村基础设施落后、产品同质化严重、季节性明显、人才缺乏等劣势;面临旅游新热点形成、政府出台鼓励政策、新型农村社区的建设等新的发展机遇,但周边地区的竞争、生态环境的恶化也对其构成了威胁。在此基础上,提出了提高认识水平、完善基础设施、打造特色品牌、保护资源、培养人才等可行性建议。

  15. Expanding access to off-grid rural electrification in Africa: An analysis of community-based micro-grids in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubi, Charles Gathu

    Community micro-grids have played a central role in increasing access to off-grid rural electrification (RE) in many regions of the developing world, notably South Asia. However, the promise of community micro-grids in sub-Sahara Africa remains largely unexplored. My study explores the potential and limits of community micro-grids as options for increasing access to off-grid RE in sub-Sahara Africa. Contextualized in five community micro-grids in rural Kenya, my study is framed through theories of collective action and combines qualitative and quantitative methods, including household surveys, electronic data logging and regression analysis. The main contribution of my research is demonstrating the circumstances under which community micro-grids can contribute to rural development and the conditions under which individuals are likely to initiate and participate in such projects collectively. With regard to rural development, I demonstrate that access to electricity enables the use of electric equipment and tools by small and micro-enterprises, resulting in significant improvement in productivity per worker (100--200% depending on the task at hand) and a corresponding growth in income levels in the order of 20--70%, depending on the product made. Access to electricity simultaneously enables and improves delivery of social and business services from a wide range of village-level infrastructure (e.g. schools, markets, water pumps) while improving the productivity of agricultural activities. Moreover, when local electricity users have an ability to charge and enforce cost-reflective tariffs and electricity consumption is closely linked to productive uses that generate incomes, cost recovery is feasible. By their nature---a new technology delivering highly valued services by the elites and other members, limited local experience and expertise, high capital costs---community micro-grids are good candidates for elite-domination. Even so, elite control does not necessarily

  16. Socioeconomic factors differentiating maternal and child health-seeking behavior in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Stan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increasing availability and accessibility of modern health services in rural Bangladesh over the past decades. However, previous studies on the socioeconomic differentials in the utilization of these services were based on a limited number of factors, focusing either on preventive or on curative modern health services. These studies failed to collect data from remote rural areas of the different regions to examine the socioeconomic differentials in health-seeking behavior. Methods Data from 3,498 randomly selected currently married women from three strata of households within 128 purposively chosen remote villages in three divisions of Bangladesh were collected in 2006. This study used bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses to examine both curative and preventive health-seeking behaviors in seven areas of maternal and child health care: antenatal care, postnatal care, child delivery care, mother's receipt of Vitamin A postpartum, newborn baby care, care during recent child fever/cough episodes, and maternal coverageby tetanus toxoid (TT. Results A principal finding was that a household's relative poverty status, as reflected by wealth quintiles, was a major determinant in health-seeking behavior. Mothers in the highest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to use modern trained providers for antenatal care, birth attendance, post natal care and child health care than those in the poorest quintile (χ2, p Conclusion Within rural areas of Bangladesh, where overall poverty is greater and access to health care more difficult, wealth differentials in utilization remain pronounced. Those programs with high international visibility and dedicated funding (e.g., Immunization and Vitamin A delivery have higher overall prevalence and a more equitable distribution of beneficiaries than the use of modern trained providers for basic essential health care services. Implications of these findings and

  17. Justification of wife beating in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative analysis of gender differences in responses to survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Yount, Kathryn M; Lenzi, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    Understanding attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) in cultural context is important for developing interventions to reduce it or mitigate its effects. This article presents qualitative findings from research conducted in rural Bangladesh to understand men's and women's responses to attitudinal questions about IPV. Both men and women often responded as if the questions were about their personal behavior. A few women said that their opinion did not matter. Women's responses were more sensitive than men's to contextual nuances in the questions, and men more often than women described their own attitudes as consistent with community norms. PMID:23136180

  18. Diversity Research on Income Difference and Consumption Behavior of Rural Residents in China - Empirical Analysis Based on AIDS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinFan

    2004-01-01

    By building up an AIDS model of Chinese rural residents, classified into fivegroups by income, concluding six commodities (services), analyses the diversity of consumption behavior out of income difference. We draw the following conclusions: Firstly, there exists some difference between different income groups in commodities (services) consumption.Secondly, increase of farmers' income will be favorable to the enhancement of consumption level and upgrading of consumption structure. Thirdly, the medium income group, as one special mass, features a transitional main body of consumption structure. Finally, the policymakers should support the farmers with lower income in compulsory education, such as more and necessary transfer payments.

  19. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption. A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, S.M. [Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku School of Economics, Pinninkatu 47, 33100 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals. (author)

  20. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, S.M., E-mail: suvisanna.mustonen@tut.f [Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku School of Economics, Pinninkatu 47, 33100 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  1. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place......” and “space” from human geography are applied to develop a nuanced understanding of rural entrepreneurship as a spatial phenomenon. Space consists of processes of movement and mobility, while places consist of localized material, social and economic relations. Findings: Two ideal types are developed, namely...... (i) entrepreneurship in the rural and (ii) rural entrepreneurship. The former represents entrepreneurial activities that have limited embeddedness and enact a profit-oriented and mobile logic of space. The latter represents entrepreneurial activities that leverage local resources to re-connect place...

  2. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  3. Analysis and Prediction of Rural Residents’ Living Consumption Growth in Sichuan Province Based on Markov Prediction and ARMA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-li

    2012-01-01

    I select 32 samples concerning per capita living consumption of rural residents in Sichuan Province during the period 1978-2009. First, using Markov prediction method, the growth rate of living consumption level in the future is predicted to largely range from 10% to 20%. Then, in order to improve the prediction accuracy, time variable t is added into the traditional ARMA model for modeling and prediction. The prediction results show that the average relative error rate is 1.56%, and the absolute value of relative error during the period 2006-2009 is less than 0.5%. Finally, I compare the prediction results during the period 2010-2012 by Markov prediction method and ARMA model, respectively, indicating that the two are consistent in terms of growth rate of living consumption, and the prediction results are reliable. The results show that under the similar policies, rural residents’ consumer demand in Sichuan Province will continue to grow in the short term, so it is necessary to further expand the consumer market.

  4. Rural Electricity and Isolated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the impact of the cost of investment, operation and trading of rural electricity and discuss cost-benefit analysis. This evaluation covers a three different periods: before 1990, the period 1990-1996 and 1997-1999. Also the trends of demand and supply of energy are presented

  5. Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current status of rural informatization construction in China,including the relatively weak rural informatization,asymmetric market information,low level of information sharing,dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other are analyzed.The importance of informatization in rural logistic system is introduced:firstly,decision making of logistics system plan is based on information.Secondly,improvement of the overall efficiency of logistics system is based on information.Thirdly,logistics transmission takes the Internet as the carrier.Necessity of rural logistics system is discussed from five aspects of increasing the employment of farmers,enhancing the income of farmers,reducing the blindness of agricultural production and circulation,sharing the risks of agricultural management,and promoting the rural economic restructuring.According to the above five steps,five countermeasures are posed in order to improve the rural logistics system.The countermeasures cover the aspects of deepening the information awareness of government,establishing a rural informatization system suited to the national condition of China,strengthening the information infrastructure in rural areas,promoting the integration of rural information resources and establishing the training system for agricultural information talents.

  6. 广西融安县乡村旅游资源调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on Rural Tourism Resources in Rong'an County of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦飞

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨广西乡村旅游资源的特征与分布,揭示乡村旅游资源的基本规律,深入研究乡村旅游资源的发展与利用,更好地为开发与保护提供理论依据,对全区乡村旅游资源及发展现状展开专项调查.在广西融安县乡村旅游资源调查中,对融安县乡村旅游资源调查数据进行分析,总结融安县乡村旅游资源开发与保护成果,以利于融安县旅游业的可持续发展.%To explore the characteristics of rural tourism resources in Guangxi and distribution, reveal the basic rules of rural tourism resources and study the development and utilization of rural tourism resources deeply, which provide theoretical basis for better protection and development. Therefore, special survey on rural tourism resources and its development status are carried out by Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Tourism Board. During the investigation of rural tourism resources in Guangxi Rong'an, The analysis on survey data of rural tourism resources in Rong'an are carried out, moreover, the development and conservation outcomes of rural tourism resources in Rong' an are summarized, which are beneficial to the sustainable development of tourism in Rong' an.

  7. Follow-up analysis of federal process of care data reported from three acute care hospitals in rural Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills ES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available E Scott Sills,1,2 Liubomir Chiriac,3 Denis Vaughan,4 Christopher A Jones,5 Shala A Salem11Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Pacific Reproductive Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2Graduate School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK; 3Department of Mathematics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 5Global Health Economics Unit and Department of Surgery, Center for Clinical and Translational Science, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USABackground: This investigation evaluated standardized process of care data collected on selected hospitals serving a remote rural section of westernmost North Carolina.Methods: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data were analyzed retrospectively for multiple clinical parameters at Fannin Regional Hospital, Murphy Medical Center, and Union General Hospital. Data were analyzed by paired t-test for individual comparisons among the three study hospitals to compare the three facilities with each other, as well as with state and national average for each parameter.Results: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services “Hospital Compare” data from 2011 showed Fannin Regional Hospital to have significantly higher composite scores on standardized clinical process of care measures relative to the national average, compared with Murphy Medical Center (P = 0.01 and Union General Hospital (P = 0.01. This difference was noted to persist when Fannin Regional Hospital was compared with Union General Hospital using common state reference data (P = 0.02. When compared with national averages, mean process of care scores reported from Murphy Medical Center and Union General Hospital were both lower but not significantly different (−3.44 versus −6.07, respectively, P = 0.54.Conclusion: The range of process of care scores submitted by acute care

  8. Pro-poor Growth in Rural China: Measurement and Analysis%中国农村经济亲贫增长的测度与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶初升; 李慧

    2011-01-01

    近年来亲贫式增长概念开始进入发展经济学的理论框架,成为研究发展中国家经济发展问题的一个新视角。采用2008年新的中国农村贫困线和1985-2008年中国农村收入分组数据进行实证分析,比较了4种主要的亲贫增长测度方式的优缺点。鉴于贫困等价增长率具有单调性的优点和贫困增长曲线在阶段分析中的相对优势,运用这2种方式,评价了中国农村扶贫最近3个阶段工作的成效,结果表明采取整村推进、人力资本开发的参与式扶贫阶段的扶贫工作成绩较为显著。%In recent years, the concept of pro-poor growth has become the theoretical frame of de velopment economics and the intriguing topic among developing countries. Based on the empirical analysis on new rural poverty line of 2008 and the 1985-2008 rural income packet data in China, this paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of four pro-poor growth measurement methods. Due to the advantages of poverty equivalent growth rate and the relative advantages of poverty growth curve in the phase analysis, this paper uses them to evaluate the performance of the last three stages of poverty alleviation in rural China. The result shows that, with whole-village promotion and human capital development, the phase of active participation in poverty reduction has made more notable achievements.

  9. Trace elements total content and particle sizes distribution in the air particulate matter of a rural-residential area in north Italy investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations (ng/m3) of more than 30 trace elements have been determined in the total air particulate of a rural-residential area in north Italy. By collecting the aerosols with multistage impactors the distribution of the trace elements in the different size-fractionated particles has been also investigated. The fine 'inhalable' fraction with particles of less than 10 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter (PM10) as well as the subsequent finest 'respirable' fractions with particles of 0-1.1 μm (alveolar), 1.1-4.6 μm (bronchial) and 4.6-9 μm (tracheo-pharynx) have been analyzed and evaluated. Apart from Pb, Cd and, in some cases, Ni and Cu which have been determined by ETAAS (electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy), all measurements have been carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Agricultural and Rural Informatization Construction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Currently,faced with the rapid development of information technology and increasing competition of the global economy,many countries have been very concerned about the issues of informatization concerning agriculture and rural areas. The level of informatization in the developed countries has been universally high,and some developing countries are also highly concerned about how to actively promote the rural market information service. With the increasing level of China’s economic development,agriculture and rural economy have placed a growing demand on informatization. From the overall perspective of agricultural and rural informatization,this paper gives a detailed analysis of current situation,goals,tasks and constraints about agricultural and rural informatization construction,and finally makes the corresponding recommendations.

  11. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues that in such an...... assessment of power it is needed also to drawn in the social context because different social contexts will be more or less vulnerable to different mechanisms of power. The paper takes the stand the rural settings are especially vulnerable to dis-engagement of local citizens, sub-ordination of the rural by...... the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis of...

  12. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  13. Rural People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Rural Rental Housing Program, which provides direct mortgage loans for the development of congregate housing or ... Copyright@ 2002–2016 Rural Health Information Hub. All rights reserved. About RHIhub | Contact Us Accessibility | Disclaimer | Privacy ...

  14. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical health. Talking Rural Opioid Use at the United Nations: Q&A with Holly Andrilla Rural health researcher ... issues based on her experience presenting to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime in Vienna, Austria. ...

  15. SUICIDE IN RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hedge, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.

  16. Power of Religion in Rural Areas and Its Public Service (I)--An Analysis of Cases in Five Villages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHALHO

    2005-01-01

    In the study of socio-economic development in Tibet, one tends to stress the role of non-economic elements, especially the role of humans and social background.Of these, the role of religious culture is regarded as the most important. However, there are basically two approaches to the issue: First of all, although religion exerts a varied role on economic growth, legal construction, public welfare and ethics, one tends to each only a general judgment. Secondly, study of the role played by religion focused on the religious doctrines held by monks, and monks themselves. Although many point out the fact that religious power over people varies, it roots in the rural areas and among the folk at large is still neglected.Hence, there is the need to study individual cases.

  17. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  18. 我国农村居民被动吸烟率的Meta分析%Meta-analysis on the Prevalence of Secondhand Smoke among Chinese Mainland Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石锋; 王飞

    2016-01-01

    目的:系统评价我国农村居民被动吸烟情况,为有关部门制定相关控烟法规和开展有针对性的控烟行动提供理论依据。方法计算机检索CNKI、Wanfangdata、VIP、CBM和Pubmed数据库,查找2001年至2015年发表的我国农村居民被动吸烟相关文献,采用CMA V2软件进行Meta分析。结果 Meta分析结果显示:我国农村居民被动吸烟率为46.6%(95%CI 40.5%~52.8%)。分层分析显示男、女分别为45.7%和47.5%;东部、中西部地区分别为45.7%和51.1%;公共场所、工作场所和家中分别为22.1%、34.2%和71.3%;性别、研究地区和场所间差异均有统计学意义。结论我国农村居民被动吸烟率较高,女性高于男性,中西部地区高于东部,家中高于公共场所和工作场所。%Objective To systematic evaluate the prevalence of secondhand smoke among Chinese mainland rural residents by meta⁃analysis,so as to provide reference for making relevant smoking control regulations and the carry out of targeted tobacco control action. Methods The related stud⁃ies were searched and collected from PubMed,CNKI,Wanfangdata,VIP and CBM database,which were published between 2001 and 2015 about the prevalence of secondhand smoke among Chinese mainland rural residents. Meta⁃analysis was tested by software CMA V2. Results The pooled prevalence of secondhand smoke among Chinese mainland rural residents was 46.6%(95%CI 40.5%⁃52.8%). Stratified analysis showed that the prevalence of secondhand smoke were 45.7%and 47.5%for male and female,45.7%and 51.1%for eastern and midwest China,22.1%、34.2%and 71.3%for public place,workplace and family,respectively. The prevalence among sex,regions,and places were statistically significant. Conclusion The prevalence of secondhand smoke among Chinese mainland rural residents was relatively high,and the prevalence of secondhand smoke was higher in women than in men,in midwest area than in eastern area,and at family

  19. America's Rural Information Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  20. Multidimensional and multiscalar analisis of territorial rural development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of late, there have been several political, practical and analytical changes to our understanding of rural development. Diverse efforts have emerged in the analysis and discussion of spatial dynamics such as “rurality”, territories, in the construction of a territorial perspective of rural development. These changes in the forms of identification and measurement of rural development lead us to question the validity and effectiveness of applied methods, inviting us to establish methodologies and analytical criteria coherent with the multiple manifestations and scales of development. This article offers a multidimensional and multi-scalar analytical model for territorial rural development, using our methodology tested in four rural territories of Brazil.

  1. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J Paciorek, PhD; Gretchen A Stevens, DSc; Mariel M Finucane, PhD; Prof. Majid Ezzati, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over t...

  2. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing, and in combination with survey, analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city. There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures, to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents, improve rural ecological environment, realize sustai...

  3. STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL TOURISM NETWORK „BIENVENUE A LA FERME”

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela STANCIU; Mariana DUMITRU; Maria TĂNASE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main rural tourism networks in France and the forms of rural tourism encountered in this country. In the data presented lies a bibliographic study on the development of rural tourism network "Bienvenue a la ferme" between 1996 and 2013. Data analysis presented highlights rural tourism forms with the most dynamic development in the period considered, given that France is the first European country where the level of organization, diversification and promotion of rural t...

  4. STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL TOURISM NETWORK „BIENVENUE A LA FERME”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main rural tourism networks in France and the forms of rural tourism encountered in this country. In the data presented lies a bibliographic study on the development of rural tourism network "Bienvenue a la ferme" between 1996 and 2013. Data analysis presented highlights rural tourism forms with the most dynamic development in the period considered, given that France is the first European country where the level of organization, diversification and promotion of rural tourism took place.

  5. A Qualitative Analysis of Provider Barriers and Solutions to HIV Testing for Substance Users in a Small, Largely Rural Southern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Integrating HIV testing programs into substance use treatment is a promising avenue to help increase access to HIV testing for rural drug users. Yet few outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States provide HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to incorporating HIV testing with substance use treatment from the perspectives of treatment and testing providers in Arkansas. Methods We used purposive sampling from state directories to recruit providers at state, organization, and individual levels to participate in this exploratory study. Using an interview guide, the first and second authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews in each provider’s office or by telephone. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into ATLAS.ti software (ATLAS.ti Scientific Sofware Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany). We used constant comparison and content analysis techniques to identify codes, categories, and primary patterns in the data. Findings The sample consisted of 28 providers throughout the state, 18 from the substance use system and 10 from the public/ community health system. We identified 7 categories of barriers: environmental constraints, policy constraints, funding constraints, organizational structure, limited inter- and intra-agency communication, burden of responsibility, and client fragility. Conclusions This study presents the practice-based realities of barriers to integrating HIV testing with substance use treatment in a small, largely rural state. Some system and/or organization leaders were either unaware of or not actively pursuing external funds available to them specifically for engaging substance users in HIV testing. However, funding does not address the system-level need for coordination of resources and services at the state level. PMID:24088216

  6. Impact of a participatory intervention with women's groups on psychological distress among mothers in rural Bangladesh: secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Clarke

    Full Text Available Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women's health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh.We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women's groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women's and children's health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011.We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8 compared to control (5.3, 1.2, the difference was not significant (β 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08.Despite promising results in India, participatory women's groups focused on women's and children's health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh.

  7. The Effectiveness of Homeland Security Training for Rural Communities: A Comparative Analysis of Web-Based and Instructor-Led Training Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Ryan K.

    2012-01-01

    The development of advanced training technologies such as Web Based Training (WBT), coupled with the proliferation of computer and Internet availability, has increased training opportunities for rural communities. This advancement is critical to meeting the training needs of emergency response personnel in rural communities who routinely face the…

  8. Taking the conservative Protestant thesis across the Atlantic: a comparative analysis of the relationships between violence, religion, and stimulants use in rural Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Weenink

    2015-01-01

    Building upon the Southern culture of violence research tradition, this article inquires the association between rural violence and Conservative Protestantism in the Dutch context. Based on data of 8,106 individuals, it was found that young rural Conservative Protestants living in villages were more

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Rural-Urban Differences in Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditures in a Low-Income Society of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidan; Wang, Anjue; Zhou, Detong; FitzGerald, Gerry; Ye, Dongqing; Jiang, Qicheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The paper examines whether out-of-pocket health care expenditure also has regional discrepancies, comparing to the equity between urban and rural areas, and across households. Method Sampled data were derived from Urban Household Survey and Rural Household Survey data for 2011/2012 for Anhui Province, and 11049 households were included in this study. The study compared differences in out-of-pocket expenditure on health care between regions (urban vs. rural areas) and years (2011 vs. 2012) using two-sample t-test, and also investigated the degree of inequality using Lorenz and concentration curves. Result Approximately 5% and 8% of total household consumption expenditure was spent on health care for urban and rural populations, respectively. In 2012, the wealthiest 20% of urban and rural population contributed 49.7% and 55.8% of urban and rural total health expenditure respectively, while the poorest 20% took only 4.7% and 4.4%. The concentration curve for out-of-pocket expenditure in 2012 fell below the corresponding concentration curve for 2011 for both urban and rural areas, and the difference between curves for rural areas was greater than that for urban areas. Conclusion A substantial and increasing gap in health care expenditures existed between urban and rural areas in Anhui. The health care financing inequality merits ample attention, with need for policymaking to focus on improving the accessibility to essential health care services, particularly for rural and poor residents. This study may provide useful information on low income areas of China. PMID:27223811

  10. Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Dong

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policydimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM(Thematic Mapper data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from bothresearch institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-ruralland-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, thenon-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agriculturalland especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urbansettlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced aprocess of changing from aggregation (1995-2000 to decentralization (2000-2006.Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which includethe establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the buildingof Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and theGrain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-usechange. By analyzing Chongqing’s land-use change and its policy driving forces, someimplications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That ismore attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing andconsolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing landmanagement into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development.

  11. Dementia and rural nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The rapid increase in dementia is directly related to the growing number of aged people in developed countries, such as Australia. This increase heightens the need for accurate dementia diagnosis to ensure treatment resources are appropriately allocated. However, current diagnostic methods are unable to determine specific dementia types limiting the effectiveness of many care plans. The lack of specialist resources in rural Australian communities presents nuclear medicine with an opportunity to make a significant impact on the management of this disease. This investigation aimed to identify how SPECT perfusion imaging could maximise its role in the management of dementia in a rural New South Wales setting. The study reviewed all Technetium 99m HMPAO SPECT brain studies over a three-year period. This included a medical record audit, review of all diagnostic imaging reports and an analysis of referral patterns. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that, even in a rural setting, brain SPECT, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing, offers high accuracy in determining the presence and type of dementia. In addition, the study found more than 30% of referrers had no training in SPECT, emphasising the importance of ensuring that brain SPECT reports, in a rural setting, educate and specify to referrers the significance and exact disease type found in the study. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. People living with HIV travel farther to access healthcare: a population-based geographic analysis from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N Akullian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The availability of specialized HIV services is limited in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the need is the greatest. Where HIV services are available, people living with HIV (PLHIV must overcome large geographic, economic and social barriers to access healthcare. The objective of this study was to understand the unique barriers PLHIV face when accessing healthcare compared with those not living with HIV in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa with limited availability of healthcare infrastructure. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 447 heads of household on Bugala Island, Uganda. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare travel time, cost and distance to access healthcare, and log binomial models were used to test for associations between HIV status and access to nearby health services. Results: PLHIV travelled an additional 1.9 km (95% CI (0.6, 3.2 km, p=0.004 to access healthcare compared with those not living with HIV, and they were 56% less likely to access healthcare at the nearest health facility to their residence, so long as that facility lacked antiretroviral therapy (ART services (aRR=0.44, 95% CI (0.24 to 0.83, p=0.011. We found no evidence that PLHIV travelled further for care if the nearest facility supplies ART services (aRR=0.95, 95% CI (0.86 to 1.05, p=0.328. Among those who reported uptake of care at one of two facilities on the island that provides ART (81% of PLHIV and 68% of HIV-negative individuals, PLHIV tended to seek care at a higher tiered facility that provides ART, even when this facility was not their closest facility (30% of PLHIV travelled further than the closest ART facility compared with 16% of HIV-negative individuals, and travelled an additional 2.2 km (p=0.001 to access that facility, relative to HIV-negative individuals (aRR=1.91, 95% CI (1.00 to 3.65, p=0.05. Among PLHIV, residential distance was associated with access to facilities providing

  13. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZHOU Ji-hong; QIU Jun; ZHANG Xiu-zhu; YUAN Dan-feng; GAO Zhi-ming; DAI Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan' an district(urban)and Jiangjin district(rural)of Chongqing,and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure.Methods:Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries.Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared.Results:Between the year 2000 and 2006,the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan' an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/100 000 respectively,higher than that in Jiangjin district(27.49/100 000,7.13/100 000,P<0.01).However,the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%,higher than that in Nan'an district(10.00%,P<0.01).Head injury was the primary cause of death.Totally 76.58% of casualties were pedestrians.Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system.Conclusions:The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people.It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law,so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  14. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoran Olorunfemi E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. This study was therefore designed to determine the recent prevalence and identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in a rural town in Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women attending the primary health care in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. Results A total of 225 pregnant women were recruited into the study. The prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 22.9%. Teenagers [48.2%] reported more unwanted pregnancy when compared with the older age group [13.6%] [OR = 5.91, C.I = 2.83-12.43]. About half 33 [41.1%] of the teenage pregnant women and 28.6% of the older pregnant women did not know how to correctly use condom to prevent pregnancy [OR = 0.57, C.I = 0.29-1.13]. Predictors of teenage pregnancy were low social class (OR = 2.25, C.I = 1.31-3.85], Religion (OR = 0.44, C.I = 0.21-0.91], being a student (OR = 3.27, C.I = 1.02-10.46 and having a white collar job (OR = 0.09, C.I = 0.01-0.81. Conclusion The study concludes that employment in an established organization (white collar job is highly protective against teenage pregnancy while students are becoming increasingly prone to early pregnancy. Government should structure employment in low income countries in such a way as to give a quota to adolescents who are unable to continue their education.

  15. China's rural energy system and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issues related to rural energy development and the corresponding escalating economic activities have given rise to a complex, interrelationship among societal, economics, energy, environment and rural policies. With 7% of the world's farm land to produce food for 23% of the world's population, combined with the increasing energy demands for modernised farming has resulted in a dynamic rural energy policy for China. This paper discusses the characteristics of a rural society, outlines the relationship for rural energy supply and demand management, and discusses the interrelationship between energy and the environment utilisation. An illustration of the diffusion of biomass as a success story highlights some of the policies related to self-building, self-managing and self-using. Also discussed in this paper are the results of the integrated rural energy-policy, that is, the social benefits to farmers and the decrease of energy consumption per unit of output. Emerging nations must undertake a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of their respective rural energy developments and the corresponding interrelationships between technology, economics and the environment. (Author)

  16. Rural Domestic and Productive Waste Reverse Logistics Model Analysis%农村生活、生产垃圾逆向物流发展模式对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国红

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of reverse logistics in rural areas is an important way to improve the rural environment development and circular economy, base on expounding the content of reverse logistics, this paper indicates problems exists in life, and production waste treatment, analysis reverse logistics models of life and production waste treatment, proposed measures to address this range of issues and propose the implementation of reverse logistics in rural alternative development model, in order to facili- tate the reverse logistics in rural areas are effectively implemented.%农村逆向物流的实施是发展农村循环经济和改善农村环境的重要途径。在阐述农村逆向物流内涵的基础上.指出了我国农村生活、生产垃圾处理上存在的问题,对比分析了生活、生产垃圾处理逆向物流发展模式.提出农村逆向物流实施可供选择的发展模式.以便有利于逆向物流在农村的有效实施,、

  17. 四川省农村垃圾与污水处理现状调研与分析%Present Situation Investigation and Analysis of Rural Domestic Solid Wastes and Sewage Treatment in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闯; 邓良伟; 陈子爱; 李洋; 魏本平; 郑丹; 樊战辉; 刘刚金

    2012-01-01

    为了解四川省城乡环境综合整治效果,以问卷调查的形式对四川省10个城市、19个村、进行实地走访调研.得到并分析了四川省农村垃圾与污水处理现状、农民环境保护意识的转变及农村沼气的发展现状,为科学管理和再次合理规划四川城乡环境提供了必要的数据支持.%In order to understand the effects of comprehensive management of the urban and rural environment in Sichuan province, investigations were carried out by means of questionnaire survey in 19 villages of 10 cities in Sichuan province. Based on the analysis, the present situation of rural domestic solid wastes and sewage treatment in Sichuan province, the change of farmers'environmental protection consciousness, and the current situation of rural biogas development, have been obtained. Additionally, these results would provide necessary data support for the scientific management and reasonably re-planning for urban and rural environment protection in Sichuan.

  18. Analysis of socio-economic and environmental barriers for the development of rural economic cooperative organization%农村合作经济组织发展过程中的环境障碍分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭怀亮; 魏鑫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The present paper is an attempt to analyze the presence of main socio-economic and environ-mental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [ Method ] The methods of qualitative analysis combined with documentary analysis were used to analyzed the presence of main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [Result] The main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization include low level of educational background of farmers, lack of enthusiasm to participate in rural economic cooperative organization, deficiency in knowledge of their own role playing in the development of rural economic cooperative organization for government, shortage of systematic study on the theory of rural economic cooperative organization,too many management subjects, absence of relevant laws and regulations,etc. [Suggestion] Based on the analysis results,some countermeasures have been put forward which include coordination of relationship between government and rural economic cooperative organization, enhancement of theoretical research,advertisement, and training for rural individuals,formulation of preferential policies for rural economic cooperative organization,etc., in order to get a comfortable operation of rural economic cooperative organization.%[目的]掌握了解农村合作经济组织发展过程中的主要环境障碍,为政府制定促进农业合作经济组织发展的外部环境政策提供依据.[方法]采用定性分析和文献分析相结合的方法对农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍进行分析.[结果]农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍包括:农民文化素质较低、积极性不高,政府在发展农村合作经济组织过程中队自身作用认识不足,对农村合作经济组织的理论研究较为薄弱,管理主体较多,相关的体

  19. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Price Azano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teachers for successful student teaching placements and, ideally, eventual careers in rural schools. In this study, we explore teacher candidates’ perceptions of rurality while examining how specific theory, pedagogy, and practice influence their feelings of preparedness for working in a rural school. Using pre- and post- questionnaire data, classroom observations, and reflections, we assess the effectiveness of deliberate efforts in our teacher preparation program to increase readiness for rural teaching. In our analysis and discussion, we draw on critical and sociocultural theories to understand the experiences of a cohort of teacher candidates as they explore personal histories, the importance of place, expectations, and teaching strategies for rural contexts. While rural education researchers have long lamented the struggle to recruit and retain teachers, there is relatively little known about intentional efforts to prepare teachers specifically for rural classrooms. We conclude our article with recommendations for enhancing teacher preparation programs in ways that might result in significant progress toward the goal of staffing rural schools with the highly skilled teachers all students deserve.

  20. The Impact of Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    de Vera Garcia, Elma

    1984-01-01

    This article is a product of a nine-month training and application program implemented by the micro component of the Economic and Social Impact Analysis/Women in Development (ESIA/WID) and the Food Systems Program of the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute (RSI). It compares and analyzes the socioeconomic status of the population within the influence areas of the experimental and control group before and after the rural road construction. In particular, it conducts an impact assessmen...

  1. Rural Tourism, Rural Economy Diversification, and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of patterns in farm, agro and rural tourism development in a way of farm, agro and rural economy diversification to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. The importance of rural tourism in the rural economy is increasing by farm, agro and rural economy diversification addressing its multifunctional development. The European Union policies are targeting both, farm and agro diversification as well as rural economy diversification. Farm, agro and rura...

  2. Innovative Rural Development Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Wickenhagen, A.; Pontieri, A.; Heilig, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    This Interim Report provides first results from case studies of innovative rural development initiatives in Europe. They were conducted by IIASA's European Rural Development (ERD) project during 2001 -- primarily to test the feasibility of the research concept and to get a first realistic impression of rural development problems and possibilities at the IDeal level. These reports are only the first round of a much larger sample of some 40 to 50 case studies, which are planned for the nex...

  3. Education for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    Acker, David; Gasperini, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one out of six people in the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimension...

  4. Spatial analysis of factors associated with household subscription to the National Health Insurance Scheme in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Manortey

    2014-02-01

    their counterparts in the Low socioeconomic group. The study demonstrated the use of spatial analytical tools to identify clusters of household enrollment pattern in the NHIS among residents in rural Ghana. In the face of limited resources, policy makers can therefore use the findings as guideline to strategically channel interventions to areas of most need. Furthermore, these analyses can be repeated annually to assess progress on improving insurance coverage.

  5. Clinico-epidemiological study of spinal injuries in a predominantly rural population of eastern Nepal: A 10 years′ analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajracharya Suraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A clinico-epidemiological study helps to plan future preventive measures and management strategies for spinal trauma. This is a 10 years′ retrospective review of spinal-injury patients treated at a tertiary health center in the eastern of Nepal to determine clinico-epidemiological aspects of spinal-injury patients in a predominantly rural population of eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods : All medical record files of patients with spinal injury from 1996 to 2005 in the Medical Record Section of BPKIHS (B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were studied. The preformed pro forma consisting age, sex, place of living, mode of injury, hospital stay level of injury, site of injury, associated injury, Frankel grading of neural deficit and treatment modality was filled from the record files of patients. These parameters were entered in Excel 8 and analyzed by EPI INFO 2002. Details of 896 patients of spinal injury were recorded in the 10-year period of review. Results : 684 (76.35% male and 212 (23.66% female patients with mean age of 41.74 ± 16.53 years and 38.56 ± 15.86 years respectively were studied. Two hundred forty-two (27% patients were from hilly districts of eastern Nepal. Fall from height [in 350 (39% patients] was the commonest mode of spinal injury. Six hundred thirty-six (71% patients presented with a neurological deficit. Seven hundred thirty-three (85% patients were treated conservatively, compared to 163 (15% surgically treated patients. One hundred forty-six (22% patients were treated with operative interventions in the last five years. Conclusion : The study shows that the most vulnerable group for spine injury was the group of patients of productive age with late presentation (i.e., injury hospital duration - 41.64 ± 54.24 hours without proper pre-hospital management. The treatment modalities have changed (from conservative to surgical in this part of the world. These specific observations help us in further

  6. Status and Cause Analysis of the Rural Land-Deserting Problems%农村耕地抛荒问题现状及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺金钟; 贺春荣; 王宗尧

    2012-01-01

    Status of the rural land-deserting problems was introduced and the causes were analyzed. In view of the think on this phenomenon, lead countermeasures of the rural landdeserting problems were put forward aimed to provide the reference for the rural land-deserting problems.%介绍了农村耕地抛荒问题的现状,分析了该现象的成因,基于对该现象的思考提出了引导对策,以期为农村耕地抛荒问题提供参考。

  7. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Oral Health Toolkit identifies the resources and best practices to help implement a rural Mobile Dental Services ... Health Information Hub is supported by the Health Resources and ... Human Services (HHS) under Grant Number U56RH05539 (Rural Assistance ...

  8. SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY)

    OpenAIRE

    ÇALIŞKAN, VEDAT; Özözen Kahraman, Selver

    2012-01-01

    Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from the Aegean Sea to the we...

  9. Determinants and Impact of Rural-Urban Migration: A Case Study of Selected Communities in Western Nigeria. African Rural Employment Paper No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essang, Sunday M.; Mabawonku, Adewale F.

    This economic analysis of migration was designed to test the following six hypotheses on the causes of out-migration from agriculture and its effect on the rural economy of Western Nigeria: (1) age of the rural family, of which the migrant is a member, is positively related to rural-urban migration rate; (2) a positive relationship exists between…

  10. Characterization of airborne particulate matter at urban and rural area in Bandung and Lembang Indonesia using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as one of nuclear techniques utilizing research reactor provides a very good, simultaneous, multi-elemental analysis methods for airborne particulate studies. In particular, INAA is known to be a reliable analysis technique with low detection limits and effective for a large number of samples. The ability to provide elemental concentration information on all of the most significant elements enables statistical techniques to be applied in the data and determine the source contribution of the pollutant. Analysis the airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung and Lembang were reported to demonstrate the advantage of INAA method, especially to get a better understanding about the condition of atmosphere in Indonesia due to air pollution

  11. 我国农村信用社操作风险管理浅析%Analysis of operation risk management of rural credit cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君宇

    2016-01-01

    农村信用社在我国的金融机构里有着独特的作用,其具有主要服务群体的特殊性,其主要服务群体是广大农民。随着近些年国家对农村信用社的改革和农村信用社自身业务发展需要,农村信用社的操作风险呈现加大的趋势。因此,有必要对农村信用社的操作风险进行分析研究,使农村信用社的改革更顺畅、业务进展更顺利,更好地服务于“三农”。就此,从农村信用社的操作风险定义、我国农村信用社的若干案例、农村信用社操作风险成因、农村信用社操作风险治理展开论述。%Rural Credit Cooperatives plays a unique role in China's financial institutions,the particularity of the main service groups,the main service group is the majority of farmers in recent years. With the country on the reform of rural credit cooperatives and rural credit cooperatives in the development of their own business,increase the operational risk of rural credit cooperatives. Present. Therefore,it is necessary to analyze the operational risk of rural credit cooperatives,the rural credit cooperatives reform more smoothly,business progress more smoothly,to better serve the "three rural". In this connection,from the definition of the operational risk of rural credit cooperatives, several cases of China's Rural credit cooperatives,causes of operational risk of rural credit cooperatives,rural credit cooperatives operational risk management is discussed.

  12. Group-based financial institutions for the rural poor in Bangladesh: an institutional- and household-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeller, Manfred; Sharma, Manohar; Ahmed, Akhter U.; Rashid, Shahidur

    2001-01-01

    Table of Contents: Tables, Figures, Foreword, Acknowledgments, and Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Determinants of the Placement and Outreach of Group-Based Financial Institutions:A County-Level Analysis; 3. Group-Based Financial Institutions:Structure, Conduct, and Performance; 4. Household Participation in Financial Markets; 5. Analysis of the Household-Level Impact of Group-Based Credit Institutions in Bangladesh; 6. Conclusions and Implications for Policy; Appendix A: Survey Modules, Samplin...

  13. 安徽省农村土地综合整治的SWOT分析%SWOT Analysis on the Comprehensive Improvement of the Rural Land in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 包婷婷

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the comprehensive improvement of the rural land has become a major strategic choice to promote industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization in Anhui province. The SWOT analysis shows that: Strength includes rich implementation experience, great potential improvement, and solid and deep mass base. Weakness has following aspects:there is no comprehensive target; it is dififcult to achieve equivalence between the rural and the urban; and the progress is hard to balance; compensation standards for destroy the old and build the new is low; and it is also dififcult to relfect the land property rights. Opportunity that is faced with: the state attaches great importance to the comprehensive improvement of the rural land;and it is a moment of great opportunity to advance the whole village; and the construction of ecological civilization and beautiful countryside must be comprehensively promoted. Threats are: cultivated land protection situation remains severe; the contradiction between supply and demand of construction land is still glaring;security measures such as laws and regulations are still deifciency. In response to this, this paper suggests that land reclamation management approach of Anhui province should be published. And integrating zoning with pattern is necessary. In addition, the mechanism of fund safeguard must be improved so as to protect farmers' land property rights.%农村土地综合整治已经成为推进安徽省工业化、城镇化和农业现代化的重大战略选择,运用SWOT分析法,分析得出:优势(S),实施经验丰富,整治潜力巨大,群众基础坚实深入;劣势(W),目标缺乏综合性,乡村与城市难以实现等值化,进展难以均衡,宅就建新补偿标准低,宅基地财产权难以体现;机遇(O),国家高度重视,整村推进时机难得,“生态文明”和“美好乡村”建设全面推进;挑战(T),耕地保护形势

  14. Have primary emission reduction measures reduced ozone across Europe? An analysis of European rural background ozone trends 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Wilson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available National and European legislation over the past 20 years, and the modernisation or removal of industrial sources, have significantly reduced European ozone precursor emissions. This study quantifies observed and modelled European ozone annual and seasonal linear trends from 158 harmonised rural background monitoring stations over a constant time period of a decade (1996–2005. Mean ozone concentrations are investigated, in addition to the ozone 5th percentiles as a measure of the baseline or background conditions, and the 95th percentiles that are representative of the peak concentration levels. This study aims to characterise and quantify surface European ozone concentrations and trends and assess the impact of the changing anthropogenic emission tracers on the observed and modelled trends.

    Significant (p < 0.1 positive annual trends in ozone mean, 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 54 %, 52 % and 45 % of sites respectively (85 sites, 82 sites and 71 sites. Spatially, sites in Central and Northwestern Europe tend to display positive annual ozone trends in mean, 5th and 95th percentiles. Significant negative annual trends in ozone mean 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 11 %, 12 % and 12 % of sites respectively (18 sites, 19 sites and 19 sites which tend to be located in the eastern and south-western extremities of Europe. European-averaged annual trends have been calculated from the 158 sites in this study. Overall there is a net positive annual trend in observed ozone mean (0.16 ± 0.02 ppbv yr−1 2σ error, 5th (0.13 ± 0.02 ppbv yr−1 and 95th (0.16 ± 0.03 ppbv yr−1 percentiles, representative of positive trends in mean, baseline and peak ozone. Assessing the sensitivity of the derived overall trends to the constituent years shows that the European heatwave year of 2003 has significant positive influence and 1998 the converse effect; demonstrating the masking effect of inter

  15. Have primary emission reduction measures reduced ozone across Europe? An analysis of European rural background ozone trends 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available National and European legislation over the past 20 yr, and the modernisation or removal of industrial sources, have significantly reduced European ozone precursor emissions. This study quantifies observed and modelled European ozone annual and seasonal linear trends from 158 harmonised rural background monitoring stations over a constant time period of a decade (1996–2005. Mean ozone concentrations are investigated, in addition to the ozone 5th percentiles as a measure of the baseline or background conditions, and the 95th percentiles that are representative of the peak concentration levels. This study aims to characterise and quantify surface European ozone concentrations and trends and assess the impact of the changing anthropogenic emission tracers on the observed and modelled trends.

    Significant (p<0.1 positive annual trends in ozone mean, 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 54 %, 52 % and 45 % of sites respectively (85 sites, 82 sites and 71 sites. Spatially, sites in central and north-western Europe tend to display positive annual ozone trends in mean, 5th and 95th percentiles. Significant negative annual trends in ozone mean 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 11 %, 12 % and 12 % of sites respectively (18 sites, 19 sites and 19 sites which tend to be located in the eastern and south-western extremities of Europe. European-averaged annual trends have been calculated from the 158 sites in this study. Overall there is a net positive annual trend in observed ozone mean (0.16±0.02 ppbv yr−1 (2σ error, 5th (0.13±0.02 ppbv yr−1 and 95th (0.16±0.03 ppbv yr−1 percentiles, representative of positive trends in mean, baseline and peak ozone. Assessing the sensitivity of the derived overall trends to the constituent years shows that the European heatwave year of 2003 has significant positive influence and 1998 the converse effect; demonstrating the masking effect of inter

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Baillargeon; Patrice Gélinas

    2009-01-01

    The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records ...

  17. Power of Religion in Rural Areas and Its Public Service (Ⅱ) --An Analysis of Cases in Five Villages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHALHO

    2005-01-01

    In rural areas in Tibet where religion believers occupy a very high proportion of the population, religious service can also be included into the scope of public services, because it is not only related to local social stability, but also bound up with the quality of life (such as a sense of happiness and the perceived meaning of life) in the view of local people. Investigation in five villages shows how in the rural areas in Tibet, various religious authorities provide such services.

  18. 农村互助养老模式的发展困境与策略%Analysis on Dilemma and Strategy of Rural Mutual Pension Model Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志强

    2015-01-01

    农村互助养老是解决农村养老难题的突破口,在当前的压力型体制下,农村互助养老工程的推进存在着选择性政策执行、数字式年度考核与乡村敷衍性应对、供给主体的责任缺失与乡村信任危机。推动农村互助养老发展,必须改变压力型体制,构建服务型政府;改变量化考核偏好,提高群众参与性;以农村互助养老为平台,农民养老需求为导向,构建整体性养老保障体系。%Rural mutual pension is the breakthrough to solve the rural old‐age problem ,but this mode must be embedded in the current pressure system .Under the pressure system ,rural endowment project there are lack of responsibility and rural trust crisis selective policy implementation ,digital annual ex‐amination and rural perfunctory coping ,the main supply .It is necessary to change the pressure system , development of the service system ,reverse the rural crisis of confidence .To promote rural mutual pen‐sion development ,we must change the pressure system ,building a service‐oriented government ,chan‐ging the quantitative assessment of preference ,improving public participation ;to rural mutual pension as a platform ,farmers pension demand oriented ,overall construction of old‐age security system .

  19. 'Luz para Todos' (Light for Everyone) program: the need for subsidized funding: ELEKTRO case study; Programa luz para todos todos: a necessidade do aporte de recursos subsidiados - estudo de caso ELEKTRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto [Secretaria de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CERESP), SP (Brazil); Betiol Junior, Genesio [Universidade Cidade de Sao Paulo (UNICID), Tatuape, SP (Brazil); Marques, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Guerra, Fernando Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)], email: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we have analysed the Luz Para Todos (Light For Everyone) program in the state of Sao Paulo. We studied the case of ELEKTRO and focused on cost reduction and the economical and financial feasibility of the program. We used the work and experience of the Comissao de Eletrificacao Rural do Estado de Sao Paulo - CERESP (Rural Electric Commission of the Sao Paulo estate) as the basis of this study, which has developed a tool based on the construction plans of companies and cooperatives. This tool aimed to reduce the project costs uses concepts of low cost materials and equipment as well as the concepts of project finance analysis. It considers the funding source, financial statements of the companies and the return of a project. The Light For Everyone project has a social objective to take electricity to rural regions. It fulfils the needs of low income population. The execution of this program requires the participation of a private player which is an electricity distribution company. The economical and financial feasibility of the project is favoured by governmental subsidies. This study shows the dimension of the return obtained by the private player (executing agent). (author)

  20. Identificación y análisis de patologías en puentes de carreteras urbanas y rurales Identification and analysis of pathologies in bridges of urban and rural roads

    OpenAIRE

    Nilson Tadeu Mascia; Artur Lenz Sartorti

    2011-01-01

    La preocupación con un gran número de puentes con importantes problemas patológicos fue el factor de motivación para llevar a cabo esta investigación. Puentes de tamaños mediano y pequeño tienen relevancia significativa en el desarrollo económico y social del país, pues deben garantizar el tránsito de personas, vehículos, materias primas y productos locales. Sin embargo, las precarias condiciones de los puentes en las zonas urbanas y rurales hacen difícil el desplazamiento, causando incomodid...

  1. Funding Rural Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kim

    This paper provides first-time grant writers with suggestions on how to approach a private funding source. While intended for rural health care advocates, the remarks are equally applicable for educators and others. The rural crisis has produced many heart-rending stories about medically indigent people, but there is a lack of reliable statistics…

  2. Migration and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. B. Lucas

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes the key routes through which internal and international migration impact rural development and some of the evidence pertaining to these effects in low income countries. It concludes that, although the study of migration impacts on rural economies has come a long way from the early dual theories of development, some of the potentially more important aspects remain to be investigated systematically.

  3. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  4. The Rural Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    1989-01-01

    Describes the events that led to the creation of the Rural Information Center (RIC), a joint venture between the Extension Service and the National Agricultural Library to provide information to government officials involved in rural development. The databases accessed by RIC are described, and plans for a gateway system and network of all…

  5. Cluster analysis of intradiurnal holm oak pollen cycles at peri-urban and rural sampling sites in southwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; García-Mozo, H; Galán, C

    2015-08-01

    The impact of regional and local weather and of local topography on intradiurnal variations in airborne pollen levels was assessed by analysing bi-hourly holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) pollen counts at two sampling stations located 40 km apart, in southwestern Spain (Cordoba city and El Cabril nature reserve) over the period 2010-2011. Pollen grains were captured using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Analysis of regional weather conditions was based on the computation of backward trajectories using the HYSPLIT model. Sampling days were selected on the basis of phenological data; rainy days were eliminated, as were days lying outside a given range of percentiles (P95-P5). Analysis of cycles for the study period, as a whole, revealed differences between sampling sites, with peak bi-hourly pollen counts at night in Cordoba and at midday in El Cabril. Differences were also noted in the influence of surface weather conditions (temperature, relative humidity and wind). Cluster analysis of diurnal holm oak pollen cycles revealed the existence of five clusters at each sampling site. Analysis of backward trajectories highlighted specific regional air-flow patterns associated with each site. Findings indicated the contribution of both nearby and distant pollen sources to diurnal cycles. The combined use of cluster analysis and meteorological analysis proved highly suitable for charting the impact of local weather conditions on airborne pollen-count patterns. This method, and the specific tools used here, could be used not only to study diurnal variations in counts for other pollen types and in other biogeographical settings, but also in a number of other research fields involving airborne particle transport modelling, e.g. radionuclide transport in emergency preparedness exercises. PMID:25315264

  6. Cluster analysis of intradiurnal holm oak pollen cycles at peri-urban and rural sampling sites in southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; García-Mozo, H.; Galán, C.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of regional and local weather and of local topography on intradiurnal variations in airborne pollen levels was assessed by analysing bi-hourly holm oak ( Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) pollen counts at two sampling stations located 40 km apart, in southwestern Spain (Cordoba city and El Cabril nature reserve) over the period 2010-2011. Pollen grains were captured using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Analysis of regional weather conditions was based on the computation of backward trajectories using the HYSPLIT model. Sampling days were selected on the basis of phenological data; rainy days were eliminated, as were days lying outside a given range of percentiles (P95-P5). Analysis of cycles for the study period, as a whole, revealed differences between sampling sites, with peak bi-hourly pollen counts at night in Cordoba and at midday in El Cabril. Differences were also noted in the influence of surface weather conditions (temperature, relative humidity and wind). Cluster analysis of diurnal holm oak pollen cycles revealed the existence of five clusters at each sampling site. Analysis of backward trajectories highlighted specific regional air-flow patterns associated with each site. Findings indicated the contribution of both nearby and distant pollen sources to diurnal cycles. The combined use of cluster analysis and meteorological analysis proved highly suitable for charting the impact of local weather conditions on airborne pollen-count patterns. This method, and the specific tools used here, could be used not only to study diurnal variations in counts for other pollen types and in other biogeographical settings, but also in a number of other research fields involving airborne particle transport modelling, e.g. radionuclide transport in emergency preparedness exercises.

  7. Understanding Specific Contexts of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Rural South Africa: A Thematic Analysis of Digital Stories from a Community with High HIV Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffry-Goatley, Astrid; Lessells, Richard; Sykes, Pam; Bärnighausen, Till; de Oliveira, Tulio; Moletsane, Relebohile; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Near-perfect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve the best possible prevention and treatment outcomes. Yet, there have been particular concerns about the challenges of adherence among patients living in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of this study was to explore adherence in a low-resourced, rural community of high HIV prevalence in South Africa and to identify specific individual and structural factors that can either challenge or support adherence in this context. We applied digital stories as a qualitative research tool to gain insights into personal contexts of HIV and ART adherence. Through an inductive thematic analysis of twenty story texts, soundtracks and drawings, we explored experiences, understandings, and contexts of the participants and identified potential barriers and facilitators for those on lifelong treatment. We found that many of the stories reflected a growing confidence in the effectiveness of ART, which should be viewed as a key facilitator to successful adherence since this attitude can promote disclosure and boost access to social support. Nevertheless, stories also highlighted the complexity of the issues that individuals and households face as they deal with HIV and ART in this setting and it is clear that an overburdened local healthcare system has often struggled to meet the demands of a rapidly expanding epidemic and to provide the necessary medical and emotional support. Our analysis suggests several opportunities for further research and the design of novel health interventions to support optimal adherence. Firstly, future health promotion campaigns should encourage individuals to test together, or at least accompany each other for testing, to encourage social support from the outset. Additionally, home-based testing and ART club interventions might be recommended to make it easier for individuals to adhere to their treatment regimens and to provide a sense of

  8. Understanding Specific Contexts of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Rural South Africa: A Thematic Analysis of Digital Stories from a Community with High HIV Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffry-Goatley, Astrid; Lessells, Richard; Sykes, Pam; Bärnighausen, Till; de Oliveira, Tulio; Moletsane, Relebohile; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Near-perfect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve the best possible prevention and treatment outcomes. Yet, there have been particular concerns about the challenges of adherence among patients living in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of this study was to explore adherence in a low-resourced, rural community of high HIV prevalence in South Africa and to identify specific individual and structural factors that can either challenge or support adherence in this context. We applied digital stories as a qualitative research tool to gain insights into personal contexts of HIV and ART adherence. Through an inductive thematic analysis of twenty story texts, soundtracks and drawings, we explored experiences, understandings, and contexts of the participants and identified potential barriers and facilitators for those on lifelong treatment. We found that many of the stories reflected a growing confidence in the effectiveness of ART, which should be viewed as a key facilitator to successful adherence since this attitude can promote disclosure and boost access to social support. Nevertheless, stories also highlighted the complexity of the issues that individuals and households face as they deal with HIV and ART in this setting and it is clear that an overburdened local healthcare system has often struggled to meet the demands of a rapidly expanding epidemic and to provide the necessary medical and emotional support. Our analysis suggests several opportunities for further research and the design of novel health interventions to support optimal adherence. Firstly, future health promotion campaigns should encourage individuals to test together, or at least accompany each other for testing, to encourage social support from the outset. Additionally, home-based testing and ART club interventions might be recommended to make it easier for individuals to adhere to their treatment regimens and to provide a sense of

  9. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  10. Rurality Research and Rural Education: Exploratory and Explanatory Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents analysed data from the first year of the Rural Teacher Education Project (RTEP 2007-2009) with a view to illustrating how a generative theory of rurality as education research was developed, and for which ends it might be utilised. The article suggests that data from projects in rural communities, which take the rural as…

  11. Rural tourism, appropriate, sustainable development, based on strategic models of SWOT Item: Rural of Shian Castle in Islamabadgharb district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid YazdanPanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is one of the relatively new field in rural sustainable development, which could bring new opportunities and possibilities, especially for rural employment and income, to provide an effective role in the restoration, and modernization in rural areas, to play. Islamabadgharb district, despite capability, and enormous tourism potential remains unfamiliar tourists, attractions Therefore, the sample rurals of the  district, and plans tailored to specific geographical conditions, it seems to be necessary. The study ahead, try it, while explaining the principles and concepts of rural tourism, and its close connection with the issue of sustainable development in rural areas, with emphasis on library research, conceptual analysis and strategic model, SWOT, to introduce tourism attractions and potentials, in the rural castle  of Shian, has been paid. Based on these results, despite the mild weather, hospitality and openness of the people of the rural, Shian Dam, the Temple of Shian, located near Karbala way, the strengths and capabilities of Rural Tourism in  Shian Castle is.

  12. Booming local economy a key to whetting rural consumption—Empirical study based on the decomposition of rural household income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡跃洲

    2009-01-01

    Based on the decomposition of China’s rural household income,we made quantitative analyses of the factors affecting rural consumption by using co-integration and other econometric tools.By comparing the results with the ongoing economic stimulus package rolled out by the central government,we analyzed the effects of different policies on rural consumption.The empirical study and policy analysis show that:(1) income from household business operation, wages,and fiscal relief funds are the three main factors affecting rural household consumption;(2) the ongoing stimulus package,which includes both short-term measures like consumption subsidies and long-term policies aiming to increase rural household income and improve the rural consumption environment,are effective in promoting rural consumption;(3) in boosting rural consumption,emphasis should be put on various long-term policies.Fiscal expenditure should put more weight on consumption than on agriculture,forestry and irrigation;and(4) intra-county economies are crucial in kicking off rural consumption.Policies should be stressed for integrating rural consumption and the development of local economies.

  13. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devadas M.B,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term development in its broadest sense in the context of India refers to rural development. Rural development has been viewed as an economic planned change to achieve desirable social goals in India since independence. Eapen (1988: 67, in his diagnosis and analysis opens up the Pandora of problems related to the inherent conflicts and contradiction between the state policy regarding electronic media and actual use for development. This study quantitatively analyses the role of television in igniting development among rural women. Thiruvarur, one of the most back ward district in Tamil Nadu is taken as the locale of the study. Hundred rural women samples are selected for the research. This research paper underscores that TV has profound impact on social, economic, cultural and political life of rural women

  14. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and

  15. "Obstacles to School Progression in Rural Pakistan: An Analysis of Gender and Sibling Rivalry Using Field Survey Data"

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuyuki Sawada; Michael Lokshin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the obstacles to school progression by integrating field surveys conducted in twenty-five Pakistani villages, using economic theory and econometric analysis. The full-information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimation of the sequential schooling decision model reveals important dynamics of the gender difference in educational attainment, intrahousehold resource-allocation patterns, and transitory income and wealth effects. We find a high educational retention rate an...

  16. Measuring participant rurality in Web-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay H Garth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based health behavior change programs can reach large groups of disparate participants and thus they provide promise of becoming important public health tools. Data on participant rurality can complement other demographic measures to deepen our understanding of the success of these programs. Specifically, analysis of participant rurality can inform recruitment and social marketing efforts, and facilitate the targeting and tailoring of program content. Rurality analysis can also help evaluate the effectiveness of interventions across population groupings. Methods We describe how the RUCAs (Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes methodology can be used to examine results from two Randomized Controlled Trials of Web-based tobacco cessation programs: the ChewFree.com project for smokeless tobacco cessation and the Smokers' Health Improvement Program (SHIP project for smoking cessation. Results Using RUCAs methodology helped to highlight the extent to which both Web-based interventions reached a substantial percentage of rural participants. The ChewFree program was found to have more rural participation which is consistent with the greater prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in rural settings as well as ChewFree's multifaceted recruitment program that specifically targeted rural settings. Conclusion Researchers of Web-based health behavior change programs targeted to the US should routinely include RUCAs as a part of analyzing participant demographics. Researchers in other countries should examine rurality indices germane to their country.

  17. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  18. China's rural poverty line and the determinants of rural poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuqing Wang; Juan Liu; Shujie Yao; Xian Xin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to yield more plausible rural poverty lines for China and then assess the determinants of rural poverty using these newly revised rural poverty lines. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper it is argued that the Chinese official poverty line substantially misestimates the actual rural poverty situations. The poverty lines are derived with Ravallion's method with a rural household survey data of China's two provinces, Hubei, and Inner Mongolia. Pover...

  19. The impact of rural hospital closures on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Masatoshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent and long-term commuting is a requirement for dialysis patients. Accessibility thus affects their quality of lives. In this paper, a new model for accessibility measurement is proposed in which both geographic distance and facility capacity are taken into account. Simulation of closure of rural facilities and that of capacity transfer between urban and rural facilities are conducted to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on equity of accessibility among dialysis patients. Methods Post code information as of August 2011 of all the 7,374 patients certified by municipalities of Hiroshima prefecture as having first or third grade renal disability were collected. Information on post code and the maximum number of outpatients (capacity of all the 98 dialysis facilities were also collected. Using geographic information systems, patient commuting times were calculated in two models: one that takes into account road distance (distance model, and the other that takes into account both the road distance and facility capacity (capacity-distance model. Simulations of closures of rural and urban facilities were then conducted. Results The median commuting time among rural patients was more than twice as long as that among urban patients (15 versus 7 minutes, p  Conclusions Closures of dialysis facilities in rural areas have a substantially larger impact on equity of commuting times among dialysis patients than closures of urban facilities. The accessibility simulations using thecapacity-distance model will provide an analytic framework upon which rational resource distribution policies might be planned.

  20. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  1. 我国农村消费品市场实证分析及预测%CHINA'S RURAL MARKET FORECAST AND ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER GOODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天柱; 郭青青

    2011-01-01

    从农村及农民家庭的实际情况出发,运用计量经济学及消费经济学的原理,分别选取了食品、居住、家庭设备及服务、交通与运输、娱乐用品及服务、医疗保健及其他商品及服务等8个主要影响因子,对未来两年农村居民的人均消费要求和消费结构进行了预测,认为在未来两年内,我国农村市场扩张的潜力巨大,能为我国工商业的发展提供广阔的空间,使资源得到有效配置,从而促进整个经济又好又快发展.%This article is based on the real situation of countryside and farmer families and utilizes econometrics and consumer economics' principle,it process the average consumption demand of rural residents and consumption construction in countryside in two years through analysis eight main influential factors which contain food, housing, family equipment, service, transportation, entertainment supplies and service, medical care, and other goods and service and so on. The article shows that in two years, the talent of market expansion of countryside is huge and it can make a broad room for our country's business development, enable the resources to obtain the effective use, then could promote the development of whole economy in a quick and good way.

  2. Conceptualising integrated rural tourism.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Gunjan; Clark, Gordon; Oliver, Tove; Ilbery, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Rural spaces are no longer associated purely with agricultural commodity production but are seen as locations for the stimulation of new socioeconomic activity, often incorporating tourism, leisure, speciality food production and consumption and e-commerce. Within the context of debates about integrated and territorial approaches to rural development in Europe�s �lagging regions�, this paper introduces the notion of �Integrated Rural Tourism� (IRT) and describes the various methods ...

  3. Analysis of the funds used during the three years of the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents general guidelines and a plan for financing the various activities of the RDP 2007-2013. An analysis of the use of financial resources under the priority axes of the activities forming the RDP 2007-2013 in the three years of the Programme. The source materials were Ministry of Agriculture Village and Development studies and reports. On the implementation of the RDP 2007-2013 Poland received financial support amounting to 17.2 billion Euros to June 2010 used 22.24% of the total budget. The largest share of financing by the action of axis 2 was related to the promotion and operation of the LFA areas Axis 1 Early retirement.

  4. Gender and Governance in Rural Services : Insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    As the first output from the gender and governance in rural services project, this report presents descriptive findings and qualitative analysis of accountability mechanisms in agricultural extension and rural water supply in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia, paying specific attention to gender responsiveness. The gender and governance in rural services project seeks to generate policy-relevant ...

  5. PM2.5 chemical composition at a rural background site in Central Europe, including correlation and air mass back trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Karban, Jindřich; Chalupníčková, Eva; Havránek, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    PM2.5 mass concentrations and chemical compositions sampled over a 13-month period at a Central European rural background site (Košetice) are presented in this work. A comprehensive chemical analysis of PM2.5 was performed, which provided elemental composition (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Pb) and the concentration of water-soluble inorganic anions (SO42 -, NO3-. Cl-, NO2-, Br-, and H2PO4-) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +), elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and levoglucosan. Spearman correlation coefficients between individual chemical species and particle number concentrations were calculated for the following six size ranges: 10-25 nm (N10-25), 25-50 nm (N25-50), 50-80 nm (N50-80), 80-150 nm (N80-150), 150-300 nm (N150-300), and 300-800 nm (N300-800). Average concentrations of individual species were comparable with concentrations reported from similar sites across Central Europe. Organic matter (OM) accounted for 45% of the PM2.5 mass (calculated from OC by a factor of 1.6), while the second most common component were secondary aerosols (SO42 -: 19%, NO3-: 14%, NH4+: 10%), which accounted for 43% of the mass. Based on levoglucosan analysis, 31% of OM was attributed to emissions associated with biomass burning (OMBB). EC concentrations, determined using the EUSAAR_2 thermal optical protocol, contributed 4% to PM2.5 mass. A total of 1% of the mass was attributed to a mineral matter source, while the remaining 6% was from an undetermined mass. Seasonal variations showed highest concentrations of NO3- and OMBB in winter, nitrate share in spring, and an increase in percentage of SO42 - and mineral matter in summer. The largest seasonal variation was found for species associated with wood and coal combustion (levoglucosan, K+, Zn, Pb, As), which had clear maxima during winter. Correlation analysis of different size fraction particle number concentrations was used to distinguish the influence

  6. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  7. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-01-01

    For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development i...

  8. Spatial, environmental and entomological risk factors analysis on a rural dengue outbreak in Lundu District in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Chang, Moh Seng; Wang, Yin Chai

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the association of various risk factors with dengue cases reported in Lundu district, Sarawak, by analyzing the interaction between environmental, entomological, socio-demographic factors. Besides conventional entomological, serological and house surveys, this study also used GIS technology to generate geographic and environmental data on Aedes albopictus and dengue transmission. Seven villages were chosen based on the high number of dengue cases reported. A total of 551 households were surveyed. An overall description of the socio-demographic background and basic facilities was presented together with entomological and geographical profiles. For serological and ovitrap studies, systematic random sampling was used. Serological tests indicated that 23.7% of the 215 samples had a history of dengue, either recent or previous infections. Two samples (0.9%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA and 49 samples (22.8%) had IgG responses. A total of 32,838 Aedes albopictus eggs were collected in 56 days of trapping. Cluster sampling was also done to determine whether any of the risk factors (entomological or geographical) were influenced by geographical location. These clusters were defined as border villages with East Kalimantan and roadside villages along Lundu/Biawas trunk road. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 10.01. Descriptive analysis using frequency, means, and median were used. To determine the association between variables and dengue cases reported, and to describe the differences between the two clusters of villages, two-sample t-test, and Pearson's Chi-Square were used. Accurate maps were produced with overlay and density function, which facilitates the map visualization and report generating phases. This study also highlights the use of differential Global Positioning System in mapping sites of 1m accuracy. Analysis of the data revealed there are significant differences in clusters of villages attributable

  9. 新疆农村公共产品投资绩效分析%The Analysis of Performance of Rural Public Investment in Xinjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓玲

    2012-01-01

    运用计量经济模型,以新疆省为例来分析农村公共产品投资绩效.结果表明:新疆农村公共投资与农村经济存在显著正相关,农村公共投入每增加1元,将带动农业总产值增加0.322元;同时相关统计数据表明新疆农村公共产品投资在社会绩效方面也呈正效应,且贡献率不断提高,新疆各类公共产品投资不仅有效促进农村经济的发展,而且极大推动了农民的生产生活水平.最后提出推动公共产品供给的均等化、构建多元化投资体系等建议.%With the increasing public investment in rural areas, the clear understanding of investment performance was a good way to supply reliable and reasonable evidence to the governments, investing decision. The performance of public investment in rural areas were divided into economic performance and social performance. This paper employs an econometric model and takes Xinjiang Province as an example to analyze the performance of rural public investment. The results showed that public investment and the rural investment have a significant positive correlation; with rural public investment increased by 1 yuan, the agricultural value will increase to 0.322 yuan; The relevant statistics showed that rural public investment also has a positive effect with social performance and the contribution greatly increased. Public investment greatly improved economic growth and people, living standard in rural areas. At last, give suggestions such as promoting equalization of public goods supply in urban and rural areas, establishing multi-type of investment system.

  10. The cost and effective analysis of health care management of very low birth weight babies in rural areas of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kripasindhu Chatterjee

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Results of this unique cost and effectiveness evaluation of LBW healthcare management in a low resource setting are very relevant in Indian context where healthcare facility is almost out of reach and affordability in majority rural populations. These results are of relevance for similar settings and should serve to promote interventions aimed at improving maternal care in rural settings. Further larger research is required on cost effectiveness of level II neonatal intensive care. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1093-1098

  11. Rural-urban policy effects on the regional economies of South Ostrobothnia and North Karelia

    OpenAIRE

    HyytiÀ, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis studies rural and regional policy effects on the rural economies of South Ostrobothnia and North Karelia. In addition, it investigates whether the applied policies accelerate economic agglomeration towards the urban centres of these regions. The analysis is based on the economic linkages among the economic agents and among the rural and urban areas. Rural-urban social accounting matrices (SAM) were built on the regions and used as base year data for the multiplier and computab...

  12. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study on Child Rearing Practices in Rural Goa

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadish Cacodcar; Anagha Dubhashi; Shilpa Joglekar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the traditional child rearing practices among rural Goan mothers and the various socio demographic factors influencing these practices. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 307 rural mothers with children < 2 years in two rural areas under rural health and training centre Mandur located 16 kilometres from Panaji Goa, through house to house visits and oral interviews. Analysis of collected data was done using Microsoft Exc...

  14. Temporal Variation of Aerosol Properties at a Rural Continental Site and Study of Aerosol Evolution through Growth Law Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Collins, Don; Covert, David; Elleman, Robert; Ferrare, Richard A.; Gasparini, Roberto; Jonsson, Haflidi; Ogren, John; Sheridan, Patrick; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol size distributions were measured by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft during 16 flights at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern central Oklahoma as part of the Aerosol Intensive Operation period in May, 2003. During the same period a second SMPS was deployed at a surface station and provided continuous measurements. Combined with trace gas measurements at the SGP site and back-trajectory analysis, the aerosol size distributions provided insights into the sources of aerosols observed at the SGP site. High particle concentrations, observed mostly during daytime, were well correlated with the sulfur dioxide (SO2) mixing ratios, suggesting nucleation involving sulfuric acid is likely the main source of newly formed particles at the SGP. Aerosols within plumes originating from wildfires in Central America were measured at the surface site. Vertically compact aerosol layers, which can be traced back to forest fires in East Asia, were intercepted at altitudes over 3000 meters. Analyses of size dependent particle growth rates for four periods during which high cloud coverage was observed indicate growth dominated by volume controlled reactions. Sulfate accounts for 50% to 72% of the increase in aerosol volume concentration; the rest of the volume concentration increase was likely due to secondary organic species. The growth law analyses and meteorological conditions indicate that the sulfate was produced mainly through aqueous oxidation of SO2 in clouds droplets and hydrated aerosol particles.

  15. PM2.5 in Urban and Rural Nursery Schools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Trace Elements Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Anna; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kaczmarek, Konrad

    2015-07-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nursery schools is an emerging public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than older children. Among air pollutants, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is of the greatest interest mainly due to its strong association with acute and chronic effects on children's health. In this paper, we present concentrations of PM2.5 and the composition of its trace elements at naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter and spring seasons. The results indicate there is a problem with elevated concentrations of PM2.5 inside the examined classrooms. The children's exposure to trace elements was different based on localization and season. PM2.5 concentration and its trace element composition have been studied using correlation coefficients between the different trace elements, the enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA allowed the identification of the three components: anthropogenic and geogenic sources (37.2%), soil dust contaminated by sewage sludge dumping (18.6%) and vehicular emissions (19.5%). PMID:26184269

  16. Rural Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  17. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www.ers.usda.gov/ ...

  18. Changing Rural Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    more complex picture and understanding of rural development. The paper therefore tracks the evolution and origin of development paradigms, methods and objectives. Beginning in the 1950s is an “industrial” paradigm promoting industrial development and linked closely to the welfare state institutions....... Alongside this were agricultural policies and reforms that have been central in promoting large-scale production and “competitive” units. Where earlier policies were centered on national equality in and between regions and by redistribution and subsidies, this overarching aim and methodology was abandoned...... somewhere in the 1980s in order to improve the competitive power of Danish rural areas one for one. What is new then, is the international, or perhaps post-national, reasoning of rural policies, a tendency influencing not only the “new” rural paradigm, but also the still-going “old” agricultural and...

  19. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  20. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Community Survey, including age, race and ethnicity, migration and immigration, education, household size and family composition. ... USDA." 2. U.S. Census Bureau Geographic Terms and Concepts - Urban and Rural. http://www.census.gov/geo/ ...

  1. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  3. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs. How does Medicaid impact rural healthcare and the economy? In many ways, Medicaid plays a larger role ... supporting the social services infrastructure; and contributing to the economy through revenue and jobs it generates.” Findings in ...

  4. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of health care in the course of three decades of ‘reform and opening up’ has given people in rural China access to a diverse range of treatment options, but the health care system has also been marred by accusations of price hikes, fake pharmaceuticals, and medical malpractice....... This chapter offers an ethnographic description of health as an issue in a Hebei township and it focuses on a popular and a statist response to the perceived inadequacy of the rural health care system. The revival of religious practices in rural China is obviously motivated by many factors, but in the township...... roads to healing. The recent introduction of new rural cooperative medicine in the township represents an attempt to bring the state back in and address popular concern with the cost and quality of health care. While superficially reminiscent of the traditional socialist system, this new state attempt...

  5. Prevention and Control of Adolescents’ Deviant Behavior in Rural Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,an analysis is made from the point of view of sociology on traditional modeling logic of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community,and maintenance and reproduction of this model.The traditional prevention and control model of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is diversity-orderly pattern prevention and control system.This system is based on natural economy,especially on agricultural economy."Supervision by public opinion and moral imitation" is the basic operation logic of this system.It contains a compensation mechanism of "bringing up children for the purpose of being looked after in old age" and "favor returning".Then,deconstruction of traditional prevention and control model for adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is analyzed.Along with advance in rural modern democratic management and legal construction and growing of rural market economy,function of traditional diversity-orderly pattern of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviate behavior in rural community is weak and weak in prevention and control of modern rural adolescents’ deviant behavior.Finally,modeling ideas of new(coordinative) prevention and control of rural adolescents’ deviant behavior are put forward from four aspects,namely,democracy and legal system,community,family and various rural adolescent admittance organizations.

  6. Analysis of rural residential land consolidation based on willingness classification%基于利益趋向的农村居民点整治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高阳; 张凤荣; 郝晋珉; 张佰林; 朱凤凯; 曲衍波

    2016-01-01

    As an effective measure, rural residential land consolidation can not only intensify the rural residential land use, but also relieve the contradiction of urban and rural land use. We used the geological data and economic social materials gotten by GIS spatial techniques, global observation and interviews, and made empirical researches in Wuxiang County, Shanxi Province. Firstly, divide the type of rural residential land consolidation. As the diversity in terrain, economy and population structure, the rural settlements were different. This study chose 8 factors in 3 aspects, and used them to classify the settlements into 4 types, which were geological disaster type, urban development type, natural recession type and internal development type. It was very meaningful to divide villages of the study area into respective rural residential land consolidation types, because it not only helped us find out the current situation of the overall rural residential land utilization, but also coordinated the consolidation potential of individual village. So the division of rural residential land consolidation types was the basis for other researches of rural residential land consolidation. Then, establish the game theory model about consolidation willingness between local government and village collective, and use it to analyze the feasibility of different rural residential land consolidation types. As the administrator of the region, the government wanted to improve the living condition of peasants and raise the level of economic development through rural residential land consolidation. Also, villagers were the immediate stakeholders of rural settlement, so they had rights to determine whether the land is consolidated or not. With the property of public welfare, the local government had the leading role in rural residential land consolidation, so this game model was the dynamic game of complete information, which meant the local government took action first. The strategies of

  7. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-01-01

    The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...

  8. Association between community health center and rural health clinic presence and county-level hospitalization rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: an analysis across eight US states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laditka Sarah B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Federally qualified community health centers (CHCs and rural health clinics (RHCs are intended to provide access to care for vulnerable populations. While some research has explored the effects of CHCs on population health, little information exists regarding RHC effects. We sought to clarify the contribution that CHCs and RHCs may make to the accessibility of primary health care, as measured by county-level rates of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS conditions. Methods We conducted an ecologic analysis of the relationship between facility presence and county-level hospitalization rates, using 2002 discharge data from eight states within the US (579 counties. Counties were categorized by facility availability: CHC(s only, RHC(s only, both (CHC and RHC, and neither. US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality definitions were used to identify ACS diagnoses. Discharge rates were based on the individual's county of residence and were obtained by dividing ACS hospitalizations by the relevant county population. We calculated ACS rates separately for children, working age adults, and older individuals, and for uninsured children and working age adults. To ensure stable rates, we excluded counties having fewer than 1,000 residents in the child or working age adult categories, or 500 residents among those 65 and older. Multivariate Poisson analysis was used to calculate adjusted rate ratios. Results Among working age adults, rate ratio (RR comparing ACS hospitalization rates for CHC-only counties to those of counties with neither facility was 0.86 (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.78–0.95. Among older adults, the rate ratio for CHC-only counties compared to counties with neither facility was 0.84 (CI 0.81–0.87; for counties with both CHC and RHC present, the RR was 0.88 (CI 0.84–0.92. No CHC/RHC effects were found for children. No effects were found on estimated hospitalization rates among uninsured populations

  9. Employee and Workplace Well-Being: A Multi-Level Analysis of Teacher Personality and Organizational Climate in Norwegian Teachers from Rural, Urban and City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richard Andrew; Machin, Michael Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Although teaching is frequently cited as a stressful profession, limited recent Norwegian data is available. This study addressed the extent to which organizational climate and individual and organizational well-being outcomes vary between schools in rural, urban, and city locations. Participants were predominantly female (68%), aged 45+ years…

  10. Contributions of family environment and parenting processes to sexual risk and substance use of rural African American males: a 4-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie G; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors that forecast sexual risk and alcohol or other substance use patterns among 411 rural African American males as they transitioned from middle childhood to late adolescence. In addition, an exploration was undertaken to examine the contribution of both risk and protective factors in distinguishing rural African American males at highest risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior and elevated substance use from those with relatively low risk of engaging in these behaviors. Findings revealed that exposure to negative life events during middle childhood has prognostic significance for rural African American males' susceptibility to engaging in HIV-related risk behaviors as they transition into adolescence and young adulthood. High-risk engaging males had significantly higher means on susceptibility to risk and marginally significantly higher means on substance-using peer affiliation. High-risk rural African American males also reported lower means on involved-vigilant parent than the normative group (low-risk group). However, economic hardship, family stress, parental psychological functioning, and harsh and inconsistent parenting did not emerge as significant predictors of high- or low-risk group membership. The implication for future research and preventive interventions is discussed. PMID:23889021

  11. Nutrient budgets, soil fertility management and livelihood analysis in Northeast Thailand: a basis for integrated rural development strategies in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoud, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:  Rainfed lowland rice-based systems, Northeast Thailand, nutrient balance analyses, sustainability assessment, sustainable natural resource management, integrated rural development strategies, livelihood

  12. Greek Children Living in Rural Areas Are Heavier but Fitter Compared to Their Urban Counterparts: A Comparative, Time-Series (1997-2008) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare 12-year (1997-2008) trends in the distribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) status and physical fitness test performances among 8- to 9-year-old Greek children living in rural and urban areas. Methods: Population data derived from 11 national school-based health surveys conducted from 1997 to 2008. Anthropometric measurements and…

  13. 兰州市城乡居民精神卫生知识知晓率调查与分析%The survey and analysis of awareness rates of mental health knowledge for urban and rural residents in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小龙; 霍小宁; 焦歆益; 王丽萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigation of Lanzhou urban and rural residents for the master degree of mental health knowledge ,to further raise public awareness about mental health knowledge ,better to prevent and control the occurrence of mental disorders ,reduce the risk of mental patient hit and cause trouble .Methods Using stratified cluster random sampling method ,extraction of Lanzhou city 18 and older people of permanent population of 785 ur‐ban residents and rural residents 741 ,investigation content about the work of mental health indicators for the general office of the ministry of health ,2010 one of evaluation methods for the investigation questionnaire ,actual survey of 688 urban residents ,rural residents ,674 .Comparison of urban and rural residents know mental health knowledge lev‐el and related analysis .Results The survey ,the average awareness of Lanzhou urban and rural residents'knowl‐edge of mental health was 59 .0% ,including urban residents was 63 .4% ,the rural residents was 54.6% .Aware of knowledge about mental health for urban dwellers than for rural residents .Lower entry the correct answer mainly concentrated in the etiology ,prevention of mental illness ,long‐term medication and major mental health day .Con‐clusions Lanzhou urban and rural residents'knowledge of mental health awareness is low ,not reached the require‐ments of the national mental health work ,in the future to continue to strengthen publicity and education of mental health knowledge .%目的:调查兰州市城乡居民对精神卫生知识的掌握程度,进一步提高大众对精神卫生知识的知晓率,更好地预防和控制精神疾患的发生,降低精神患者肇事肇祸的风险。方法采用分层整群随机抽样法,抽取兰州市18岁及以上的常住人口城市居民785人和农村居民741人,调查内容为卫生部办公厅2010年关于精神卫生工作指标调查评估方案的问卷之一,实际调查城市居民688

  14. 宁波乡村旅游市场开发策略分析%Analysis on the Development Strategy of Ningbo Rural Tourism Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史锴

    2013-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, the tourism of Ningbo mainly relied on happy farm house, different from single rural sightseeing. The place of rural tourism points are all over the whole city. The overall strength of Ningbo tourism are next to Hangzhou. The number of rural tourism places is in the first place of Zhejiang Province. This thesis points out it has a broad prospects for Ningbo to develop rural tourism. It also discusses the problems and shortages during the development. Based on this, it tries to find the method to develop the rural tourism, points out the countermeasures and measures during developing Ningbo rural tourism, and hopes to achieve the sustainable development of rural tourism, and drive villages to achieve the strategic objec-tives of social and economic development.%改革开放以来,宁波的乡村旅游从原来单纯的农业观光,逐渐发展为现在以农家乐为主、多种形式并存的局面,乡村旅游点遍及全市各区县。宁波旅游业在浙江的总体实力仅次于杭州,乡村旅游资源点数量位居全省第一。本文结合实际情况,指出宁波发展乡村旅游业具有的广阔前景,探讨发展中存在的问题和不足;在此基础上,寻求发展宁波乡村旅游的途径,提出宁波开发乡村旅游的对策和措施,以期实现乡村旅游持续发展,带动乡村实现社会和经济发展的战略目标。

  15. SUGGESTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TUZLA RIVER BASIN (NW TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat ÇALIŞKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development consists of a wide variety of new activities such as organic farming and livestock, region-specific products, nature conservation and landscape management, rural tourism, and the development of short supply changes. This research aimed to use a SWOT analysis to identify strategies for rural development in the Tuzla River Basin.The Tuzla River Basin is located on the southern side of the Marmara Region and extends in northeast-southwest direction from the Aegean Sea to the western slope of Mt. Ida. This basin is divided into three sections, namely upper, middle and lower sections along the Tuzla River Basin. Some nine villages which represented three basins were selected from 35 villages using the methods of stratified sampling for this study. Some 200 surveys were performed in regard to the household number of each village and at 95% confidence level. According to the survey results, the investigated relation between the form of rural economic activity and the rural development characteristics was determined. SWOT and QSPM analysis techniques were used to explain poor conditions and future possibilities of rural development in the basin. In the rural areas of the basin, the form of agriculture, low-income animal husbandry carried out under natural & traditional conditions, emigration and traditional lifestyle are the causes of obstacles to rural development.

  16. The Use of the Health Disparities Calculator in Analysis of the Lung Cancer Burden in Urban and Rural Populations in the Świętokrzyskie Province (Poland): 1999–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyżak Michalina; Piotrowska Katarzyna; Maślach Dominik; Sowa Paweł; Pędziński Bartosz; Macek Paweł; Karczewski Jan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative analysis of the burden of lung cancer in urban and rural areas in the Świętokrzyskie Province in the years 1999–2010. The material for the study accounted for information about the number of new cases of lung cancer obtained from the Świętokrzyskie Cancer Registration Office in Kielce and data from the Central Statistical Office concerning the number of deaths due to lung cancer in the years 1999–2010. Crude and age-standardized incidence, mortality,...

  17. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  18. Empirical analysis on the rural consumer behavior in China%我国农村居民消费行为的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强

    2011-01-01

    依据1978-2009年间农村居民消费与收入的样本数据,根据西方消费理论,建立计量经济模型,运用协整研究方法,对农民的消费行为进行了实证研究。研究表明,农民消费与收入之间存在长期均衡关系;农民短期消费易受冲击,表现出一定的非理性;农民的长、短期消费的乘数都较小,从而客观上形成农民消费对经济增长的贡献率较低的现实;关键是农民收入增长偏低。对此提出了让农民们也能体面地生活的政策建议。%According to the western consumption theory,based on the rural residents' consumption and income sample data from 1978 to 2009,established econometric model,used cointegration analysis method,this article makes an empirical research on the farmers' consumer behavior.It is found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between the farmers' consumption and income,and the short-term consumption of farmers is susceptible to be impacted and the farmers' short-term consumption shows a little irrational.It is found that the farmers' long-term consumption multiplier and short-term consumption multiplier is still small,thus in words of the farmer's consumption effect,there is objectively a low contribution on the economic growth..AS far as the amplitude,the growth of degree,and the increase speed of development is concerned,the net income of farmers cannot be comparable with the per capita GDP.The article proposes the policy recommendations that the farmers can also live honorably.

  19. Better constraints on sources of carbonaceous aerosols using a combined 14C – macro tracer analysis in a European rural background site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The source contributions to carbonaceous PM2.5 aerosol were investigated at a European background site at the edge of the Po Valley, in Northern Italy, during the period January–December 2007. Carbonaceous aerosol was described as the sum of eight source components: primary (1 and secondary (2 biomass burning organic carbon, biomass burning elemental carbon (3, primary (4 and secondary (5 fossil fuel burning organic carbon, fossil fuel burning elemental carbon (6, primary (7 and secondary (8 biogenic organic carbon. The concentration of each component was quantified using a set of macro tracers (organic carbon OC, elemental carbon EC, and levoglucosan, micro tracers (arabitol and mannitol, and 14C measurements. This was the first time that 14C measurements were performed on a long time series of data able to represent the entire annual cycle. This set of 6 tracers, together with assumed uncertainty ranges of the ratios of OC-to-EC, and the fraction of modern carbon in the 8 source categories, provides strong constraints to the source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol. The uncertainty of contributions was assessed with a Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC method accounting for the variability of OC and EC emission factors, and the uncertainty of reference fractions of modern carbon. During winter biomass burning composed 50% of the total carbon (TC concentration, while in summer secondary biogenic OC accounted for 45% of TC. The contribution of primary biogenic aerosol particles was negligible during the entire year. Moreover, aerosol associated with fossil fuel burning represented 26% and 43% of TC in winter and summer, respectively. The comparison of source apportionment results in different urban and rural areas showed that the sampling site was mainly affected by local aerosol sources during winter and regional air masses from the nearby Po Valley in summer. This observation was further confirmed by back-trajectory analysis applying the Potential

  20. Better constraints on sources of carbonaceous aerosols using a combined 14C – macro tracer analysis in a European rural background site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2011-06-01

    burning and fossil sources. This indicates that the oxidation of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds co-emitted with primary organics is a significant source of SOA, as suggested by recent model results and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer measurements. Comparison with previous global model simulations, indicates a strong underestimate of wintertime primary aerosol emissions in this region. The comparison of source apportionment results in different urban and rural areas showed that the sampling site was mainly affected by local aerosol sources during winter and regional air masses from the nearby Po Valley in summer. This observation was further confirmed by back-trajectory analysis applying the Potential Source Contribution Function method to identify potential source regions.

  1. The Analysis of Partners’Game in Rural E-payment Market in China%我国农村电子支付市场中主体的博弈行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敬花; 蒋远胜; 帅青红

    2015-01-01

    Rural e-payment is becoming one of the hot researchtopics for the fact that it makes the fund run more efficiently. However, the further development of e-payment mainly depends on the partners’selection of it. According to the evolutionary game theory, this paper analyzed the evolution of financial institutions’service supply and farmers’service demand in the development process of e-payment. Based on the analysis of economic-subjects’selections on cost and profit and many other factors, it drew the following conclusions: the growth of rural economy was beneficial to the development of rural e-payment; the dynamic evolution can make the rural e-payment service supply and demand to be coincident;in order to make more benefits, the economic subjects led the rural e-payment to merge into CNAPS.%农村电子支付因提高资金流运行而成为研究的热点之一,其参与主体对电子支付的选择行为对农村电子支付市场的进一步发展尤为重要。论文运用演化博弈理论,分析在农村电子支付发展过程中,金融机构的服务供给和农户的服务需求的演化状况,通过对经济主体选择电子支付成本、收益等因素的研究,得出结论如下:农村经济的发展有益于农村电子支付;农村电子支付动态演化使金融机构的服务供给和农户金融的需求方面将趋于一致;电子支付各主体为实现利益最大化,促使农村电子支付融入现代支付体系。

  2. RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA - A MARKETING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică ŞTEFAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of national tourist brand is one of the priorities of the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism. The project on branding Romania is EU-funded, within the Regional Operational Program (ROP 2007-2013. Out of the different evaluation point of views - qualitative research in source markets and domestic market, project's team opinions, branding project research on the attractiveness / competitiveness, 6 tourism key product of Romanian tourism have been identified, one of them beeing Countryside &Rural Tourism. The paper aimed to present an analysis of the Countryside and rural tourism from a marketing perspective bearing in mind that, in order to reach the target set by the Romanian National Tourism Development Masterplan 2007-2026, of increasing the number of visitors at 9,7 milion in 2016, a marketing plan will be implemented. The average yearly growth of the arrivals number for the countryside and rural sector for 2011-2015 will be 25%.

  3. Institutional determiners of rural entrepreneurship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Usyuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The paper presents the research results that specify current institutional determinants in rural entrepreneurship development. The establishment of rural entrepreneurship is a key factor in rural economy revival, as well as, Ukrainian identity in particular. To reduce the impact of institutional barriers in business development, mandatory would be to consider the existing legal, economic, political, social canons, requirements and regulations. On the one hand, the components hereof will increase business efficiency, and on the other hand they will contribute to opportunistic behavior of economic agents when signing contracts or executing them. Therefore, coordination of external (formal institutions and internal (informal institutional elements will improve the conditions for entrepreneurship development and rise business economic efficiency in particular. The article is aimed at determining institutional impact on the development of rural entrepreneurship and justification of areas in order to overcome barriers of institutional character to form strategic goals of strengthening economic business performance. The results of the analysis. The paper highlights basic premise for creating institutional framework of rural entrepreneurship. It is proposed to consider institutional entrepreneurship environment in rural areas as a specific infrastructure designed to facilitate efficient operations, rapid product turnover, company positive image formation and innovation implementation in economic activity. The main problems of institutional environment in assessing rural entrepreneurship are associated with a limited amount of statistic information. The existing methods do not allow determining of entrepreneurship institutional determinants in rural areas or on that basis to justify innovative directions for each structure further operation. Therefore, the author proposes to use a method of constructing multicorrelation

  4. Overview of Rural Tourism Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, Tianhui

    2015-01-01

    Rural tourism is a form of tourism relying on rural environment, with rural unique natural scene and cultural characteristics (production pattern, life style, folk customs, and rural culture) as object, and integrating sightseeing, vacation, recreation and shopping. Rural tourism provides recreation products for urban residents, promotes national and local economy, promotes rural employment, keeps traditional culture, improves rural ecological environment, and promotes urban and rural exchang...

  5. The Rural Elite and the Supply of Public Goods in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu-peng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of collective action and social capital theory,social capital is introduced into the game analysis of the supply of public goods between the rural elite and ordinary villagers.I establish the income model of public goods utility concerning the rural elite and ordinary villagers;research the incentive of social capital for the rural elite and villagers,and impact of social capital on the rural elite and villagers.Three inferences can be drawn from the model:the precondition for the elite to prompt the collective cooperation is having " good reputation" ;" good reputation" of the elite in the supply of public goods can abate farmers’ motive of " free rider" ;the role of the elite in organizing the supply of public goods can save the transaction costs in the process of collective action.Taking the case of Shunhe Village,Panyu District,Guangzhou City,I explain this model.Finally,some policy recommendations are put forth as follows:rebuilding the community credit;giving full play to the role of the rural elite in the supply of public goods in rural areas.

  6. Empirical Analysis on Urban-rural Income Gap in Henan Province%河南省城乡收入差距的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖钦; 徐邓耀

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,with the expansion of income gap between urban and rural residents in Henan province,it has caused a lot of social problem.This article selects data from 2003 to 2012,through the index of per capita annual disposable income,per capita annual consumption and Gini coefficient to measure and analyse urban-rural income gap in Henan province,and further discusses Urban-rural Income GapIn various regions of Henan province.The absolute gap between urban and rural residents per capita annual income and con-sumption in Henan province continues to widen,but the relative gap is narrowing;There are a big income gap about thewhole province,the income distribution both in the internal urban residents and the internal ruralresidents is relatively reasonable ,but the income gap inside the rural residents is greater than the urban.Finally,this article puts forward relevant proposals and suggestions for narrowing the income gap between urban and rural area.%选取2003-2012年数据,通过人均可支配收入、人均消费、基尼系数等指标对河南省城乡居民收入差距进行测度,并分析河南省各地区城乡收入差距状况。河南省城乡居民人均收入和人均消费的绝对差距都在持续加大,其相对差距呈缩小趋势;全省收入分配差距较大,城镇内部和农村内部的收入分配相对合理,但农村内部的贫富差距大于城镇。最后,对缩小城乡收入差距提出相关对策与建议。

  7. Role of rural tourism for development of rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Udovč; Anton Perpar

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …). The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa). The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development poss...

  8. 重庆市城市农村儿童肥胖发病率及相关因素的分析%Analysis on childhood obesity incidences between urban and rural in Chongqing and its related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦怡玲; 熊丰; 赵勇; 朱岷; 罗雁红; 王付丽; 曾燕; 吴利平; 马勤香

    2013-01-01

    18 years from Chongqing urban and rural area were enrolled.Height,weight and body mass index(BMI) were measured.According to the method of stratified cluster sampling,4 400 children from 2 urban schools and 3 rural schools were extracted to fill obesity influencing factors questionnaires.Children were divided into obese group and control group according to BMI,childhood obesity related multivariate Logistic regression analysis was made and differences of obesity risk factors between urban and rural were compared.Results:(1) Overall obesity incidences among school-age children in Chongqing were 8.23%,9.70% in urban and 5.32% in rural areas(P<0.000 1).(2)Obesity related factors logistic regression analysis demonstrated that birth weight,meat,fried food,beverage,snack intake frequency,maternal smoking and family history of obesity were risk factors for childhood obesity in urban area; breastfeeding,vegetable intake frequency and vitamin supplements were protective factors.At the same time,birth weight,fried foods,milk products,snack intake frequency,parents BMI were risk factors for childhood obesity in rural area;breastfeeding was protective factor.(3)Urban children ate more meat,fried foods and milk product than rural children;family obesity history rate was higher while breastfeeding rate was lower in urban children than in rural children(P<0.05).Conclusions:Childhood obesity incidence of urban area is higher than that of rural area in Chongqing and the influencing factors are maternal nutrition during pregnancy,maternal smoking,feeding mode,way of life and family history of obesity.To control childhood obesity in urban,we should focus on advocating smoking cessation during pregnancy,raising breast feeding rate and controlling meat,fried food,sugary drinks,snack intake of children.Childhood obesity incidence is lower in rural area than in urban area,but the growth rate is higher in rural area than in urban area;measures should be taken to improve children

  9. 新疆南疆农村建筑节能存在问题分析及思考%Analysis and Reflection on the Problems of Building Energy Efficiency in the South Rural of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海波; 邢小宁; 吴英

    2014-01-01

    为了改善新疆南疆农民的居住条件和生活环境,主要针对新疆南疆农村住房建筑节能效果进行分析思考,详细的论述了南疆农村住房在建筑节能所处的现状,针对南疆农村推行建筑节能工作,分析了政府面临的问题和挑战,并对这些问题提出想法和建议,对一些具体的建筑节能方法做了简单的介绍,强调了建筑节能工作的重要性和必要性。%In order to improve the Xinjiang Southern farmers living conditions and living environment,The article mainly carried on the analysis based on the South of Rural Housing construction energy saving effect in Xinjiang, Detailed discussion of the present situation on the South of Rural Housing located in the construction of energy-saving, According to the construction of energy-saving work in rural areas, faced Analysis of the problems and challenges by the government, Propose ideas and suggestions for these issues, method to do a simple introduction On some specific building energy saving, Emphasizes the importance and necessity for the construction of energy-saving work.

  10. Education Issues in Rural Schools of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    To have an impact on rural schools and communities, education researchers and reformers must stop approaching rural issues from an urban perspective, adopt a perspective that values rurality, and address issues specific to the rural context. Rural schools have contributed to the depletion of rural communities by focusing on individual mobility and…

  11. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

  12. Research on the Evaluation System for Rural Public Safety Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Jianxin; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The indicator evaluation system is introduced to the study of rural public safety planning in this article.By researching the current rural public safety planning and environmental carrying capacity,we select some carrying capacity indicators influencing the rural public safety,such as land,population,ecological environment,water resources,infrastructure,economy and society,to establish the environmental carrying capacity indicator system.We standardize the indicators,use gray correlation analysis method to determine the weight of indicators,and make DEA evaluation of the indicator system,to obtain the evaluation results as the basis for decision making in rural safety planning,and provide scientific and quantified technical support for rural public safety planning.

  13. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use

  14. Office of Rural Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Us Federal Office of Rural Health Policy  News $16 million in funding to improve health ... and learn more about FORHP programs.   Rural Health Policy FORHP prepares regular policy announcements focusing on the ...

  15. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providin gquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  16. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  17. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra

  18. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools

  19. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  20. Marriage in Rural Philippine Households

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Utilizing intergenerational data from a sample of rural households in Laguna Province, this article tests the proposition that rural families are responsive to economic conditions as choices are made regarding children’s educational needs, their location and occupation choices.