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Sample records for analysis eletrificacao rural

  1. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge

    1995-07-01

    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  2. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  3. Rural electrification: elements for debates; Eletrificacao rural: elementos para o debate

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    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Educacao. Grupo de Estudos em Educacao, Cultura e Meio Ambiente). E-mail: marcos_v_m_silva@yahoo.com; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyses the benefits of the rural electrification and recommends the inclusion of the social and environmental aspects in the decision making, as directives for the implantation of rural electrification and the energetic planning. It aims a more equitable distribution of the rural electrification benefits among the country regions and the definition of the energetic systems in an economical and environmental rational manner.

  4. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

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    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  5. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

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    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  6. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

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    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  7. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

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    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  8. Rural electrification in Santarem: the contribution of micro hydropower; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Diniz, Janaina Deane de Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA . The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA ) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  9. CRERAL: one experience in cooperative in rural electrification and a new legislation for the cooperatives; CRERAL: uma experiencia de cooperativa na eletrificacao rural e a nova legislacao para as cooperativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Joao Alderi do [Cooperativa Regional de Eletrificacao Rural do Alto Uruguai LTDA (CRERAL), Campinas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: creral@st.com.br

    2003-01-15

    Cooperativa Regional de Eletrificacao Rural do Alto Uruguai LTDA - CRERAL was created in July 23rd, 1969, to take energy to the countryside, because the concessionaire did not use to do that in that time. CRERAL has been distributing electric energy in the countryside for 33 years and, recently, it has been producing energy too. This work shows a brief historic of CRERAL and a new scenario to the cooperatives of rural electrification in relation to the new Brazilian electric model. After 33 years, CRERAL has a great experience in distributing electric energy in the countryside. In 2001, CRERAL had 5,647 partners using the energy in 37 cities in the north region of Rio Grande do Sul, with its head-office in Erechim - RS, with an electric system of 1,781 km of web and 18,890 posts, 1,475 transformers installed with a potency of 17,161 KVA. CRERAL has implanted a model of democratic management, that permits the partners to take part in the decisions of the cooperative, including organized groups in the communities (that are 105 today) and the general assembly. The partners define the priorities, the changes, the investments and the tariff to be charged. With studies starting in 1997, CRERAL started producing energy. In 2000, was inaugurated the first PCH. With a potency of 720 KW, Abauna Dam was responsible for 26% of the energy consumed by the cooperative in 2001. Cascata das Andorinhas PCH Dam, with a potency of 1,000 KW , is being built and it must be working by the end of 2002. The new electric model will bring great changes to the cooperativism of electrification with the possibility that the cooperatives be transformed in permissionaires of public service of energy, but it will also represent a great challenge to be inserted and to continuo existing in this new scenario. (author)

  10. Rural electrical process and the agroindustrial expansion in Goias state, Brazil; Processo de eletrificacao rural e a expansao da agroindustria no extremo sudoeste goiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Josias Manoel [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias (CEFET/GO), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The electric energy is an important tool to rural communities, promoting quality of life through its use at home or as part of the productive process. The Rural Electrical Project of the State of Goias began with the collaboration between The Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) and the Electric Company of the State of Goias. The subject of this paper is to characterize the electric energy use in three farms attended by OECF project, in Rio Verde, Jatai and Mineiro. It was done the checking, analysis and description of situations related to the electric installation, motors starting, conservation and use of alternative energy source. It was evident that all farms use electric motors to several purposes (irrigation, manufacture of ration, triturates, mechanic milking, etc). Two farms used electric fences, while only one used hybrid system. It was verified at the visited farms presented an expressive use of the electric energy in its domestic usage as much as an input to the productive process. (author)

  11. Electric power public services license granting for rural electrification cooperatives; Outorga de permissao de servicos publicos de energia eletrica as cooperativas de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia Santos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Area Interdisciplinar de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: cynthia@fem.unicamp.br; Carbonari Neto, Emigdio [Companhia de Geracao de Energia Eletrica Paranapanema, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ocpg3@cgeep.com.br; Guerra, Helvio Neves [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: helvio_guerra@uol.com.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyses the framing and regularization of some rural electrification cooperatives licensed for electric energy public services, and briefly reports the role played by those cooperatives in the development of the Brazilian electric sector.

  12. The rural electric cooperatives in a new scenario of the electric sector; As cooperativas de eletrificacao rural no novo cenario do setor eletrico

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    Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], e-mail: macpel@pea.usp.br, e-mail: fribeiro@pea.usp.br, e-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The rural electric cooperatives are agents who have always been on the edge of the electric sector. Now, they must be regularized to the new rules of the electric energy public service established by the 1995 Concessions Law. This work provides an evaluation of the Brazilian rural electric cooperatives regulation apparatus and the regularization public policy applied in Sao Paulo. The evaluation focus is the rural citizen, the electric energy consumer and the citizens who have been excluded from this public service. The interpretation of the problem and the study of the regularization process has led to the evidence that the situation reached an impasse. The thesis is that the attitude of regulatory agencies create a paradox where the cooperatives are not covered by the regulation policies with damage to citizens in these areas. Particularly, given that the Brazilian citizens have won the right of electricity access, the citizen who lives in the cooperative area have no protection by State to do this right effective. This work offers an academic proposal to break this institutional impasse, based on the search of the agents' equilibrium. (author)

  13. Evaluation as a tool for planning: a case study on rural electrification; Avaliacao como instrumento de planejamento: estudo de caso em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The universalization of access of the electric energy is one of the goals established by the Brazilian government so as to attend the rural and urban population. The arrival of electric energy in remote and low income areas allows these populations to reach one of the basic conditions to improve the quality of life and citizenship. In order to achieve this goal efficiently, it is necessary to build tools that make possible the impact and process evaluation, searching the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals, or in the poverty mitigation. The knowledge originated from evaluation impact studies provides an important contribution to the improvement of social programs, and a return to society as how the public fund is being managed, promoting transparency and focus. In this context, tolls are developed so as to support the impact and process evaluation in terms of rural electrification publics policies, using a study case that includes about 23.000 questionnaires in 21 states, considering the moment before the access (ex-ante) and after (ex-post), during the years of 2000 and 2004. (author)

  14. Cost comparison of individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems for rural electrification; Comparacao de custos entre sistemas fotovoltaicos individuais e minicentrais fotovoltaicas para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Vieira, Leonardo dos Santos Reis; Galdino, Marco Antonio Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: fleury@cepel.br, lsrv@cepel.br, marcoag@cepel.br; Olivieri, Marta Maria de Almeida; Borges, Eduardo Luis de Paula; Carvalho, Claudio Monteiro de; Lima, Alex Artigiani Neves [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: martaolivieri@eletrobras.com, eduardo_borges@eletrobras.com, claudio.carvalho@eletrobras.com, alex.lima@eletrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    A cost comparison for individual and mini grid photovoltaic systems is made regarding the use of these systems for rural electrification in Northern Brazil. The estimates for maintenance costs were based on existing experience for individual systems already operating in the region. A comparison was also made between modified automotive lead acid batteries commonly used in photovoltaic systems in Brazil and the much more expensive OPzS tubular types. The results of these evaluations show that the maintenance costs are expected to be lower in the case of the mini grids than in individual systems. This is because for a given number of houses to be supplied with electrical energy, they use a smaller number of components subject to failures, like inverters and charge controllers. OPzS batteries are expected to compensate for their higher prices if their predicted operating lifetime can be confirmed under the practical conditions envisaged. (author)

  15. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  16. The participation of the sectors of electric energy consumption in a rural electrification cooperative; A participacao dos setores de consumo de energia eletrica em uma cooperativa de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Cristiane Aparecida Pelegrin [Instituicao Toledo de Ensino (ITE), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Contabeis], e-mail: cristiane.higuchi@itelefonica.com.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Ielo, Frederico G. de Paula F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This work had the objective of to evaluate the behavior of the electrical energy distribution in a Rural Electrification Cooperative, placed inside the State of Sao Paulo, embracing the region of the county of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema. Were appraised the electric energy distribution data of the Rural Electrification Cooperative of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema - CERIPA, during the years of 2000, 2001 and 2002. Was evaluated the sale of energy evolution, clearance evolution, general load factor and the electrical distribution for consumer type. The found results allowed to end that the Rural electrification Cooperative, show a good electric energy distribution in residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  17. Adaptation of rural electricity cooperatives in the State of Parana to the scenario of the electric sector; Adaptacao das cooperativas de eletrificacao rural do estado do Parana ao cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], Email: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmenan, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Reisdoerfer, Eli Carlos; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Email: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Rural Electrification Cooperatives (REC) has already played a fundamental role in rural electrification process. Bearing in mind changes in legislation towards specific laws that tend to facilitate energy distribution and trade relations, REC has increased there potential to contribute even more to above mentioned process. The present work intended to assess how REC settled in Parana State have adapted themselves to the privatised electrical business scenario as well as to new legal requirements and the presence of great national and international corporations disputing the energy market. Such new electrical market model favors huge changes to the electrification cooperatives, with the possibility of transforming cooperatives into public service energy with governmental permission. Moreover, it also represents a giant challenge for their insertion and continuity in such new scenario, in as much as the REC classification process as public service companies for electric energy distribution has been carried out for years, added to the scarcity of investments on state cooperatives, therefore restricting electric energy supply to residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  18. Inspection on rural electrification cooperatives in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil - a step for the regularization; Inspecao de cooperativas de eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo - um passo para sua regularizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Sao Paulo Univ. , SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br; Fernandes Filho, Guilherme Eugenio Filippo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gfilippo@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The state of Sao Paulo counts, now, with seventeen cooperatives of rural electrification that assist several areas of the state. Those agents of the electric sector are, in Brazil, going by a regularization process coordinated by ANEEL (Agencia Nacional das Empresas de Energia Eletrica) - the Brazilian electric energy agency. In Sao Paulo that process is being driven by the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia) - the Brazilian energy public service commission. One of the stages of that process was the inspection of the cooperatives, accomplished during the year of 1999 by five teams from UNESP and from USP. This paper describes the methodology used in those inspections and presents the main data. It concludes that the service rendered by the cooperatives is of good quality, and, than smaller is the cooperative, better is the attendance. It also the need of technological advancements that the cooperatives will have to accomplish if they want to participle in a competitive and regularity market. (author)

  19. Development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification; Desenvolvimento de conversor eletronico para maxima transferencia de potencia em sistemas fotovoltaicos aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Neto, Lauro de Vilhena Brandao [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Diniz, Antonia Sonia Alves Cardoso [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cortizo, Porfirio Cabaleiro [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The maximization of the efficiency in the electric energy conversion is essential to the developing of technical and economic viability of photovoltaic solar energy systems. This paper presents the development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification. The standalone photovoltaic system used is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the Solar Light Program. Initially were developed test procedures of the equipment used in the system like photovoltaic generators, electronic ballasts, inverters, charge controllers and batteries, covering minimum performance requirements and in compliance with national and international standards, as possible, due to the instrumentation availability. A data acquisition system was assembled to monitoring the photovoltaic system. A simulation of the system was implemented and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitoring results. The converter with maximum power point tracking consists of a direct current converter in the buck configuration and the control algorithm was implemented in a micro controller, being the first results presented here. After finished the prototype, it will be incorporated in the photovoltaic system and will be accomplished a study of the technical and economic viability. The first results of the tests, of the monitoring and of the converter with maximum power point tracking are helping the sustainability of the systems installed by CEMIG, funding the government initiatives in the quality control of equipment and promoting the development of national technology. (author)

  20. 'Click Rural' - the rural program for rural electrification: his effects and implications the western Parana, Brazil after 20 years later; O programa de eletrificacao rural 'Clic rural': seus efeitos e implicacoes na regiao oeste do Parana 20 anos depois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    This study verified through a sampling the technical standard of attendance adopted by the greater program for rural electrification denominated 'Clic Rural' ever implanted in the state of Parana, Brazil, in the period of 1984-1992 at the concession area of COPEL - Parana Energy Company. The work was based on a field research with visits and a questionnaire applied of rural proprietaries.

  1. The implications of the marketing promotional compound in a cooperative of the rural electrification: the case of CERTAJA-RS; As implicacoes do composto promocional de marketing numa cooperativa de eletrificacao rural: o caso da CERTAJA-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Padilha, Ana Claudia Machado; Silva, Tania Nunes da; Mattos, Paloma [UniversidadeFederal do Rio Grande do Sul (CEPAN-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios

    2006-07-01

    The present study it consisted of analyzing the made up of marketing of the cooperative of agricultural electrification - CERTAJA, aiming at to identify which is the current actions developed and implemented for the cooperative. For this, it was used as analysis object the tools of the made up of marketing, the 4 P's (product, price, point of distribution and promotion), that it was identified by means of questionnaires saw e-mail to the manager of the department of energy, to the vice president, to the responsible one for the financial department and to the assessorship of the press that has fort linking with the department of marketing. As main results it is cited consolidation of communication channels that offer possibility to the social picture to participate of the decisions of the cooperative, as well as having information for way written and said decisions to them of management and administration. The supply of electric energy has as focus the satisfaction of the cooperated ones that they are partner-proprietors of the cooperative, being excellent to offer to these and excessively consuming a product or service that takes care of to its expectations. (author)

  2. Electrification of small rural properties in the Cangucu-Brazil city using alternative sources for electricity generation; Eletrificacao de pequenas propriedades rurais do municipio de Cangucu empregando fontes alternativas para a producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecktheuer, Lucio Almeida [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia

    1998-12-31

    This paper aims at specifying and measuring the main alternative electrification system components, such as solar and eolic, which make use of the property`s energetical potential that, to a small extent, do not represent pollution sources to the environment. The results indicated that, the small rural properties of Cangucu country, which present a low daily electric energy consumption, these alternative systems are able to technically and economically supply electric energy and provide reasonable subsidies to electrification projects which can eventually be developed in the country. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Photovoltaic solar energy at CEMIG - Electric Power Company of Minas Gerais state, Brazil - a technology viable for the rural pre-electrification in the state of Minas Gerais; Energia solar fotovoltaica na CEMIG - uma tecnologia viavel para a pre-eletrificacao rural em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, A.S.A.C.; Carvalho, F.W.; Franca, E.; Tome, J.L.; Villefort, M.H.; Rezende, M.; Araujo, L.A.; Rosa, J.G.F.; Burgoa, J.A. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, (Brazil)]. E-mail: asacd@cemig.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the development of using the photovoltaic solar energy by CEMIG - Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, from the evaluation phase of photovoltaic energy technology to the large scale use of the photovoltaic systems in the 'Solar Light Program - Rural Pre-electrification with Voltaic Systems'. The paper also discusses the sustainability model of the photovoltaic technology.

  4. A critical analysis of the 'Programa Luz Para Todos' for the electrification of remote communities in the Amazon region; Uma analise critica do Programa Luz Para Todos para a eletrificacao de comunidades isoladas na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao [Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a critical review of 'Luz para Todos' (LpT) as a rural electricity deployment program and its viability as a starter for a development process to isolated communities from Amazon region. We analyzed the functionality using data from the beginning of the program until 2009, as well the methodology and organization of the investments over 'Luz para Todos' program as a development starter, preferably sustainable, for the isolated communities from Amazon region. We concluded that a discussion is mandatory, as well a review of some important points, such as estimation of available financial resources; mechanisms used to motivate electric utilities that serve the isolated communities especially in the Amazon region; and the relationship between energy and development proposed by the program. (author)

  5. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second, rural tourism is the granger reason to agricultural food marketing and there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between them. From the VAR model, we can get that rural tourism will promote agricultural food marketing growth. LnRT at lag 1 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.48%; LnRT at lag 2 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.2%, so the effect of rural tourism on agricultural food marketing is obvious.

  6. Spatial analysis methodology applied to rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, J. [Department of Electric Engineering, EUTI, UPM, Ronda de Valencia, E-28012 Madrid (Spain); Dominguez, J. [Renewable Energies Division, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    The use of geographical information systems (GISs) in studies of regional integration of renewable energies provides advantages such as speed, amount of information, analysis capacity and others. However, these characteristics make it difficult to link the results to the initial variables, and therefore to validate the GIS. This makes it hard to ascertain the reliability of both the results and their subsequent analysis. To solve these problems, a GIS-based method is proposed with renewable energies for rural electrification structured in three stages, with the aim of finding out the influence of the initial variables on the result. In the first stage, a classic sensitivity analysis of the equivalent electrification cost (LEC) is performed; the second stage involves a spatial sensitivity analysis and the third determines the stability of the results. This methodology has been verified in the application of a GIS in Lorca (Spain). (author)

  7. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Beijing Rural Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yong-liang

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the status quo of Beijing rural infrastructure, I probe into the SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal. Among them, the strengths of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal are analyzed from two aspects, namely, the strong financial support and great importance attached to by the government; the weaknesses are analyzed in terms of the serious shortage of funds invested and disparate investment in...

  8. The Rural Institutions in Colombia: Reflections for Analysis and Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Ropero Beltran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rural question is one of the great challenges for institutions in Colombia. The discussion regarding institutional efficiency and effectiveness for the rural sector should be brought forward based on circumstantial aspects that in turn mediate social the social, political, cultural, environmental, economic and productive in the Colombian agriculture, including trade agreements and post-conflict eventually included. The new rurality as an approach to rural development poses a different view about the subject, conceives the rural thing as a multisectorial and multidimensional space, which is the starting point from which arise the elements of analysis that allow advance an institutional debate broad and participatory facing the structural transformation of the rural reality.

  9. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Beijing Rural Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the status quo of Beijing rural infrastructure, I probe into the SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal. Among them, the strengths of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal are analyzed from two aspects, namely, the strong financial support and great importance attached to by the government; the weaknesses are analyzed in terms of the serious shortage of funds invested and disparate investment in rural infrastructure; the opportunities faced by the rural infrastructure construction are analyzed in terms of support form the macrocontrol of the state and the threats are analyzed from the aspects of land preservation and environmental protection. Thus in order to further promote the Beijing rural infrastructure construction and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction, the following countermeasures are put forward. In the first place, the government should adjust the fiscal policies and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction. In the second place, the laws should be perfected to provide constitutional guarantee for infrastructure construction. In the third place, healthy supervision system of rural infrastructure should be managed well and use well. In the fourth place, the government should attach importance to disparate demands and shift from the unified standard to classified standard. In the fifth place, the government should enforce the supervision on capital and operation so as to improve the service efficiency of capital.

  10. Financial Support for Rural Cooperative Economy in China Based on Grey Correlation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchang; XU; Chuandong; WANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzed current situations of financial support for rural cooperative economy in China and tested the correlation between rural finance and rural cooperative economy using the grey correlation analysis method. Results indicate that there is a close relationship between amount,structure and efficiency of rural finance and development of rural cooperative economy. The amount of rural finance has the largest promotion function to development of rural cooperative economy,the next is rural finance structure,and the least is efficiency of rural finance. Based on research conclusions,it came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Interaction between Rural Residents’ Consumption and Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,the income and consumption level of farmers is lower than that of urban residents,and in the context of current grave international economic environment,it is very unfavorable to expanding domestic demand and stimulating economic growth. Based on the empirical analysis of rural residents’ income and consumption,this paper explores the reasons for lagging consumption of rural residents in China,and finally puts forth the recommendations for increasing farmers’ income,promoting farmers’ consumption and expanding the rural market.

  12. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  13. The Grey Correlation Analysis on the Relationship between the Rural Finance and the Rural Economical Growth in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural finance and the rural economy of Sichuan Province from 1999 to 2009 by using the sequential growth rate of the gross value of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery and the sequential growth rate of the per capital total income of rural households as the indicators of rural economic development; and taking the volume of deposit, volume of credit, volume of agricultural credit and the credit volume of township enterprises as the indicators of rural financial development; as well as the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show that there is an obvious positive correlation between them, and the development of country finance has the closest connection with the sequential growth rate of farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production and fishery. The loan scale of township enterprises has the biggest influence on the increase of the rural economy. The countermeasures are put forward, covering optimizing investment structure; supporting the development of township enterprises; encouraging loan; actively lightening the financial difficulties in the process of developing rural economy; innovating and exploring; and promoting the diversified development of rural finance.

  14. Empirical Analysis of the Role of Urbanization in Driving the Growth of Rural Residents’ Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a powerful engine for the growth of rural residents’ consumption in China.This paper selects the cross-sectional data concerning 31 provinces( municipalities) in China during 2005-2012,and builds the panel data model of influence of urbanization on rural residents’ consumption in China for empirical analysis.The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between urbanization and rural residents’ consumption level.From the mechanism,urbanization drives the growth of rural residents’ consumption by improving rural residents’ income level and changing rural residents’ consumption concept.However,the uncertainties of rural residents’ income inhibit the growth of rural residents’ consumption.Therefore,it is necessary to accelerate the development of urbanization,broaden farmers’ income channels,improve the consumer environment and accelerate the reform of the household registration system to further activate the rural consumer market.

  15. SWOT Analysis and Strategic Research on China’s Rural Modern Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the necessity of China’s rural modern industrial development,and points out that developing rural modern industry is the necessary choice of increasing farmers’ income and bridging urban-rural gap;developing rural modern industry is the propeller of promoting rural economic prosperity and holistic economic growth of the nation;developing rural modern industry is the foundation of perfecting various kinds of social undertakings and changing rural appearance.SWOT analysis is conducted on China’s rural modern industrial development.The advantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include human resources advantage,economic development advantage,and policy advantage;the disadvantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include outdated thinking and concept,unsound infrastructure and imperfect system guarantee;the opportunities of China’s rural modern industrial development include great development of agricultural technology,implementation of new countryside construction strategy and development of rural informatization construction;the challenges of China’s rural modern industrial development include the transformation from closed rural environment with weak infrastructure to open rural environment with sound infrastructure,the transformation from traditional agricultural production mode to modern industrial development mode,and the transformation from administrative management model to service-oriented management model.The corresponding strategies are put forward to promote China’s rural modern industrial development at present as follows:change thinking and concept;perfect infrastructure;establish security system and perfect management system;provide good hard and soft foundation for rural industrial development so as to promote rural modern industrial development.

  16. Spatial Analysis of the Evolvement of Urban and Rural Economic Disparity in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The per capita disposable income of urban households and the per capita net income of rural households in Yunnan Province are selected as the variable indices.Data are from the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook.Theil index and RHL value are used to carry out quantitative research on the occurrence,development and change of urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province,China.Regression analysis on the evolvement trend of urban and rural economic disparity and spatial analysis on the convergence and divergence of urban and rural disparity caused by economic growth in Yunnan Province are carried out.Result shows that cities in Yunnan Province show a downward convergence;while rural areas show a downward divergence in the years 1978-2007,causing the economic disparity between urban and rural areas.Therefore,urban and rural disparity increases in Yunnan Province and the development of rural areas lags far behind the development of urban areas.Urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province shows an inverted "U" shape of Kuznets Curve.In order to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural economy,suggestions are put forward,such as adopting the unbalanced development strategy,accelerating the overall economic development,promoting the development of small and medium-sized cities,enhancing the integration of urban and rural economics,appropriately supporting rural areas under poverty,and fully exerting the comparative advantage.

  17. Small rural hospitals: an example of market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, A G; Shelby, R L

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, market segmentation analysis has shown increased popularity among health care marketers, although marketers tend to focus upon hospitals as sellers. The present analysis suggests that there is merit to viewing hospitals as a market of consumers. Employing a random sample of 741 small rural hospitals, the present investigation sought to determine, through the use of segmentation analysis, the variables associated with hospital success (occupancy). The results of a discriminant analysis yielded a model which classifies hospitals with a high degree of predictive accuracy. Successful hospitals have more beds and employees, and are generally larger and have more resources. However, there was no significant relationship between organizational success and number of services offered by the institution.

  18. Analysis of optimum density of forest roads in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the density of roads in rural properties in the south of the Espírito Santo and compared it with the calculation of the optimal density in forestry companies in steep areas. The work was carried out in six small rural properties based on the costs of roads of forest use, wood extraction and the costs of loss of productive area. The technical analysis included time and movement study and productivity. The economic analysis included operational costs, production costs and returns for different scenarios of productivity (180m.ha-1, 220m.ha-1and 250 m.ha-1. According to the results, all the properties have densities of road well above the optimum, which reflects the lack of criteria in the planning of the forest stands, resulting in a inadequate use of plantation area. Property 1 had the highest density of roads (373.92 m.ha-1 and the property 5 presented the lowest density (111.56 m.ha-1.

  19. Brief Analysis on Institution of Rural Collective Construction Land Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the viewpoint of strengthening the government management and control of rural collective construction land transfer,this paper gives relevant definitions and puts forward institution and policy of construction land for township enterprises and rural housing land. It is expected to provide institutional guarantee for standardizing the market order of rural collective construction land use right transfer.

  20. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ACCESSIBILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF OLSZTYN COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kozłowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant impact on the multifunctional development of rural areas is the so-called transport accessibility. This applies mainly to the capabilities and reach the pace of the in-habitants of the so-called areas peripheral to the main economic centers of the province. The research includes analysis of the availability of transport in quantitative and qualitative as-pects, which was defined for the purposes of research. Quantity and quality of transport in-frastructure, the number of connections, length and travel time to the most important eco-nomic centers were taken into consideration. Analysis of transport availability sets the target application development, which is to determine the key investment priorities for the next programming periods of transport infrastructure development of the Warmia and Mazury province.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Boateng; Prince Amoako; Divine Odame Appiah; Adjoa Afriyie Poku; Emmanuel Kofi Garsonu

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly s...

  2. ANALYSIS OF RURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF REGION CRISANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a SWOT analysis on the potential of rural tourism in the region Crisana. Crisana region is a historical region delimited at north by the river Somes and Maramures region, at west by the river Tisa, at south by the Mures river and Banat region, and at east by the peaks of the Apuseni Mountains and Transylvania region. Crisana Region stretches on both Romania and Hungary, and we will refer only to the Romanian side of it. Crisana region has an area of 17,717 km2 and if we refer to the current counties, this region includes much of Arad county, without the area between the river Mures and Timis county, north of Hunedoara county Bihor county and part of western Salaj county

  3. Utility Analysis on Supply of Rural Public Policies in North Bay Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzhen; LI; Dafeng; YE

    2013-01-01

    From analysis on internal and external motive forces of development in North Bay Economic Zone, it indicates that public policies, as basic methods of government intervening against social and economic activities, are fundamental public goods produced by government. Effective supply of public policies brings rural economic growth, environmental protection and sustainable development, which greatly stimulates rural consumption, expands domestic demand and spurs economic growth, showing significant "multiplier effect". In this situation, this paper studies conditions for rural economic development and social transformation of the North Bay Economic Zone. Results show that social and economic development of rural areas of the North Bay Economic Zone needs scientific, reasonable and effective "public policies".

  4. A Statistical Analysis on the Effects of Infrastructure on Rural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuQingjiang; YangHaiyan

    2005-01-01

    Based on statistical analysis, this paper states that four types of rural infrastructure as roads, electrcity,communications, and education have statistically significant effects on agricultural production, nonagricultural production, and farmers' income in China. However, the specifics and the degrees of these influences are different.Therefore, different policies have to be implemented respectively to make full use of the limited funds in China.Meanwhile, the maturity level of rural infrastructure as with rural economic development has regional discrepancy.The levels of maturity decrease from east to west. it is urgent that the current weak situation of the rural Infrastructure in western China needs to be improved.

  5. Rural Development Alternative Analysis Through the Use of Discriminant Function and Socioeconomic Indicator Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. N.; Cleland, C. L.

    One approach to the use of socioeconomic indicators for analyzing rural development alternative strategies is presented in this paper. The underlying assumptions of such an analysis are discussed. Necessary analytic information include (1) data on rural opinions about each facet of the socioeconomic environment and selected socioeconomic…

  6. How rural is the EU RDP? An analysis through spatial fund allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Camaioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although representing less than 20% of total CAP expenditure, the Rural Development Policy (RDP 2007-2013 is supposed to support rural areas which are facing new challenges. Currently, many EU rural areas are experiencing major transformations and the traditional urban-rural divide seems outdated (OECD, 2006. Going beyond dichotomous definitions and approaches, the paper applies at EU NUTS 3 level a new composite and comprehensive measure of rurality and peripherality (the PeripheRurality Indicator, PRI: the higher this index, the more rural and peripheral a given region is. Within a Principal Component Analysis (PCA approach, this indicator takes into account both conventional socio-economic indicators and the relevant geographical characteristics of the region. On the basis of this analysis, the paper also puts forward a clusterisation of NUTS 3 regions across Europe and assesses the correlation between the RDP expenditure intensity, the PRI and the different regional clusters. This analysis is aimed at assessing the coherence of RDP fund allocation with the real characteristics of EU rural space.

  7. A comparative analysis of urban and rural residential thermal comfort under natural ventilation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jie; Yang, Wei; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Quan [Key Lab of Building Safety and Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Education, China, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Moschandreas, Demetrios J. [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The paper presents a field study of occupants' thermal comfort and residential thermal environment conducted in an urban and a rural area in Hunan province, which is located in central southern China. The study was performed during the cold winter 2006. Twenty-eight naturally ventilated urban residences and 30 also naturally ventilated rural residences were investigated. A comparative analysis was performed on results from urban and rural residences. The mean thermal sensation vote of rural residences is approximately 0.4 higher than that of urban residences at the same operative temperature. Thermal sensation votes calculated by Fanger's PMV model did not agree with these obtained directly from the questionnaire data. The neutral operative temperature of urban and rural residences is 14.0 and 11.5 C, respectively. Percentage of acceptable votes of rural occupants is higher than that of urban occupants at the same operative temperature. It suggests that rural occupants may have higher cold tolerance than urban occupants for their physiological acclimatization, or have relative lower thermal expectation than urban occupants because of few air-conditioners used in the rural area. The research will be instrumental to researchers to formulate thermal standards for naturally ventilated buildings in rural areas. (author)

  8. Public policies for rural electrification implanted in the state of Sao Paulo, BR; Politicas publicas de eletrificacao rural implementadas no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto; Betiol Junior, Genesio; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Comissao de Eletrificacao Rural do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    2006-07-01

    The paper approach the liquefied natural gas (LNG) importance as an energy alternative for the consumer who are not attended by the channelized natural gas because the infrastructure of pipelines be very small and only attends the clients which are established at a certain distance form the main network, when the projects for growing the pipelines are economic viable. One of the objective of this work is to demonstrate that this geographic exclusion referring to the natural gas supplying may affect the relative competitiveness of the various industrial sectors. The paper also emphasizes that the present regulations does not cover the LNG generating indefinitions and growing for the investors the risk and the insecurity in investments in these alternative of gas distribution.

  9. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  10. PRODEEM - the national Brazilian program for rural electrification based upon photovoltaic solar energy; PRODEEM - o programa nacional de eletrificacao rural baseado em energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco A.; Lima, Jorge H.G. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: marcoag@cepel.br; jlima@cepel.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes various technical and managerial aspects of the PRODEEM - Program of Energetic Development of States and Municipal Districts comprehending the installation of photovoltaic systems in the country inland.

  11. Procedures for photovoltaic equipment systems testing in rural areas; Procedimientos de ensajos de equipamentos para sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado-Neto, L. V. B.; Cabral, C. V. T.; Oliveira-Filho, D.; Diniz, A. S. A. C.

    2004-07-01

    The sustainability development of photovoltaic systems demands equipment quality control. Presently, in Brazil, there are many initiatives being developed, whose basic strategy is the development of tests covering minimum equipment performance requirements. To fund these initiatives and the sustainability of the systems of the Sun Light Program from Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais CEMIG, tests are being developed for photovoltaic generators, charge controllers, batteries, inverters and electronic ballasts. The initial acquired results are helping the sustainability of the systems installed by CEMIG, funding the government initiatives and promoting an improvement of equipment quality in the local industry. (Author)

  12. Monitoring of standalone photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification areas; Avaliacao de desempenho e identificacao de falhas em sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado-Neto, L. V. B.; Cabral, C. V. T.; Oliveira-Filho, D.; Diniz, A. s. A. C.

    2004-07-01

    The sustainability of standalone photovoltaic systems passes through an accompaniment of the systems installed in the field. To subsidize this accompaniment it had been developed procedures for monitoring a similar system in laboratory. The standalone photovoltaic system monitored is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the Solar Light Program. The system was simulated and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitored results. The assembly procedure of the facility consisted of the implantation of the sensors, installation of acquisition boards and development of the monitoring program. The results presented here will allow the development of a program of preventive maintenance of the systems installed by CEMIG. (Author)

  13. The Analysis of Obstacles to Rural Microfinance Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of presenting the terminology and classification of Rural Microfinance, this paper introduces the present situation of China’s rural microfinance development and analyses the factors that hinder the highly efficient and sustainable development of rural microfinance in current China. These factors include the operational risk, the financial resource and the sustainability of development, the regulation issues, and the issue of financial supporting services. This paper also makes several suggestions concerning policy making: the government should vigorously promote innovations in systems and mechanisms as well as products, constantly improve financial supporting services, and put more emphasis on supervision and control, as well as policy support.

  14. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ON MARKET POTENTIAL OF ETHIOPIAN RURAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia has taken great strides to reduce poverty and increase the welfare of its largely rural, agricultural-based population. Ethiopia, a country with rural based economy mainly from Agriculture sector which contributed with the range of 42.5 percent to 67.25 percent of the GDP for the past two decades (1990-2012). Similarly, the percentage of Rural population against the total population of the country accounts a larger coverage; with 87.38 percent for the year 1990, 85.26percent during 2...

  15. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  16. Research on Rural Consumer Demand in Hebei Province Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the time sequence data concerning influencing factors of rural consumer demand in Hebei Province from 2000 to 2010,this paper uses the principal component analysis method in multiplex econometric statistical analysis,constructs the principal component of consumer demand in Hebei Province,conducts regression on the dependent variable of consumer spending per capita in Hebei Province and the principal component of consumer demand so as to get principal component regression,and then conducts quantitative and qualitative analysis on the principal component.The results show that total output value per capita (yuan),employment rate,and income gap,are correlative with rural residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province positively;consumer price index,upbringing ratio of children,and one-year interest rate are correlative with rural residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province negatively;the ratio of supporting the elderly and medical care spending per capita are correlative with rural residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province positively.The corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to promote residents’ consumer demand in Hebei Province as follows:develop county economy in Hebei Province and increase rural residents’ consumer demand;use industry to support agriculture and coordinate urban-rural development;improve rural medical care and health system and resolve actual difficulties of the masses.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boateng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson’s Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  18. Analysis of the current situation regarding the aging rural population in China and proposed countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Li, Xiyuan; Liu, Jie; Mao, Jiawen

    2012-06-01

    China has become a country with an aging population. Compared with the aged in urban areas, the aged in rural areas have low income and are subject to social security deficiencies; the oldest among them are the most vulnerable group. If an effective mechanism for handling health risk is not available, the poor health of the rural elderly will cause an increase in their poverty level, which in turn will cause their health to become worse. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the current situation regarding rural population aging in China and to develop countermeasures. Data from 4 national health services surveys were used to analyze the differences between urban and rural populations. The results of the analysis revealed that the aged population in rural areas has poor health; economic security for the aged population is insufficient; and resources for the aged are lacking in rural areas. The Chinese government should improve medicare for the aged in rural areas, and establish a medical treatment subsidy system and a medical support system for the aged in rural areas.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Urban-rural Residents’ Propensity to Consume in China’s Four Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data in China Statistical Yearbook from 1992 to 2008,by using regression model,we adopt least square method and generalized least square method to conduct empirical analysis on the relationship between urban-rural residents’ income and consumption in China’s east,northeast,central region and west.The results show that the urban-rural residents’ propensity to consume in China’s four regions has prominent characteristics.In terms of region,urban residents’ marginal propensity to consume takes on irregular fluctuation,while the rural residents’ propensity to consume conforms to law of diminishing of marginal propensity to consume;in terms of time sequence,the rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume in China’s four regions takes on "multi-U-form" fluctuation trend,and the rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume in different regions has certain difference,while the urban residents’ marginal propensity to consume takes on low-frequency broad width fluctuation trend;the urban-rural residents’ average marginal propensity to consume in China’s four regions conforms to the law of diminishing.In order to increase consumption and promote the balanced rapid development of regional economy,in light of the urban-rural difference and characteristics of different regions,we should propound effective measures to promote urban-rural residents’ propensity to consume,and formulate and implement regional policy in order to stimulate consumption.

  20. The Chinese Urban-rural Dual Economic Structure Model and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuchuan; XU; Shengping; SHI; Qinghua; HUANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of urban-rural dual economic structure in China,we build a dynamic endogenous urban-rural dual economic model closely linked to China’s reality,and carry out mathematical economics analysis of optimized conditions for urban and rural sectors. The main results show that:(i) The labor growth rate of urban-rural sectors must be greater than the time discount rate,or else there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(ii) The accumulation rate of physical capital and human capital of urban-rural sectors,and the rate of technological progress,need to be greater than the corresponding depreciation rate plus the time discount rate,otherwise there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(iii) The low accumulation rate in the rural sector,and the occurrence of labor outflow,human capital loss and lack of investment,will expand income gap between urban and rural areas,which is a reason for solidification of urban-rural dual economic structure.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  2. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ON MARKET POTENTIAL OF ETHIOPIAN RURAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw-Mitiku T.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has taken great strides to reduce poverty and increase the welfare of its largely rural, agricultural-based population. Ethiopia, a country with rural based economy mainly from Agriculture sector which contributed with the range of 42.5 percent to 67.25 percent of the GDP for the past two decades (1990-2012. Similarly, the percentage of Rural population against the total population of the country accounts a larger coverage; with 87.38 percent for the year 1990, 85.26percent during 2000 and 82.46 percent for the year 2013. There is a steadfast growth in the total rural population from 41 million in 1990 and reached to 77.59 million in 2013 with average annual percentage growth rate of 2.8 for the past twenty three years. Very importantly, the major exportable products of the country is generated from the marketing of Agricultural produce such as coffee, khat, live animals, oilseeds, flowers, sesame, and also leather products. Above all, the consumption pattern and preference of rural consumer is changing due to the dynamic nature of marketing. However, marketers are failing to reach this largest target market of the population. This is mainly because, marketers are focusing on designing a product for urban market and when it becomes obsolete, it moves to the rural market. Indeed, it is unethical to override the marketing preference of the rural consumer. Recognizing the marketing requirements of the majority of the population would helps to bring a vibrant economic impact in the development of the nation. The present paper highlighted the major challenges and opportunities of Rural Marketing in Ethiopia, identified ways to explore the untapped Ethiopian Rural Market and identified possible recommendations and policy implications that would help to bring an improved development in the rural Ethiopia. Accordingly, the present article seeks the attention of Policy makers, Investors, Higher education curriculum developers and marketers to

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation on Consumption Structure of Rural Residents with Principal Component Analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to make analysis on consumption structure of rural residents,the paper makes a principle component analysis on consumption expenditure per capita of rural residents in different areas of 2009 based on statistics of China statistical yearbook of 2010.Selecting a principal component,the paper arranges 31 provinces in China in order.Shanghai lists the 1st place with highest marks;coastal provinces in southeastern part,the Northeast,Beijing and Tianjin are at the top;the northern and central parts with Hebei,Shanxi,Hubei as representatives scores minus which is a little lower than that of average;the western part,such as Guizhou,Xizang,Gansu and so on are in far behind.The paper also makes analysis on the consumption structure of rural residents and proposes suggestions on how to accelerate consumption of rural residents.

  4. Towards an integrated analysis of rural systems: the case study of the Alento basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

    2014-05-01

    The role and the functions of rural areas are undergoing considerable change due to economic, social and environmental drivers. The outcome of the transformation is the production of highly heterogeneous landscapes, rural mosaics, which are home to varying degrees of intensity of land-use and processes of deactivation, abandonment and land degradation. The identification of rural mosaics has implications both for determining the impacts on the stock of connected natural resources and for defining measures and policies able to support the resilience of rural territories and the identification of sustainable strategies for development. The study proposes a methodology for the integrated analysis of the rural territory which combines the analysis of land cover dynamics, using GIS, with an assessment of socio-economic dynamics, reconstructed through the combined use of indicators and local history, and which is aware that the differences and peculiarities within rural territories are the result of actions taken over time and of the different adaptive strategies undertaken by communities operating in different fields, under the influence of specific ecologic and environmental conditions. The methodology, applied to a socio-ecological system which is representative of the Mediterranean basin, is proposed as a tool to support the territorialisation of polices, opening the process up to perspectives able to better comprehend the dynamic evolution of rural territories, internalising that evolution in the definition of the instruments and measures to adopt.

  5. Contribution of Rural Women to Family Income Through Participation in Microcredit: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdoushi Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural women in Bangladesh have a lower socio-economic status and very limited access to income generating activities due to a number of social, cultural and religious barriers. Consequently, they have less opportunity to contribute to their family income. Rural women are economically dependent and vulnerable and socially discriminated. Microcredit programme provides loans to the rural poor women in order to undertake small financial and business activities that allow them to generate income. This income earning opportunity helps the rural women to contribute to their family income and achieve a level of independence. Approach: In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the impact of microcredit programme on rural womens contribution in improving the household income. The study is based on empirical data collected through interview from the two groups of rural women e.g. with credit and without credit rural women. The with credit respondents represent the rural women who have taken loan from the Grammeen Banks microcredit programme. The results show that the proportion of the with credit rural women who contributed to family income is much higher (19% than that of without credit rural women (10%. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the factors influencing the respondents contribution to the total monthly family income. Results: The multiple regression analysis shows that there were strong positive effects of age of respondent, level of education, family size, earning member, occupation of respondents and also monthly income of respondents while status of marriage has a strong negative effect. It was found that majority of the with credit respondents contribute much higher to the family incomes than the without credit respondents. It was also found that with credit rural women have improved their socio-economic status and income generating activities by participating

  6. ESDA-GIS Analysis of Spatial-temporal Disparity in Rural Economic Development of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of spatial-temporal perspective,by using the data of farmers’ net income per capita from 1996 to 2007 in counties of Guangxi coupled with the global and local spatial auto-correlation analysis of ESDA and GIS technology,we conduct the empirical research on the rural economic developmental disparity of counties in Guangxi and the evolving characteristics of local spatial heterogeneity.The results show that the rural economic developmental disparity of counties in Guangxi from 1996 to 2007 varies infinitesimally on the whole,and the regions with similar rural economic developmental level have spatial concentrated distribution.Based on these,the local MORAN’S I scatter diagram and LISA concentration diagram are drawn.In comparison with the traditional analytical method,the spatial analytical method of ESDA-GIS can explain the problem of spatial heterogeneity of rural economic development clearly,and have direct visual effect.

  7. Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data%Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yong; Hart Xiangyang; Wang Shumei; Jiang Huayun; Wang Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies factors influencing rural-urban la- bor migration in China, particularly the implementation of rural cooperative medical insurance (RCMI) in the year 2003. With the support of data analysis from the year 2000, 2004 and 2006, clear linear correlations are found between gender, income, health con- dition and rural-urban labor flow, whereas the impact of education and employment status are more complicated. More importantly, results from regression show that the establishment of RCMI in countryside of China not only inhibits rural residents from seeking employment outside the village, but also pulls back rural people who have already worked in cities. When regional dimension is concerned, the pure composite effect of RCMI on rural labor flow is less significant in coastal areas with better economic perfor- mance and medical service.

  8. An Analysis of Public Service Structural Imbalances in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林万龙

    2008-01-01

    Rectifying the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services can effectively boost the efficiency of public funds utilization and the level of public service provision. Based on the findings of a field survey, this article presents a summary of the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services. This paper holds that the structural imbalance is primarily reflected in the dislocation between provision and demand, the unsuitable mode of provision, the monolithic provision mechanism, the excessive focus on construction at the expense of governance and the overemphasis of counties and townships at the cost of villages. Such structural imbalance is principally because of the limited financial strength of government at the grass-roots level due to treasury centralization and the over-dependence of public services on special funds allocated by government at or above provincial level.

  9. An Economic Analysis of Compensation for Rural Land Expropriation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To study which method is more effective in complete compensation and zero compensation for rural land expropriation,we use economic models to analyze whether the government is benevolent and which compensation method can achieve the social optimal level.The results show that both complete compensation and zero compensation will lead to over-investment of land owners,and consequently result in loss of social welfare.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Course of Rural Urbanization and Urban Modernization——A Case Study of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to the relevant data in Jiangsu Province during the period 2000-2005,this article conducts comparative analysis of the course of rural urbanization and urban modernization using factor analysis method and principal component analysis method.The results show that the factors influencing the course of rural urbanization and urban modernization in Jiangsu Province can be summarized as 3 common factors(economic urbanization,social urbanization,urbanization of life quality and environment);economic urbanization is still the main factor influencing the course of rural urbanization and urban modernization;social urbanization,urbanization of life quality and environment also have great impact on the course of rural urbanization and urban modernization.Finally this article draws the conclusion that the difference between rural urbanization and urban modernization in Jiangsu Province will be gradually reduced,and Jiangsu Province should achieve balanced development in urban and rural areas.

  11. Role of AYUSH Doctors in Filling the Gap of Health Workforce Inequality in Rural India with Special Reference to National Rural Health Mission: A Situational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paucity of health workforce in rural India has always been a problem. Lack of interest of modern allopathic graduates in serving the rural poor has worsened the situation little more. The National Rural Health Mission brought an innovative concept of mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health tradition by collocating AYUSH doctors at various rural health facilities such as community health centers and primary health centers. In this context a study was aimed, based on secondary data, to make a situational analysis of health workforce in rural India and thereby analyzing the status and role of AYUSH Doctors in filling this gap of health workforce inequality. As on 01/01/2010 there were 61% of Ayurveda, 31.40% of Homoeopathy, 6.50% of Unani, 0.90% of Siddha and 0.20% of Naturopathy doctors serving in India. AYUSH facilities had been collocated in 240 district hospitals, 1716 community health centers and 8938 primary health centers in 2010. About 39.8% District Hospitals (DH, 38% Community Health Centers (CHC and 38.2% Primary Health Centers (PHC had been collocated with AYUSH facilities by 2010. About 30.9 lakhs rural population were being served by district hospitals, 4.3 lakhs of rural population were being served by CHCs and 0.8 lakhs of rural population were being served by PHCs in various states/UTs wherever the corresponding facilities exist. Equitable distribution of health workforce is of paramount importance in achieving both the horizontal and vertical health equity in rural India which is doable with proper implementation of AYUSH workforce.

  12. THE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ILEANA MORAR (BUMBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure analysis of population by age groups in the rural area of Bucovina desires to create a recent image of the rural population by age groups in the region of Bucovina , provided that after the year 2000 have occurred socio – economic changes with repercussions on the demographic component. The structure analysis by age group will be based on the share of population indicators on the major age groups, the share of population by age and quinquennial gender illustrated by age pyramid, the index of demographic aging and age-dependency ratio. This study is definitely needed in forecasting future regional development objectives and measures.

  13. Empirical Analysis on the Role Rural Urbanization in Promoting Economic Growth by Expanding Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin WU

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization construction is a historical mission of China’s modernization construction,and is also the largest potential for expanding domestic demand. Actively promoting rural urbanization is favorable for expanding consumption and boosting economic growth. Through building VAR model using data of urbanization level and consumption in 1978- 2012,this paper made Granger causality test,impulse response analysis,and variance decomposition analysis on the relation between urbanization and economic growth. In addition,from comparing the effect of urbanization on expanding rural consumption and urban consumption,it is known that the effect of growth of urbanization rate on urban consumption is lower than rural consumption in short term,but urbanization level has a greater contribution to growth of urban consumption in the long run.

  14. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  15. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  16. An Analysis of a Rural Pennsylvania School District's Transient Population and NCLB Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data from one rural school system covering four groups of children for a consecutive three year period was used to study the impact of transient students entering the school system. The analysis compared native children (those on roll since the first year) with transient children added to or deleted…

  17. Analysis and Countermeasures on Effective Land Use of Rural Residential Area in Jinan,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong

    2006-01-01

    With the improvement of urbanization and the expansion of urban size, the cultivated land decreases gradually but the demand for urban land increases, thereby resulting in the conflict of land use. Analyzing the status quo of land use of rural residential area, this paper points out that two main problems, namely, the low degree of land use, and the waste of land resources that are prevalent in the rural residential area. Based on the above analysis,the author states that the emphasis on land use will be the plain regions in the future, and adoption of reasonable economic measures will be the new solution to the problems.

  18. Analysis on the Optimization of New Rural Social Endowment Insurance in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the investigation on the status quo of pilot area of rural endowment insurance in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,farmers’ demand on insuance in the new pilot area of rural endowment insurance is expounded from two aspects:farmers’ awareness on insurance is increasing gradually;farmers’ ability on insuring is increasing.The growing demand of farmers on insuring and the conflicts between the supply of rural endowment insurance and the system construction are analyzed.The problems are inadequate input of funds,low level of social security;imperfect fund-collecting mechanism,serious vacancy;low level of fund management and operation,poor ability of inflation-proofing and appreciation;backward laws and regulations and instability of system.On the strength of the analysis above,the government should innovate and compound fund-collecting mechanism;establish "G-C-F" three-pillar model and set up "BSI" the third party custodian;accelerate the legislation of new rural pension system so as to push forward the optimization of new rural pension insurance system in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan.

  19. An Analysis of the Consumer Demand Structure of Rural Residents in Chongqing City in the Context of New Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin; JIA

    2015-01-01

    Using ELES model and econometric methods,in the context of new urbanization,we use the time series data on the consumer spending of rural residents in Chongqing City to perform an empirical analysis of the consumer demand structure of rural residents,reveal the characteristics,differences and changes concerning the consumption structure of rural residents in Chongqing City,and set forth some policy recommendations such as carrying out the new rural construction,optimizing the consumption structure,establishing sound social security system and income growth mechanism,and stabilizing the price level.

  20. Prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of china: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Chen

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China.Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9.We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%-26.41%. Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%-27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%-26.35%. For 2004-2006: 18.94% (14.41%-23.94%, for 2007-2009, 21.24% (15.98%-27.01% for 2010-2013: 26.68%, (20.79%-33.02%. For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%-29.32%, for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%-24.08%.The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention.

  1. Something Old, Something New: The Wedding of Rural Education and Rural Development. SGPB Alert: Analysis of Emerging Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that rural communities will have to alter their economic patterns as the United States economy shifts and rural areas cannot compete successfully with cities for emerging industries and future jobs. Instead of catering to the large firms and high-tech companies that are expected to predominate in the future,…

  2. Differences in economic development in rural regions of advanced countries: an overview and critical analysis of theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critical analysis of theories on economic development in rural regions in advanced countries. For this purpose, we have consulted literature in regional economics and the multidisciplinary field of rural studies. In order to analyse to which extent these theorie

  3. Who is consuming the countryside? An activity-based segmentation analysis of the domestic rural tourism market in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eusébio, Celeste; Carneiro, Maria João; Kastenholz, Elisabeth; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Soares da Silva, Diogo

    2017-01-01

    As a result of a well-debated set of transformations, rural areas are increasingly perceived as consumption rather than productive places, mainly associated to leisure and tourism. This paper aims to analyse the heterogeneity of domestic tourism consumption of rural areas. Based on a cluster analysi

  4. Contributions of community psychology to rural advisory services: an analysis of Latin American rural extensionists' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.

  5. The Motivation Analysis of Rural Land Circulation and Legal Countermeasures Research

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    It’s the aim of this rural land circulation article to develop China Modern Agriculture, to achieve scale operation, to solve the Three Rural issues. Rural land circulation is the trend of China's agriculture development. It is the key of Three Rural issues. In the background of maintaining coordinated developments in rural and urban regions and the background of the constructions of new socialist rural area, we should encourage the various the rural land circulation forms, encourage the farm...

  6. Empirical Analysis on the Rural Urbanization Development in Luoyang City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Development status of rural urbanization in Luoyang City is introduced.A total of 6 indices are selected,such as total households in townships,total population in townships,total grain output,financial budget income,balance of savings deposits at the end of the year,and per capita net income of farmers.According to the data in 2009 Luoyang Statistical Yearbook,cluster analysis of 53 designated towns is carried out.Result shows that 53 designated towns are divided into 4 types according to the economic strength.Problems in the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are analyzed,such as imperfect management system,lack of effective economic measures,irrational town layout,unbalanced regional development,inadequate urban infrastructure,limited population absorption,lack of main industry in small towns,insufficient development capital,serious environmental pollution,and great pressure on environmental protection of towns.Countermeasures for the development of rural urbanization in Luoyang City are put forward.For instance,judging from the dynamic mechanism,Luoyang City should gradually change its dynamic mechanism of urbanization into socialist market system.Judging from the scale of town,Luoyang City should actively develop the central city and cultivate strong counties and key towns.Judging from the function of town,Luoyang should select a special urban development mode with its own characteristics for its development of rural urbanization.

  7. 农村金融生态环境与新型农村金融机构脆弱性%The Fragility of Rural Financial Ecological Environment and New-type Rural Financial Institutions' Based on SEM Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖媛

    2013-01-01

    农村金融生态环境是新型农村金融机构生存和发展的环境基础.为了深入揭示农村金融生态环境对新型农村金融机构脆弱性的影响程度,在分析农村金融生态环境属性构成基础上,构建了农村金融生态环境与新型农村金融机构脆弱性的关系模型,并在问卷调查基础上运用结构方程模型进行实证检验,研究结果表明:除了农村法律环境的影响假设未得到支持外,农村经济环境、农村金融环境、农村政策环境和农村信用环境在降低新型农村金融机构脆弱性方面有显著正向影响.%Rural financial ecological environment provides the basis for the existence and development of new-type rural financial institutions. In order to reveal how much the rural financial ecological environment has influenced the fragility of new-type rural financial institutions this paper, based on an analysis of the components of rural financial ecological environment, constructs a relation model between the rural financial ecological environment and the new-type rural financial Institutions' fragility. SEM is used to analyze the questionnaires. The result proves that rural financial ecological environment consists of five parts: except rural legal environment, rural economic environment, rural financial environment, rural policy environment, rural legal environment and rural credit environment all have a significant positive effect on New-type rural financial Institutions' fragility.

  8. Rural School Funding Inequities: An Analysis of Legal, Political, and Fiscal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, John

    1998-01-01

    Examines school-funding equity litigation concerning rural schools, effects of political power on rural funding, rural and urban competition for funding, unique funding problems of rural schools, the growing threat to equity posed by sales-tax funding schemes, and future funding-litigation strategies for rural schools. Tables list relevant federal…

  9. [The analysis of functioning of general practitioners offices in rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of functioning of general practitioners offices in rural municipal districts of Penzenskaya oblast. The particular forms of such practices (only adults, adults and children) are analyzed. The analysis of functional capacity of general practitioners offices depending on size of population assigned to the feldsher posts is presented. The measurement of work of general practitioner in pilot rural municipal district is carried out. The need in general practitioners offices and planned size of both adult and children population per one position of general practitioner is substantiated. The recommendations concerning the estimate of numbers of positions of general practitioners depending on size of population assigned to the feldsher posts are given.

  10. Sister-chromatid exchange analysis in a rural population of Mexico exposed to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Noriega-Aldana, N; Osorio, A; Galicia, F; Ling, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1992-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was evaluated by means of the analysis of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in a rural population of Tlaxcala, Mexico, in occupational contact with pesticides. We studied 170 men, 94 exposed and 76 not exposed. It was shown that SCE followed a normal distribution and Student's t test did not present differences between the two groups (P = 0.4). The frequency of SCE was not correlated with the duration of exposure of the rural workers (r = -0.06), the multiple covariance analysis applied to the data of duration of exposure, tobacco intake and alcohol ingestion demonstrated a lack of statistical significance. In the exposed people we observed no symptoms provoked by these compounds.

  11. Urban-rural gradient detection using multivariate spatial analysis and landscape metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vizzari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The gradient approach allows for an innovative representation of landscape composition and configuration not presupposing spatial discontinuities typical of the conventional methods of analysis. Also the urban-rural dichotomy can be better understood through a continuous landscape gradient whose characterization changes accordingly to natural and anthropic variables taken into account and to the spatio-temporal scale adopted for the study. The research was aimed at the analysis of an urban-rural gradient within a study area located in central Italy, using spatial indicators associated with urbanization, agriculture and natural elements. A multivariate spatial analysis (MSA of such indicators enabled the identification of urban, agricultural and natural dominated areas, as well as specific landscape transitions where the most relevant relationships between agriculture and other landscape components were detected. Landscapes derived from MSA were studied by a set of key landscape pattern metrics within a framework oriented to the structural characterization of the whole urban-rural gradient. The results showed two distinct sub-gradients: one urban-agricultural and one agricultural-natural, both characterized by different fringe areas. This application highlighted how the proposed methodology can represent a reliable approach supporting modern landscape planning and management.

  12. Situating the Rural Teacher Labor Market in the Broader Context: A Descriptive Analysis of the Market Dynamics in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke C.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding accountability systems that impose policies across all schools have amplified assertions that rural teacher labor markets differ from non-rural labor markets in meaningful ways that complicate rural schools' efforts to comply with the policy directives. The analysis presented here examines this claim by exploring teacher labor market…

  13. Exploration of Rural Informatization and Urban-rural Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status quo of rural informatization and information service,this article conducts analysis and discussion of problems in rural informatization and urban-rural information fusion,using statistics. And corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: building rural information platform; strengthening information literacy training in rural areas and cultivating new farmers; making information network serve production and operation to increase jobs and income for farmers; developing rural e-commerce; enhancing network information security and prevention.

  14. The increase of rural development measures efficiency at the micro-regions level by cluster analysis. A Romanian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VINCZE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the role of cluster analysis of rural localities as the basis for a more efficient way of choosing the rural development measures to be used to stimulate rural socio-economic growth. We present evidence of the typologies of rural localities determined by hierarchical cluster using the Ward method. We used five groups of criteria: 1. characterising labour force supply (10 indicators; 2. those which describe the structure of employment via economic activities (5 indicators; 3. characteristics of living standards (7 indicators, 4. labour force, natural resources and local income characteristics (11 indicators. All of these indicators, used in the first stage of factor analysis, and in the second stage in the cluster analyses, permit classification of rural localities in different clusters, which, generally need different measures for rural employment growth. We offer a short description of the groups of localities which belong to different clusters. This information can help local, county and regional level decision makers to identify the most efficient approaches to stimulating rural development.

  15. An agent-based model to rural-urban migration analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silveira, J J; Penna, T J P; Silveira, Jaylson J.; Espindola, Aquino L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the rural-urban migration phenomena as it is usually observed in economies which are in the early stages of industrialization. The analysis is conducted by means of a statistical mechanics approach which builds a computational agent-based model. Agents are placed on a lattice and the connections among them are described via an Ising like model. Simulations on this computational model show some emergent properties that are common in developing economies, such as a transitional dynamics characterized by continuous growth of urban population, followed by the equalization of expected wages between rural and urban sectors (Harris-Todaro equilibrium condition), urban concentration and increasing of per capita income.

  16. Analysis of Technological Competitiveness for Rural Electrification in the Municipality of Ensenada, Mexico; Analisis de Competitividad Tecnologica para la Electrificacin Rural del Municipio de Ensenada, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corral Osuna, B. C.; Dominguez Bravo, J.; Serrano Cambronero, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present an technological competitiveness analysis for six electricity generation systems conventional and renewable, in order to obtain a proposal for electrification to the rural locations in the municipality of Ensenada, at Northwest of Mexico. To do this, we use the software IntiGIS a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows multi-criteria analysis using: technical, economic, geographic and socio-demographic variables. Ensenada is located in a Mexican state away from the national electric network; and its regional electrical grid is concentrated on a small land area at north having about fifteen hundred rural villages scattered without electricity in the center and south. Therefore, we perform this work in order to provide elements for decision making of subsequent initiatives aimed to solve this lack of basic services. (Author)

  17. Analysis and environmental diagnosis of rural habitat in arid zones of the Province of San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guillermina Re

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the environmental analysis on rural communities on arid zones of the province of San Juan. The objective of this research is to perform a diagnosis and to develop proposals for future improvements on this region. The analysis was carried out at two different scales: one on the natural environment (macro scale, and another one, on the humanized environment (micro scale, represented by the productive farms, considered as the core of the rural domestic and productive habitat. This research allowed a characterization of the environment and an understanding of the rules that structure the rural habitat in San Juan, and also to perform an evaluation and diagnosis of this type of rural habitat.

  18. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andishe Ranjbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. METHODS: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. RESULTS: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of

  19. [Mobile Health Units: An Analysis of Concepts and Implementation Requirements in Rural Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämel, K; Kutzner, J; Vorderwülbecke, J

    2015-12-22

    Background: Access to health services in rural regions represents a challenge. The development of care models that respond to health service shortages and pay particular attention to the increasing health care needs of the elderly is an important concern. A model that has been implemented in other countries is that of mobile health units. But until now, there is no overview of their possible objectives, functions and implementation requirements. Method: This paper is based on a literature analysis and an internet research on mobile health units in rural regions. Results: Mobile health units aim to avoid regional undersupply and address particularly vulnerable population groups. In the literature, mobile health units are described with a focus on specific illnesses, as well as those that provide comprehensive, partly multi-professional primary care that is close to patients' homes. The implementation of mobile health units is demanding; the key challenges are (a) alignment to the needs of the regional population, (b) user-oriented access and promotion of awareness and acceptance of mobile health units by the local population, and (c) network building within existing care structures to ensure continuity of care for patients. To fulfill these requirements, a community-oriented program development and implementation is important. Conclusions: Mobile health units could represent an interesting model for the provision of health care in rural regions in Germany. International experiences are an important starting point and should be taken into account for the further development of models in Germany.

  20. An Analysis on the Disparity of the Private Investment in Human Capital between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The constant growth of human capital is the essential force of Economic growth. The deep research on private investment in urban and rural human capital in Guangxi is necessary for developing economy and narrowing urban-rural gap. Through the analysis on the historic statistics, it is found that there were disparities total quantity and investment structure of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents. By using the ELES model, the marginal investment trend, investment demand, elastic income, own-price elasticity and mutual-price elasticity of private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents are analyzed. It is pointed out that income is the key factor that affects the private investment in human capital of urban and rural residents. In Guangxi, the private investment and marginal investment in human capital of urban and township residents are higher than that of rural residents;the own-price elasticity and mutual price elasticity of rural residents’ private investment in human capital are all higher than that of urban residents’.

  1. The Supply-Demand Analysis and Mechanism Innovation of Chinese Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The connotation of rural public goods is expounded.The rural public goods refer to the products and labors that satisfy the production and living of rural residents,economic growth and social progress.The rural public goods is characterized by non-excludability,non-competitiveness and indispensability of other general public goods.The supply situation of Chinese government to rural public goods is analyzed,as well as the demand situation of rural public goods,which includes farmers’ demand on training,the assistance demand of rural weak groups,farmers’ demand on comfortable living conditions and farmers’ demand on "soft" public goods.The paths for innovating the supply mechanism of rural public goods are put forward,which cover perfecting the decision mechanism of public goods supply;scientifically distributing the supply responsibility of rural public goods;facilitating the reform of each supporting equipment and exploring the multiple capital collecting channels of rural public goods.

  2. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  3. How rural the EU RDP is? An analysis through spatial funds allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Esposti, R.; Pagliacci, F.; Sotte, F.; Camaioni, Beatrice; Lobianco, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although RDP 2007-2013 expenditures represent less than 20% of total CAP expenditures, this policy is supposed to support rural areas in facing new challenges. Actually, EU rural areas are going through major transformations. Due to the very different development processes that rural areas have lately undertaken, the urban-rural divide is now almost outdated (OECD, 2006): rural regions in central EU regions can benefit from the improvements in transportation systems and in ICT, in touristic f...

  4. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS THE BASIS SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS AND FISHERIES SECTOR, ROMANIA DURING 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents funding opportunities to support investment and rural development and fisheries sector. Adoption of the national program and rural development as a strategic document for implementing European programs meant for rural Romania assumption of an intervention model is based on a medium-term strategy on the development of the village world. The work is based on the analysis of official documents indicating alignment programs of intervention policies in the field and on their analysis of available data that refers to the current state of implementation of programs referring to Romanian rural development. Given that the Common Agricultural Policythe (CAP budget for 2014-2020 is higher than the amounts allocated for the 2007-2013 program, consider that in determining the coordinates of financial allocation for the next year must take into account the problems encountered in previous period to eliminate them, because the efficiency of the implementation of funds to support rural development objectives depends largely on rural transformation internally and reducing disparities in the regions and communities, and externally in relation to Member States of the European Union .

  5. Spatial Analysis of Water Infrastructure Development On Example of Eastern Europe Rural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrucha-Urbanik, Katarzyna; Stecko, Justyna; Pękala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the assessment of water supply in rural areas in Poland was performed in aspect of future problems and the necessity of investments. The analysis proposed in this work is a helpful tool in making the ranking of the level of infrastructure development in different regions of the country. The assessment of the water supply network functioning is a very important issue that requires the use of operational experience with the practice of water supply. The analysis was based on data associated with the exploitation of water supply systems. Among others, to illustrate this diversity, the multidimensional comparative analysis was used. The developed analysis will enable decision support in the process of evaluating the economic efficiency of the operation of water supply infrastructure, through established indicators including the water network length development.

  6. ANALYSIS OF WATER CONSUMER SAFETY ARISING FROM HAZARD IN RURAL WATERWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tchórzewska-Cieślak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is the analysis of issues related to the safety of water supply systems in rural areas. In the paper the characteristics of risks in the water supply system (WSS resulting directly from the operation of the system and damage of its elements, failures of water pipes and external causes as a result of accidental contamination of water sources, forces of nature, flood, drought, etc. The method of safety assessment of WSS and the method of determining criterion levels of safety were presented.

  7. Analysis on Behaviour Differentiation and Motive of Rural Households in the Process of Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey data of fixed rural observation points in China,this paper researches the behaviour of rural households in the process of industrialization.It analyses the forcing of industrialization process on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households and motive in detail.The results show that with the development of industrialization,the rational farmers allocate resources according to the goal of income maximization,and the behaviour of rural households differentiates inchmeal.The forcing of industrialization on behaviour of rural households mainly comprises labour distribution of rural households,land inputs of rural households and employment of rural labour forces;the factors of forcing of industrialization on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households are largely reflected in pull and push.

  8. The Motivation Analysis of Rural Land Circulation and Legal Countermeasures Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyong Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It’s the aim of this rural land circulation article to develop China Modern Agriculture, to achieve scale operation, to solve the Three Rural issues. Rural land circulation is the trend of China's agriculture development. It is the key of Three Rural issues. In the background of maintaining coordinated developments in rural and urban regions and the background of the constructions of new socialist rural area, we should encourage the various the rural land circulation forms, encourage the farmers to give up the contracted land voluntarily, encourage the movements of rural collective construction land. We should not only support the collective economic organization actively participating in rural land circulation but also lead the various main businesses participating in rural land circulation. All those will speed up the circulation of rural land. It promotes the scale rural land business running and rational usage of rural land by expanding business scope, increasing the scale management level, reasonably handling vacant houses and house sites in rural areas. There are supportive policies such as strengthening financial support and credit financing, optimizing infrastructure and service system, perfecting service systems and social security.

  9. Rural development as economic category

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTYRKO I.G.; GROMIAK T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Is conducted scientific analysis of such concepts as “steady development of village”, “development of rural territories”, “development of rural locality”, “rural development”, “steady economic development”, “economic relations”. Reasonably and the vision of determination of rural development is given from the economic point of view.

  10. Comparative analysis of employment dynamics in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU, 1980-1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Sjöström, Å.

    1999-01-01

    In this study a comparative analysis of factors hampering and encouraging the development of employment in 9 leading and 9 lagging regions in the EU during the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s is made. Derived from this comparative analysis, some lessons, which leading and lagging rural regions

  11. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  12. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  13. The Statistical Research of the Structure of Rural Urbanization Motivation and the Experimental Analysis of the Relationship with Economic Growth%农村城镇化动力结构的统计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周达; 沈建芬

    2004-01-01

    As an objective, social and economic phenomenon, rural urbanization has it's own developing norm.The paper analyzes inherent factors, leading to level variation in rural urbanization in different areas, and explores factors influencing urbanization process and proposes an idea for how to promote the construction of towns in rural areas and to improve the quality of rural urbanization on the above analysis.

  14. Exploration and analysis of rural primary school teacher’s language violence

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    As the problem of rural education becomes more and more obvious while the supervision on stay-at-home children’s education becomes more and more difficult, rural primary school teacher’s language violence has become a new big problem today. This paper collected and investigated the improper language used by rural primary school teachers so as to analyze the features, harm, causes and solutions of language violence, trying to explore and analyze rural primary school teacher’s language violence...

  15. Analysis of Public Goods Supply of New Generation Migrant Workers’ Urban and Rural Double Marginalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Status quo of urban and rural public goods supply in China is analyzed.Firstly,public goods supply in rural areas is inadequate,for example,inadequate supply of agricultural infrastructure,lack of expenditure in agricultural science and technology,problems of rural drinking water safety,problems of rural roads and transportation,low levels of health care,weak rural public culture,short supply of farmers’ education.Secondly,the system and level of urban public goods provision can’t meet migrant workers’ demand,for example,less migrant workers are employed by the governments’ direction;migrant workers are isolated by urban housing project and these workers have difficulty in receiving city social security.One reason of new generation migrant workers facing the double marginalization of rural and urban crisis is that urban and rural public goods supply are different in particular the inadequate supply of public goods in rural areas.Three countermeasures are put forward in order to relieve new generation migrant workers’ double marginalization of urban and rural,which include increasing financial input in rural areas in order to achieve equalization of urban and rural public goods,perfecting the preferential agricultural policy to increase rural public goods supply,making urban public goods supply as a guide to promote the new generation migrant workers into the city.

  16. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  17. Spousal communication and contraceptive use in rural Nepal: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Cynthia F

    2011-06-01

    This study analyzes longitudinal data from couples in rural Nepal to investigate the influence of spousal communication about family planning on their subsequent contraceptive use. The study expands current understanding of the communication-contraception link by (a) exploiting monthly panel data to conduct an event history analysis, (b) incorporating both wives' and husbands' perceptions of communication, and (c) distinguishing effects of spousal communication on the use of four contraceptive methods. The findings provide new evidence of a strong positive impact of spousal communication on contraceptive use, even when controlling for confounding variables. Wives' reports of communication are substantial explanatory factors in couples' initiation of all contraceptive methods examined. Husbands' reports of communication predict couples'subsequent use of male-controlled methods. This analysis advances our understanding of how marital dynamics--as well as husbands' perceptions of these dynamics--influence fertility behavior, and should encourage policies to promote greater integration of men into family planning programs.

  18. Development of New Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations from the Perspective of Institutional Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua; BAI

    2015-01-01

    Appearance of new rural cooperative economic organizations is the result of institutional change and also important institutional arrangement and innovation promoting rural development of China. At present,development of rural cooperative economic organizations is faced with problems of unsmooth operation and management mechanism,lack of supervision mechanism,internal system defect and imperfect law,weak policy support,and imperfect financial system. In this situation,government should take due responsibility from improving legal system,strengthening policy support,deepening rural market reform,and improving rural financial system.

  19. An Analysis of Spatial Distribution Differences in Rural Leisure Tourist Destination Resources in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Xiaoxiao QI

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of tourism resources elements,we use abundance and geographic concentration methods to analyze the spatial distribution differences in the resources of 149 rural leisure tourist destinations in Liaoning Province. The results show that most of Liaoning’s rural leisure tourist destination resources are mainly concentrated in the central,southern and eastern regions of Liaoning Province; in the main category of rural leisure tourism resources,water scenery,geological landform and mountain ecosystem concentrate,while agricultural resources and rural scenic view present balanced distribution; rural leisure tourism resources are highly concentrated in Shenyang,Dalian,Anshan,Benxi,Liaoyang and Dandong.

  20. Colorectal Cancer, Socioeconomic Distribution and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Counties in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaamel M Nuhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC ranks second for all cancer related deaths among men and women together and third for either sex when considered separately. Disparities exist in CRC incidence and mortality between rural and urban counties in the USA. This study sought to explore socioeconomic and behavioral factors that may partly explain these observed differences.Methods: Using educational and income levels as measures of socioeconomic status (SES, and average alcohol consumption and smoking frequency as behavioral factors, data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program for analysis were coupled.Results: Results showed statistically significant inequalities for CRC incidence (t = 2.678, p = 0.010 and mortality (t = 2.567, p = 0.013, as well as socioeconomic (i.e., poverty; t = 5.644, p < 0.001 and behavioral (i.e., smoking; t = 2.885, p = 0.006 factors between selected rural and urban counties. Regression analysis for colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates at the rural, urban, and national levels yielded relative impacts of smoking frequency, alcohol consumption, and educational level.Conclusions: Health policies aimed at reducing disparities between rural and urban populations in the USA must therefore adequately address SES and behavioral factors.Key words: colorectal cancer, rural health, social determinants of health, health behavior 

  1. Systematic Analysis on Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism: A Case Study of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jing-ming; Li Hui-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on field survey, the thesis analyzes the key factors affecting development of rural tourism systematically,taking Chengdu as an example. These factors include regional economic development level & leisure tradition, tourist market &traffic, tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism, and decision-making behavior. Among them,regional economic development level & leisure tradition and tourist market & traffic are prerequisites for the development of rural tourism which have an impact on tourist's consumption level,consumption custom, operator's investment ability, tourist destination distribution and scale; Tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism are restrictive conditions affecting character and distribution of rural tourism; Government's decision-making behavior is of importance for expansion of scale and popularity of regional rural tourism, meanwhile, operators' decision-making behavior includes investment scale and operational strategies, and for operators from the outside, location selection is included additionally. All these decision-making behaviors are subjective conditions for the development of rural tourism.

  2. Parents' participation in the sexuality education of their children in rural Namibia: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukolo, Linda Ndeshipandula; van Dyk, Agnes

    2014-07-29

    Talking about sexuality has never been easy in most Namibians cultures and it seems that most parents feel uncomfortable and embarrassed to talk openly with their children about sexuality. They do not participate in the sexuality education of their children, because they believe they are unable to provide quality and adequate sexuality information due to their lack of knowledge about human sexuality or their perceived inability to explain what they do know. The ultimate purpose of this study was to develop, describe, implement and evaluate an educational programme to empower rural parents to participate in the sexuality education of their children. The study was designed to be qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. It was performed in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a situational analysis to explore and describe how parents provide sexuality education. Phase 2 consisted of the development of a conceptual framework that facilitated the development of an educational programme. In phase 3 the programme was implemented and evaluated, recommendations were made and conclusions drawn. The main findings revealed two themes: factors influencing parental participation in their children's sexuality education, and the need for parental participation in their children's sexuality education. This article is part of series of three article stems from a study on the topic of sexuality education empowerment programme of rural parents in Namibia. The three articles have the following titles: one: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis; two: conceptual framework developments that facilitate the development of an educational programme and three: programme implementation and evaluation. This article dealt with parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis.

  3. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Toxopeus, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  4. Multi-objective Programming and Social Welfare Analysis of Rural-urban Land Conversion Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Min; Zhang Anlu

    2008-01-01

    Rural-urban land conversion is an inevitable phenomenon in urbanization and industrialization. And the decision-making issue about this conversion is multi-objective because the social decision maker (the whole of central government and local authority) has to integrate the requirements of different interest groups (rural collective economic organizations, peasants, urban land users and the ones affected indirectly) and harmonize the sub-objects (economic, social and ecological outcomes) of this land allocation process. This paper established a multi-objective programming model for rural-urban land conversion decision-making and made some social welfare analysis correspondingly. Result shows that the general object of rural-urban land conversion decision-making is to reach the optimal level of social welfare in a certain state of resources allocation, while the preference of social decision makers and the value judgment of interest groups are two crucial factors which determine the realization of the rural-urban land conversion decision-making objects.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Urban Residents’ Consumption Decision-making Behavior in Rural Tourism Based on Food Circulation Channels Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about urban residents’ rural tourism decision-making and analyze influential factors mechanism based on food circulation channels. The result shows that: first, personal disposable income is the most important factor that will affect consumption decision-making in rural tourism, the regression coefficient of urban residents personal disposable income is 0.071 sec, discretionary time is the most significant variable in urban residents' personal characteristics, the sig value is 0.007 and the regression coefficient is positive; third, infrastructure condition variables' sig value is less than 0.1, the regression coefficient value is -0.029, probably because the city residents to participate in the study area of rural tourism is more focus on rural tourism ecological environment quality and less attention on the infrastructure; finally, the environment quality has high coefficient value as 0.048, means that rural personnel's service quality plays a positive effect. On this basis, we put forward relevant suggestions.

  6. Analysis of arable land loss and its impact on rural sustainability in Southern Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y S; Wang, J Y; Long, H L

    2010-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in southern Jiangsu Province have consumed a huge amount of arable land. Through comparative analysis of land cover maps derived from TM images in 1990, 2000 and 2006, we identified the trend of arable land loss. It is found that most arable land is lost to urbanization and rural settlements development. Urban settlements, rural settlements, and industrial park-mine-transport land increased, respectively, by 87 997 ha (174.65%), 81 041 ha (104.52%), and 12 692 ha (397.99%) from 1990 to 2006. Most of the source (e.g., change from) land covers are rice paddy fields and dryland. These two covers contributed to newly urbanized areas by 37.12% and 73.52% during 1990-2000, and 46.39% and 38.86% during 2000-2006. However, the loss of arable land is weakly correlated with ecological service value, per capita net income of farmers, but positively with grain yield for some counties. Most areas in the study site have a low arable land depletion rate and a high potential for sustainable development. More attention should be directed at those counties that have a high depletion rate but a low potential for sustainable development. Rural settlements should be controlled and rationalized through legislative measures to achieve harmonious development between urban and rural areas, and sustainable development for rural areas with a minimal impact on the ecoenvironment.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in the rural population of Wardha, Central India: An exploratory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep R Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome - a plausible precondition for type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is also on rise. To understand the mechanistic complexity of metabolic syndrome it is imperative to study the specific contribution of the determinants of metabolic syndrome. Such study can help to identify the most significant factor which may be of use in early detection as well as prevention efforts. Such information is scarcely available from India and especially from rural India. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore for such factor which might be considered crucial for development of such pathogenesis particularly in rural population of Wardha. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising of 300 subjects was carried out in rural area of Primary Health Center, attached to medical college with approximate 31,000 populations. The anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference were measured. Overnight fasting samples were collected for lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and fasting blood glucose levels. The National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel, ATP-III guidelines were used to categorize the study subjects. As many of the variables are highly intercorrelated, exploratory factor analysis was carried out to reduce the data to a smaller number of independent factors that accounts for the most of the variances in the data. Principal component analysis was used as a method of extraction. Results: For both sexes, three factors were extracted accounting for about 71% variance in the measured variables. An adiposity factor which accounted for highest explained variance (28%, was the initial factor extracted. It was loaded positively by waist circumference, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein and negatively loaded by high density lipoprotein. Second factor extracted

  8. Analysis of the editorial process of the multidisciplinary rural development journal Tropicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropicultura is a multidisciplinary journal which aims mainly at releasing research results relevant to rural development in developing countries and at improving the investigation capacities of the researchers who submit manuscripts to its editorial board. The operating process of the journal and its consequences on its output during the period 2002-2009 were analyzed by considering mainly the factors influencing the duration of the editorial work and the final acceptance of the manuscripts. The factors taken into consideration were the field of research, the geographic origin of the data analyzed, the language of writing and the country of origin of the authors. The available data were analyzed using descriptive statistic methods. They were also subjected to parametric and non parametric comparisons. During the investigated period, a total of 1,034 papers have been submitted to Tropicultura in different fields of rural development research, with a large proportion of papers in agronomy sensu lato (60%, and livestock production (19%. Most of the papers submitted (85.1% came from Sub-Saharan Africa, followed by North Africa (11.2%, Asia (1.6%, Latin America (1.3%, Europe (0.6%, and Oceania (0.3%. The rate of acceptance (27.4% was very low compared to other journals, mainly because of a poor design of the works or inappropriate research topics. The average time for final decision was 355 days. The non parametric classification analysis retained as major determinants for the acceptance of papers for publication in decreasing order of influence: time before final decision, language, continent, Belgian cooperation priority countries, Belgian cooperation partner countries, and the field of research. The data obtained are discussed in the light of the literature related to the editorial process of other scientific journals, taking into account the peculiarities of Tropicultura related to its history and to the history of the rural development actions

  9. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  10. Analysis of the Editorial Process of the Multidisciplinary Rural Development Journal Tropicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropicultura is a multidisciplinary journal which aims mainly at releasing research results relevant to rural development in developing countries and at improving the investigation capacities of the researchers who submit manuscripts to its editorial board. The operating process of the journal and its consequences on its output during the period 2002- 2009 were analysed by considering mainly the factors influencing the duration of the editorial work and the final acceptance of the manuscripts. The factors taken in consideration were: the field of research, the geographic origin of the data analysed, the language of writing and the country of origin of the authors. The available data were analysed using descriptive statistic methods. They were also subjected to parametric and non parametric comparisons. A total of 1,034 papers have been submitted during the investigated period to Tropicultura in different fields of rural development research, with a large proportion of papers in agronomy sensu lato (60%, and livestock production (19%. Most of the papers submitted (85.1% came from Sub-Saharan Africa, followed by North Africa (11.2%, Asia (1.6%, Latin America (0.6% and Europe (0.3%. The rate of acceptance (27.4% was very low compared to other journals, mainly because of a poor design of the works or inappropriate research topics. The average time for final decision was 355 days. The non parametric classification analysis retained as major determinants for the acceptance of papers for publication in decreasing order of influence: (i time before final decision, (ii language, (iii continent, (iv Belgian cooperation priority countries, (v Belgian cooperation partner countries, and (vi the field of research. The data obtained are discussed in the light of the literature related to the editorial process of other scientific journals, taking into account the peculiarities of Tropicultura related to its history and to the history of the rural development

  11. Descriptive analysis of the inequalities of health information resources between Alberta's rural and urban health regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieda, Vivian; Colvin, Barb

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to understand the extent of the inequalities in health information resources across Alberta, SEARCH Custom, HKN (Health Knowledge Network) and IRREN (Inter-Regional Research and Evaluation Network) conducted a survey in December 2007 to determine what library resources currently existed in Alberta's seven rural health regions and the two urban health regions. Although anecdotal evidence indicated that these gaps existed, the analysis was undertaken to provide empirical evidence of the exact nature of these gaps. The results, coupled with the published literature on the impact, effectiveness and value of information on clinical practice and administrative decisions in healthcare management, will be used to build momentum among relevant stakeholders to support a vision of equitably funded health information for all healthcare practitioners across the province of Alberta.

  12. Analysis on Causes of Rural Land Expropriation Disputes Based on Smith’s Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XIE; Lan; HE

    2014-01-01

    Frequent occurrence of land expropriation disputes in rural areas of China has attracted attention of scholars to study causes. Most existing studies discuss causes from " structure- institution" level. In other words,land expropriation disputes are caused by existing imperfect institutions,regulations,and policies. Such analysis model points institutional causes,but pays little attention to policy implementation process,especially the subjective initiative of parties concerned. This paper described a decade-long land expropriation dispute case in detail.Through description of event and process and survey of reasons of actors,it revealed factors resulting in occurrence and upgrade of dispute,and analyzed factors and their interactions with the aid of Smith Process Model.

  13. Characterizing Degradation Gradients through Land Cover Change Analysis in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahn Münch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change analysis was performed for three catchments in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa, for two time steps (2000 and 2014, to characterize landscape conversion trajectories for sustained landscape health. Land cover maps were derived: (1 from existing data (2000; and (2 through object-based image analysis (2014 of Landsat 8 imagery. Land cover change analysis was facilitated using land cover labels developed to identify landscape change trajectories. Land cover labels assigned to each intersection of the land cover maps at the two time steps provide a thematic representation of the spatial distribution of change. While land use patterns are characterized by high persistence (77%, the expansion of urban areas and agriculture has occurred predominantly at the expense of grassland. The persistence and intensification of natural or invaded wooded areas were identified as a degradation gradient within the landscape, which amounted to almost 10% of the study area. The challenge remains to determine significant signals in the landscape that are not artefacts of error in the underlying input data or scale of analysis. Systematic change analysis and accurate uncertainty reporting can potentially address these issues to produce authentic output for further modelling.

  14. Electrification in rural Bangladesh. A comprehensive analysis on Grameen Shakti's energy for the poor-business model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Niclas D.H.

    2010-07-01

    People in industrialized countries enjoy nowadays the luxurious advantages of energy. Electricity has converted the former preindustrial economies and societies into highly industrialized, mechanized and automated ones. On the contrary, many rural areas in developing countries are suffering from the heavy lack of access to energy, such as Bangladesh. Grameen Shakti, a subsidiary of the world famous Grameen family set up by Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus, has created a market for renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh, though not in the industrial and commercial areas but in the very poor and energy-starved rural areas of the country. By employing a special market-based business model, Grameen Shakti provides rural households with access to renewable energy technologies and thus with electricity. The objective of this study is the analysis and depiction of the functionality of this business model, its structural aspects, implications as well as replication potential. (orig.)

  15. An integrated optimization method for river water quality management and risk analysis in a rural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zeng, X T; Nie, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an interval-stochastic-based risk analysis (RSRA) method is developed for supporting river water quality management in a rural system under uncertainty (i.e., uncertainties exist in a number of system components as well as their interrelationships). The RSRA method is effective in risk management and policy analysis, particularly when the inputs (such as allowable pollutant discharge and pollutant discharge rate) are expressed as probability distributions and interval values. Moreover, decision-makers' attitudes towards system risk can be reflected using a restricted resource measure by controlling the variability of the recourse cost. The RSRA method is then applied to a real case of water quality management in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China), where chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Results reveal that uncertainties and risk attitudes have significant effects on both pollutant discharge and system benefit. A high risk measure level can lead to a reduced system benefit; however, this reduction also corresponds to raised system reliability. Results also disclose that (a) agriculture is the dominant contributor to soil loss, TN, and TP loads, and abatement actions should be mainly carried out for paddy and dry farms; (b) livestock husbandry is the main COD discharger, and abatement measures should be mainly conducted for poultry farm; (c) fishery accounts for a high percentage of TN, TP, and COD discharges but a has low percentage of overall net benefit, and it may be beneficial to cease fishery activities in the basin. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired pollution control strategies with the tradeoff between socioeconomic development and environmental sustainability.

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  17. The Function Analysis of Informationization in New Rural Cooperatives Medical Service Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuefeng; Liu, Min

    The establishment of new rural cooperative medical system is an important action for comprehensive affluent society. It is an important measure for Central Party Committee and State Council to solve "three rural" issue effectively and to overall urban and rural, regional, coordinated economic and social development, building a well-off society in the new situation. It has important role to alleviate farmers to see a doctor expensively, see a doctor difficultly, reduce the burden on farmers and improve their level of health protection and quality of life, solve the problem of poor because of illness and the problem of returning poor due to illness, promote the production and rural economic development and stability in the rural areas. This article will analyze the function of informationization in new rural cooperative medical service management selectively.

  18. Research and Analysis on Difference in Per Capita Net Income of Chinese Rural Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XUE; Yeping; ZHU; Huili; YUE

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to understand the variation of difference in per capita net income of rural residents during China’s economic development in recent years. The writer studies and analyzes rural residents’ income gap between 1997 and 2008 with relevant theories of income difference and the calculation of absolute difference index as well as relative difference index and obtains the conclusion that absolute difference of Chinese rural residents’ income experienced an upward trend while relative difference generally remained constant with slight fluctuation and growth, which reflects that rural residents’ income gap is increasing gradually. The writer also puts forward some related proposals and countermeasures.

  19. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  20. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Seidaiy

    2013-01-01

    : market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy, housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick, 1987:88, Ziyari, et al., 210:4. In planned economy government has the role of planner, designer and manager (Aghasi, 1996:201, Chadwick, 1987:88, Shucksmith, 2003:213. In Islam's ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency, and eradication of poverty in the society.3– DiscussionTo evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province, first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1; then, in line with goals of research, we will go through the following steps:Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators,Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators,And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators.Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis, analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed. Table 1: Housing IndicatorsROWindicatorsROWindicators1The population of rural areas12The average of infrastructure lifetime2The number of households13The share of households that have a minimum electricity4The family size14The share of households that have a minimum telephone4The number of residential units,15The share of households that have a minimum water piping5The household density in residential units16The share of households that have a minimum gas piping6The density of people in residential units17The share of households that have a minimum central heating and cooling system7The housing shortages18The share of households that have a minimum kitchen8The average of number of rooms in the household19The share of households that have a minimum bathroom9The average of number

  1. Energy, why you want? The human side of rural electrification in a Amazonian community; Energia, pra que te quero? O lado humano da eletrificacao rural em uma comunidade amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Cecilia Geraldes; Almeida, Arthur C.; Monteiro, Jose H.A.; Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Universidade Federal do Para (ENERBIO/DEEC/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao. Grupo de Pesquisa Energia e Meio Ambiente], Emails: cecibasi@ufpa.br, arthur@ufpa.br, jhumberto01@yahoo.com.br, brigida@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents results of research carried out in an isolated community in the Amazon to gauge the demand for electricity. It was prepared a detailed survey of the social customs, habits of work, leisure, their economy, livelihoods and their relationship with the environment. The search result points to the use of electricity in the community as a factor in improving the income, it is possible to buy equipment to grind and crush cassava, to enable production of fruit pulp, to produce ice for conservation of fish and introduction to fish farming for employment generation.

  2. Using of X factor in the price cap regulation for stimulating investments on rural electrification; Utilizacao do fator X na regulacao por price-cap como forma de incentivar investimentos em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Helvio Neves [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: helvio_guerra@uol.com.br; Andrade, Cynthia Santos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Area Interdisciplinar de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: cynthia@fem.unicamp.br; Carbonari Neto, Emigdio [Companhia de Geracao de Energia Eletrica Paranapanema, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ocpg3@cgeep.com.br

    1999-07-01

    This work analyses the regulation by using price-cap as agent for improvements in the performance of electric power utilities, specifically the performance of the future utilities. This segment presents strong natural monopoly characteristics and proposes a methodology for the calculation of the X-Factor aiming the incentives of productivity and investments increasing compatible with development public policies. The paper also uses practical applications for demonstrating that the price-cap regulation can contribute for transference of part of the gains to the consumers.

  3. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ludwiczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The goal is to increase the level of spatial and information detail of common databases, thus allowing higher accuracy and effectiveness of the analyses needed to achieve the goals of new generation spatial and agriculture planning. Specific in-depth analyses allowed to define techniques useful in order to reduce the increase in survey costs. Moreover, the work reports the main results regarding a multicriteria model for the analysis of the countryside defined by the research. Such model is aimed to assess the various agricultural, environmental and landscape features, vocations, expressions and attitudes, and support the definition and implementation of specific and targeted planning and programming policies.

  4. Driver injury severity outcome analysis in rural interstate highway crashes: a two-level Bayesian logistic regression interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Liu, Xiaoyue Cathy; Ci, Yusheng; Huang, Helai; Ma, Jianming; Chen, Yanyan; Guan, Hongzhi

    2016-12-01

    There is a high potential of severe injury outcomes in traffic crashes on rural interstate highways due to the significant amount of high speed traffic on these corridors. Hierarchical Bayesian models are capable of incorporating between-crash variance and within-crash correlations into traffic crash data analysis and are increasingly utilized in traffic crash severity analysis. This paper applies a hierarchical Bayesian logistic model to examine the significant factors at crash and vehicle/driver levels and their heterogeneous impacts on driver injury severity in rural interstate highway crashes. Analysis results indicate that the majority of the total variance is induced by the between-crash variance, showing the appropriateness of the utilized hierarchical modeling approach. Three crash-level variables and six vehicle/driver-level variables are found significant in predicting driver injury severities: road curve, maximum vehicle damage in a crash, number of vehicles in a crash, wet road surface, vehicle type, driver age, driver gender, driver seatbelt use and driver alcohol or drug involvement. Among these variables, road curve, functional and disabled vehicle damage in crash, single-vehicle crashes, female drivers, senior drivers, motorcycles and driver alcohol or drug involvement tend to increase the odds of drivers being incapably injured or killed in rural interstate crashes, while wet road surface, male drivers and driver seatbelt use are more likely to decrease the probability of severe driver injuries. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insightful understanding of the internal mechanism of rural interstate crashes and beneficial references for developing effective countermeasures for rural interstate crash prevention.

  5. Educational Equity and Institutional Safeguards: An Analysis of Compulsory Education for Chinese Rural Migrant Workers' Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xianzuo; Peng, Pai

    2008-01-01

    The educational inequity of rural workers' children is a unique social problem in the transition stage of China. Based on the specific survey in such provinces as Hubei, Henan, Anhui, and other provinces, a conclusion can be drawn that the reasons for the educational inequity of rural worker's children are very complicated, among which the system…

  6. An Analysis on Rural Tourism Development Model in Yi County of Huangshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangye; SONG; Hongna; LI

    2014-01-01

    The Yi County’s rural tourism model has changed a lot,gradually transferring from the single model to the composite model,which integrates sightseeing,touring,entertainment,leisure,vocation,and shopping. This article mainly focuses on the rural tourism development model. Yi County is a typical case for others,which gives a new development model.

  7. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse…

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility Applied for Rural Development: An Empirical Analysis of Firms from the American Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility has been recognized by policymakers and development specialists as a feasible driver for rural development. The present paper explores both theoretically and empirically how firms involved in CSR provide development opportunities to rural communities. The research first evaluates the applied literature on the implementation of CSR by private firms and policymakers as means to foster sustainable rural development. The empirical research analyses the CSR activities of 100 firms from a variety of industries, sizes, and countries to determine the type of companies who are involved in rural development and the kind of activities they deployed. Results from the empirical research show that although rural development initiatives are not relevant for all types of companies, a significant number of firms from a variety of industries have engaged in CSR programs supporting rural communities. Firms appear to be interested in stimulating rural development and seem to benefit from it. This paper also includes an exploration of the main challenges and constraints that firms encounter when encouraging rural development initiatives.

  9. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution…

  10. SWOT analysis: appraisal of a new tool in European rural development policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knierim, A.; Nowicki, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Strategic policy making for rural regions has gained increasing importance during the last few decades in the European Union. A coherent framework for the development of agricultural and rural policy measures has been made available (Council Decision 2006/144/EC), which integrates Strengths, Weaknes

  11. Game Analysis on Rural Land Transfer from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The key—to maintaining social stability in rural areas, promoting rural economic development and building a new socialist countryside—is handling correctly the issues of rural land transfer and ironing out the conflicts resulting from the benefits imbalance. In this paper, rural land transfer is categorized into two types: land transfer caused by the collective behavior and land transfer caused by the individual behavior. In the process of land transfer caused by the collective behavior, the conflicts root in the convergence of interest among various rural social strata; while in the process of land transfer caused by the individual behavior, the game between interests and human relationship, reflects the dilemma between rationality and sensibility, which villagers are confronted with.

  12. Analysis of traffic accidents on rural highways using Latent Class Clustering and Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Mujalli, Randa; Calvo, Francisco J

    2013-03-01

    One of the principal objectives of traffic accident analyses is to identify key factors that affect the severity of an accident. However, with the presence of heterogeneity in the raw data used, the analysis of traffic accidents becomes difficult. In this paper, Latent Class Cluster (LCC) is used as a preliminary tool for segmentation of 3229 accidents on rural highways in Granada (Spain) between 2005 and 2008. Next, Bayesian Networks (BNs) are used to identify the main factors involved in accident severity for both, the entire database (EDB) and the clusters previously obtained by LCC. The results of these cluster-based analyses are compared with the results of a full-data analysis. The results show that the combined use of both techniques is very interesting as it reveals further information that would not have been obtained without prior segmentation of the data. BN inference is used to obtain the variables that best identify accidents with killed or seriously injured. Accident type and sight distance have been identify in all the cases analysed; other variables such as time, occupant involved or age are identified in EDB and only in one cluster; whereas variables vehicles involved, number of injuries, atmospheric factors, pavement markings and pavement width are identified only in one cluster.

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF SEMI INTENSIVE NATIVE CHICKEN FARMING IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wantasen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the income for semi intensive native chicken farming and todetermine the factors influence it. The study was conducted by survey method and direct interview usingquestionnaire to 35 members of farmers group “Poyuyanan” in Poyowa Besar Village, SouthKotamobagu Dstrict North Sulawesi Province. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and quantitativeanalysis using multiple regression analysis of Cobb-Douglass model. The result showed that farmer withan average ownership of 8 hens could obtain income equivalent to 37.9 kg of rice per month. Theregression analysis showed that altogether the dependent variables had effect to income as much 81.2%(R2 = 0.821. Partially variables that could increase farmers’ income were hatching rate, number ofproductive hen, cost of production and number of eggs hatched. Mortality was the only variable thatdecreased farmers’ income. Cost of production in semi intensive native chicken farming which mainlyfor buying feed could increase the production and income for farmers that in turn would support foodavailability of rural communities in Poyowa Besar Villages

  14. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF RURAL AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the status of the groundwater in rural areas of Jaipur city. People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants Natural water resources are being contaminated due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soil, mining processing etc. It is necessary that quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval to prevent various water born diseases. In present analysis physico-chemical parameter of drinking water viz. pH, hardness, TDS, residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, Free CO2 have been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 8 villages of Amber District Jaipur, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature and quality of water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory. The main objective of the present paper is to aware people of concerned area about the water quality and concerned health hazards.

  15. Analysis of Types and Changes of Village-level Economy in Rural Gongyi City, Henan Province Since 1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Jiajun; KONG Yunfeng; LI Xiaojian

    2008-01-01

    Based on the research on the rural living standard in China in terms of annual net income per capita,we define six types of village-level economy,i.e."to be extremely poor","to make a basic living","to dress warmly and eat one's fill","to try to enrich (to disengage poverty)","to be well-off' and "to be affluent".The data of average annual net income of all the 292 villages between 1990 and 2004 in rural Gongyi City,Henan Province were collected,verified and classified.By using standard deviation,coefficient of variation and regression analysis,it is found that the Gongyi's rural economy has boosted up remarkably from the relative-poverty and absolute-poverty stages in 1990 to the well-off in 2004.However,the absolute differences between villages present a trend of enlargement,while the relative differences fluctuating.On the other hand,spatial analysis of village-level economy shows that most villages with relatively high economic development level were located along national expressway and most villages with absolute-poverty lay in remote mountainous areas in 1990.Since the 1990s,the rapid urbanization and industrialization have had strongly positive effects on rural economic growth.Initial economic foundation,natural resources and traditional techniques also contribute to village economy.From the perspective of geography,villages with location advantages,such as near urban center or industrial parks,have more chances for their economic development and the "core-periphery" economic structure has been presented in the process of rural development.

  16. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  17. Systematic Analysis on Factors Affecting the Development of Rural Tourism: A Case Study of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeJing-ming; LiHui-xia

    2003-01-01

    Based on field survey, the thesis analyzes the key factors affecting development of rural tourism systematically,taking Chengdu as an example. These factors include regional economic development level & leisure tradition, tourist market & traffic, tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism, and decision-making behavior. Among them,regional economic development level & leisure tradition and tourist market & traffic are prerequisites for the development of rural tourism which have an impact on tourist ''s consumption level,consumption custom, operator''s investment ability, tourist destination distribution and scale; Tourist resource, spatial agglomeration and competition of rural tourism are restrictive conditions affecting character and distribution of rural tourism; Government''s decision-making behavior is of importance for expansion of scale and popularity of regional rural tourism, meanwhile, operators'' decision-making behavior includes investment scale and operational strategies, and for operators from the outside, location selection is included additionally. All these decision-making behaviors are subjective conditions for the development of rural tourism.

  18. Exploration and analysis of rural primary school teacher’s language violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Honglian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the problem of rural education becomes more and more obvious while the supervision on stay-at-home children’s education becomes more and more difficult, rural primary school teacher’s language violence has become a new big problem today. This paper collected and investigated the improper language used by rural primary school teachers so as to analyze the features, harm, causes and solutions of language violence, trying to explore and analyze rural primary school teacher’s language violence from perspective of sociology and remind primary school teachers of rethinking. In subjective aspect, this paper hopes to improve rural primary school teacher’s comprehensive quality, establish specification for teacher’s language, lower rural teacher’s vocational burnout and alleviate the psychological pressure that exam-oriented education and rural stay-at-home children impose on teachers. In objective aspect, this paper hopes to enhance the supervision from society and administrative departments for education. All the above measures can be taken to effectively eliminate teacher’s language violence and resolve the crisis.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE DEVELOPMENT REGION WEST, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural communities are characterised mainly by an ageing population, by a decrease of birth rate and by a dependence on agriculture, particularly subsistence agriculture and demi-subsistence agriculture. The policy of rural development of the European Union aims at solving the issues of rural areas through the exploitation of their potential and by ensuring the proper services and infrastructure. Income sources are scarce because of the few jobs and this has major implications on life quality in the rural communities. Therefore, local authorities should be concerned with the development of their own localities and with the improvement of their inhabitants’ life quality and implement successfully some development programmes or projects. The goal of the present paper is to present the most favourable ways of development for the rural communities in the development Region West, Romania, an area confronted with such issues as shortage of jobs and low incomes and where there are discrepancies between the economic developments of the counties making it up. Based on the analyses carried out and on study cases, the authors present the main aspects of the rural areas in the region, pointing out the fact that local authorities should be concerned with the development of their own localities and implement successfully development projects.The authors have reached the conclusion that the development of non-agricultural activities determines the diversification and increase of jobs and, implicitly, the increase of life quality in rural communities.

  20. The Empirical Analysis of Difference of Urban-rural Residents’ Marginal Propensity to Consume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data concerning consumption and income in 55 Years of Statistics Chronicle of New China,China Statistical Yearbook,by using econometric model,this paper expounds the reason of shortage of residents’ consumption demand in China and tests the difference of marginal propensity to consume of China’s urban-rural residents.The results show that the urban residents’ marginal propensity to consume is greater than rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume in China,but the urban residents’ marginal propensity to consume tends to decline,while the rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume tends to rise.In terms of urban-rural income structure,consumption structure and consumption of consumer durables,this paper analyzes the reason of the change of urban-rural residents’ marginal propensity to consume,and it can be described from following 3 aspects:first,urban residents’ income is mainly wage and salary,while urban residents’ income is mainly operating net income.The urban residents are conservative towards the expected income,while rural residents are relatively optimistic towards the expected income;second,in comparison with rural residents’ consumption structure,the urban residents’ consumption structure has big proportion of unessential expenditure,so the income elasticity of consumption is big;third,the urban residents’ traditional consumer durables approach saturation,while the rural residents’ traditional consumer durables are still at the period of increase,and the urban residents’ purchase of emerging consumer durables is inhibited,with great fluctuation.Based on research results and actual situation,this paper puts forward that the key of spurring increase of China’s consumption demand is to expand consumption demand of rural residents.

  1. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Rural Development Economic and Rural Development Rural America Collections Rural Citizen Services Rural Funding Resources Sustainable Rural Communities What is Rural? Visual Arts and Agricultural History Abraham Lincoln and Agriculture Agricultural History Biographies Digital ...

  2. Analysis and Discussion on Property Right of Rural Drinking Water Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenlu; GAO; Jianjun; ZENG

    2014-01-01

    Since rural drinking water projects have diversified investment subjects,complex form,and lacks property right system and policy at national level,there are many difficulties in determining property right of projects in many areas.This not only puzzles competent authorities and specific management institution,but also is unfavorable for long-term full play of project benefit.Combining related laws,regulations,and policies,this paper analyzed and discussed property right of rural drinking water projects.It proposed establishing usufructuary right to replace division of property right,in the hope of helping improve management of rural drinking water projects.

  3. Analysis of Rural Development Factors: A Case Study of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunxi; YAN; Xiaolei; WANG; Xiaoguang; LI

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of survey,drawing on economic growth theory,we analyze the main form of exogenous growth and regional applicability in Hebei Province,and point out that some exogenous driving forces are effective ways to accelerate rural construction,such as " the promotion of agriculture by industry" and " developing the rural areas with the aid of the urban areas". However,human capital,technology,incentive institutional arrangement,agricultural industry clusters and other endogenous growth factors are fundamental to sustainable development of rural construction,so it is necessary to make them play a fundamental role in increasing farmers’ income and promoting agricultural development.

  4. Commercial agriculture and territorial resistance: Analysis of urban-rural relations in the province of Azuay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Rebai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian province of Azuay, agro-ecology seems to signal towards the rebirth of family agriculture in a context of regional migration. Given changes in land usage and the improvement of peasant economies, we envisage a profound mutation in the rural landscape of Azuay. Notwithstanding, in lieu of a true model of territorial rural development, the term territorial resistance is used as weak regional commercial networks do not allow an adequate integration of a majority of peasants, evidencing the need for a more ambitious vision that takes into account the close ties between rural and urban areas, to assist the insertion of poor peasant farmers into commercial agriculture.

  5. Precautionary motivation and consumption Insurance: Empirical analysis of household consumption behavior in rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chuliang

    2007-01-01

    Based on a bousehold survey in rural China,this paper discuses parameters such as precautionary motive,excess sensitivity,contraption insurance,and inter-temporal substitution in the household consumption function in rural China.The conclusions of the paper indicate that there is a significant precautionary motive in household consumption in rural China,but the function of consumption insurance is very limited,and the consumption is also excessively sensitive to the income change.Such parameters are different among consumers within different groups.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  7. Power Quality Experimental Analysis on Rural Home Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jorge Cerqueira Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgeneration is the small-scale generation of heat or electric power or both, by individuals or buildings to meet their own needs. Recently, microgeneration is being regarded as a means to decentralize the power production of renewable energies, reducing the impacts on the grid caused by unexpected energy demands. Given the increase in microgeneration facilities, determining the quantity of energy produced and the power quality assumes growing importance in low, medium, or high voltage facilities. This paper presents a power quality analysis of two different facilities with photovoltaic generation localized in a rural area of Portugal, describing the voltage and frequency behaviour, the harmonic contents, and the total harmonic distortion. Statistical data are presented regarding the number of voltage events and occurrence of dips and swells in both facilities as a percentage of rated voltage. We conclude that some PV systems can severely affect voltage quality, forcing the grid to work at and even above the maximum voltage standard limit.

  8. Profile analysis of rural and urban schoolchildren: life style and postural habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the profile of 7-to-14-year-old male and female schoolchildren with regard to their life style and postural habits. It was carried out through a specific protocol for this project, including open and close questions. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: a parents need to be clarified about their children’s necessity of leisure time; b the schoolchildren studied spend too little time on sports practice and physical activies; c their postural habits revealed a predominance of fetal sleeping position on foam rubber mattresses, the use of backpacks to carry their school materials and the sitting position at the desk with flexed legs and the feet touching the floor; d rural schoolchildren have less leisure time available to practice sports and other specific physical activities because after school time they work with their parents in the fields; e a high rate of spine radiographies was detected.

  9. Analysis on Present Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Ecotourism in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqin; WANG; Yongxiang; GUAN; Zichen; WANG

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the concept, present situation and form of rural ecotourism. It also preliminarily analyses the existing problems of rural ecotourism. Then countermeasures and suggestions related to the further development of rural ecotourism and promotion of new countryside construction are put forward, which can be summarized as follows: carrying out multichannel financing, in order to strengthen the development dynamics of rural ecotourism; focusing on cultivation of ecological quality consciousness, in order to enhance the protection of resources and the environment; innovating development ideas, in order to create muti-function areas; intensifying the efforts on the training for employee, in order to upgrade comprehensive service level; promoting community participation and intensifying the efforts on the training for farmer, in order to raise farmer’s consciousness about development of ecotourism; strengthening the fusion of ecology and culture.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPEMENT THE RURAL TOURISM SUPPLY ON MOUNTAIN SKOPSKA CRNA GORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Petrovska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia, as a future member of the European Union, is facing an important and difficult task: to promote its tourism supply according to the leading European Countries in order to achieve competitive advantage in tourism market. Alternative forms of tourism are an important part of a tourism supply that could satisfy the specific tourist needs. These include rural tourism for which there is an increased demand every day. Macedonia is a country rich in various resources that are essential for making unique, rich and competent rural tourism supply, created strictly according to the principles of sustainable development. The aim of this paper work is to indicate the importance of the development of rural tourism supply for Macedonia, whereas the objective is to analyze the possibilities of the development of the rural tourism supply in the area of mountain Skopska Crna Gora, in order to develop competitive tourism supply.

  11. Maximizing resource efficiency in rural prehospital emergency medical services through call frequency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Rural prehospital emergency medical services are often lacking when compared with their urban counterparts in terms of resources and coordinated resource use: can only employ important resources, such as paramedics, during limited shifts. This project demonstrates a method for determining the most effective use of these limited resources in a rural Red Cross ambulance service in Guápiles, Costa Rica. In this community, paramedic services are only available six days a week for twelve hours. Em...

  12. Added Value in the Rural Agro-industries: an analysis based on the Agricultural Census data

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the added value in the Brazilian rural agro-industries. The information is derived from tabulations based on Agricultural Census microdata, which allowed us to construct a sectorial and macro-regional comparison. Among the wide set of manufacturing and processing activities measured by the census, we selected nine processed products in the rural establishments (aguardente, jams and jellies, cassava flour, corn meal, bread, cheese and cream cheese, rapadura, sausage and tap...

  13. Multiscale Monitoring and Analysis of the Impacts of Rural Land Use Changes on Downstream Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, J.; Ewen, J.; O'Donnell, G.; O'Connell, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    Recent dramatic flood events in several parts of the world have reignited the debate on the role played by rural land use/management changes (RLUMC). Whereas the effects of RLUMC on runoff generation and flood risk at small scales are often clear, it is difficult to determine how these effects travel through the river network to affect flooding at larger scales downstream. The headwaters of the River Hodder catchment (260 km2) in Northwest England, United Kingdom, have recently undergone widespread RLUMC, including changes in stocking density, blocking of moorland drainage ditches, and woodland planting. An unusually dense nested monitoring network has been set-up so that the effects of RLUMC can be studied at increasing scales, from the process scale (~1 ha) to the meso scale (~100 km2). The stream gauges are nested up to 5 deep. In total there are 27 stream gauges, 7 rain gauges, and 1 weather station. The main effort in analysis has focussed on detecting signals from stocking density changes, by studying pre-change and post-change runoff and river network flows at increasing scales. The field data set available for the analysis is comprehensive but is relatively short (approximately 1 year pre-change and 1 year post-change). Given the natural variability of rainfall and hydrological response, working with such short records is an important challenge, especially as there is an almost universal lack of comprehensive, nested, long-term historical data sets worldwide that could be used to investigate the effects of RLUMC on flooding. An analysis of a commonly used statistical data analysis method (based on data based mechanistic modelling) showed that, for such short records, any change effects from RLUMC are apparently masked by natural variability. In addition, the effects of some types of RLUMC, including changes in stocking density, need several years to be fully established. Analysis methods have therefore been sought that are sensitive to changes in the

  14. Pre-design and life cycle cost analysis of a hybrid power system for rural and remote communities in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sayed Shah Danish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present situation of the Afghanistan electricity sector, the photovoltaic and diesel generator stand-alone hybrid power system is increasingly attractive for application in rural and remote communities. Thousands of rural communities in Afghanistan depend solely on traditional kerosene for illumination and rarely have access to electricity sources such as DC battery for radio and other small appliances. This study is conducted to offer real-life solution to this problem. The hybrid system is investigated to meet the domestic load demand that is estimated based on the communities’ electricity consumption culture. At first, customary pre-design is pursued. Afterwards, the break-even point and net present value algorithms are applied for economic analysis. That makes this study differ from the previous academic literature. The concepts developed in this study are targeted for a cost-effective hybrid system, which is appropriate for rural and remote residents’ lifestyle change and improvement. Based on the academic research methods, overall analysis procedures can fit as an analogy, especially for developing countries.

  15. Comparative analysis of the expected demands for nursing care services among older people from urban, rural, and institutional environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiak E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Borowiak,1,2,* Joanna Kostka,3,* Tomasz Kostka1 1Department of Geriatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 2Institute of Nursing, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 3Department of Physical Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Demand for nursing and social services may vary depending on the socio-demographic variables, health status, receipt of formal and informal care provided, and place of residence. Objectives: To conduct a comparative analysis of the expectations of older people from urban, rural, and institutional environments concerning nursing care with respect to the care provided and elements of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Material and methods: The study comprised 2,627 individuals above the age of 65 years living in urban (n=935 and rural (n=812 areas as well as nursing homes (n=880. Results: Family care was most often expected both in urban (56.6% and rural (54.7% environments, followed by care provided simultaneously by a family and nurse (urban – 18.8%; rural – 26.1% and realized only by a nurse (urban – 24.6%; rural – 19.2%. Not surprisingly, nursing home residents most commonly expected nursing care (57.5% but 33.1% preferred care provided by family or friends and neighbors. In the whole cohort of people living in the home environment (n=1,718, those living with family demonstrated willingness to use primarily care implemented by the family (62.0%, while respondents living alone more often expected nursing services (30.3%. In the logistic regression model, among the respondents living in the city, only the form of care already received determined the expectations for nursing care. Among the respondents living in the county, the presence of musculoskeletal disorders, better nutritional status, and current care provided by family decreased expectations for nursing care. Higher cognitive functioning, symptoms of depression, and living alone

  16. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  17. Impact of Maternal Death on Household Economy in Rural China: A Prospective Path Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ye

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the inter-relationships among maternal death, household economic status after the event, and potential influencing factors.We conducted a prospective cohort study of households that had experienced maternal death (n = 195 and those that experienced childbirth without maternal death (n = 384 in rural China. All the households were interviewed after the event occurred and were followed up 12 months later. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship model, utilizing income and expenditure per capita in the following year after the event as the main outcome variables, maternal death as the predictor, and direct costs, the amount of money offset by positive and negative coping strategies, whether the husband remarried, and whether the newborn was alive as the mediators.In the following year after the event, the path analysis revealed a direct effect from maternal death to lower income per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.43, p = 0.041 and to lower expenditure per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.51, p<0.001. A significant indirect effect was found from maternal death to lower income and expenditure per capita mediated by the influencing factors of higher direct costs, less money from positive coping methods, more money from negative coping, and the survival of the newborn.This study analyzed the direct and indirect effects of maternal death on a household economy. The results provided evidence for better understanding the mechanism of how this event affects a household economy and provided a reference for social welfare policies to target the most vulnerable households that have suffered from maternal deaths.

  18. Seasonality of tuberculosis in rural West Bengal: A time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadip Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a recent concern about the global climatic change that is expected to have broad health impacts. The health effects of extreme weather events include a spectrum of wide variety of impacts. According to a study in Northern India, tuberculosis (TB diagnosis peaked between April and June, and it reached a nadir between October and December. However, no seasonality was reported from South India. Aims: This study is aimed to assess the seasonality of TB in rural West Bengal and to develop a univariate time series model. Settings and Design: Retrospective record-based study was carried out at Amdanga tuberculosis unit (TU, North 24-parganas, West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1507 new TB cases were registered in the TB register of the TU during January-2008 to December-2011 period were taken for this study. Statistical Analysis: Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF, autocorrelation function (ACF, partial autocorrelation function (PACF, and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA methods were applied by using the SPSS 16.0 version. Results: ACF and PACF at lag 12 shows significant pick suggesting seasonal component of the TB series. SAF showed peak seasonal variation from March to June and nadir from October to December in additive model. Univariate model by expert-modeler in the SPSS showed SARIMA ((0,0,0(1,2,0 12 could best predict the model with 54.3% variability. Conclusion: A seasonal pattern of TB was observed. This information would be usefulfor administration and managers to take extra care to arrange and provide extra facilities during the peak seasons.

  19. Female Sport Participation In South African Rural Schools: Analysis Of Socio-Cultural Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubayi Ntwanano Alliance

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.

  20. Analysis on Capitalization of Rural Land Ownership in China by Law and Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjuan; LI

    2014-01-01

    To find solutions for legal system for capitalization of rural land ownership in China,this paper studied and analyzed existing problems in rural land system and legal environment using legal theory and transaction cost theory. Results indicated that(i) the restriction of institutional condition upon property right and transaction is more essential,and key points include the relationship of entities of right formed jointly by the state,collective and farmers,accurate positioning of property right structure,and security for land appreciation income right and allocation mechanism;(ii) the land property right structure should select a legal structure with minimum transaction cost. It is concluded that entitling the ownership to a single entity is an economical method to eliminate current conflict of rural land right.

  1. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  2. Retrospective analysis of patients with carcinoma cervix in a rural/semi-urban setting in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranvijay Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the presentation of cervical cancer and the treatment modalities received by the patients at a semi-urban/rural area of Western India with that of published literature from urban centers. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with cervical cancer who presented at a semi-urban/rural cancer center between 2010 and 2013. A total of 141 patients with the median age of 51 years (25-81 were studied. The demographic and clinical variables included age, annual family income, profession, comorbidities, baseline hemoglobin, prior screening, clinical stage, treatment administered, and complications. The pathological variables included tumor type and grade. Results: In our study, all patients presented with vaginal bleeding. Majority of the patients (51 patients, 37.7% had Stage 3B disease. Since majority presented at later stages (Stage 3B, chemotherapy-radiotherapy was the most common treatment modality used in our population. On histopathology, 127 patients (90% had squamous cell carcinoma while 14 patients (10% had adenocarcinoma. In 96 patients (68%, the tumor grade was not known while it was a high, intermediate, and low grade in 6 (4%, 18 (13%, and 21 (15% patients, respectively. The follow-up data of our study were not adequate; hence, the long-term survival results could not be presented. Conclusion: Patients in rural India setting present at later stages which could be improved by creating awareness, improving their personal hygiene, and adequate screening.

  3. The Analysis of Limitation of Engel’s Coefficient——A Case Study of Rural Areas in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing relevant theories of Engel’s coefficient,this paper analyzes the limitation of these theories in practical application currently in China,for example,continuing to use original theory,not in line with reality of China;comparison invalidity in length and breadth,is not conducive to relevant analysis;culling out the special factors easily causes distortion of conclusion.Taking rural areas in Hebei Province as an example,this paper analyzes the limitation of Engel’s coefficient in analyzing the gap of rural economy:in terms of region horizontally,Engel’s coefficient neglects the difference of consumption structure among regions,and difference of economic stages among regions;in terms of time vertically,Engel’s coefficient neglects the periodic change of consumption structure and the ratio change of different families in different periods.According to the reality of China’s rural areas,the correction model of Engel’s coefficient is established as follows.Firstly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation(food+ education+ medical service) /Percentage of total expenditure variation;Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation(food+ education+ medical service) /Percentage of income variation.Secondly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation of food/Percentage of variation of(total expenditure educational expenditure-medical expenditure.Thirdly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation of food/Percentage of total expenditure variation.

  4. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  5. Qualitative analysis of land use change pressures, conditions and drivers in rural-urban fringes: A case of Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper is grounded on the truism that the planet's future is urban. However, urban growth process is bringing rapid economic, social and physical changes. These changes are bringing rapid transformations in areas concerned, especially on land uses in rural-urban fringes. While this is happening, the pressures and drivers are not well documented and understood, particularly so for rural-urban fringes in developing countries such as Kenya.This paper is based on a qualitative research approa...

  6. Dynamic Structural Analysis and Countermeasures of "Three Issues" About Farmers Agriculture and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuyingWu; XijunHe

    2004-01-01

    "Three Issues" about farmers, agriculture and rural areas are complex. The interdependence among co-related subsystems in the large-scale system is relatively complex.On the other hand, it is interrelated to economic development, national policy and industry structure. It is difficult to get the best solution to the problem about farmers, agriculture and rural areas, because it is the complex system with controllable and uncontrollable elements. We analyze the structure of the large-scale system by dynamics, and we try to find the most important factors among the complex interaction and give countermeasures about the problem.

  7. Geo-ethical dimension of community's safety: rural and urban population vulnerability analysis methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan; Yuschenko, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    calculate a distribution of losses connected with decision making in land-use is demonstrated. Rural community's vulnerability determines by water availability, quality of soils, effectiveness of land use (including climate change adaptation), intensity of pollutions, crop productivity variations during the period of crop rotation, annual national distribution of crops output, and distance to city centres. It should noted here that "distance to city centres" is not comprehensive indicator of market accessibility in general case: quality and availability of transport infrastructure should be described more detailed on the next stages of analysis. Urban population vulnerability determines by distribution of urban fractures and quality urban environment: density, quality and availability of infrastructure, balance between industrial, residential and recreational zones, effectiveness of urban land use and landscape management, and social policy, particularly, employment. Population density is closely connected with social density, with communications and decision making. Social learning, as the function of social communications, is the way to increase sustainability. Also it possible to say that social sustainability is a function of intensity and efficiency of communications between interlinked and interacted networks in the heterogeneous environment. Therefore the results of study demonstrated that risk management study should includes issues of risk and threats perception, which should be described in framework of appropriate tools and approaches connected with ethical dimension of vulnerability. For instance, problems of accessibility and availability of safety resources in view of social fairness and socio-economic dynamics should be included into future studies in field of risk analysis.

  8. Implementation of Ptechls Modules in Rural Malaysian Secondary School: A Needs Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Gelamdin, Rashidah Begum; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that the strategy of matching learning style with certain technology enhances students' learning experience. This study seeks to identify the learning styles among students in a rural secondary school, based on the Felder Silverman Model (1988) which comprises four dimensions (visual/verbal, active/reflective, sequential/global,…

  9. Accountability Narratives of Rural School Superintendents and Administrators: Moving from Two- to Three-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, David; Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the broader political sphere as it affects superintendents and other constituents of rural districts. The current landscape of education reform focuses on accountability--particularly at the policy level of both state and federal education agencies. This article draws on the literature and an empirical study that examined…

  10. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  11. Sexual Bias and Household Consumption : A Semiparametic Analysis of Engel curves in Rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Zhang, P.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze Engel curves for nuclear households in rural China. The sample includes more than 5000 nuclear families covering nineteen out of thirty Chinese provinces. We consider expenditures on food, also subdivided into several food subcategories such as cereals, or meat and fish, and other consump

  12. A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural and Urban Veterans' Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard; MacKenzie, Todd A.; West, Alan N.; Wright, Steven; Booth, Brenda M.; Hawthorne, Kara; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cross-sectional studies have identified rural-urban disparities in veterans' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. Purpose: To determine whether longitudinal analyses confirmed that these disparities in veterans' HRQOL scores persisted. Methods: We obtained data from the SF-12 portion of the veterans health administration's…

  13. Prediction and Analysis of Chinese Rural Households’ Consumption Level Based on the ARIMA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the software SAS9.2 and the relevant data of consumption level of rural residents in China from 1952 to 2008,the ARIMA model is established.The model is used to analyze and forecast the time series of the consumption level of Chinese rural residents.The results show that in the near future,the consumption level of Chinese rural residents will be further raised.In 2012,the level will break through per capita 5 000 yuan,almost 100 times more than that in the primary time period.But consumption level does not equal to living standard.To let farmers lead a good life,the government should follow the objective laws;take the overall situation into consideration;coordinate the relations among farmers’ consumption level,national subsidies and farmers’ production enthusiasm.Therefore,The paper suggests that the historical and objective factors should be attached more importance to.Besides,raising farmers’ income and allaying farmers’ fear were effective measures in developing the consumptive potential of rural market and promoting the economic sustainable development.

  14. A Matter of Money? Policy Analysis of Rural Boarding Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government has shifted the pattern of rural schooling over the past decade, replacing village schools with urban boarding schools. The stated goal is to improve school quality, while deploying resources more effectively. However, the new boarding schools fail to provide a safe, healthy environment or protect and enable students' human…

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Analysis of Communication in Rural Social Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, George H.

    This paper describes a five-component system with ten major internal linkages which may be used as a model for studying information flow in any rural agricultural social system. The major components are production, supply, marketing, research, and extension education. In addition, definitions are offered of the crucial variables affecting…

  16. Sustainable Small Schools in the Rural U.S.: Construct and Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Craig B.; Harmon, Hobart

    This paper uses data from a survey of K-12 unit schools to fashion a measure of small school sustainability and relate it to variables pertinent to the rural context. Drawing on definitions of sustainable development and sustainable agriculture, this study proposes sustainability as a concept appropriate to schooling in general, and to small rural…

  17. Analysis of Public Private Interplay Frameworks in the Development of Rural Telecommunications Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    In recent times, rural communities around the globe have been involved in the facilitation of Broadband infrastructure delivery. In this report some of these initiatives from Ghana, USA, South Africa, Denmark, Sweden and India are studied. The essence of the study was to understand how more of th...

  18. 论学校体育在新农村体育建设中的作用%Analysis on the Role of School Sports in Rural Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳花

    2011-01-01

    Developing rural sports is an important part in new socialist rural development.By using the method of literature review,interview and logical analysis,this paper analyzes the current situation of rural sports and expounds the role of rural school sports%发展农村体育是社会主义新农村建设中的一项重要内容,文章运用文献资料法、访谈法和逻辑分析法,对当前农村体育现状进行了分析,并针对农村体育存在的问题,阐释了学校体育在建设新农村体育中的作用。

  19. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  20. Rural areas under urban pressure : case studies of rural-urban relationships across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.M.; Terluin, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of the European research project on building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure (RURBAN). The analysis identifies the impact of urban pressure on rural landscapes and the contribution of rural goods and services (RGS) to enhance the rural landscape

  1. Photochemical modeling of glyoxal at a rural site: observations and analysis from BEARPEX 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Huisman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present roughly one month of high time-resolution, direct, in situ measurements of gas-phase glyoxal acquired during the BEARPEX 2007 field campaign. The research site, located on a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada mountains, is strongly influenced by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs; thus this data adds to the few existing measurements of glyoxal in BVOC-dominated areas. The short lifetime of glyoxal of ~1 h, the fact that glyoxal mixing ratios are much higher during high temperature periods, and the results of a photochemical model demonstrate that glyoxal is strongly influenced by BVOC precursors during high temperature periods.

    A zero-dimensional box model using near-explicit chemistry from the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism v3.1 was used to investigate the processes controlling glyoxal chemistry during BEARPEX 2007. The model showed that MBO is the most important glyoxal precursor (~67 %, followed by isoprene (~26 % and methylchavicol (~6 %, a precursor previously not commonly considered for glyoxal production. The model calculated a noon lifetime for glyoxal of ~0.9 h, making glyoxal well suited as a local tracer of VOC oxidation in a forested rural environment; however, the modeled glyoxal mixing ratios over-predicted measured glyoxal by a factor 2 to 5. Loss of glyoxal to aerosol was not found to be significant, likely as a result of the very dry conditions, and could not explain the over-prediction. Although several parameters, such as an approximation for advection, were found to improve the model measurement discrepancy, reduction in OH was by far the most effective. Reducing model OH concentrations to half the measured values decreased the glyoxal over-prediction from a factor of 2.4 to 1.1, as well as the overprediction of HO2 from a factor of 1.64 to 1.14. Our analysis has shown that glyoxal is particularly sensitive to OH concentration compared to other BVOC oxidation products. This

  2. Understanding Household Connectivity and Resilience in Marginal Rural Communities through Social Network Analysis in the Village of Habu, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenville D. Barnes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is emerging as a key issue not only in the climate change debate but in the general area of sustainable development. In this context, we examine the link between household resilience and connectivity in a rural community in Botswana. We see resilience and vulnerability as the positive and negative dimensions of adaptability. Poor, marginal rural communities confronted with the vagaries of climate change, will need to become more resilient if they are to survive and thrive. We define resilience as the capacity of a social–ecological system to cope with shocks such as droughts or economic crises without changing its fundamental identity. We make use of three different indices of household resilience: livelihood diversity, wealth, and a comprehensive resilience index based on a combination of human, financial, physical, social, and natural capital. Then, we measure the social connectivity of households through a whole network approach in social network analysis, using two measures of network centrality (degree centrality and betweenness. We hypothesize that households with greater social connectivity have greater resilience, and analyze a community in rural Botswana to uncover how different households make use of social networks to deal with shocks such as human illness and death, crop damage, and livestock disease. We surveyed the entire community of Habu using a structured questionnaire that focused on livelihood strategies and social networks. We found that gender, age of household head, and household size were positively correlated with social connectivity. Our analysis indicates that those households that are more socially networked are likely to have a wider range of livelihood strategies, greater levels of other forms of social capital, and greater overall capital. Therefore, they are more resilient.

  3. Recognition and Analysis of the Effective Social Dimensions on the Tendency of Rural Youths to Addiction in Rural Areas of Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajarian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The object of this study was the identification of effective factors and the prevalence of drug use among rural youths. Method: The study was a scientific-comparative research. The sample was 450 rural youths from the city of Isfahan. The related questionnaires were collected in 15 villages of Isfahan city. Findings: Results showed that between family factors and consumption rate, family rift and family dependency and father's occupational status were effective ones. Also, among the social and emotional factors anomaly, tendency to religious issues and friendship with those addicted to drugs have been effective in getting addiated of rural youths. Among personal factors, the increase of education level can act as an effective factor. Conclusion: the results showed that between tnndency to religious factors and consumption rate there is a negative meaning. Similarly, there is a positive meaning among unemployment, stablishing friendship with addicted, being close to urban places and addiction to drugs.

  4. Analysis of the Possibility and Limitation of Criminal Mediation in Rural Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development in the theory and practice in the area of criminal law in China, a lot of creative views have been put into legal practice. Criminal mediation, which is cropping up in both practice and theory becomes a hot subject under discussion in the field of legislation. The newly modified criminal law formally prescribes the criminal mediation, which has been recognized in the level of law-making. It has become a basic policy in the procedure of law suit. This thesis emphasizes the possibility of criminal mediation in rural areas in China, discussing the disadvantages of the current criminal justice mode, the advantages of criminal mediation and the tradition in rural areas in China. Additionally, it attempts to set up the limitation of criminal mediation, based on the principle of law, principle of equality, principle of utility and principle of justice.

  5. 湖北省农村人力资本对农村经济增长贡献的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on the Contribution of Hubei Rural Human Capital to Rural Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤琼; 李成标

    2014-01-01

    Human capital is increasingly becoming the main driving force to promote economic growth and social development. Hubei province, a big agricultural province with populous, rural human capital, has an important role in rural economic growth. Based on Hubei relevant data for 2001-2011, the modified C-D function and quantitative analysis method are used to find the contribution rate of rural physical capital and human capital to rural economic development. The results show that investment in physical capital in rural areas is a dominant force for rural economic growth, and human capital also has a significant positive impact on economic growth, but the contribution rate is low. Based on the analysis of the specific rea-sons, this paper puts forward recommendations to promote the healthy development of rural economy of Hubei province.%人力资本日益成为促进经济增长和社会发展的主要推动力,湖北省是农业人口大省,农村人力资本对农村经济增长具有重要的作用。利用修改后的C-D函数,以湖北省2001-2011年的相关数据为样本,运用定量分析的方法对农村物质资本、人力资本对农村经济发展的贡献率进行了实证分析。结果表明,农村物质资本投入是农村经济增长的主导力量,人力资本存量对农村经济增长具有显著的正向影响,但贡献率较低。在分析具体原因的基础上,提出了促进湖北省农村经济良性发展的建议。

  6. Does Migration Raise Agricultural Investment? An Empirical Analysis for Rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Böhme, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The effect of remittances on capital accumulation remains a contested topic. This paper uses a panel data set from rural Mexico to investigate the impact of remittances on agriculture and livestock investments. After controlling for the endogeneity of migration through an instrumental variable estimation our empirical results show that international migration has a significantly positive effect on the accumulated agricultural assets but not on livestock capital. This suggests that households ...

  7. Field analysis of solar PV-based collective systems for rural electrification.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, P.; Peña, R.; Muñoz Cano, Javier; Arias, C. A.; Sandoval, D

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the long-term performance of collective off-grid photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural areas. The use of collective PV systems for the electrification of small medium-size villages in developing countries has increased in the recent years. They are basically set up as stand-alone installations (diesel hybrid or pure PV) with no connection with other electrical grids. Their particular conditions (isolated) and usual installation places (far from commercial/industrial centers...

  8. Analysis of the agricultural and rural development policies of the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    BAJRAMOVIĆ Sabahudin; Bogdanov, Natalija; BUTKOVIĆ Jakub; DIMITROVSKI Dragi; Erjavec, Emil; GJECI Grigor; GJOKAJ Ekrem; HOXHA Bekim; STOMENKOVSKA Ivana Janeska; KONJEVIĆ Darko; KOTEVSKA Ana; MARTINOVIĆ Aleksandra; MIFTARI Iliriana; Nacka, Marina; OGNJENOVIĆ Dragana

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared by a team of academic experts from Western Balkan (WB) countries coordinated by the Regional Rural Development Standing Working Group (SWG) in South-East Europe. The study targets EU candidate and potential candidate countries from the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo*). The main objectives of the study is the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural policies in the period 2012-2014 and assessment of the...

  9. Acute care needs in a rural Sub-Saharan African Emergency Centre: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Periyanayagam

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: This pilot study describes the patient population, resource and training needs of a rural Emergency Centre in SSA. It demonstrates that acute care providers will be required to evaluate a wide variety of patient complaints, effectively utilise laboratory and radiologic testing, and perform numerous focused treatments and therapies. Specialised training programmes, such as GECC’s ECP programme, are needed to create providers able to provide high quality, lifesaving care.

  10. An Analysis of Evolution of Lending Patterns of IFAD China’s Rural Financial Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells us briefly the background and aims of the fundation of IFAD.It points out that IFAD plays an important part in helping the development of agriculture and food production in developing countries,and in reducing the poverty conditions in the poorest countries.It tells us that IFAD has offered donation to China for 8 times,with a total amount reaching to 56.839 million dollars.With the development of the economy of China,IFAD has changed its lending financial policies to China from a highly beneficial policy to a moderate lending policy.The operation of the loan projects have greatly improved the living conditions and of the local and the conditions of agricultural production,promoting the improvement of economy,social stability,and enviroment.It discusses several lending patterns of IFAD China’s rural financial projects.The government-leading model,which is represented by the IFAD financial lending loan.Market-oriented model of formal financial institutions,which is represented by IFAD Rural Credit Cooperatives,with market oriented.Government supporting as secondary model,which are dominated by IFAD Women’s lending patterns and Village Development Fund lending model.In this paper,advantages and disadvantages of lending patterns are analyzed and evaluated.It discusses the development trend of IFAD financial lending patterns in terms of Rural Credit Cooperatives and a pattern which is community-oriented and farmers-benefited.

  11. Analysis on Imbalance of Family Intergenerational Exchange in China Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In China rural area, intergenerational exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring is uneven. Parents pay much more than the return they’ll get when they’re old, which mainly relates to the utilities of children. In countryside, the utilities of children (especially sons manifest in following aspects: continuing the family line, emotional comfort, laborer and supporting for old age. To some extent, these factors influence the rural intergenerational injustice respectively and together. From the prospective of trend of social and economic development, the caring of the retired will be taken by social insurance system; the intergeneration exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring will no longer be a social issue, but in the vast rural areas, the influence of traditional culture family lineage is still powerful. The need of caring of the old becomes so weak that emotional effect becomes much more urgent. The weak status of the old generation bring the fathers’ generation in a weak social status, which seriously affect the living conditions of the old generations. Therefore, when focusing the caring issue in the country, besides that we should ensure the old be cared materially, what matters most is keep the balance between the exchanging two sides

  12. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  13. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: a microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Tollens, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Livestock fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep and on accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. Using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia, this paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households' livestock holding to identify determinants of choice and accumulation of livestock overtime. Choice is analyzed for a principal animal, the animal that constituted the largest value of livestock assets a household possessed, using a multinomial logit model. Results indicate that rural households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep. Agro-climatic conditions, sex and age of household head, presence of an adult male member in a household, and liquidity are the major factors that influence the type of principal animal households keep. Conditional on the principal animal selected, we analyzed the factors that determine the accumulation of the chosen animals by correcting for selection bias. Area of land cultivated is the most significant factor that explains the number of animals households keep. Other factors include sex of household head, diversification into nonfarm self-employment, and shocks.

  14. Energy and GHG Analysis of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has taken great efforts to popularize rural household scale biogas digesters, since they are regarded as an effective approach to address energy shortage issues in rural areas and as a potential way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical rural household biogas system, the aim of this study is to systematically quantify its total direct and indirect energy, concentrating on non-renewable energy and the associated GHG emission cost over the entire life cycle to understand its net dynamic benefits. The results show that the total energetic cost for biogas output is 2.19 J/J, of which 0.56 J is from non-renewable energy sources and the GHG emission cost is 4.54 × 10−5 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq, with respect to its design life cycle of 20 years. Correspondingly, a net non-renewable energy saving of 9.89 × 1010 J and GHG emission reduction of 50.45 t CO2-eq can be obtained considering the coal substitution and manure disposal. However, it must be run for at least 10 and 3 years, to obtain positive net non-renewable energy savings and GHG emission reduction benefits, respectively. These results have policy implications for development orientation, follow-up services, program management and even national financial subsidy methods.

  15. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  16. Rural Supremacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Meera

    2011-01-01

    The success of any brand depends on it acceptance by the consumers. This project highlights the rural buying behaviour. The rural consumers tend to show a closed mind towards branded goods and services. Though the current scenario is improved than the past but still large amount of rural market is untapped. The marketers now understand the potential at the bottom of the pyramid but there are doubts regarding the way this market can be reached and converted into customers. Many factors like in...

  17. FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY RURAL AGRO-INDUSTRIES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Bastian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, innumerable alterations have been observed in rural areas, such as the introduction of new technologies, agro-industrial integration and valuing of these areas as living and leisure places, having delicious and healthy products. In the wake of these transformations, some farmers have begun to realize that there are new possibilities of generating income. One of these opportunities has arisen through the development of agro-industrial production as a typical activity of family agriculture. By an interest in this subject, this article aims to verify if there are distinctions, and what are the distinctions between rural agro-industries of family and non-family agriculture, to the level of Brazil. Initially, rural agro-industries that are heterogeneous among them have been highlighted, being difficult to make inferences on aggregated data. However, the separation of data between agro-industries of family agriculture (FA and non-family agriculture (NFA has already made possible a cutout. Based on this assumption, some variables were selected from the Agricultural Census of 2006 to infer on eight products from the rural agro-industry. This way, through these data and variables, it was possible to identify that the rural agro-industry is more numerous in family establishments, as well as its total production coming mainly from it, with the exception of two products which production, between FA and NFA, is basically equivalent. Through the variable scale of production for the six analyzed products, it was possible to verify that they were above in NFA, and two in FA. The NFA is also highlighted with acquired raw material and commercialization in a greater proportion. In addition, commercialization channels are practically identical, with some exception, as long as the FA sells more to the final consumer and NFA to intermediate consumers. The conclusion have indicated that the distinctions between these two types of agro-industries are strongly

  18. Through the Looking Glass: A Comparative Analysis of the Career Patterns of Rural Female Administrators in Saskatchewan and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2005-01-01

    This article stems from research that examined the effect of the rural context on the career patterns of female administrators in rural public school divisions in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, and in the state of Texas, United States. These two studies examined (a) the nature of rural communities and its relationship to women's career…

  19. [Analysis of Microbial Community in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Rural Sewage Treatment System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bing-jian; Jin, De-cai; Wu, Shang-hua; Yang, Bo; Deng, Ye; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhuang, Xu-liang

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled release and arbitrary irrigation reuse of rural wastewater may lead to water pollution, and the microbial pathogens could threaten the safety of freshwater resources and public health. To understand the microbial community structure of rural wastewater and provide the theory for microbial risk assessment of wastewater irrigation, microbial community diversities in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) process for rural wastewater treatment was studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA gene clone library. Meanwhile, changes of Arcobacter spp. and total bacteria before and after treatment were detected through real-time quantitative PCR. The clone library results showed that there were 73 positive clones included Proteobacteria (91. 80%), Firmicutes (2. 70%), Bacteroidetes (1. 40%), and uncultured bacteria (4. 10%) in the untreated wastewater. The typical pathogenic genus Arcobacter belonging to e-Proteobacteria was the dominant component of the library, accounting for 68. 5% of all clones. The main groups and their abundance in different treatments were significantly distinct. The highest values of species abundance (S), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness (E) were observed in the adjusting tank, which were 43. 0, 3. 56 and 0. 95, respectively. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the copy number of Arcobacter spp. was (1. 09 ± 0. 064 0) x 10(11) copies.L-1 in the untreated sewage, which was consistent with the result of 16S rDNA gene clone library. Compared to untreated wastewater, bacterial copy number in the treated effluent decreased 100 to 1 000 times, respectively, suggesting that MBR treatment system could remove the microbial quantity in such scale. In the recycled water, the physicochemical parameters and indicator bacteria met the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. However, further research is needed to estimate the potential health risks caused by residual pathogenic microorganisms in

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE NATURAL POTENTIAL AND OF THE AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES IN THE RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CREŢU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The immediate effect of the application of the Land Law in Călăraşi county agriculture, the restructuring of the the farm units configuration by preponderance of small individual land, reduced the positive implications of the privatization process, resulting in a less viable economic model in terms of resources and efficiency . These structures determined the intensive consume of labour force, which led to the attraction of part of the labor force in other sectors, in agriculture, representing small farmers producing for own consumption and for selling products on the rural market.

  1. A general equilibrium analysis of rural-urban migration under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladi, H; Ingene, C A

    1994-02-01

    "This paper analyzes the implications of an exogenous shift in relative prices for an economy that suffers from urban unemployment, as well as uncertainty in the agricultural sector. Among other things, we show that with agricultural uncertainty, an exogenous shift in relative prices will lower agricultural profit. This result is in sharp contrast with the conventional case of risk-neutrality or certainty where agricultural profit is unaffected by changes in the terms of trade." The consequences for rural-urban migration in developing countries are implied.

  2. Measurement and Analysis of Production Performance of Rural Households in Jinzhai County, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Can

    2004-01-01

    Using a multi-input multi-output production technology and survey data from Jinzhai County, western Anhui Province, China, the author first measured the production performance of rural households - their efficiency, economy of scale, and productivity during 1978-1997, and then related the measured production performance with institutional change, market access, and other factors. Preliminary results show that: 1) performance differs a great deal across households and over time; 2) institutional changes and market accessibility have played a major role in improving performance; 3) depending on the specific resources, their effects are variable.

  3. A SWOT analysis of aquaculture development in rural areas of Iran, an application to Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Moogouei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study various important indices were selected to assess the sustainable aquaculture strategies in rural areas of Iran. In addition the government officials, consultants and managers were surveyed to assess the indices of aquaculture development. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats   analyses were used to make a comprehensive evaluation on internal and external factors, participating the development of aquaculture strategies. The sum of the attractiveness scores from the Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix was approximately 2.55, being larger than 2.5, indicating that the strengths exceed the weaknesses. The sum of the External Factor Evaluation Matrix scores was 3.49, indicating that opportunities were higher than threats. This analysis showed that the development of aquaculture, promotion of new cold-water species production, productivity enhancement, establishment of hatchery facilities and formation of an effective support organization are the most important strategies that should be considered in the studied area. Results obtained on this research help decision makers on work of the aquaculture sector in rural areas of Iran.

  4. Land-based Investments for Rural Development? A Grounded Analysis of the Local Impacts of Biofuel Feedstock Plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing biofuel sector in Africa has, in recent years, been received with divided interest. As part of a contemporary wave of agricultural modernization efforts, it could make invaluable contributions to rural poverty. Conversely, it could also engender socioeconomically and environmentally detrimental land use changes as valuable land resources are converted to plantation agriculture. This research analyzes the impacts and impact pathways of biofuel feedstock development in Ghana. It finds that companies are accessing large contiguous areas of customary land through opaque negotiations with traditional authorities, often outside the purview of government and customary land users. Despite lack of participation, most customary land users were highly supportive of plantation development, with high expectations of 'development' and 'modernization.' With little opposition and resistance, large areas of agricultural and forested land are at threat of being converted to plantation monoculture. A case study analysis shows that this can significantly exacerbate rural poverty as communities lose access to vital livelihood resources. Vulnerable groups, such as women and migrants, are found to be most profoundly affected because of their relative inability in recovering lost livelihood resources. Findings suggest that greater circumspection by government is warranted on these types of large-scale land deals.

  5. Bridging political economy analysis and critical institutionalism: an approach to help analyse institutional change for rural water services

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    Stephen David Jones

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that approaches to understanding local institutionsfor natural resource management based on “critical institutionalism” (Cleaver2012, which emphasises the importance of improvisation and adaptationacross different scales, can be placed within broader political economy analysisframeworks for assessing challenges in public services delivery from national tolocal levels. The paper uses such an extended political economy analysis approachto understand the role of the international NGO WaterAid and its partners in Mali inrelation to institutions for financing rural water services, drawing on collaborativeresearch undertaken in 2010 and 2011. The case study shows that WaterAid’sapproach can be understood through elements of both mainstream and criticalinstitutionalist thinking. At local government level, WaterAid primarily promotesformal institutional arrangements, which exhibit the challenge of “reforms assignals” (Andrews 2013, where institutional reforms appear to happen but lackthe intended function. However, the work of WaterAid’s partners at communitylevel supports processes of “institutional bricolage” through which they try togradually work with local actors to find ways of ‘best fit’ for financing rural waterservices which adapt existing local practices into new arrangements.

  6. THE STATE OF THE ART IN RESEARCH INTO RURAL TOURISM IN SPAIN: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Hernández Mogollón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of rural tourism has been addressed from different perspectives, such as geography, sociology, psychology, economics, business management, tourism marketing, etc. This positions it as a multidisciplinary research field of great interest which is growing in strategic importance. However it requires appropriate tools to improve its performance and become more professional. The level of interest it now produces is palpable in the quantitative increase in the attention devoted to it in the scientific literature over recent years. Nevertheless there is a need to improve the quality of this research effort, especially in fields related to economics and the management of businesses and even more so with regard to issues related to marketing, all of which would contribute to a better understanding of issues such as the planning, management and marketing of these destinations and businesses. This paper is an analysis of rural tourism as an area of scientific research that aims to classify the most relevant topics in the field, with particular reference to those that focus on marketing and market research. Its main contribution is a proposal of a research agenda for the coming years.

  7. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  8. Rural Agrobusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  9. Empirical Analysis on the Relations between Rural Residents’ Consumption and Economic Growth——A Case of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Liaoning is a granary province with a large agricultural population and great market potential. Expanding rural residents’ consumption becomes a necessity for enlarging domestic demand, solving three agriculture problems and promoting sustainable and rapid economic development. The research shows that since invigorating old industrial base in Liaoning, the contribution rate of rural residents’ consumption to economic motivation is low and unstable, which has become one of the choke points for the development of economy. By using the grey correlation method, the influences of rural residents’ consumption in different periods to GDP per capita are analyzed, the results show that the consumption level of rural residents were increasing, but their contribution rate on economic growth showed the descending tend. The residential expenses stay in the major position of consumption expenses; the education and entertainment products and service consumption play an important role; the growth of transportation and telecommunication is slow; the expenses on medical care are low and its contribution rate on economic growth is relatively weak. The countermeasures on developing rural economy, increasing rural residents’ income, improving rural consumption environment, accelerating rural infrastructure construction, constructing and perfecting rural social security system and expanding rural consumption credit market are put forward to expand rural residents’ consumption demand and realize the sustainable development of economy.

  10. Analysis of Secondary Separation of China’s Rural Land Rights from the Perspective of Analytical Jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng; SU; Hongjuan; LI

    2015-01-01

    China’s rural land rights are incomplete in structure of land rights and functions due to status restriction. Settling dispute and problem of status in rural land right and function structure is of great significance for determining and guaranteeing subjects of rural land rights. The point connecting and solving rural land circulation issue is demonstration and settlement of status. Separating the status right from rural land property right,namely the secondary separation of right,is to realize such purpose. Currently,China’s rural land right is a bundle of rights,not the right described in property pedigree in strict sense. Using theory of rights of Hohfeld,this paper discussed and analyzed legal relationship of secondary separation of China’s rural land rights,in the hope of realizing real return from practice to theory and to practice again.

  11. Analysis of Land Reforms and the Review of Legislative Aspects in Rural Land in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALBONA SINANI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Albanian agriculture has been experiencing a dramatic and difficult transition period from a centralized, planned economy to a market economy. The main reasons for these difficulties are because of the expropriation of peasant property and their incorporation into the cooperative system transformed them into salaried workers with one of the lowest per capita income levels in the world. Also the laws restricting the mobility of rural people kept about 65 percent of the population in the countryside and increased impoverishment of the rural population reduced the supply of food for the cities. Ownership rights include the right to exclusive use and enjoyment as well as the right to transfer property through selling, making gifts, mortgaging, leasing, inheritance etc. At the same time, there are certain responsibilities for property owners that may limit some of these rights. Examples of these limits include zoning, environmental standards and urban planning laws. Equally important to the right of private ownership of property is the maintenance and use of property for public purposes. The purpose of this research is to move beyond the rather simplistic notions of land use and land tenure that have informed research on postsocialist land reforms. Land use generates or modifies a large variety of products and services, as highlighted by recent research on the multifunctional nature of European agriculture.

  12. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

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    Andrej Lange

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i agriculture; (ii forestry; (iii water management and (iv rural planning and development (“cross-sector” representatives. The data were gathered using 60 semi-structured interviews and were analyzed qualitatively. The results indicate that differences in perceptions are greater between stakeholder groups than between regions; regional land management issues shape the framework of negotiations and the redefinition of concepts, whereas stakeholder group affiliations shape mindsets. The economic dimension of sustainability was emphasized, particularly by land managers; however, the social dimension was underrepresented in the statements. Furthermore, there are considerable differences between stakeholder groups in terms of the ways in which the spatial and temporal scales of sustainable land use are perceived. This study underscores the importance of examining stakeholder knowledge and understanding the complexity of land management and its benefits such that consensual management strategies may be developed.

  13. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  14. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  15. An Analysis on Borrowing Behavior of Rural Households in Vientiane Municipality: Case Study of Four Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chansathith Chaleunsinh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s the savings groups have been introduced in the villages of Laos. This movement has offered new borrowing opportunities for the rural people. Based on household survey using a structured questionnaire in four study villages (N=684 in Vientiane Municipality during 2007–08 we analyzed the role and performance of the savings group in rural financial markets, especially focusing on who borrows, from which sources, and for what purposes by comparing the savings group with informal and formal lenders. Two major findings are as follows. First, three types of lenders (savings groups, formal and informal lenders have their own particular features, and thereby loan purposes differ significantly. Formal banks offer loans exclusively for production purposes, while informal lenders do for coping with emergencies. Savings groups fall between them. Second, though poor households are reluctant to be a savings group member, once they participate in they actively obtain loans from it. In contrast, though rich households actively participate in the group, they obtain loans less from it. Group members claim that the primary purpose of joining the savings group is to cope with emergencies. When the members obtain loans from the savings group, however, nearly 40% of the loans are used for production purposes, mainly in agriculture. There exists a change between saving purposes and borrowing ones. It is assumed that in villages with the higher loan credit for production purposes, the savings groups show favorable performance, and thus a rapid growth.

  16. Upgrading Domestic-Plus Systems in Rural Senegal: An Incremental Income-Cost (I-C Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph P. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that rural and peri-urban households depend on water not only for basic domestic needs but also for a wide variety of livelihood activities. In recognition of this reality, an alternative approach to water service planning, known as multiple-use water services (MUS, has emerged to design water services around householdsʼ multiple water needs. The benefits of MUS are diverse and include improved health, food security, income generation, and women’s empowerment. A common argument put forth by WASH sector professionals in favour of upgrading existing water systems is that productive water uses allow for income generation that, in turn, enhances the ability to pay for services. However, there has been limited rigorous research to assess whether the additional income generated from productive use activities justifies water service upgrading costs. This paper describes an income-cost (I-C analysis based on survey data and EPANET models for 47 domestic-plus water systems in rural Senegal to assess whether the theoretical financial benefits to households from additional piped-water-based productive activities would be greater than the estimated system upgrade costs. The paper provides a transparent methodology for performing an I-C analysis. We find that the potential incremental income earned by upgrading the existing domestic-plus systems to provide intermediate-level MUS would be equivalent to the funds needed to recover the system upgrade costs in just over one year. Thus, hypothetically, water could pay for water. A sensitivity analysis shows that even with a 55% reduction in household income earned per cubic meter of water, the incremental income is still greater than the upgrade costs over a ten-year period for the majority of the systems.

  17. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Henderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in response to "Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-income, Rural Schools: NSF's Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative, by Robert Bickel, Terry Tomaskek, and Teresa Hardman Eagle which was published in the Education Policy Analysis Archives as Number 12 of Volume 8 on February 21, 2000.

  18. Rural women in China's participation in villagers' autonomy analysis%我国农村妇女参与村民自治的问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璜; 赵一荣

    2015-01-01

    村民自治作为我国基层民主的重要内容,其发展水平代表了我国社会政治民主化的程度。占农村人口半数的农村妇女参与村民自治无论是对促进农村妇女自身发展,提高女性社会地位,还是推进社会文明进步都起着举足轻重的作用。文章通过对我国农村妇女参与村民自治过程中存在的问题及影响因素的分析,力求找到解决我国农村妇女有效参与村民自治的途径。%Villagers' autonomy as an important part of China's grassroots democracy, and its level of development represents a degree of social and political democratization. Accounting for half of all rural women in rural villagers' autonomy both for the promotion of rural women of their own development, improve the social status of women, or to promote social progress and civilization have played a pivotal role. Through participation of rural women in the process of villagers 'autonomy problems and influencing factors analysis, and strive to find a way to solve the effective participation of rural women villagers' autonomy.

  19. Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity.

  20. Analysis of Rural Environmental Problems and Countermeasures%关于农村环境问题及解决对策浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德林; 李玲

    2015-01-01

    本文通过全面解析当前我国农村环境所面临的主要问题,提出解决我国农村环境问题的方法和改善农村生态环境的对策,为国家行政决策和环境保护提供参考。%Through comprehensive analysis the main problems of China's rural environment faces, the paper puts forward to the methods to solve the rural environment problems in China, the countermeasures of improving the rural ecological environment, so as to provide reference for the administrative decision-making and environmental protection.

  1. Nurse Practitioner Autonomy and Satisfaction in Rural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A

    2016-01-29

    Rural primary care shortages may be alleviated if more nurse practitioners (NPs) practiced there. This study compares urban and rural primary care NPs (classified by practice location in urban, large rural, small rural, or isolated small rural areas) using descriptive analysis of the 2012 National Sample Survey of NPs. A higher share of rural NPs worked in states without physician oversight requirements, had a DEA (drug enforcement administration) number, hospital admitting privileges, and billed using their own provider identifier. Rural NPs more often reported they were fully using their NP skills, practicing to the fullest extent of the legal scope of practice, satisfied with their work, and planning to stay in their jobs. We found lower per capita NP supply in rural areas, but the proportion in primary care increased with rurality. To meet rural primary care needs, states should support rural NP practice, in concert with support for rural physician practice.

  2. A Statistical Analysis on the Effects of Infrastructure on Rural Economic Development%基础设施影响农村经济发展的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠晴江; 杨海燕

    2005-01-01

    Based on statistical analysis, this paper states that four types of rural infrastructure as roads, electricity,communications, and education have statistically significant effects on agricultural production, nonagricultural production, and farmers' income in China. However, the specifics and the degrees of these influences are different.Therefore, different policies have to be implemented respectively to make full use of the limited funds in China.Meanwhile, the maturity level of rural infrastructure as with rural economic development has regional discrepancy.The levels of maturity decrease from east to west. It is urgent that the current weak situation of the rural infrastructure in western China needs to be improved.

  3. Multi-Element Analysis and Geochemical Spatial Trends of Groundwater in Rural Northern New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Connor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples from private wells (n = 169 throughout St. Lawrence County, NY were analyzed by ICP-MS multi-element techniques. St. Lawrence County spans three diverse bedrock terranes including Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Adirondack Lowlands (mostly paragneisses and Highlands (mostly orthogneisses, as well as Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the St. Lawrence Valley. An ArcGIS database was constructed and used to generate contour plots for elements across the county. Strontium isotopes and unique geochemical signatures were used to distinguish water from various geologic units. The results were consistent with a large (7,309 km2, sparsely populated (~110,000, rural region with diverse bedrock and glacial cover.

  4. The analysis of the types of aggressiveness at preadolescents from urban and rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losîi Elena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In last year’s the study of aggressive behaviour became widespread and dynamic, and also remains a challenge for psychology. The evolution of aggressiveness phenomenon led to the it’s refinement based on different practices and mechanisms of aggressiveness appearance. In phylogentic evolution remains constantly especially among children. The types and forms of aggressive behaviour are becoming more numerous and various. Aggressive behaviour knows a multitude of faces and can be expressed in a variety of ways. The given article is dedicated to the research of aggressive and types of aggressive behaviour at preadolescents. Our study included 100 preadolescents from urban and rural environments. The hostility, physical aggression, indirect aggression, nervousness, negativity, verbal aggression and guilt were tested with Buss - Durkee Hostility Inventory. As consequences we can mention that aggressive behaviour is largely specific to contemporary preadolescents. Also we can underline that aggressive behaviour and types of aggressive behaviour depends on gender and environment of preadolescents.

  5. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  6. Rural Depopulation Pattern at Yogyakarta Special Province (DIY

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    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on a secondary data research i.e. statistical data at rural levels in Yogyakarta, thematics maps and other documents. Statistical methodes and map pattern analysis are employed to analysis data. The result of this research are as follows: a the rural depopulation in DIY can be found in 189 rural areas of 393 rural areas (48.09%; b the spatial distribution of the rural depopulation are in Gunung Kidul District (80 rural areas, Kulon Progo District (59 rural areas Sleman District (33 rural areas, and Bantul District (17 rural areas; c the rural depopulation in Yogyakarta at least related to six factors whih have been identified as out – migration, local resources, carrying capacity, geographycal location or accessibility, rural infrastructure, and service availability.

  7. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  8. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  9. The Analysis of China Rural Land Capitalizable Circulation Risk%中国农地资本化流转风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙月蓉; 代晨

    2015-01-01

    农地资本化流转是实现中国农业现代化的必然途径。农地资本化流转风险主要有:农地用途改变,影响粮食安全的风险;产权权能缺位,强制农民流转的风险;盲目推进规模化,经营风险失控的风险;资本化流转的市场风险。化解农地资本化流转风险的对策有:加强对流转农地的监管、推进农地确权、构建“三位一体”的农地流转市场、弱化农地的社会功能。%Rural land capitalizable circulation is the necessary way to realize the modernization of agriculture Chinese.The analysis of the current China farmland capitalizable circulation status and characteristics of rural land circulation, the risk are rural land use change,the risk of affecting the food security; property right absence,the risk of forced farmers circulation of agricultural land; blindness advance the scale, the risk of the management is out of control;capital circulation market risk.The countermeasures to solve the risk of farmland capitalizable circula-tion is to strengthen the convection praedial supervision, promoting the rural land rights, the construction of“three-in-one” rural land circulation market, weakening the social function of rural land.

  10. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH-MUNTENIA REGION

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    Elena LASCAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The infrastructure is an element of support, with particular importance for the support of all economic and social and cultural activities in the rural area. The infrastructure covers both the structural area, giving unity to the system and the space area, thus creating a viable territorial configuration or not, which is reflected by different levels of accessibility. Actually it is the circulatory system of the economic and social body, individualized in a well determined area as the regional one. South-Muntenia Region is characterized by a well defined infrastructure due to its advantageous geographical position. Its location in a peripheral area of Romania has favoured the emergence of some major roads, which allowed the development of its relations not only with the neighbouring national regions, but also with the neighbouring country Bulgaria. It location around Bucharest-Ilfov Development Region, resulted in shaping a dense infrastructure for transport and communication, an extension of that developed in Bucharest, the most important city and administrative centre.

  12. Food Security in Rural Areas of Vaishali District, India: A Household Level Analysis

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    Haroon Sajjad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security has been one of the major developmental objectives in India. Though India has sufficient food production yet the achievement did not percolate down to households.This paper reports on an investigation into the food security status in Vaishali district of Bihar. Data were gathered across 16 administrative divisions in the district and eventually959 farmers’ households were sampled using stratified random sampling techniques. This allowed computing composite food security index to assess the relative status of foodsecurity of the sampled farmers. The findings revealed that 75 % of the sampled households have low food security. Within farmers’ categories, most of the large farmers had high food security. Medium farmers experienced moderate food security while semimedium, small and marginal farmers were having low food security. Bivariate regression analyses between food security and its components of all the farmers shows foodavailability has a major impact on food security as 93 % variation in food security is explained by variation in food availability. The study suggested that priority should be accorded for creating rural employment opportunities, providing infrastructure forincreasing production and creating awareness of education for long term sustainability of food security in the study area.Key words : Food security components, Food security, India

  13. Participation in Farm Markets in Rural Northwest Pakistan: A Regression Analysis

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    Inayatullah Jan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation in farm markets is important for increasing income of farmers in the developing countries. A number of factors account for a household participation in agricultural marketing. This study attempts to explore such associated factors which playa significant role in farmers’ participation in farm markets in rural northwest Pakistan. Drawing on empirical data from the field survey; gur, vegetables, and milk were the main products offered for marketing in the area. The degree of specialization of marketrelations was based on the nature of the farm product. In gur markets, the marketing relations were based on personalized terms whereas in vegetable markets, they were exclusively commercialized. The results of the binary logit model show that size of selfcultivatedland and number of livestock, were important determinants of a household participation in agricultural marketing. The study concludes that participation in agricultural markets could be substantially increased through improved infrastructure,commercialized farming systems, and increased number of farm markets so that the dominance of few selected commission agents is minimized.

  14. A Multi-Level, Ordinal, Logistic Regression Analysis of Rural High School Graduates' Postsecondary Enrollment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasemann, Cory

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between rural students' personal characteristics and experiences, high school experiences, and postsecondary enrollment patterns. By focusing on factors that differentiate among the educational experiences of rural and metropolitan (urban and suburban) students, this research adds to…

  15. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Urban and Rural Low-Socioeconomic Status Tennessee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    Comparing a small, rural school with sometimes less than 100 students to a massive inner-city school with greater than 2,500 students is crude and untenable. There are simply too many variables. Nonetheless, the No Child Left Behind Act treats these two very different schools the same. When urban and rural schools cannot meet AYP or highly…

  16. Use of acai core as possibility of sustainable development of rural areas, the sustainable agriculture and rural electrification in Para state, Brazil; Uso do caroco de acai como possibilidade de desenvolvimento sustentavel do meio rural, da agricultura familiar e de eletrificacao rural no estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ivete Teixeira da; Almeida, Arthur da Costa [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: pjulio@ufpa.br; Monteiro, Jose Humberto Araujo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao; Silva, Isa Maria Oliveira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Meteorologia; Rocha, Brigida Ramati Pereira da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The core of acai comes from a palm tree native to the Amazon, which grows in clumps. It is composed of several stems, reaching to form up to 25 feet in each clump. From Its fruits is obtained a drink (juice) and consumed daily by people in the Para state, especially the capital Belem and riverside communities. The state of Para is the largest producer of acai with 112,676 tons/year of fruit. Of this total 93.521 tons/year is residue (seed), or approximately 83 %. The community of Maroon that lives on the margin of the Genipauba River, in Abaetetuba, in Para state, has no electricity and is a major producer of acai, which is traded during the season 'in natura'. This paper presents the sustainable use of seeds, a byproduct of processing the fruits of acai. With appropriate methodology, natural pellets were obtained without compression, the acai biofuels. The work presents the technological innovation that has this type of pellet. The calorific value of the core, obtained in the laboratory, was in medium 4.505 kcal/kg and the average potential energy around 40.800 MWh/month. The pellets have great potential for export due to their use. It can be used in gasifiers, boilers for power generation, mechanical and gas ovens at bakeries, biomass stoves, replacing old coal irons, etc..

  17. 我国农村残疾人贫困状况分析%Analysis on Poverty Conditions of the Rural Disabled in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈功; 高菲菲

    2013-01-01

    One typical characteristic of poverty problem in China is the large scale of population that lived in poverty and had limited ways to move out. Compared to urban residents and healthy people, rural disabled people were dual disadvantaged. Rural people with disabilities were a major part of population in poverty in China, and poverty among rural disabled people has become a main public health problem. However, it is lack of data and research by now. In this study, using the surveillance data of rural disabled people during 2007-2010 and based on four standards of poverty, the authors analyzed the degree of poverty and dynamic poverty conditions in rural disabled group. The results indicated that the prevalence of poverty in rural disabled people has dropped slightly, poverty rate maintains high among rural people with disabilities. The problem of Inequity of income is serious among rural disabled people. Moreover, from the perspective of dynamic analysis, most of their poverty cases were temporary ones.%  我国贫困问题的突出表现之一是剩余贫困人口规模庞大,脱贫困难。农村残疾人相对于城市居民和健全人具有双重的脆弱性,是剩余贫困人口的重要组成部分,农村残疾人贫困问题亟待重视和解决。然而目前对于该问题的研究还较少。本文利用2007~2010年度农村残疾人状况监测调查数据,采用四条贫困线标准,计算农村残疾人的贫困程度和动态贫困状况,并进行比较分析。结果显示,近年来农村残疾人贫困发生率有所下降,贫困深度稍有缓解但仍处于较高水平,农村残疾人收入不平等等状况突出。从动态角度来看,农村残疾人贫困多为暂时性贫困。

  18. Analysis of the Rural Residents' Health Risk: Based on Fault Tree Analysis%我国农村居民健康风险分析:基于故障树分析法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳洁; 张吉龙

    2011-01-01

    The level of rural health services and health status of rural residents are the very important indicator of rural development. Health risks, in rural households, especially in disadvantaged families are one of the important economic risks, and are the important factors impacting on the living standards of rural residents and rural social stability. Fault tree analysis as a common risk analysis method, by which logical relationship with chart analysis by the main risk to the accident and a combination of individual events will be formed. This thesis, based on the construction of the tree of health risks, analyzes the health risks the rural residents facing, and gives the appropriate methods of risks assessment and risk management strategies.%农村医疗卫生服务水平和农村居民健康状况是衡量农村社会发展水平的重要指标.健康风险是农村居民家庭尤其是贫困家庭面临的重要经济风险之一,是影响农村居民生活水平和农村社会稳定的重要因素.故障树法作为一种常用的风险分析方法,能够通过树形的逻辑关系图表分析引起主要风险事故发生的原因,揭示个别事件组合可能会形成的风险状况.文章通过对农村居民健康风险故障树的构建,分析农村居民面临的健康风险,并简要介绍相应的风险评价方法和风险管理策略.

  19. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  20. Assessment of providers' referral decisions in Rural Burkina Faso: a retrospective analysis of medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilboudo Tegawende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A well-functioning referral system is fundamental to primary health care delivery. Understanding the providers' referral decision-making process becomes critical. This study's aim was to assess the correctness of diagnoses and appropriateness of the providers' referral decisions from health centers (HCs to district hospitals (DHs among patients with severe malaria and pneumonia. Methods A record review of twelve months of consultations was conducted covering eight randomly selected HCs to identify severe malaria (SM cases among children under five and pneumonia cases among adults. The correctness of the diagnosis and appropriateness of providers' referral decisions were determined using the National Clinical Guidebook as a 'gold standard'. Results Among the 457 SM cases affecting children under five, only 66 cases (14.4% were correctly diagnosed and of those 66 correctly diagnosed cases, 40 cases (60.6% received an appropriate referral decision from their providers. Within these 66 correctly diagnosed SM cases, only 60.6% were appropriately referred. Among the adult pneumonia cases, 5.9% (79/1331 of the diagnoses were correctly diagnosed; however, the appropriateness rate of the provider's referral decision was 98.7% (78/79. There was only one case that should not have been referred but was referred. Conclusions The adherence to the National Guidelines among the health center providers when making a diagnosis was low for both severe malaria cases and pneumonia cases. The appropriateness of the referral decisions was particularly poor for children with severe malaria. Health center providers need to be better trained in the diagnostic process and in disease management in order to improve the performance of the referral system in rural Burkina Faso.

  1. Unifying Two Regional Planning Methodologies in an Analysis of the Rural and Agricultural Development Potential of the Province of Yozgat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARIŞ ERGEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study will investigate Yozgat’s agricultural potential for rural development. There are many emigrants from Yozgat. The elderly population here is increasing, and although the agricultural potential is strong, it is not used effectively. The method used in this study includes a combination of two approaches. The first approach includes the critical factors of rural development: physical systems, social systems, creative systems, local systems and economic systems. The second approach includes the accelerators of rural population, in addition to the opportunities and limiters. The most important problem related to the analysis of rural development is the selection of a perspective on the province in question. This study will guide future studies of provinces and regions. The study concluded that Yozgat’s social life should be as lively and strong as its agricultural production and animal husbandry potential. Moreover, Yozgat has important ecotourism destinations, and this potential should be used. The greatest necessity of Yozgat is agro-industry that will serve for the processing of agricultural and animal husbandry products.

  2. 乡村旅游信息视觉化设计流程探析%DESIGN PROCESS ANALYSIS OF RURAL TOURISM INFORMATION VISUALIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫

    2016-01-01

    With the background of the rural tourism, the use of information design method, research on rural tourism information visualization design process, based on the social demand analysis and database, focusing on the rural tourism information screening and integration and visual transformation and performance, the research aims to enhance the high rural tourism information degree, promote tourism resources, and provide a powerful guarantee for the new countryside.%以乡村旅游为背景,运用信息设计的方法,研究乡村旅游信息视觉化设计的流程,在社会需求分析和数据库建立的基础上,重点探讨了乡村旅游信息的筛选与整合及视觉转化与表现,为提高乡村旅游信息化程度,推广宣传旅游资源,为新农村走向信息型城市综合体的转变提供有力保障。

  3. Based on SWOT Analysis of Fitness and Leisure Industry in New Rural%基于SWOT分析新农村健身休闲产业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦文明; 王厚民

    2012-01-01

    By the application of SWOT matrix analysis, the article studied the fitness and leisure industry in new rural areas. The internal and external conditions in all aspects of the fitness and leisure industry in the new rural areas were summarized. And then it analyzed the strengths, weaknesses, facing opportunities and threats of the fitness and leisure industry in rural areas, which provided the basis for development of sustainable stability of the fitness and leisure industry in the new rural areas.%应用SWOT矩阵分析法研究新农村健身休闲产业,对新农村健身休闲产业的内部条件和外部环境等内容进行综合和概括,进而分析了农村健身休闲产业的优势、劣势、面临的机会和威胁,为促进新农村健身休闲产业可持续稳定的发展提供依据.

  4. The Role of Islamic Rural Bank in Financing the SMEs: Customer Perspective Analysis (Case Study of Amanah Ummah Bank in Bogor City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Syauqi Beik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic problems faced by small scale and medium enterprises (SMEs in Indonesia is the availability of financing access provided by financial institutions including banking institution. There are three types of Islamic bank operating in Indonesia presently: Islamic commercial bank, Islamic banking unit and Islamic rural bank. Providing the SMEs with sufficient financing source is highly required. This paper attempts to observe empirically the role that have been played by Islamic rural bank in financing the SMEs, by taking case study of Amanah Ummah Bank, the best Islamic rural bank in the country. Thirty small and medium entrepreneurs have been selected as the sample of the research, and have been deeply interviewed on September and October 2008. Descriptive statistics, IPA (Importance Performance Analysis and CSI (Customer Satisfaction Index methods have been used as analytical methods. The results show that the financing given by the bank does really help the SMEs. There are three factors, which are important, and which have satisfied the SMEs. These are easiness of bank’s requirements, the speed of financing approval, and bank’s services. In general, the respondents are of the view that the bank has shown a good performance.Keywords : SMEs, Islamic rural bank, customers’ perception

  5. From "Migrant Workers Boom" to "Migrant Workers Scarcity"——Analysis of Institutional Bottleneck of Rural Surplus Labors Transfer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through description of three-steps characteristic of dual economic theory and its practical significance to the process of industrialization and urbanization in China,and making comparative analysis between important criterion of "Lewis turning point" and current situation of rural surplus labors market in China,we can find that there exists a great deal of surplus labors in rural areas in our country,improvement of peasant income is the result of external interference of government,and demographic dividend in our country hasn’t finished.These phenomena go against the theory of "Lewis turning point".So it can prove that "Lewis turning point" in China hasn’t come yet.The paper points out the major factors of coexistence of "migrant workers scarcity" and labors redundancy in our country.The first one is structure contradiction of labors market;the second one is law of supply-demand of labors market;the third one is institutional barrier which hinders labors in free flow of census register and social guarantee.Therefore,if we want to realize successful transfer of rural surplus labors and the goal of industrialization and urbanization,we must promote upgrading of industrial structure,change the style of economic growth and realize harmonious development of regional economy in macrocosmic level;And in microcosmic level,we should eliminate institutional barrier which hinders transfer of rural surplus labors.

  6. Nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three rural southeast United States national parks: A model sensitivity analysis and comparison to measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Ray, John D.

    2003-10-01

    A detailed modeling analysis is conducted focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (14-29 July 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. The three national parks are Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), Big Meadows. A base emission scenario and eight variant predictions are analyzed, and predictions are compared with data observed at the three locations for the same time period. Model-predicted concentrations are higher than observed values for O3 (with a cutoff of 40 ppbv) by 3.0% at GRSM, 19.1% at MACA, and 9.0% at SHEN (mean normalized bias error). They are very similar to observations for overall mean ozone concentrations at GRSM and SHEN. They generally agree (the same order of magnitude) with observed values for lumped paraffin compounds but are an order of magnitude lower for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene). Model sensitivity analyses here indicate that each location differs in terms of volatile organic compound (VOC) capacity to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from net production to production suppression. Analysis of individual model processes shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at the high-elevation rural locations (GRSM and SHEN) are transported from other areas; local chemistry is the second largest O3 contributor. At the low-elevation location (MACA), about 80% of daytime O3 is produced by local chemistry and 20% is transported from other areas. Local emissions (67-95%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, the rest coming from transport. Chemistry processes are responsible for about 50% removal of VOCs for all locations; less than 10% are lost to surface deposition and the rest are exported to other areas

  7. Be known, be available, be mutual: a qualitative ethical analysis of social values in rural palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although attention to healthcare ethics in rural areas has increased, specific focus on rural palliative care is still largely under-studied and under-theorized. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the values informing good palliative care from rural individuals' perspectives. Methods We conducted a qualitative ethnographic study in four rural communities in Western Canada. Each community had a population of 10, 000 or less and was located at least a three hour travelling distance by car from a specialist palliative care treatment centre. Data were collected over a 2-year period and included 95 interviews, 51 days of field work and 74 hours of direct participant observation where the researchers accompanied rural healthcare providers. Data were analyzed inductively to identify the most prevalent thematic values, and then coded using NVivo. Results This study illuminated the core values of knowing and being known, being present and available, and community and mutuality that provide the foundation for ethically good rural palliative care. These values were congruent across the study communities and across the stakeholders involved in rural palliative care. Although these were highly prized values, each came with a corresponding ethical tension. Being known often resulted in a loss of privacy. Being available and present created a high degree of expectation and potential caregiver strain. The values of community and mutuality created entitlement issues, presenting daunting challenges for coordinated change. Conclusions The values identified in this study offer the opportunity to better understand common ethical tensions that arise in rural healthcare and key differences between rural and urban palliative care. In particular, these values shed light on problematic health system and health policy changes. When initiatives violate deeply held values and hard won rural capacity to address the needs of

  8. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, G.; Vizzari, M.; Pollino, M.; Fichera, C. R.; Zoccali, P.; Di Fazio, S.

    2012-12-01

    The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning. In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a) to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) transformations and dynamics that occurred over the period 1955-2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy), an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b) to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c) to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d) to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes. Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha) were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes. Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1) kernel density analysis of settlements; (2) analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method; (3) analysis of composition and

  9. Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Modica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning.

    In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC transformations and dynamics occurred over the period 1955–2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy, an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes.

    Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes.

    Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1 kernel density analysis of settlements; (2 analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method

  10. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS APPROACH ON THE EFFICIENT USE OF RURAL HUMAN RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY AND CONSTRUCTIONS DURING 2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel MIHAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the rural human resources efficiency at regional level by using the DEA nonparametric method (Data Envelopment Analysis. The application of this cutting edge method enables the calculation of efficiency scores based on a series of inputs (occupied population in agriculture, industry and construction and outputs (gross value added in agriculture, industry and construction. The data regarding the rural human resources are retrieved from the Amigo data base, the regional GVA from Tempo online data base and the analysis is performed by MAXDATA 6.3 Beta program. The results revealed that the majority of the regions reach performance with the current input structure, with the exception of the North-East and North-West regions which need to reduce the number of workers in agriculture and increase the GVA from industry and constructions to support real economic growth

  11. Analysis of THE Income Gap among Rural Residents in Shaanxi Province%陕西省农村居民收入差距分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒿建华

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis on the current status of the income gap among rural residents in Shaanxi Province, it is found out that the income of rural residents in Shaanxi Province of China is not only lower than the average income level of China, but also is far lower than the income level of urban residents and the income level of rural residents in developed areas. The low income is mainly caused by the increasing income gap among income groups and the income gap among rural residents in different areas. Based on this, causations for the income gap among rural residents are analyzed from three aspects of the cultural difference, the regional economic difference, and the industrial structure difference.Countermeasures for narrowing the income gap and increasing the farmers' income in Shaanxi Province are put forward.%通过对陕西省农村居民收入差距现状分析发现,陕西省农村居民收入不仅低于全国平均收入水平,更远远低于发达地区农村居民收入水平和城镇居民收入水平,在低收入的背后是各收入组、各地区间农村居民收入差距拉大的事实.在此基础上,从文化差异、地区经济差异和产业结构差异3个方面阐述了陕西省农村居明收入差距产生的原因,并提出了缩小收入差距,增加陕西农民收入的对策.

  12. Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2011-08-01

    Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

  13. Simplified analysis of energy efficiency of a rural school in La Pampa - Argentina - during its Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Inés Marcilese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study of this work is a rural school in La Pampa Region of Argentina where the energy efficiency of a construction system of traditional local use is compared to that of its improved version, based on passive design systems during its life cycle. In addition, Greenhouse Gas Emissions saving values are estimated according to the energy matrix of Argentina. The energy efficiency of a building involves the overall consumption for its construction process (extraction, transport and assembly of materials, on-site installation, maintenance and dismantling, recycling and final disposal of waste. Knowing this data in the preliminary stage can be of benefit since it would allow to evaluate the selected materials in terms of energy saving and cost in order to recover its value during its life cycle and introduce other design alternatives. At present there are significant problems derived from resource shortage. The analysis of the LC should be a significant contribution to the construction field concerning the awareness of energy saving and efficiency and thus fostering sustainable development of society.

  14. Planning for district mental health services in South Africa: a situational analysis of a rural district site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; Campbell-Hall, Victoria; Mjadu, Sithembile; Lund, Crick; Kleintjies, Sharon; Hosegood, Victoria; Flisher, Alan J

    2009-03-01

    The shift in emphasis to universal primary health care in post-apartheid South Africa has been accompanied by a process of decentralization of mental health services to district level, as set out in the new Mental Health Care Act, no. 17, of 2002 and the 1997 White Paper on the Transformation of the Health System. This study sought to assess progress in South Africa with respect to deinstitutionalization and the integration of mental health into primary health care, with a view to understanding the resource implications of these processes at district level. A situational analysis in one district site, typical of rural areas in South Africa, was conducted, based on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders and the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS). The findings suggest that the decentralization process remains largely limited to emergency management of psychiatric patients and ongoing psychopharmacological care of patients with stabilized chronic conditions. We suggest that, in a similar vein to other low- to middle-income countries, deinstitutionalization and comprehensive integrated mental health care in South Africa is hampered by a lack of resources for mental health care within the primary health care resource package, as well as the inefficient use of existing mental health resources.

  15. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  16. 安徽省农村金融发展对城乡收入差距影响的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Anhui Rural Financial Development on the Rural-urban Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少业; 焦晓波; 李丽

    2014-01-01

    Based on the previous studies, starting from the actual situation of rural financial development in Anhui province, based on the meaning of rural financial development, the corresponding indicators were designed, from the aspects of rural scale, efficiency and rural economic growth and urbanization level to measure the rural financial development. The VEC model was used to the empirical analysis on the rural financial development and urban-rural income gap between the long-term equilibrium and short-term fluctuation relationship, and it is concluded that:the rural financial development efficiency, rural economic growth and urbanization level is larger for the influence of income gap between urban and rural areas, and is different from other areas that in Anhui province the rural financial development scale for the influence of income gap between urban and rural areas is not promi-nent. Therefore, finally some proposals were put forward according to the actual situation, reducing the income gap between urban and rural areas, promoting the harmonious development of Anhui province.%从安徽省农村金融自身发展的现状出发,以农村金融发展涵义为基础,设计相应的指标,从农村规模、效率、农村经济增长以及城市化水平四个方面来衡量农村金融发展。采用VEC模型实证分析农村金融发展和城乡收入差距之间所存在的潜在关系,结果表明:农村金融发展效率、农村经济增长以及城市化水平对于城乡收入差距的影响是较大的,而与其他地区不同的是安徽省农村金融发展规模对于城乡收入差距的影响却并不突出。为此,根据实际情况提出相关建议,减少城乡收入差距,促进安徽省和谐发展。

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES IN RURAL JAIPUR: THE FIRST SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the Indian Population. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with traumatic brain injury and their clinical outcomes following admission to a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in India. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital based analysis of 1713 patients of Traumatic Brain Injury [TBI] admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery in a tertiary health centre in Jaipur from January 2014 to August 2015. METHOD The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed and data collected on age, sex, mechanism of injury, severity of injury Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Outcome (GOS score, Computed Tomography (CT scan results, modality of management and type of surgical intervention and outcome. RESULTS Among the 1713 patients admitted, age of patients varied >1 year to 92 years (mean age 21 years, majority of TBI’s were reported in the age group 20–29 years (34.38%, followed by 30–39 years (26.97%, 40–49 years (16.70%, p value <0.05. Most of the patients were male (63.46%, mostly unmarried. Majority lived in sub-urban areas (51.26% followed by rural (26.85% and urban (21.89%. Patients were mostly from middle class (46.58% and poor socio-economic background (42.62%, upper class only accounted for 10.8% of the cases. In terms of occupation, servicemen and farmers accounted for the majority (54.73%. Patients were brought to the hospital mainly by known persons (68% and rest by bystanders and policemen. The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic accidents (RTA 1199 (69.99%, followed by assault 251 (14.65%, 15.35% accounted for fall from height and fall of object on head. Mean hospital stay was 7.6±9.3 days (range <1 day to 87 days. In our study, patients were classified by GCS as mild TBI in 983(57.38% patients; moderate in 488 (28.48% and severe in 242 (14.12. 1481 (86.46% patients

  18. The connotation structure analysis and the concept system construction of rural tourism%乡村旅游内涵结构分析与概念体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉霞

    2014-01-01

    针对乡村旅游发展引致的“非乡村性”重构危机与乡村旅游基础理论研究的匮乏,通过现象分析和系统建构的方法从内在结构、形象生成、历史因变等维度构建乡村旅游概念体系。认为乡村旅游概念框架体系的核心问题是乡村意象,它是引发乡村旅游的原动力,关于乡村意象的阐释对乡村形象构建发挥着意识形态功能。游客是乡村意象的体验主体,乡村资源是乡村意象的载体,乡村旅游业借助乡村资源为游客提供乡村意象产品,乡村旅游形象又有一个历史生成与环境因变的过程。最后根据田野调查资料分析整理乡村旅游主体、客体、媒体、形象各子系统的结构和因变要素,构建各模块的主要研究维度。%The study aimed at the reconstruction crisis of "non rurality" country based on rural tourism and the lack of a solid theoretical foundation.The paper constructs the system of rural tourism concept through the phenomenon analysis and system construction from the dimensions of the internal structure, image generation, historical changes,etc.It consider that the core problem of the conceptual frame system of the rural tourism is the country image, it is the original power lead to rural tourism,the interpretation on rural image plays an ideological function on country image construction. Tourists are the subject of rural image experience, rural resources are the carrier of rural image, rural tourism provides rural image products based on rural resources for tourists, and rural tourism image has a history spanning and environment dependent process. Finally, the paper analysis the structure and the dependent variable factors of each subsystem of rural tourism subject, object, media, image according to the fieldwork data,and constructs the main dimensions of each module.

  19. Significant Factors Influencing Rural Residents’ Well-Being with Regard to Electricity Consumption: An Empirical Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The electric universal service policy, which has been implemented for many years in China, aims to meet the basic electricity demands of rural residents. Electricity consumption can facilitate the daily life of rural residents, such as lighting and cooking, which are necessary to their well-being. In practice, the well-being of rural residents due to electricity consumption is influenced by many factors. Therefore, to improve the well-being of rural residents, it is quite necessary to identify and optimize the significant factors that make the electric universal service policy play its prescribed role as well as possible. In this paper, the significant factors influencing rural residents’ well-being obtained from electricity consumption were identified and discussed by employing the Ordered Probit model. The results indicate that: (1 there are six significant factors, of which ‘educational level’, ‘health condition’, ‘each person income of a family per month’, and ‘service time of household appliances’ play positive roles in rural residents’ well-being, while ‘average power interruption times’ and ‘monthly electric charges’ have negative impacts; (2 for significant factors with positive roles, ‘educational level’ and ‘health condition’ show larger marginal effects on rural residents’ well-being; and (3 for significant factors with negative impacts, ‘average power interruption times’ has the greatest marginal effect. Finally, policy implications are proposed for improving rural residents’ well-being, which can also contribute to the effective implementation of the electric universal service policy in China.

  20. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of Integrated Renewable Energy System for Power Generation: A Hypothetical Study of Rural Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility analysis and study of integrated renewable energy (IRE using solar photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine (WT system in a hypothetical study of rural health clinic in Borno State, Nigeria. Electrical power consumption and metrology data (such as solar radiation and wind speed were used for designing and analyzing the integrated renewable energy system. The health clinic facility energy consumption is 19 kWh/day with a 3.4 kW peak demand load. The metrological data was collected from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA website and used to analyze the performance of electrical generation system using HOMER program. The simulation and optimization results show that the optimal integrated renewable energy system configuration consists of 5 kW PV array, BWC Excel-R 7.5 kW DC wind turbine, 24 unit Surrette 6CS25P battery cycle charging, and a 19 kW AC/DC converter and that the PV power can generate electricity at 9,138 kWh/year while the wind turbine system can generate electricity at 7,490 kWh/year, giving the total electrical generation of the system as 16,628 kWh/year. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for uninterruptable power performance in the health clinic. The economics analysis result found that the integrated renewable system has total NPC of 137,139 US Dollar. The results of this research show that, with a low energy health facility, it is possible to meet the entire annual energy demand of a health clinic solely through a stand-alone integrated renewable PV/wind energy supply.

  1. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of anthropog

  2. Combining multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis to describe the diversity of rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Colucci, D.; Baudron, F.; Righi, E.; Corbeels, M.; Tittonell, P.A.; Stefanini, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Capturing agricultural heterogeneity through the analysis of farm typologies is key with regard to the design of sustainable policies and to the adoptability of new technologies. An optimal balance needs to be found between, on the one hand, the requirement to consider local stakeholder and expert k

  3. Urban vs. Rural CLIL: An Analysis of Input-Related Variables, Motivation and Language Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Rafael; Piquer-Píriz, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The present article carries out an in-depth analysis of the differences in motivation, input-related variables and linguistic attainment of the students at two content and language integrated learning (CLIL) schools operating within the same institutional and educational context, the Spanish region of Extremadura, and differing only in terms of…

  4. 农村饮水工程的效益分析与评价探讨%Benefit Analysis and Assessment of Rural Drinking Water Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱强; 石君太; 郭丽朋; 张元可

    2015-01-01

    With the focus of rural drinking shift from drinking water problem to the drinking water safety , which become a top priority .For natural conditions of Gushi county and status of drinking wa-ter, after a comprehensive benefit analysis and environmental assessment , examples demonstrate the necessity and rationality of rural drinking water projects .%随着我国农村饮水的工作重点从饮水困难转向饮水安全,解决农村饮水安全问题已成为当务之急。针对固始县自然条件及饮水的现状,并经过全面的效益分析和环境评价,实例证明了农村饮水工程的必要性和合理性。

  5. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cocco da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  6. SWOT Analysis and Implications of the Development of Rural Tourism in Guangxi%广西乡村旅游发展的SWOT分析与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范恒君

    2012-01-01

    基于SWOT分析法,对广西旅游资源的发展进行系统的分析,指出其发展过程中存在的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战,并在此基础上尝试提出具体的发展路径和对策,以更好地促进广西乡村旅游的发展.%Based on SWOT analysis method, the development of rural tourism in Guangxi was analyzed systematically, and this paper firstly specified the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats Guangxi facing now, based on this, then, came up with some specific development routes and measures to boost the development of Guangxi rural tourism.

  7. Comparison of quality of life between urban and rural gastric cancer patients and analysis of influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tian; Zhen-Chun Chen; Bin Wu; Xin Meng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The conception of quality of life has been widely accepted by clinic doctors. Evaluations of the treatment effect of chronic diseases have been changed to depend not only on the survival time, but also on the quality of life of the patients. Fuzhou City and Changle County are highincidence areas of the gastric cancer in Fujian Province.The aims of this research were to compare the quality of life of urban patients with that of rural patients and analyze the factors influencing quality of life of gastric cancer patients in Fujian Province.METHODS: The samples were drawn with cluster sampling. The urban sample consisted of 162 patients aged 25 to 75 with 143 males and 19 females. The rural sample consisted of 200 patients aged 32 to 78 with 166 males and 34 females. The patients in both the urban and rural areas were investigated, and their scores on 21 items reflecting the quality of life were measured. The methods of ttest and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data.RESULTS: The average total scores of quality of life of the urban patients and rural patients were 64.11 and 68.69respectively. There was a significant difference between the means of two samples (P = 0.0004). Seven variables in the regression model estimated by the urban sample and 4 variables in the model by the rural sample were at the level of significance α = 0.05. Family income, nutrition and rehabilitating exercise were selected into both the urban and rural regression models.CONCLUSION: Most of the gastric cancer patients have poor quality of life in Fujian Province and the rural patients have lower quality of life than that of urban patients. The patients having more family income have better quality of life, and enhanced nutrition and doing rehabilitating exercise are helpful in improving the quality of life of the gastric cancer patients.

  8. Analysis of Farmers' Financial Demand and Rural Financial Supply from a Sociological Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeJingzhong; ZhuYanjie; YangHongping

    2005-01-01

    After analysis of Baoshi Village farmers' financial demand, the loan supply from formal financial institutions and the current situation and causes of informal finance, we can draw the following conclusions: loans from formal financial institutions in the village have mainly gone to the farmers who are richer or enjoy higher social capital. Those farmers, relying on their own strengths and superior social networks, have access to formal loans. Ordinary farmers, especially those who are poorer or have inadequate human capital,

  9. Empirical Study of China’s Rural Consumption Function from the Perspective of Balancing Urban and Rural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of balancing urban and rural development,this article researches the factors influencing the consumption level of rural residents in China.I select the relevant data concerning per capita net income of rural households and annual per capita consumer spending of rural residents for living in the period 1985-2008,establish the regression model of per capita net income of rural households and per capita consumer spending of rural residents for living,and conduct regression analysis and error correction model test using the measurement software.The analysis results show that there is not only long-term equilibrium relationship between rural residents’ current consumption and rural residents’ current income,between rural residents’ consumption in lag period 1 and rural residents’ income in lag period 1,but also short-term equilibrium relationship;current income is the main reason for determining the current consumption).Corresponding proposals are put forward to promote the level of rural consumption in China as follows:propel agricultural modernization;actively develop specialized cooperative organizations of rural residents;improve rural land transfer mechanism;promote the level of public services in rural areas;accelerate the transfer of rural surplus labor.

  10. The Analysis of Current Situation about Rural Economic Structure and Adjustment Countermeasures%农村经济结构现状分析及调整对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明芳

    2012-01-01

    With the transition of traditional to modern agriculture,there are many problems in existing rural economic structure.Through the analysis of the characteristics of existing rural economic structure,the paper proposes that the adjustment of rural economic restructuring must adhere to market demand-oriented,science and technology support,according to the geographical features and market supply select leading industry and actively promote the industrialization and large-scale operation of agriculture;improve the market mechanism,creating a competitive,open,orderly,and a variety of agricultural market system,improve the market competitiveness of agricultural products;to speed up the pace of urban and rural integration,to promote the secondary and tertiary industries development of small towns in rural areas,set up township enterprises.Enhance the cultural quality of education for farmers,boost farmers' scientific and cultural levels as the basis of rural economic restructuring%随着传统农业向现代农业的过渡,现有农村经济结构存在很多问题。农村经济结构的调整必须坚持以市场需求为导向,以科学技术为支撑,根据地域特点、市场供求关系挑选主导产业,积极推进农业产业化、规模化经营;完善市场机制,形成竞争、开放、有序、多样的农产品市场体系,提高农产品的市场竞争力;加快城乡一体化建设的步伐,推进农村小城镇第二、三产业的发展,大力兴办乡镇企业。把加强对农民的文化素质教育,提高农民的科技文化水平作为农村经济结构调整的基础。

  11. District Level Analysis of Urbanization from Rural-to-Urban Migration in the Rajasthan State

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jayant; Smarandache, Florentin

    2009-01-01

    Migration has various dimensions; urbanization due to migration is one of them. In Rajasthan State, district level analysis of urbanization due to migrants shows trend invariably for all districts of the state, though the contribution in urbanization by migrants varies from district to district. In some districts the share of migrants moving to urban areas is very impressive, in others it is not that much high. The migrants' contribution is on the raising over the decades. In this paper, the district level migration in the Rajasthan State is examined in relation to total urbanization and urbanization due to migration.

  12. Profile analysis of rural and urban schoolchildren: life style and postural habits

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff; Carlos Aparecido Zamai; Daniel Hirayama; Dartel Ferrari de Lima; Janice Disner Silva; Inácio Brandl Neto; Maria das Graças Anguera Lima; Ademir Schmidt; Cristiane Rabaiolli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the profile of 7-to-14-year-old male and female schoolchildren with regard to their life style and postural habits. It was carried out through a specific protocol for this project, including open and close questions. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: a) parents need to be clarified about their children’s necessity of leisure time; b) the schoolchildren studied spend too little time on sports practice and physical activies; c...

  13. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues...... by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis...... of a Danish rural participatory planning project. The paper concludes that rural planning literature and analysis will benefits from paying attention to the three – in rural participatory planning projects – specific mechanisms of power ‘Institutionalising knowledge and competencies’; ‘Structuring...

  14. Psychological Problems Analysis of the Rural Children Left behind%农村留守儿童心理问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春燕; 尉海东

    2012-01-01

    Rural children lett behind as a special class of vulnerable groups in society, there arc problems in the moral under- standing of the psychological issues, values, personality and interpersonal problems. In this paper, on the basis of analysis oftbe psychological problems of the rural children left behind, should create a good educational environment, community care and other aspects to ease to solve the psychological problems of the rural children left behind.%农村留守儿童作为一类特殊的社会弱势群体,在道德认识、价值观、性格及人际交往等心理问题方面存在问题。本文在分析农村留守儿童心理问题的基础上,提出应从营造良好教育环境、社区关爱等方面来缓解农村留守儿童的心理问题。

  15. Spatial Analysis of PAHs in Soils along an Urban–Suburban–Rural Gradient: scale effect, distribution patterns, diffusion and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Spatial statistical methods including Cokriging interpolation, Morans I analysis, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were used for studying the spatial characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban, suburban, and rural soils of Beijing. The concentrations of PAHs decreased spatially as the level of urbanization decreased. Generally, PAHs in soil showed two spatial patterns on the regional scale: (1) regional baseline depositions with a radius of 16.5 km related to the level of urbanization and (2) isolated pockets of soil contaminated with PAHs were found up to around 3.5 km from industrial point sources. In the urban areas, soil PAHs showed high spatial heterogeneity on the block scale, which was probably related to vegetation cover, land use, and physical soil disturbance. The distribution of total PAHs in urban blocks was unrelated to the indicators of the intensity of anthropogenic activity, namely population density, light intensity at night, and road density, but was significantly related to the same indicators in the suburban and rural areas. The moving averages of molecular ratios suggested that PAHs in the suburban and rural soils were a mix of local emissions and diffusion from urban areas.

  16. Task-sharing or public finance for the expansion of surgical access in rural Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrime, Mark G; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Desalegn, Dawit; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Despite a high burden of surgical disease, access to surgical services in low- and middle-income countries is often limited. In line with the World Health Organization's current focus on universal health coverage and equitable access to care, we examined how policies to expand access to surgery in rural Ethiopia would impact health, impoverishment and equity. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Deterministic and stochastic models of surgery in rural Ethiopia were constructed, utilizing pooled estimates of costs and probabilities from national surveys and published literature. Model calibration and validation were performed against published estimates, with sensitivity analyses on model assumptions to check for robustness. Outcomes of interest were the number of deaths averted, the number of cases of poverty averted and the number of cases of catastrophic expenditure averted for each policy, divided across wealth quintiles. Health benefits, financial risk protection and equity appear to be in tension in the expansion of access to surgical care in rural Ethiopia. Health benefits from each of the examined policies accrued primarily to the poor. However, without travel vouchers, many policies also induced impoverishment in the poor while providing financial risk protection to the rich, calling into question the equitable distribution of benefits by these policies. Adding travel vouchers removed the impoverishing effects of a policy but decreased the health benefit that could be bought per dollar spent. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses.

  17. 黑龙江省城乡居民消费结构比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Households' Consumption Structure in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付会霞; 赵俊平

    2011-01-01

    Using the ELES model, an empirical analysis on the consumption structure of urban and rural households was analyzed from the angles of MPC, basic consumption expenditures and income elasticity. The results showed that the consumption structure and living standard between urban households and rural households had distinct differences in Heilongjiang Province. The proportion of development and enjoyment in urban households' consumer spending was higher. Transportation and communications had become the consumption hotspot of urban households. Marginal propensity to consume of rural households was very low. The basic consumption expenditure possessed a high proportion in the total consumption expenditure, and food and living expenditure shared the highest proportion in the basic consumption expenditure, which were rural households' consumption focus at present in Heilongjiang province.%运用扩展线性支出系统模型,从边际消费倾向、基本消费支出和收入弹性3个方面,对黑龙江省城乡居民的消费支出结构进行了实证分析.结果表明,黑龙江省城乡居民的消费结构和生活水平存在显著差距,城镇居民发展型和享受型消费支出的比重较高,交通和通讯已经成为当前的消费热点;农村居民的边际消费倾向很低,基本消费支出在实际消费支出中所占的比重偏高,其中,食品和居住2项的基本消费支出所占的比重最大,是黑龙江省农村居民目前的消费重点.

  18. 中国农村金融发展对城乡收入差距影响的实证分析%An Empirical Analysis of Impact of Rural Financial Development on the Income Gap between Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付荣

    2012-01-01

    从农村金融自身的发展出发,在界定农村金融发展涵义的基础上,设计相应的指标,从规模、效率及结构三个方面来衡量农村金融发展。利用VAR模型对农村金融发展和城乡收入差距之间的长期均衡和短期波动关系进行的实证分析表明:农村金融发展相对规模的扩大拉大了城乡收入差距,农村金融中介效率的提高和非正规金融规模的扩大缩小了城乡收入差距。%From the perspective of the development of rural financial itself,the indicators have been devised according to the definition of the rural financial development.The rural financial development can be measured by three factors: scale,efficiency and structure.An empirical analysis of the long-term equilibrium and the short-term income gap between the rural financial development and urban and rural income gap has been made by VAR model.The conclusion is: the income gap between urban and rural area can be widened by the relative expansion of rural financial development,and can be narrowed by the increase of the efficiency of rural financial intermediary and the expansion of the informal finance.

  19. The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websites of USAID/DELIVER Project, Measure DHS and Federal Ministry of Health. The study revealed that a wide range of contraceptives are included in the essential drug list to be used in secondary facilities, while only a few ones are selected to be used in primary facilities which serve the majority of rural population. Forecasting is done using issue data from the central warehouse because facilities are not generating reliable consumption data. Inventory control is poor in rural facilities, and these facilities do not follow the established inventory control guidelines. The study therefore demonstrates that the current essential drug list should be reviewed in order to include injectables for use in primary facilities, strengthen the current forecasting, data reporting and inventory control system.

  20. Strategic Analysis of Sustainable Socioeconomic Situation of Rural Areas in the Samara Region of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Pankratova, Larisa E.; Zotova, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a growing gap of rural territorial entities in socioeconomic development, and on the other hand, due to their significance in such prominent aspects for the country as food security, maintaining the existing land, industrial, ecological, demographic and human potential. The…

  1. Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Obeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV light provides school children living in off-grid rural communities theopportunity to have clean and bright lighting to study after sunset. On the contrary, lightingprovided from poor sources can pollute and adversely affect human eyes during reading andwriting. Using indicator-based questionnaires in cross-sectional surveys, households with andwithout solar PV lighting were surveyed in off-grid rural communities in Ghana. The studyinvestigated lighting and children’s studies after sunset. The results indicated that whereassolar PV light of 5-20 watts dc lamps was sufficient for 5-6 children to study together, lightingfrom kerosene lantern could be sufficient for 1-3 children. All things being equal, the resultsshowed that children who use solar PV light to study upto 2 hours after sunset are likely toimprove on their examination results. The extent to which solar PV lighting significantlyimpacts on studying after sunset was established using some identified indicators. Knowledgeof the results provides understanding of the relative constraints in lighting services faced bychildren in rural communities without access to quality lighting. Such micro-level data willhelp to enhance policy and planning efforts to increase access to clean and renewable energybasedlighting devices to achieve efficient visual comfort in off-grid rural communities.

  2. An Overview of Equal Educational Opportunities in Turkey: A Spatial Analysis of Classrooms in Rural and Urban Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Nazli; Kaya, Erdogan; Aktas, Semra Günay; Kantar, Yeliz Mert

    2017-01-01

    The number of students in a class is a primary factor affecting the quality of education. Therefore, this study examines the distribution of the number of students per class in rural and urban primary schools in Turkey, and efforts have been made to specify classroom needs. Statistical data was obtained from the Turkish Institute of Statistics and…

  3. Sexual and reproductive health among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai China: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yao, Wen; Shang, Meili; Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Ma, Jin; Wang, Jin; Song, Huijiang

    2013-08-09

    We compared sexual and reproductive health (SRH)-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai coming from different regions of China. A total of 944 unmarried rural-urban female migrants were recruited from three districts of Shanghai. We used an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire to collect information from each participant and a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between premarital sex and risk factors. We found the rates of premarital sex, pregnancy and abortion among unmarried rural-urban female migrants were 28.2%, 5.2% and 5.0%, respectively. Participants from the east of China were more likely to engage in premarital sex than those from the mid-west (p rural-urban female migrants lack SRH related knowledge and the data suggests high levels of occurrence of premarital sex. The results indicate that programs to promote safe sex, especially to those migrants coming from eastern China, should be a priority.

  4. Adult Learners in Higher Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy; Campbell, Kimeka

    2015-01-01

    This article paints a comprehensive portrait of the demographic, financial, and educational characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students who are adult learners, and identifies rural-urban differences within this group. The study analyzed data from the 2010-11 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (n = 610,925), supplemented by…

  5. GED Recipients in Postsecondary Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Transitions to postsecondary education for GED graduates are a growing concern for educators and policy makers. This article analyzes the educational, demographic, and financial characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students with a GED credential compared with traditional high school graduates, and identifies rural-urban differences within…

  6. Practical Partnerships: Analysis and Results of a Cooperative Life Skills Program for At-Risk Rural Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Linda P.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a life skills management program for rural youth delivered via collaboration between education and noneducation agencies. The program was replicated with 10 groups of Tennessee and Missouri youth. Pre- and post-testing of knowledge of life skills management concepts, self-esteem, and social skills indicated the program changed…

  7. Employment growth in rural regions of the EU; A quantitative analysis for the period 1980-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposti, R.; Godeschalk, F.E.; Kuhmonen, T.; Post, J.H.; Sotte, F.; Terluin, I.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this report it is examined whether rural regions in the EU with a relatively high (low) employment growth in the 1980s and early 1990s have some common socio-economic characterics, which can contribute to the explanation of their employment performance. We have grouped the socio-economic characte

  8. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  9. Mathematics Education in Brazilian Rural Areas: An Analysis of the "Escola Ativa" Public Policy and the Landless Movement Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnik, Gelsa; Wanderer, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses mathematics education within two educational projects addressed to rural multigrade schools in Brazil: Active School Program (in Portuguese, Programa Escola Ativa--PEA) and the Landless Movement (Movimento Sem Terra--MST) Pedagogy. It is based on an ethnomathematics perspective drawn from Wittgenstein's later work and Michel…

  10. Spatial patterns of rural poverty: an exploratory analysis in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Torres

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização e a análise da distribuição espacial da pobreza podem ser úteis na apli-cação de programas voltados para a redução de pobreza já que possibilitam a identificação de áreas onde a incidência é maior e cuja ex-tensão muitas vezes ultrapassa as linhas ter-ritoriais oficiais. Nesse contexto, este artigo usa os mais recentes dados sobre pobreza rural municipal no Brasil para identificar os padrões espaciais de pobreza rural na Bacia do Rio São Francisco (BRSF. Indicadores de autocorrelação espacial I de Moran são gera-dos e usados para a construção de um mapa de clusters de pobreza rural. Os resultados indicam que a pobreza rural é espacialmen-te autocorrelacionada em algumas áreas da BRSF, nas quais municípios mais (menos pobres tendem a se localizar perto de municí-pios mais (menos pobres. Mais importante, talvez, os resultados sugerem a necessidade de se usar metodologias de análise que consi-derem explicitamente a localização como um fator explanatório da pobreza rural na bacia, como, por exemplo, econometria espacial.

  11. A Study of the Sustainable Development of Rural Sports in Gannan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianyi WANG

    2016-01-01

    Under the background of new urbanization and new rural construction,how to realize the sustainable development of rural sports is a problem to be solved. Using the methods of literature and logical analysis,based on expounding the relationship model of urbanization and new rural construction,with rural Gannan revolutionary base area as example,the rural sports development path is explored,so as to provide reference for sustainable development of rural sports.

  12. Typology and development characteristics of rural areas in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Perpar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the typology of rural areas in Slovenia is presented. In theresearch some important indicators of the rural areas have been analysedand three basic types of rural areas have been defined: suburban, typicalrural areas and depopulation areas. In the continuation detailed comparisonanalysis of the situation in defined rural areas on the sample of ruralareas is stated. The analysis is based on demographic, agricultural, economicand social indicators. A sociological part of the research is based oninterviews with leaders of local communities including opinions about thesituation and opportunities of sample rural areas and their proposals andremarks for the rural development policy makers.

  13. Empirical Analysis on Farmers’ Willingness to Accept Compensation Whose Land is Expropriated——Based on Survey Analysis on Rural Households in 17 Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data of survey on farmers’ land right from Rural Development Institute (the USA),Renmin University of China and Michigan S ate University,this paper conducts empirical analysis on farmers’ willingness to accept compensation ho e land is expropriated and the related influencing factors by adopting Logistic model.The study indicates that the proportion of farmers’ non-agricultural income,the level of economic development in the region,participation right and right to vote,exert conspicuous impact on farmers’ satisfaction degr whose land is expropriated.In the provinces that are surveyed,most of the expropriated land is used for the public welfare project building,and in the current context of rapid urbanization,the conditions for defining public interests have not yet been put in place;the farmers in developed regions with more non-agricultural job opportunities express higher degree of satisfaction to the compensation for expropriated land;it is required to establish sound land expropriation compensation mechanism and bolster farmers’ participation right,so as to offer fair and reasonable compensation for the farmers whose land is expropriated.

  14. TOURIST MOTIVATION FOR RURAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  15. Rural-Urban Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  16. The Rural Development Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Louis E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…

  17. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Lobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1 individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2 health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3 dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas.

  18. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, German; Lapo, Maria Del Carmen; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1) individual socio-demographic variables like age and satisfaction with the economic situation; (2) health variables like independence in activities of daily living, common activities, and self-rated health; and (3) dietary variables such as life satisfaction related to food and the frequency with which the elders shared dinner with others. The study results suggest more efficient efforts at healthy eating for the elderly in rural areas.

  19. Rural regions in the EU : exploring differences in economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, Ida Joke

    2001-01-01

    Search for driving forces behind economic development in rural regions of the EU From a recent OECD analysis, it appeared that there were dynamic rural regions which showed an employment performance above the national average during the 1980s, and that there were also rural regions whose employment

  20. Prioritization: A Means of Achieving Positive Rural Development In Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural development occupies a priority place in agenda of Nigeria’s national development. However, the gap between scarce and stingy allocation of resources by Governments and rural people’s needs calls for prioritization in the areas of investment with regards to rural development. This paper examined the priority areas for rural development in Nigeria. Data on the needs of rural dwellers were randomly collected in 2006, 2008 and 2010 respectively. The rural dwellers were interviewed in each of the years using questionnaire and oral discussions. The questionnaire centered on rural dwellers needs among many alternatives such as Irrigation Facility, Roads, Markets, Portable Water Supply, Clinics/Hospitals, Electricity, Loan, Schools/Education and farm inputs. Analysis of variance, (ANOVA using the general linear models procedure was used in data analysis. Results show that majority of rural farmers’ needs are in order of preference Potable Water Supply, Roads, Farm Inputs, Loan and Schools/Education. The implication is that future rural development projects and Programs if directed towards these areas will help to accelerate the improvement of rural dwellers welfare and help to reduce the number of rural to urban migrating, resulting in rural stability and integrated rural development.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Behaviours of Rural Areas at Provincial Level Using Public Data of Gross Domestic Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Guangfeng; Li, Yiyang;

    2013-01-01

    A spatial approach that incorporates three economic components and one environmental factor has been developed to evaluate the dynamic behaviours of the rural areas at a provincial level. An artificial fish swarm algorithm with variable population size (AFSAVP) is proposed for the spatial problem......, and the results have shown that the modelling method based on GDP data can assess the spatial dynamic behaviours and can be taken as an operational tool for the policy planners....

  2. In the choice between health and money, health comes first: an analysis of happiness among rural Chilean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    German Lobos; Maria del Carmen Lapo; Berta Schnettler

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We studied the relationship between happiness and individual socio-demographic context and health and dietary variables by interviewing 389 elderly individuals (age 60-90 years) living in rural areas in the Maule Region of Central Chile. The Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999) subjective happiness scale was used. Ordinal logistic regression models were estimated. The discrete dependent variable was level of happiness. The following variables were significantly associated with happiness: (1)...

  3. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk fac-tors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang; ZHOU Ji-hong; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; YUAN Dan-feng; GAO Zhi-ming; Dai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan’an district (urban) and Jiangjin district (rural) of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Methods: Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan’an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traf...

  4. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  5. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H.; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  6. CONVERGENCE OF REAL WAGES IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Adamczyk

    2016-01-01

    The article concerns the spatial diversity of rural areas. The aim of the article is to evaluate whether the process of convergence of real wages in rural areas in Poland can be observed. The author focuses on two concepts of convergence: absolute (unconditional) beta convergence and sigma convergence. The analysis regards rural districts at NUTS-4 level for 2002–2014. It was stated that rural areas in Poland became similar (converge) in terms of real wages what can help reducing the di...

  7. Nonmethane Hydrocarbons and Ozone in the Rural Southeast United States National Parks: A Model Sensitivity Analysis and Its Comparison with Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.; Aneja, V. P.; Mathur, R.; Ray, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    A comprehensive modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (July 14th to July 29th, 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emission scenarios including the base scenario are analyzed. Model predictions are compared with and contrasted against observed data at the three locations for the same time period. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O3 concentrations than observation by 10.8% at Cove Mountain, Great Smoke Mountains National Park (GRSM), 26.8% at Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and 17.6% at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park (SHEN). Overall mean ozone concentrations are very similar at GRSM and SHEN (observed data at MACA are not available). Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds match the observed values on the same order, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an order of magnitude higher than the predictions. Sensitivity analyses indicate each location has its own characteristics in terms of the capacity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from production to destruction. Analysis of individual model process budgets shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at these rural locations are transported from other areas, local chemistry is the second largest contributor (13% to 42%), all other processes combined contribute less than 10% of the daytime O3 concentrations. Local emissions (>99%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, while vertical diffusion (>70%) is the predominant process to move VOCs away from the modeling grid. Dry deposition ( ~ 10%) and chemistry (2

  8. Analysis of Chinese Urban and Rural Differences in Consumer Preferences Based on AIDS Model%基于AIDS模型的中国城乡消费偏好差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晗; 任保平

    2012-01-01

    Market segmentation from the urban and rural purchasing power imbalance in urban and rural differences in urban and rural consumer preferences, and urban-rural differences in consumer preferences are reflected in changes in consumption structure of urban and rural areas. In this paper, a reflection of the consumption structure of urban-rural differences in China's AIDS model of the eight categories of goods 2004- 2010 provincial consumer panel data empirical analysis, and further calculate the elasticity of urban and rural household consumption expenditure, consumer price elasticity and marginal share. The results show that, in addition to food consumption are reflected as "necessities" feature, the urban and rural consumer goods are there other differences in the nature of urban residents prefer the "enjoyment" Consumer preferences for rural residents more "safe" consumption. To establish urban and rural commerce and distribution, should be adopted to improve farmers' income and promote the equalization of basic public services to reduce the consumption level and consumption structure of urban and rural differences.%城乡二元市场分割来自于城乡购买力不平衡与城乡消费偏好差异,而城乡消费偏好差异反映在城乡消费结构变迁中。本文通过一个反映城乡消费结构差异的AIDS模型对中国2004—2010年的八类商品消费的省际面板数据进行了实证分析,并进一步计算城乡居民消费的支出弹性、价格弹性和边际消费份额。研究结果表明,除食品类消费均体现为“必需品”特征外,城乡其他消费品类均存在性质上的差异,城市居民更偏好“享受型”消费而农村居民更加偏好“安全型”消费。要建立统筹城乡的商贸流通体系,应通过提高农民收入和推进基本公共服务均等化来缩小城乡消费水平和消费结构差异。

  9. Rural resident household food consumption patterns in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city:an analysis based on ELES Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Demand for food plays an important role in the adjustment of prices for agricultural products and for adjusting agricultural structure.By using the extended linear expenditure system(ELES),we analyzed the food consumption structure of rural residents in the Ganzhou district of Zhangye city,and determined the basic food-consumption demand,the marginal propensity of consumption,the income elasticities of demand,and the own-price and cross-price elasticities of local rural residents,all of which illustrate the influencing factors on food consumption of rural residents and for forecasting the food-consumption structure.Those analyses show the following:the rural residents’ expenditure on household basic food consumption reaches about 7,050.35 Yuan;the marginal propensities of consumption of fruits and vegetables are relatively high(0.062 and 0.106,respectively),followed by meat(0.044);the demands for various foods are increasing as income increases,with the largest income elasticity of demand corresponding to fruits(1.354) and the lowest to cereal(0.310);fruits and vegetables have relatively high own-price elasticities(respectively-0.879 and-0.442),with the cereal having the lowest one(-0.184).An increase in cereal prices would greatly affect demand for other products;with the rising size of rural households,the consumption for meat is decreasing whereas it is increasing for cereal.The improvement of household education levels will lead to the increase of fruit consumption(E = 0.297),which indicates that people will pay more attention to diet and nutrition structure with the improvement of education.Further,although the amount of cereal expenditure is continually growing,the share will be declining with the increase of household income in 2006-2012.For all these reasons,therefore,the government should encourage the cultivation of economic crops and guide the development of stockbreeding to ensure the stability of cereal output.In order to attain the balance between

  10. An Analysis of Grey Prediction on Rural Residents' Income in Zhejiang Province%浙江农村居民收入的灰色预测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗俊勤

    2011-01-01

    The research on grey correlation analysis and grey prediction model shows that,in the coming years,the per capita net income of rural residents will continue to increase rapidly in Zhejiang Province,its basic structure won't change,and non-agricultural income is still the main part of it.Starting from analyzing the structure of per capita net income,we will make an effort to quicken the pace to transfer rural residents to cities,increase their wage income and household income from secondary and tertiary industries,adjust agricultural structure,transfer agriculture to intensive,large-scale,and industrial operation production and operation,and guarantee rapid increase in the per capita net income of rural residents.%灰色关联度分析和灰色预测模型的结果显示,未来几年中浙江农村居民人均纯收入仍将快速增长,但其结构的基本格局不会改变,非农劳动收入始终是农民收入的主要组成部分。我们要从农民人均纯收入结构分析中入手,提高农民向城市的转移速度,增加农村居民工资收入及家庭二、三产业经营收入,大力推进农业结构性调整,加快农业生产经营方式向集约化、规模化、产业化大生产经营的转变,使农村居民人均纯收入保持较快增长。

  11. Comparative analysis of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school children and rural farmers in Obollo-Eke, Enugu State, Nigeria:Implications for control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Celestine Chidi Ogbonna; Geme Urge Dori; Emeka Innocent Nweze; Gilbert Muoneke; Innocent Ejike Nwankwo; Nkiru Akputa

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence, sex-age related intensity of urinary schistosomiasis and to compare such parameters among rural school children and rural farmers in selected communities in Obollo-Eke located in Southeast, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 1 337 school children and farmers was conducted in Obollo-Eke community between September 2006 and July 2007. Demographic data of subjects was collected using a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. Urine samples were collected and examined for haematuria and ova of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) using Medi-test Combi 9 and sedimentation technique respectively. Results:The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis based on microscopic examination of the urine sediment for the ova of S. haematobium was 17.5%while the prevalence of haematuria was 15.6%. Infection intensity varied from light to heavy. In general, the prevalence was higher among males (20.8%) than females (14.6%;P>0.05) and was slightly higher among primary school children (18.0%;n=762) than farmers (16.9%;n=575;P>0.05).The age-specific prevalence of schistosomiasis among the study subjects ranged from 8.3%to 21.2%in 0-5 years and 11-15 years age groups respectively. Conclusions:Haematuria and mean egg/10 mL urine (r= 0.95;P<0.01) showed that both procedures are reliable for the diagnosis of the disease and can be used to ascertain the prevalence of the disease in any community. The comparative analysis of urinary bilharziasis among primary school children and rural farmers demonstrated that the infection is moderately high in these two risk population groups at Obollo-Eke. A robust intervention strategy is clearly needed.

  12. Rural Household Survey Based Analysis of Hollowing of Rural Residential Land in China%基于农户调研的中国农村居民点空心化程度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宇林军; 孙大帅; 张定祥; 郑博; 韩乐然; 宇振荣

    2016-01-01

    As urbanization in China has increased rapidly in recent decades, large numbers of people have moved from rural areas to urban areas in China. As a result, a great number of rural residential land are aban-doned or inefficiently used, which becomes a serious problem in China. Based on the data from a nationwide rural ecological landscape survey, called“thousand villages survey”, this study analyzes the status, change modes, causes and the reuse potential of hollowing of rural residential land. Major conclusions of this study are as following:1) Village-hollowing has been a universal phenomenon in China rural areas, where 93.5%vil-lages have this phenomenon. The average hollowing rate of rural residential land of the surveyed villages is about 10.2%, and 14.9% rural residential land is inefficiently utilized. Therefore, village-hollowing now be-comes a great challenge to rural development. 2) The hollowing rate of rural residential land varies significant-ly across space, where villages in north central and eastern China usually have higher hollowing rates. There-fore, it is an urgent demand to formulate regionally differentiated management and reutilization solutions of ru-ral settlement. 3) There are many reasons related to village hollowing. The survey shows that 39.94%surveyed people believe that rural labor migration is the major reason to village hollowing. 19.51%surveyed people ac-cuse the reason to urbanization of rural people. 25.73%surveyed people think dilapidated houses lead to vil-lage hollowing and 14.82%surveyed people trend to believe“One household, multiple housing lands”cause village hollowing. 4) It is large of potential to reuse the idle and abandoned rural housing land to meet future residential land demands from newly increased rural population, although it’s difficult and costly. The survey shows that rural people have strong wills to reutilize the hollowing rural residential land. 34.22%surveyed peo-ple choose to change the hollowed

  13. Analysis of transport accessibility in rural areas of Olsztyn county Dostępność transportowa obszarów wiejskich powiatu olsztyńskiego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kozłowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant impact on the multifunctional development of rural areas is the so-called transport accessibility. This applies mainly to the capabilities and reach the pace of the in-habitants of the so-called areas peripheral to the main economic centers of the province. The research includes analysis of the availability of transport in quantitative and qualitative as-pects, which was defined for the purposes of research. Quantity and quality of transport in-frastructure, the number of connections, length and travel time to the most important eco-nomic centers were taken into consideration. Analysis of transport availability sets the target application development, which is to determine the key investment priorities for the next programming periods of transport infrastructure development of the Warmia and Mazury province.

  14. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    ” and “space” from human geography are applied to develop a nuanced understanding of rural entrepreneurship as a spatial phenomenon. Space consists of processes of movement and mobility, while places consist of localized material, social and economic relations. Findings: Two ideal types are developed, namely......Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place...... (i) entrepreneurship in the rural and (ii) rural entrepreneurship. The former represents entrepreneurial activities that have limited embeddedness and enact a profit-oriented and mobile logic of space. The latter represents entrepreneurial activities that leverage local resources to re-connect place...

  15. Analysis of Influence Factors of Rural Drinking Water and Sanitation%农村饮用水和环境卫生的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of rural drinking water and sanitation,and actively seek solutions. Methods "Chinese rural drinking water and sanitation status survey" data on the centralized water supply coverage and the popularization rate of sanitary latrine to carry on the research analysis, classified according to the influencing factors,to understand the change trend. Results In the study found,centralized water supply rate and sanitary latrine coverage rate with the increase in annual income,cultural level,family area and enhance growth showed a rise in status(P<0.05). Conclusion Culture,economy is the biggest impact on rural drinking water and sanitation,by enhancing the cultural level and economic level can bring great improvement of rural drinking water and sanitation.%目的:探讨农村饮用水以及环境卫生的影响因素,积极的寻求解决方法。方法对“中国农村饮用水与环境卫生现状调查”的数据中关于集中式供水覆盖率和卫生厕所普及率来进行研究分析,根据影响因素进行等级划分,了解其变化趋势。结果在研究中发现,集中式供水普及率和卫生厕所覆盖率随着年收入增加、文化程度提升、家庭面积增长而表现出上升状态(P<0.05)。结论文化、经济对于农村饮用水和环境卫生的影响是最大的,通过提升文化程度和经济水平能够对农村饮用水和环境卫生带来较大的改善。

  16. Expanding access to off-grid rural electrification in Africa: An analysis of community-based micro-grids in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubi, Charles Gathu

    Community micro-grids have played a central role in increasing access to off-grid rural electrification (RE) in many regions of the developing world, notably South Asia. However, the promise of community micro-grids in sub-Sahara Africa remains largely unexplored. My study explores the potential and limits of community micro-grids as options for increasing access to off-grid RE in sub-Sahara Africa. Contextualized in five community micro-grids in rural Kenya, my study is framed through theories of collective action and combines qualitative and quantitative methods, including household surveys, electronic data logging and regression analysis. The main contribution of my research is demonstrating the circumstances under which community micro-grids can contribute to rural development and the conditions under which individuals are likely to initiate and participate in such projects collectively. With regard to rural development, I demonstrate that access to electricity enables the use of electric equipment and tools by small and micro-enterprises, resulting in significant improvement in productivity per worker (100--200% depending on the task at hand) and a corresponding growth in income levels in the order of 20--70%, depending on the product made. Access to electricity simultaneously enables and improves delivery of social and business services from a wide range of village-level infrastructure (e.g. schools, markets, water pumps) while improving the productivity of agricultural activities. Moreover, when local electricity users have an ability to charge and enforce cost-reflective tariffs and electricity consumption is closely linked to productive uses that generate incomes, cost recovery is feasible. By their nature---a new technology delivering highly valued services by the elites and other members, limited local experience and expertise, high capital costs---community micro-grids are good candidates for elite-domination. Even so, elite control does not necessarily

  17. Socioeconomic factors differentiating maternal and child health-seeking behavior in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Stan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increasing availability and accessibility of modern health services in rural Bangladesh over the past decades. However, previous studies on the socioeconomic differentials in the utilization of these services were based on a limited number of factors, focusing either on preventive or on curative modern health services. These studies failed to collect data from remote rural areas of the different regions to examine the socioeconomic differentials in health-seeking behavior. Methods Data from 3,498 randomly selected currently married women from three strata of households within 128 purposively chosen remote villages in three divisions of Bangladesh were collected in 2006. This study used bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses to examine both curative and preventive health-seeking behaviors in seven areas of maternal and child health care: antenatal care, postnatal care, child delivery care, mother's receipt of Vitamin A postpartum, newborn baby care, care during recent child fever/cough episodes, and maternal coverageby tetanus toxoid (TT. Results A principal finding was that a household's relative poverty status, as reflected by wealth quintiles, was a major determinant in health-seeking behavior. Mothers in the highest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to use modern trained providers for antenatal care, birth attendance, post natal care and child health care than those in the poorest quintile (χ2, p Conclusion Within rural areas of Bangladesh, where overall poverty is greater and access to health care more difficult, wealth differentials in utilization remain pronounced. Those programs with high international visibility and dedicated funding (e.g., Immunization and Vitamin A delivery have higher overall prevalence and a more equitable distribution of beneficiaries than the use of modern trained providers for basic essential health care services. Implications of these findings and

  18. Diversity Research on Income Difference and Consumption Behavior of Rural Residents in China - Empirical Analysis Based on AIDS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinFan

    2004-01-01

    By building up an AIDS model of Chinese rural residents, classified into fivegroups by income, concluding six commodities (services), analyses the diversity of consumption behavior out of income difference. We draw the following conclusions: Firstly, there exists some difference between different income groups in commodities (services) consumption.Secondly, increase of farmers' income will be favorable to the enhancement of consumption level and upgrading of consumption structure. Thirdly, the medium income group, as one special mass, features a transitional main body of consumption structure. Finally, the policymakers should support the farmers with lower income in compulsory education, such as more and necessary transfer payments.

  19. Office of Rural Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Hub Rural Health Research Gateway Rural Community Health Gateway White House Rural Council  Eligibility Analyzer Contact Us Subscribe to FORHP weekly announcement for rural health grantees and stakeholders by e-mail Subscribe to ...

  20. Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current status of rural informatization construction in China,including the relatively weak rural informatization,asymmetric market information,low level of information sharing,dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other are analyzed.The importance of informatization in rural logistic system is introduced:firstly,decision making of logistics system plan is based on information.Secondly,improvement of the overall efficiency of logistics system is based on information.Thirdly,logistics transmission takes the Internet as the carrier.Necessity of rural logistics system is discussed from five aspects of increasing the employment of farmers,enhancing the income of farmers,reducing the blindness of agricultural production and circulation,sharing the risks of agricultural management,and promoting the rural economic restructuring.According to the above five steps,five countermeasures are posed in order to improve the rural logistics system.The countermeasures cover the aspects of deepening the information awareness of government,establishing a rural informatization system suited to the national condition of China,strengthening the information infrastructure in rural areas,promoting the integration of rural information resources and establishing the training system for agricultural information talents.

  1. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.

  2. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households. PMID:26855470

  3. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S

    2016-02-01

    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  4. Analysis and Prediction of Rural Residents’ Living Consumption Growth in Sichuan Province Based on Markov Prediction and ARMA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-li

    2012-01-01

    I select 32 samples concerning per capita living consumption of rural residents in Sichuan Province during the period 1978-2009. First, using Markov prediction method, the growth rate of living consumption level in the future is predicted to largely range from 10% to 20%. Then, in order to improve the prediction accuracy, time variable t is added into the traditional ARMA model for modeling and prediction. The prediction results show that the average relative error rate is 1.56%, and the absolute value of relative error during the period 2006-2009 is less than 0.5%. Finally, I compare the prediction results during the period 2010-2012 by Markov prediction method and ARMA model, respectively, indicating that the two are consistent in terms of growth rate of living consumption, and the prediction results are reliable. The results show that under the similar policies, rural residents’ consumer demand in Sichuan Province will continue to grow in the short term, so it is necessary to further expand the consumer market.

  5. 广西融安县乡村旅游资源调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on Rural Tourism Resources in Rong'an County of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦飞

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨广西乡村旅游资源的特征与分布,揭示乡村旅游资源的基本规律,深入研究乡村旅游资源的发展与利用,更好地为开发与保护提供理论依据,对全区乡村旅游资源及发展现状展开专项调查.在广西融安县乡村旅游资源调查中,对融安县乡村旅游资源调查数据进行分析,总结融安县乡村旅游资源开发与保护成果,以利于融安县旅游业的可持续发展.%To explore the characteristics of rural tourism resources in Guangxi and distribution, reveal the basic rules of rural tourism resources and study the development and utilization of rural tourism resources deeply, which provide theoretical basis for better protection and development. Therefore, special survey on rural tourism resources and its development status are carried out by Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Tourism Board. During the investigation of rural tourism resources in Guangxi Rong'an, The analysis on survey data of rural tourism resources in Rong'an are carried out, moreover, the development and conservation outcomes of rural tourism resources in Rong' an are summarized, which are beneficial to the sustainable development of tourism in Rong' an.

  6. Agricultural and Rural Informatization Construction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Currently,faced with the rapid development of information technology and increasing competition of the global economy,many countries have been very concerned about the issues of informatization concerning agriculture and rural areas. The level of informatization in the developed countries has been universally high,and some developing countries are also highly concerned about how to actively promote the rural market information service. With the increasing level of China’s economic development,agriculture and rural economy have placed a growing demand on informatization. From the overall perspective of agricultural and rural informatization,this paper gives a detailed analysis of current situation,goals,tasks and constraints about agricultural and rural informatization construction,and finally makes the corresponding recommendations.

  7. 基于教育主体分析的乡村旅游环境教育手段研究%Study on the Means of Rural Tourism Environment Education Based on the Analysis of the Subject of Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀治

    2012-01-01

    通过分析目前乡村旅游的发展状况,指出乡村旅游环境教育的必要性与紧迫性。文章在分析相关概念的基础上提出了乡村旅游环境教育的概念,认为乡村旅游环境教育具有时间的终身性、空间的广泛性、对象的普遍性、内容的综合性、途径的广泛性等特点。基于教育主体分析的角度,本研究对于游客、旅游服务人员、政府行政人员及当地的社区居民等乡村旅游环境教育主体有针对性地提出了不同的乡村旅游环境教育手段。%This study analysis the current status of rural tourism development, and then points out the necessity and urgency of rural tourism environmental education. Based on the analysis of related concepts, this study proposes the concept of rural tourism environmental education, considers that rural tourism environmental education has the following characteristics: life of the time, breadth of the space, u- niversality of the object, comprehensive of the content, extensive of the means. Based on the analysis of the subject of education, for the subject of rural tourism environment education, visitors, tourism services, government administration and local community residents, this study puts forward a variety of means of rural tourism environmental education.

  8. Rural Media Literacy: Youth Documentary Videomaking as a Rural Literacy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Damiana Gibbons

    2016-01-01

    Through an analysis of a corpus of youth-produced documentary video data collected at a youth media arts organization in rural Appalachia, I explore how these rural youth engaged in media literacy practices through creating documentary videos about themselves and their community. Using a theoretical foundation in literacies research, especially…

  9. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ... Data Grassroots Action Center Policy Documents Legislative and Regulatory Agenda Medicaid News Response to 2013 OIG CAH ...

  10. 基于平衡记分卡的村集体组织绩效评价可行性分析%Feasibility Analysis on Performance Evaluation of Rural Collective Organizations Based on Balanced Score Card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯江涛

    2011-01-01

    结合平衡记分卡及村集体组织的特征,从3个方面对平衡记分卡应用于村集体组织绩效评价进行了可行性分析,并指出了其应用中的两个关键注意点.%Combining with the characteristics of balanced score card and rural collective organizations, the paper took feasibility analysis on the performance evaluation of rural collective organizations based on balanced score card from 3 aspects, and pointed out two key attention points in its application.

  11. Government Should Adopt Policies Favouring Rural Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩长赋

    2007-01-01

    Based on a systematic analysis of the development trends of Chinese rural migrant workers, this article has designed a model representing the flow of migrant workers from rural to urban areas, and the patterns of urban settlement. The significant factors contributing to the problems of migrant workers are assessed and suggestions for improvement put forward. This article concludes that the rural migrant worker problem is attributable to institutional set-up and strategy and will continue for the entire process of China’s modernization. It is estimated that modernization will be realized in about 2050, at which time the rural-urban migration process will also be completed. To solve the problems of migrant workers, a comprehensive strategy of balanced development between urban and rural areas should be carried out, featuring industry’s support of agriculture and urban support of rural areas. Furthermore, the urban-rural dual structure should be gradually eliminated through institutional reform and policy innovation. The principles of equality, humanity and fair treatment for both urban and rural populations should be sought.

  12. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  13. 农村供水工程现状分析及其发展思路探讨%Rural water supply project present situation analysis and development ideas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云雄

    2015-01-01

    The rural water supply project from solving rural drinking water masses to solve the problem of drinking water safety, construction has lasted for more than ten years, the engineering benefit, the rural masses throughout the country has made remarkable achievements, but there are still low water supply reliability problems. In this article, through analysis of present situation and problems of Wenshan rural water supply project in Yunnan province, analyze the reasons, explore the construction of large scale centralized water supply project feasibility and rationality of solving the problem of rural drinking water masses.%农村供水工程从解决农村群众饮水困难到解决饮水安全问题,已持续建设十多年,工程惠及全国广大农村群众,取得了显著成效,但依旧存在供水保证率低等问题.本文通过分析云南省文山州农村供水工程现状和问题,剖析原因,探讨建设规模化大型集中式供水工程解决农村群众饮水问题的可行性和合理性.

  14. Follow-up analysis of federal process of care data reported from three acute care hospitals in rural Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills ES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available E Scott Sills,1,2 Liubomir Chiriac,3 Denis Vaughan,4 Christopher A Jones,5 Shala A Salem11Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Pacific Reproductive Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2Graduate School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK; 3Department of Mathematics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 5Global Health Economics Unit and Department of Surgery, Center for Clinical and Translational Science, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USABackground: This investigation evaluated standardized process of care data collected on selected hospitals serving a remote rural section of westernmost North Carolina.Methods: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data were analyzed retrospectively for multiple clinical parameters at Fannin Regional Hospital, Murphy Medical Center, and Union General Hospital. Data were analyzed by paired t-test for individual comparisons among the three study hospitals to compare the three facilities with each other, as well as with state and national average for each parameter.Results: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services “Hospital Compare” data from 2011 showed Fannin Regional Hospital to have significantly higher composite scores on standardized clinical process of care measures relative to the national average, compared with Murphy Medical Center (P = 0.01 and Union General Hospital (P = 0.01. This difference was noted to persist when Fannin Regional Hospital was compared with Union General Hospital using common state reference data (P = 0.02. When compared with national averages, mean process of care scores reported from Murphy Medical Center and Union General Hospital were both lower but not significantly different (−3.44 versus −6.07, respectively, P = 0.54.Conclusion: The range of process of care scores submitted by acute care

  15. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.9 million rural beneficiaries participated in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans, accounting for 13.4% of MA enrollees. While rural participation is not proportionate to urban participation, strong rural enrollment in ... Medicare Advantage – The ACA reduces the payments to companies providing ...

  16. Rural Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Research Center. The 2014 Update of the Rural-Urban Chartbook . (2008–2011 data.) How does rural life ... Source: Singh, G.K., Siahpush, M. 2014. Widening Rural-Urban Disparities in Life Expectancy, U.S., 1969-2009. American ...

  17. Reducing economic disparities between rural and urban areas through integrated development – Case study: analysis of the turnover of companies in the AIDA Association, Alba County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavrilă-Paven

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a local initiative in Romania, Alba County, which tries to establish general guidelines for the sustainable development of a local community that consists of three towns and eight villages. The analysis conducted in this paper is focused on economic activity. The turnover of the companies located in the eleven localities that compose the Intercommunity Development Association – Alba Iulia have been studied. The authors’ objective is to determine the influences effecting the localities and to establish the core of the economic development of this partnership which is trying to surpass the barriers between rural and urban and to form a community able to valorize its potential according to the principles of sustainable development.

  18. Multidimensional and multiscalar analisis of territorial rural development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of late, there have been several political, practical and analytical changes to our understanding of rural development. Diverse efforts have emerged in the analysis and discussion of spatial dynamics such as “rurality”, territories, in the construction of a territorial perspective of rural development. These changes in the forms of identification and measurement of rural development lead us to question the validity and effectiveness of applied methods, inviting us to establish methodologies and analytical criteria coherent with the multiple manifestations and scales of development. This article offers a multidimensional and multi-scalar analytical model for territorial rural development, using our methodology tested in four rural territories of Brazil.

  19. Power of Religion in Rural Areas and Its Public Service (I)--An Analysis of Cases in Five Villages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHALHO

    2005-01-01

    In the study of socio-economic development in Tibet, one tends to stress the role of non-economic elements, especially the role of humans and social background.Of these, the role of religious culture is regarded as the most important. However, there are basically two approaches to the issue: First of all, although religion exerts a varied role on economic growth, legal construction, public welfare and ethics, one tends to each only a general judgment. Secondly, study of the role played by religion focused on the religious doctrines held by monks, and monks themselves. Although many point out the fact that religious power over people varies, it roots in the rural areas and among the folk at large is still neglected.Hence, there is the need to study individual cases.

  20. Water as part of the culture of rural communities: an analysis for the San Carlos River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Moreira-Segura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents part of the results of a research carried out in three rural communities in the Northern Zone of Costa Rica, a total of 262 residents of these communities were selected and interviewed in order to provide information on the knowledge, attitudes, values, abilities, skills and behavior of the residents of these communities related to water resource. It was identified that the people from these communities have a low level of knowledge on the conservation of water resources; a positive attitude to make changes in everyday actions involving the use of water and also have a positive disposition. However, the skills that are applied for conservation tend to be insufficient and lack of impact positive action, they show inadequate competence to carry out such action. The results provide the basis to support an environmental education proposal for water conservation in homes in this region.

  1. An Analysis of the Poverty Alleviation Effect of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in Tibetan Areas of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shufang

    2016-01-01

    The New Rural Cooperative Medi-cal System ( hereafter NRCMS) in Tibetan areas of Sichuan was started in Wenchuan in 2005 , and by 2008 covered all of the province’s Tibetan areas. This paper studies the effects of the NRCMS on im-proving the health of and alleviating poverty for farmers and herdsmen in Tibetan area of Sichuan. Most parts of the Tibetan areas of Sichuan are located in high altitude districts. Thirty two coun-ties of these areas are classified as “National Pov-erty Counties”. Poverty and disease go hand in hand in these regions. Kashin-Beck disease and hydatid disease are the major endemics in the pas-toral and agro-pastoral areas of Sichuan. Endemic, infectious and chronic diseases are widespread in Sichuan’s Tibetan areas. More than 70% of pa-tients are workers from 20 to 60 years old. Disea-ses are more prevalent in women than in men. Kashin-Beck disease and hydatid disease are cur-rently incurable. Patients suffer from health prob-lems, which leads to a decrease in their income and the heavy burden of medical expenses. The new rural cooperative medical system alleviates the negative effects of farmers’ falling into, or back in-to poverty due to disease. However, the existing medical compensation mechanism is not sufficient to solve the problem. The greatest impact of NRCMS on the farmers and herdsmen in Sichuan’s Tibetan areas is that the system has gradually changed local people’s medi-cal behavior, as well as their underlying ideas a-bout medicine: they begin to believe in hospitals. In particular, more pregnant women are choosing to give birth in hospitals, which reduces the rate of infant mortality and postpartum diseases, and im-proves the health of women. Since the full coverage of the NRCMS in 2008 , the number of people participating in the system has reached the overall average level of Si-chuan province. By analyzing the data before and after the implementation of this system, and meas-uring the impact of the system on

  2. Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status, health care use and health spending. A composite contextual variable, named village deprivation, was derived from socio-economic status and availability of health care facilities in each village using factor analysis. Dependent variables were whether household health payment was more than 40% of household's capacity to pay (catastrophic health payment and whether household per capita income was put under Chinese national poverty line (1067 Yuan income per year after health spending (impoverishment. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the independent variables on the two outcomes. Results Households with low per capita income, having elderly, hospitalized or chronically ill members, and whose head was unemployed were more likely to incur financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health expenditure. Both catastrophic and impoverishing health payments increased with increased village deprivation. However, the presence of a village health clinic had no effect on the two outcomes, nor did household enrollment in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (national health insurance. Conclusions Village deprivation independently increases the risk for financial hardship due to health payment after adjusting for known household-level factors. This suggests that policy makers need to view the individual, household and village as separate units for policy targeting.

  3. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  4. Rural-urban disparities of breast cancer patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Bu, Yulan; Gao, Hua

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rural-urban disparities in breast cancer patients in China. The retrospective study was performed with a total of 2,139 breast cancer patients hospitalized in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between the years 1997 and 2011. We applied Chi-square analysis to identify significant disparities between rural and urban populations. Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors associated with the adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Two-fifths of patients were considered rural dwellers. Significant disparities were found in marriage age (p rural-urban differences were also shown in the choice of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0050) and surgical procedures (p rural-urban breast cancer patients exist in China. Interventions to increase early diagnosis of breast cancer among rural area are in need. Further research is needed to investigate potential attitude and perception differences between rural and urban populations with respect to breast cancer preventions and treatments.

  5. 四起农村宴席食物中毒的实验室检测和分析%Laboratory detection and analysis of four cases of food poisoning in rural banquet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉菊

    2011-01-01

    目的:对四起农村宴席食物中毒的原因进行分析和实验室确认,提供预防和控制农村宴席食物中毒的科学依据.方法:通过收集近年农村宴席食物中毒的流行病学调查报告和实验室检验记录,回顾性分析引发当地宴席食物中毒的常见菌株.结果:引起四起农村宴席食物中毒的病原菌分别是金黄色葡萄球菌、致泻大肠埃希菌、沙门菌.结论:农村宴席食物中毒需引起足够重视,食品安全监督部门]应加强农村自办宴席的卫生质量监督监测.%Objective: To analyze the cause of four cases of food poisoning in rural banquet and conduct laboratory confirmation, providing scientific basis for control and prevention of food poisoning in rural banquet. Methods: By collecting epidemiolog-ical investigation and laboratory test records of food poisoning in rural banquet, a retrospective analysis of food poisoning caused by common strains in local banquet was conducted. Results: Four rural banquet food poisoning were mainly caused by Staphylo-coccus aureus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, salmonella. Conclusion: Rural banquet food poisoning need to cause enough attention , food safety supervision departments should strengthen the health quality supervision and monitoring of the rural banquet.

  6. 河南乡村旅游服务质量提升研究--基于SERVQUAL模型分析%Research on Improving Henan Rural Tourism Service Quality---Based on Analysis of the SERVQUAL Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋静雅

    2014-01-01

    Based on analysis of the SERVQUAL model ,combining with the characteristics of Henan rural tourism ,rural tourism service quality evaluation factors were improved .Through the questionnaire and on-the-spot investigation to Henan rural tourism on the service quality research ,and according to the research results of statistical analysis ,we should provide personalized service ,improve tourist com-plaint management ,train service staff ,and construct hardware facilities to improve Henan rural tourism service quality .%基于SERVQUAL模型的基本原理,从河南乡村旅游的特点出发,对乡村旅游服务质量的评价要素进行了改进。通过问卷调查、实地考察的方式对河南乡村旅游地进行了服务质量的调研,并根据调研结果进行统计分析,提出需从提供个性化服务、游客投诉管理、服务人员培训、硬件设施建设等四个方面提高河南乡村旅游地服务质量水平。

  7. 'We do the impossible': women overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening in rural Honduras--a positive deviance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Honduras, and sexual behaviour and low screening uptake are two major factors contributing to high rates of morbidity and mortality. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate barriers that prevent rural Honduran women from engaging in screening and ways that women overcome those barriers. This study examined examples of positive deviance, or individuals engaging in the uncommon but beneficial practise of screening. Amor por sí misma (self-love), and social support were identified as two constructs women employed to overcome barriers to screening. Participants defined self-love as the act of displaying care and concern for oneself and one's health and suggested that it compels women to participate in screening. Social support was defined as receiving tangible aid and advice from others that facilitated women's screening participation. Findings suggest that the concept of self-love could be used in future screening promotion efforts and that integrating social support would also be beneficial. Engaging men in sexual and reproductive health programming is suggested in order to ensure male partners offer social support for screening and to challenge the cultural, gender and sexual norms that place women at higher risk for cervical cancer.

  8. The role of off-farm employment in the rural energy consumption transition — A village-level analysis in Jiangxi Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, X.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption in rural areas in China is characterized by high consumption of fuelwood, straw and other biomass. Off-farm employment can play an important role in the transition towards more sustainable sources of energy by increasing rural household incomes and reducing the amount of labor ava

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Demographic and Academic Characteristics and NCLEX-RN Passing among Urban and Rural Campus Students in a Midwest Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacos-Burds, Kathleen J.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was initiated to determine: (1) the predictive relationship between demographic and academic variables and NCLEX-RN success; and (2) if there were significant differences between urban and rural nursing students that could account for an increased percentage of rural NCLEX-RN failures. A convenience sample was comprised of…

  10. Analysis on Current Situation of English Teaching in Rural Primary Schools-Take Tai gu County in Shan Xi Province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, English education in rural areas draws more attention in the society. However, the current situation of Eng-lish teaching is worrying. Visit and investigated Limeizhuang primary school in Taigu County, Shanxi province and found some problems, so as to promote English teaching in rural primary schools.

  11. Alienation in Rural Women: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis of its Association with Community and Family Involvement, Socioeconomic Status, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poresky, Robert H.; Atilano, Raymond B.

    1982-01-01

    58 rural Kansas women were interviewed when their children were three, six, or nine years old, and again two years later. Maternal alienation appeared to be primarily affected by socioeconomic status, community involvement, and maternal education. The validity of anomia as a social measure of rural women was also examined. (Author/SK)

  12. Rural Poverty Rate Edges Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Although rural poverty began to decline, 1994-95, many rural households had incomes just above poverty. Rural minorities were especially disadvantaged; racial differences in educational attainment accounted for 20-33% of income gaps. One-quarter of rural children lived in poverty, most in single-parent households. Most rural poor families lived in…

  13. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Price Azano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teachers for successful student teaching placements and, ideally, eventual careers in rural schools. In this study, we explore teacher candidates’ perceptions of rurality while examining how specific theory, pedagogy, and practice influence their feelings of preparedness for working in a rural school. Using pre- and post- questionnaire data, classroom observations, and reflections, we assess the effectiveness of deliberate efforts in our teacher preparation program to increase readiness for rural teaching. In our analysis and discussion, we draw on critical and sociocultural theories to understand the experiences of a cohort of teacher candidates as they explore personal histories, the importance of place, expectations, and teaching strategies for rural contexts. While rural education researchers have long lamented the struggle to recruit and retain teachers, there is relatively little known about intentional efforts to prepare teachers specifically for rural classrooms. We conclude our article with recommendations for enhancing teacher preparation programs in ways that might result in significant progress toward the goal of staffing rural schools with the highly skilled teachers all students deserve.

  14. People living with HIV travel farther to access healthcare: a population-based geographic analysis from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N Akullian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The availability of specialized HIV services is limited in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the need is the greatest. Where HIV services are available, people living with HIV (PLHIV must overcome large geographic, economic and social barriers to access healthcare. The objective of this study was to understand the unique barriers PLHIV face when accessing healthcare compared with those not living with HIV in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa with limited availability of healthcare infrastructure. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 447 heads of household on Bugala Island, Uganda. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare travel time, cost and distance to access healthcare, and log binomial models were used to test for associations between HIV status and access to nearby health services. Results: PLHIV travelled an additional 1.9 km (95% CI (0.6, 3.2 km, p=0.004 to access healthcare compared with those not living with HIV, and they were 56% less likely to access healthcare at the nearest health facility to their residence, so long as that facility lacked antiretroviral therapy (ART services (aRR=0.44, 95% CI (0.24 to 0.83, p=0.011. We found no evidence that PLHIV travelled further for care if the nearest facility supplies ART services (aRR=0.95, 95% CI (0.86 to 1.05, p=0.328. Among those who reported uptake of care at one of two facilities on the island that provides ART (81% of PLHIV and 68% of HIV-negative individuals, PLHIV tended to seek care at a higher tiered facility that provides ART, even when this facility was not their closest facility (30% of PLHIV travelled further than the closest ART facility compared with 16% of HIV-negative individuals, and travelled an additional 2.2 km (p=0.001 to access that facility, relative to HIV-negative individuals (aRR=1.91, 95% CI (1.00 to 3.65, p=0.05. Among PLHIV, residential distance was associated with access to facilities providing

  15. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions.

  16. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk fac-tors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Liang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan’an district (urban and Jiangjin district (rural of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Methods: Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan’an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries. Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared. Results: Between the year 2000 and 2006, the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan’an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/ 100 000 respectively, higher than that in Jiangjin district (27.49/ 100 000, 7.13/100 000, P<0.01. However, the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%, higher than that in Nan’an district (10.00%, P<0.01. Head injury was the primary cause of death. Totally 76.58% of casualties were pede-strians. Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system. Conclusions: The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people. It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law, so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people. Key words: Aged; Epidemiology; Accidents, traffic; Risk factors

  17. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoran Olorunfemi E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. This study was therefore designed to determine the recent prevalence and identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in a rural town in Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women attending the primary health care in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. Results A total of 225 pregnant women were recruited into the study. The prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 22.9%. Teenagers [48.2%] reported more unwanted pregnancy when compared with the older age group [13.6%] [OR = 5.91, C.I = 2.83-12.43]. About half 33 [41.1%] of the teenage pregnant women and 28.6% of the older pregnant women did not know how to correctly use condom to prevent pregnancy [OR = 0.57, C.I = 0.29-1.13]. Predictors of teenage pregnancy were low social class (OR = 2.25, C.I = 1.31-3.85], Religion (OR = 0.44, C.I = 0.21-0.91], being a student (OR = 3.27, C.I = 1.02-10.46 and having a white collar job (OR = 0.09, C.I = 0.01-0.81. Conclusion The study concludes that employment in an established organization (white collar job is highly protective against teenage pregnancy while students are becoming increasingly prone to early pregnancy. Government should structure employment in low income countries in such a way as to give a quota to adolescents who are unable to continue their education.

  18. Distinct impact of education and income on habitual exercise: a cross-sectional analysis in a rural city in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Lee, Jung Su; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi; Mori, Katsumi; Akabayashi, Akira

    2011-12-01

    Education and income are important socioeconomic indicators that reflect different aspects of social hierarchy. However, only a few studies have explicitly examined how different the relationship between education and health behaviour is from that between income and health behaviour. According to the human capital theory of health investment, education would reflect knowledge assets that allow an efficient investment in health, while income would relate to the value of healthy days and/or the time cost of health investment. Since time cost and the relative price of health would differ across age strata, we examined the significance of effect modification by age strata to distinguish the effects of education on habitual exercise from the effects of income. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire in a rural city in northern Japan in January 2007 (n = 3385). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of educational attainment and household income with habitual exercise. Interaction terms of these socioeconomic indicators with age strata (income was significantly associated with habitual exercise among those aged 25-59 years, while the association was null or negative among those aged 60 and above. Education was significantly associated with habitual exercise regardless of the age groups. These results suggest that the effects of socioeconomic factors on health behaviours vary according to which socioeconomic indicators are analysed, and which age group is selected. We conclude that studies on the socioeconomic disparity of health behaviours should carefully choose socioeconomic indicators to explain specific health behaviours to reveal underlying mechanisms and provide relevant policy implications, based on explicit behavioural models.

  19. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZHOU Ji-hong; QIU Jun; ZHANG Xiu-zhu; YUAN Dan-feng; GAO Zhi-ming; DAI Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan' an district(urban)and Jiangjin district(rural)of Chongqing,and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure.Methods:Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries.Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared.Results:Between the year 2000 and 2006,the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan' an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/100 000 respectively,higher than that in Jiangjin district(27.49/100 000,7.13/100 000,P<0.01).However,the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%,higher than that in Nan'an district(10.00%,P<0.01).Head injury was the primary cause of death.Totally 76.58% of casualties were pedestrians.Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system.Conclusions:The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people.It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law,so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  20. Tensions between the local and the global: contemporary rural and teaching in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Clementino de Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate potential tensions between local and global context of contemporary ruralities, emphasizing the times, rhythms and spaces constructed from the experiences of teachers and students in the organization of the routines of rural schools. The paper presents theoretical considerations resulting from two studies in the Graduate Program in Education and Contemporary - PPGEduC / UNEB. The clipping and analysis undertaken focus on education developed in rural areas and tensions present in this context in view, discuss issues concerning the new ruralities contemporary. This discussion has as its central theme the issues of timing and the rhythm in schools with multigrade classes Island Tide that articulates with dilemmas and tensions surrounding the experience lived by teachers of geography of the city engaged in teaching in rural areas in semi-arid region of Bahia. Research has pointed to difficulties faced by rural school to consider the different temporalities that exist in rural areas in their educational processes, as well as difficulties of articulation in these contexts of learning, between the local-global dimensions through which passes the contemporary space. This movement creates stress for teachers’ work, since it complicates the relationship between the times established, standardized and rigid, with times of personal students and teachers, covering aspects such as age, life histories, movements and experiences socio-historical and geographical subjects involved in the processes of teaching and learning in rural settings in contemporary times.

  1. Education for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one out of six people in the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimension...

  2. Poblaciones urbana y rural de Panamá. Un análisis a partir de microdatos censales Urban and rural populations of Panama. An analysis using census microdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Camacho Cárdenas,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El censo de población y viviendas continúa jugando un rol esencial en las sociedades contemporáneas. La disponibilidad de la información a partir de microdatos censales ofrece posibilidades incalculables para la labor científica, docente y de planificación a diferentes escalas. A partir de la posibilidad de trabajar con las bases de datos de los censos de Panamá, rondas 2000 y 2010, y hacer uso del software REDATAM para los procesamientos especiales, el presente artículo presenta los análisis de características seleccionadas de las poblaciones urbana y rural del país. Los resultados muestran el crecimiento del porcentaje de la población urbana, con una mayor presencia femenina. Las poblaciones urbanas presentan una estructura más envejecida en el contexto nacional. Tanto la mortalidad infantil como la fecundidad son mayores en los contextos rurales. Population and housing census continue playing an essential role in contemporary societies. The availability of the census microdata information offers incalculable possibilities for the scientific work, educational and planning activities to different scales. Starting from the possibility of working with the databases of the censuses of Panama, rounds 2000 and 2010, and making use of the software REDATAM for special processing, this paper presents the analyses of selected characteristics of urban and rural populations of the country. The results show the growth of the urban population’s percentage, with a feminine bigger presence. The urban populations present an older age structure in the national context. The child mortality and fertility are both higher in the rural contexts.

  3. 乡村旅游中土地流转与开发策略的联动博弈分析%Rural Tourism in the Land Transfer and Development Strategy of the Linkage Game Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赟

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of a new land transfer policy had a significant impact on rural land use and promoted to achieve scale effects of land-use basis. This paper set rural tourism as a research object, used the application of game analysis method to analyze the rural tourism industry development process of land transfer and linkage, analysed the demand of stake-holders in the different demands of the land transfer, and made the effective suggestion for rural tourism development strategy and sustainable development.%新型土地流转政策的出台对农村土地利用产生了重大影响,为实现土地利用的规模化效应奠定了基础。以乡村旅游作为研究对象,应用博弈分析法分析乡村旅游产业发展过程中土地流转和旅游开发策略的联动关系,剖析利益相关者在土地流转中的不同诉求,为乡村旅游的土地开发策略和可持续发展提供有效建议。

  4. Rural Domestic and Productive Waste Reverse Logistics Model Analysis%农村生活、生产垃圾逆向物流发展模式对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国红

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of reverse logistics in rural areas is an important way to improve the rural environment development and circular economy, base on expounding the content of reverse logistics, this paper indicates problems exists in life, and production waste treatment, analysis reverse logistics models of life and production waste treatment, proposed measures to address this range of issues and propose the implementation of reverse logistics in rural alternative development model, in order to facili- tate the reverse logistics in rural areas are effectively implemented.%农村逆向物流的实施是发展农村循环经济和改善农村环境的重要途径。在阐述农村逆向物流内涵的基础上.指出了我国农村生活、生产垃圾处理上存在的问题,对比分析了生活、生产垃圾处理逆向物流发展模式.提出农村逆向物流实施可供选择的发展模式.以便有利于逆向物流在农村的有效实施,、

  5. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  6. Analysis of socio-economic and environmental barriers for the development of rural economic cooperative organization%农村合作经济组织发展过程中的环境障碍分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭怀亮; 魏鑫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The present paper is an attempt to analyze the presence of main socio-economic and environ-mental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [ Method ] The methods of qualitative analysis combined with documentary analysis were used to analyzed the presence of main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [Result] The main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization include low level of educational background of farmers, lack of enthusiasm to participate in rural economic cooperative organization, deficiency in knowledge of their own role playing in the development of rural economic cooperative organization for government, shortage of systematic study on the theory of rural economic cooperative organization,too many management subjects, absence of relevant laws and regulations,etc. [Suggestion] Based on the analysis results,some countermeasures have been put forward which include coordination of relationship between government and rural economic cooperative organization, enhancement of theoretical research,advertisement, and training for rural individuals,formulation of preferential policies for rural economic cooperative organization,etc., in order to get a comfortable operation of rural economic cooperative organization.%[目的]掌握了解农村合作经济组织发展过程中的主要环境障碍,为政府制定促进农业合作经济组织发展的外部环境政策提供依据.[方法]采用定性分析和文献分析相结合的方法对农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍进行分析.[结果]农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍包括:农民文化素质较低、积极性不高,政府在发展农村合作经济组织过程中队自身作用认识不足,对农村合作经济组织的理论研究较为薄弱,管理主体较多,相关的体

  7. 农村公路全寿命周期费用分析%The analysis of life cycle cost for rural road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万冬华

    2015-01-01

    The underinvestment of funds for rural road construction leads to be seriously damaged for pavement and maintenance costs to increase later, according to this status, this paper elaborates the disadvantages of traditional construction cost analysis for rural road and dissectes the each part (initial construction cost, maintenance cost later, road user cost) in Life Cycle Cost and its calculation method applying to the theory of engineering economics. Based on this, it puts forward the analytical model of life cycle cost, and uses this model to conduct technical and economic comparison in detail for two typical pavement structures. The example analysis shows that this life-cycle-costing model provides decision-making basis for designers and has great practical significance.%针对我国农村公路建设在资金有限的情况下,初期投入不足,路面破坏严重,导致后期养护费用高,严重制约着农村公路可持续发展的问题,运用工程经济学理论,通过阐述传统农村公路建设成本分析的不足,剖析了全寿命周期成本(初始建设成本、后期养护成本、道路使用者成本)的构成和计算方法,在此基础上,提出了农村公路全寿命周期分析模型,并使用该模型对重庆市农村公路两种典型路面结构进行详细的技术、经济比较,实证分析表明该模型可以为设计者提供决策依据,具有一定的实践意义。

  8. Fault Tree Analysis of the Lack of Competency of Rural Doctors Under Essential Medicine System%基本药物制度背景下乡村医生胜任力不足的故障树分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海艺; 尹文强; 陈钟鸣; 朱丽丽; 郑骥飞; 秦晓强; 黄冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for the lack of competency of rural doctors under essential medicine system. Methods We enrolled 621 rural doctors from 134 village health centers in Shandong Province from August to December, 2012 using multi - stage stratified random sampling method. We also enrolled 642 rural doctors form 225 village centers in Shandong province from December 2013 to March 2014 using complete random sampling method. Questionnaire survey, qualitative interview and literature analysis were conducted to collect relevant data,including general information,the influence of essential medicine system on rural doctors,the current status of life and work of rural doctors and the cognition of rural doctors on the occupation. We built fault tree analysis model,in which the lack of competency of rural doctors was set as the top event,to investigate reasons for the lack of competency of rural doctors. Results In two surveys, we distributed 621 and 642 questionnaires respectively,and all questionnaires were returned with an effective returning rate of 100. 0% . Among subjects, 81. 1% (499 / 615) graduated from technical secondary school or below that education level,57. 3% (335 / 585)hadn' t registered with any pension insurance,94. 2% (572 / 607)were unsatisfied with their income,55. 9% (356 / 637) were unsatisfied with their job,76. 3% (488 / 640)believed their contribution to the society was increasing,and 58. 1% (371 / 639) thought their living condition hadn't been improved;47. 6% (303 / 637)said that they always compared themselves with rural teachers,and 40. 0% (255 / 638) thought the best occupation in rural areas is teacher. The interviews and literature analysis showed the following results. With further implementation of essential medicine system in grass root level,the working volume and working pressure of rural doctors increased,while their income decreased,and the drop of medicine revenue further lowered their income. The trust of villagers in rural

  9. Spatial analysis of factors associated with household subscription to the National Health Insurance Scheme in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Manortey

    2014-02-01

    their counterparts in the Low socioeconomic group. The study demonstrated the use of spatial analytical tools to identify clusters of household enrollment pattern in the NHIS among residents in rural Ghana. In the face of limited resources, policy makers can therefore use the findings as guideline to strategically channel interventions to areas of most need. Furthermore, these analyses can be repeated annually to assess progress on improving insurance coverage.

  10. 我国四大区域城乡统筹发展能力评价和比较分析%An Evaluative and Comparative Analysis of Capacities for Urban and Rural Development among Four Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周纪昌

    2012-01-01

    根据城乡统筹发展能力的内涵和动力机制构建城乡统筹发展能力评价指标体系.采用2005-2009年的面板数据,运用全局主成分分析法对我国四大区域的城乡统筹发展能力进行动态的综合评价,并从统筹城乡政策与决策支撑能力、经济协调发展能力和社会协调发展能力三个层面来对四大区域的城乡统筹发展能力进行具体的比较,分析四大区域城乡统筹发展能力各方面的差距以及变动趋势。%This paper presents a discussion on the construction of an evaluation index system for assessing urban and rural development capacities based on an investigation into the dimensions and the motivation mechanisms of capacities for balanced development of urban and rural areas. Adopting the panel data of the years 2005-2009 and by way of the global principal component analysis, the paper makes a dynamic and comprehensive evaluation on the capacities for balanced urban and rural development in four regions of China. Specific comparisons between these four regions in terms of their capacities for urban and rural development are also made from such three aspects as the capacity for policy and decision making, the capacity for coordinated economic development, and the capacity for coordinated social development, with a view to gaining a deeper insight into the disparities and trends in the changing capacities for balanced urban and rural development among the four regions.

  11. 大数据时代乡村旅游数据挖掘与分析%Mining and Analysis of Rural Tourism Data in Era of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷文林; 任敏

    2015-01-01

    基于新浪微博,结合计算机技术信息检索和挖掘方法,通过对2014年江苏省农家乐乡村旅游相关微博的提取、加工、分析微博数据,将分析结果可视化显示,研究农家乐乡村旅游的时空分布规律,分析微博中高频词汇,研究农家乐乡村旅游的热点问题,从而了解农家乐乡村旅游客源市场的需求,对乡村旅游产品的开发规划和市场发展提供信息和决策支持。%Based on Sina microblog , by using computer information retrieval and data mining methods , we extracted , processed and analyzed the microblog data related to the Agricola rural tourism in Jiangsu province in 2014, and visually displayed the analysis results.The author studied the spatial and temporal distribution rule of Agricola rural tourism , analyzed the high-frequency vocabu-laries in the microblog , researched the hot issues of Agricola rural tourism , and understood the tourist ’ s demands for Agricola rural tourism, in order to provide information and decision support for exploitation planning and market development of rural tourism prod -ucts.

  12. 财政转移性支付的城乡差异分析--以河北省为例%Analysis on the Difference of Finance Transfer Expenditure Between Urban and Rural in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓慧

    2016-01-01

    Transfer-payment incomes of residents reflects the level of society security to some extent. As a national income redistribution of economic system, one of social security’goals is to promote the social justice. However, according to the analysis, finance social security expenditure in Hebei province holds a strong city bias, which fails to narrow the urban-rural wealth gap and promote social justice, but widens the income gap of residents in urban and rural. The reason is that social security in rural programs is less and the level is low in comparison with urban; the burden of financing way and the classification of financial system is unfair; and the urban and rural dual economic structure is formed by a long time. To achieve the goal of narrow social security and promote social justice, finance social security expenditure should be improved by increasing the fiscal expenditure on social security of rural, gradually realizing the integration of urban and rural social security, pay more attention to the development of rural agriculture.%居民转移性收入在一定程度上反映社会保障水平。社会保障作为一项国民收入再分配的经济制度,目标之一是促进社会公平。然而分析结果显示,河北省财政转移性支出有着明显的城市偏向,不仅没能实现缩小城乡贫富差距、促进社会公平的目标,反而扩大了城乡居民收入差距,其原因有:与城镇相比,农村的社会保障项目少且保障水平低;社会保障资金不公平的筹资方式和分级负担的财政制度;长期以来的城乡二元经济结构。实现缩小城乡收入差距、促进社会公平的目标,财政转移性支出应通过增加农村的财政社会保障投入、逐步实现城乡社会保障一体化、重视农村农业的发展等途径实现城乡均等化。

  13. 四川省城乡老人健康相关生命质量及影响因素分析%ANALYSIS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCE FACTORS OF ELDERLY IN RURAL AND URBAN OF SICHUAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏; 宛云英; 张菊英; 应桂英; 甘华平; 谭玲

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解四川省城乡老人生命质量及其影响因素.[方法]利用四川省第四次国家卫生服务调查西部扩点资料,描述四川省城乡老人的生命质量现状,运用多水平方差成分模型探讨其影响因素.[结果]城市老年人生命质量较农村老年人好,城市与农村老年人均在疼痛/不适方面的问题最为严重,城乡老人存在问题的百分比分别为19.3%和29.7%.城乡老人生命质量的共同影响因素为人均年收入、是否患慢性病、行走失能和视力失能;差异因素为性别、年龄和听力失能.[结论]城乡老人的生命质量影响因素有所不同,应采取针对措施提高城乡老人的生命质量.%[Objective]To investigate the quality of life of elderly in rural and urban of Sichuan, and analyze its influence factors.[Methods]Based on the data from the western-expanded survey carried out during The Fourth National Health Survey in Sichuan, the quality of life of elderly in rural and urban of Sichuan province were described.Multilevel variance component model was used to analysis its influence factors.[Results]The quality of life of elderly in urban was better than the elderly in rural.The Pain/Discomfort was the dimension that had the highest rate of having problems in both urban and rural.The rate of having problems in urban and rural was 19.3% and 29.7% respectively.The same influence factors of the quality of life of elderly in urban and rural were the level of average income per head per year, chronic disease prevalence, mobility disability and eyesight disability; the different factors were gender and hearing disability.[Conclusion]The influence factors of urban and rural elderly were different, pertinent measures should be adopted to improve the quality of life of the elderly.

  14. Analysis of Broadband GSM Base Station in Rural Areas%农村地区GSM基站宽带化改造浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡世辉

    2015-01-01

    文章从GSM-HI技术原理入手,分析农村区域GSM基站进行宽带化改造的要求和演进升级工作,探讨GSM基站升级改造的难度和适用场景,并给出在速率提升、网络覆盖、现网影响等方面的测试对比情况。然后,分析了WLAN、TD-LTE(F频段)和GSM-HI等三种农村地区常用无线宽带接入方式的对比,最后,总结了GSM-HI技术方案的优势。%The thesis analyzes from the principle of GSM-HI technology analysis of GSM base station in rural areas the broadband transformation and upgrade work, investigate the upgrading transformation of the dififculty and application scenarios of GSM base station, and gives the rate increase, network coverage, network effects comparison test. Then, the comparison of three kinds of WLAN, TD-LTE (F) and GSM-HI is analyzed, and the advantages of GSM-HI technology are summarized.

  15. Health cooperation in an hospital of a rural area of Ivory Coast: analysis of the priorities and of the different levels at which cooperation can take place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamolino, Ercole; Maffi, Guido

    2004-01-01

    This paper critically reviews an experience of health cooperation in an hospital of a rural area of Ivory Coast. This particular situation is analysed in the more general frame of health problems in low-income countries and may suggest priorities for international health cooperation. The analysis of the main causes of avoidable death in poor countries does indicate targets and tools of intervention. In this case, the target was the reduction of infant mortality from anaemia of different origin and from HIV-1 mother-to-infant transmission. The major tool for intervention was the partnership between an Italian teaching and research hospital and the African hospital, with the catalyst of a non-governmental organisation. This paper analyses the different levels at which cooperation developed in this project, from sheer economic support to the implementation of disease-oriented twinning programs that can improve health care and strengthen research capacity on both sides. Besides, medical, ethical and social implications of the ongoing cooperation program are discussed, with particular reference to the problems of preventing mortality from severe anaemia (diet fortification in children and pregnancy and transfusional guidelines in severe malaria) and of preventing mother-to-child neonatal transmission of HIV-1 infection (counselling and testing pregnant women for HIV-1, nevirapine administering to the mother and the baby and breast-feeding).

  16. 我国城乡居民消费结构比较分析%Comparative Analysis on Consumption Structure of Urban and Rural Residents in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林长弘

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental connotation of consumption structures is defined in this paper. According to the China Statistical Year-book, the consumption structures of household consumption of urban and rural residents in China mainly include eight sections, which are food consumption, clothing consumption, housing consumption, household equipment, supply consumption, transportation communication consumption, entertainment & education consumption and medical care consumption, and then the comparative analysis is employed. The factors of affecting the consumption structures are analyzed, in order to raise reasonable countermeasures and suggestions for the more sound and well-organized development of consumption activities.%首先定义了消费结构的基本内涵,并根据《中国统计年鉴》对我国城乡居民家庭消费支出结构,包括食品消费、衣着消费、居住消费、家庭设备及用品消费、交通通信消费、文教娱乐消费、医疗保健消费等部分的占比,进行比较分析。进而对影响城乡居民消费结构的主要因素进行分析,力求对消费活动更加健康有序开展提出合理的对策建议。

  17. An assessment of QOL and its determining factors of post menopausal women in a rural area of West Bengal, India: A multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Ray

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to assess QOL and its determining factors among postmenopausal women of a rural area of West- Bengal in India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 postmenopausal women and the data were collected using the modified menopause quality of life questionnaire of Hilditch. (Hilditch MENQOL. Results: Out of the 315 women who have been interviewed 243 (77% had poor quality of life. Multivariate analysis revealed that poor QOL was more among those who did not live with their own children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6], did not undertake regular exercise, [AOR (95% C.I. 2.88 (1.38–6.03], were literate [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.13–4.8], were monetarily dependent on their children [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.32–4.88], not living under one roof with children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6] and had attained menopause >5 years. [AOR (95% C.I. 4.82 (2.47–9.41]. Conclusion: Different stakeholders are required to mobilize the post-menopausal women through IEC activities to cope up with the stress of the post-menopausal phase and acquire a better quality of life beyond their reproductive age.

  18. Elastic Analysis of Rural Credit Cooperatives Business in A City%某市农村信用社业务的弹性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于学广

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, as financial institution of serving "agriculture, rural areas and farmers", rural credit cooperatives have unprecedented leaps and bounds. But there is a gap with commercial banks. This paper analyzed the elasticity of rural credit cooperatives business of a city in rural and urban markets with the form of case, and put forward reasonable proposals.%近年来,农村信用社作为服务“三农”的金融机构有了前所未有的突飞猛进.但和商业银行还有一定的差距.本文以案例的形式分析某市农村信用社业务在农村和城市两个市场的弹性,并就此提出合理建议.

  19. Simulation and Analysis of the Rural Energy Ecology Engineering Development System in the County%县级农村能源建设模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衍林; 邹岚

    2001-01-01

    以宜昌县为例,在系统分析该县农村能源、农村经济和环境之间的关系及农村能源建设现状的基础上,建立了该县能源生态工程建设系统的结构模型及系统动力学模型,经过DYNAMO语言反复的仿真试验,研究该能源生态工程建设系统在当今市场经济的条件下未来30年的发展趋势,观察系统状态的动态变化。模拟结果表明:通过大力发展小水电、沼气和努力提高热效率,30年后,该县薪柴和秸秆的供能比例从54.73%下降到34.03%,土壤有机质从1.2 g/kg增加到2.0646 g/kg,森林覆盖率从32.3%提高到60.6%,实现了能源、生态效益同步增长。%The paper is based on the system analysis of the relationship among rural energy, rural economy, environment and the situation of the energy ecology system in the county. The author took Yichang country as an example to design a structure model of the county of Yichang Energy Ecology Engineering Development System (EEEDS). Then using the System Dynamics (SD), a SD model of Energy Ecology Engineering Development System was established and the trend of the EEEDS in the situation of the market-oriented economy after 30 years was studied. Dynamic state of the system was observed. Dynamic results were obtained: small hydropower station and biogas and promoting efficiency of heat were greatly developed. Percentage which fuel forest and straw are supplied for energy is reduced from 54.73% to 34.06%, organic matter of soil is increased from 1.20 g/kg to 2.06 g/kg, the percentage of forest cover is raised from 32.3% to 60.6% in Yichang County after 30 years. The benefit of energy and ecology is simultaneously increased.

  20. 城乡居民高血压现状调查研究%The analysis of hypertension among rural-urban residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤思淼; 迟戈夫; 贾勇

    2017-01-01

    目的:了解丹东市城乡居民高血压现状,明确高血压的主要影响因素,为我国对高血压进行全面健康管理提供依据。方法采用分层整群抽样方法对丹东市所辖6个市、县、区的15岁及以上居民进行横断面调查,探讨居民高血压患病情况。结果本次调查丹东市居民高血压患病2788人,患病率为23.5%。其中,农村患病率为25.1%,城市患病率为21.8%。多因素Logistic回归结果显示,性别、年龄、体质指数、家庭人均收入、文化程度、吸烟情况是本次调查研究中高血压的主要因素。结论高血压的预防工作要结合当地的人口学和社会经济学特征,有针对性地开展高血压健康教育工作,应重点加强对可控因素的预防和干预,从而提高居民健康水平。%Objective To understand the status of hypertension urban and rural residents in Dandong city and to de -fine the main influencing factors of hypertension .Methods Stratified random cluster sampling was used to investi-gate the selected participants .A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 15 aged residents in Dandong city ,county and district ,including single factor and Logistic regression .Results The total prevalence rate was 23 .5%,the prev-alence of urban and rural were 21.8%and 25.1%.Logistic regression analysis revealed the related factors were sex , age,BMI,average income,education level and smoking .Conclusion The prevention of hypertension should be com-bined with the local demographic and social economic characteristics ,and develop targeted the prevention and control measures for hypertension .It should focus on strengthening the intervention of the controllable factors ,so as to improve the health level .

  1. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  2. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water tr

  3. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  4. 我国农村信用社操作风险管理浅析%Analysis of operation risk management of rural credit cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君宇

    2016-01-01

    农村信用社在我国的金融机构里有着独特的作用,其具有主要服务群体的特殊性,其主要服务群体是广大农民。随着近些年国家对农村信用社的改革和农村信用社自身业务发展需要,农村信用社的操作风险呈现加大的趋势。因此,有必要对农村信用社的操作风险进行分析研究,使农村信用社的改革更顺畅、业务进展更顺利,更好地服务于“三农”。就此,从农村信用社的操作风险定义、我国农村信用社的若干案例、农村信用社操作风险成因、农村信用社操作风险治理展开论述。%Rural Credit Cooperatives plays a unique role in China's financial institutions,the particularity of the main service groups,the main service group is the majority of farmers in recent years. With the country on the reform of rural credit cooperatives and rural credit cooperatives in the development of their own business,increase the operational risk of rural credit cooperatives. Present. Therefore,it is necessary to analyze the operational risk of rural credit cooperatives,the rural credit cooperatives reform more smoothly,business progress more smoothly,to better serve the "three rural". In this connection,from the definition of the operational risk of rural credit cooperatives, several cases of China's Rural credit cooperatives,causes of operational risk of rural credit cooperatives,rural credit cooperatives operational risk management is discussed.

  5. 基于遥感和GIS的农村城镇化进程分析及模式探索%Analysis of process and exploration of mode for rural urbanization based on remote sensing and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师满江; 颉耀文; 卫娇娇; 曹琦

    2015-01-01

    the guidance of a series of agricultural policy, Chinese rural settlements have dramatically changed on spatial distribution and shape. As large rural population,the rural residential areas still are mainly living form for the agricultural laborers in the future for a long time in China. In order to encourage the coordinated development of regional economy,Chinese government has put forward in the New-type Urbanization promulgated (2014-2020) in March 2014. The New-type urbanization is a major way to solve three-dimensional rural issues and to promote the coordinated development of regional in Chinese rural area. The study area is located in the middle of Hexi Corridor in Gansu province of China (east longitude 100º6'~100º52', latitude 38º39'~ 39º24'), with the total area of 3.66×103 km2 and the population up to 18.95×104 in 2011. In the recent 10a with the rapid expansion of the urban boundary, a large number of cultivated lands around the borough were occupied. In the pastoral interior, so many rural settlements were built and expanded which cause a series of ecological and environmental problems. Considering the above reasons, in order to profoundly understanding the process stage of rural urbanization and the factors of farmers willingness to participate rural urbanization and to explore the suitable model of rural urbanization, this thesis uses the Ganzhou district in Zhangye city, Gansu province as an example, combined with temporal and spatial changes of rural residents as well as the farmers' urbanization willingness survey, to analysis the factors of rural urbanization and to explore rural urbanization possible mode in future. Therefore, this paper first extracts the spatial distribution information of rural urbanization based on the Landsat TM/OLI in 1990, 2004, 2014 images in Ganzhou District, and then uses GIS spatial analysis and statistical methods to analyze variation law and reveal the process and characteristics of rural residential in Ganzhou

  6. Power of Religion in Rural Areas and Its Public Service (Ⅱ) --An Analysis of Cases in Five Villages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHALHO

    2005-01-01

    In rural areas in Tibet where religion believers occupy a very high proportion of the population, religious service can also be included into the scope of public services, because it is not only related to local social stability, but also bound up with the quality of life (such as a sense of happiness and the perceived meaning of life) in the view of local people. Investigation in five villages shows how in the rural areas in Tibet, various religious authorities provide such services.

  7. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  8. Have primary emission reduction measures reduced ozone across Europe? An analysis of European rural background ozone trends 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Wilson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available National and European legislation over the past 20 years, and the modernisation or removal of industrial sources, have significantly reduced European ozone precursor emissions. This study quantifies observed and modelled European ozone annual and seasonal linear trends from 158 harmonised rural background monitoring stations over a constant time period of a decade (1996–2005. Mean ozone concentrations are investigated, in addition to the ozone 5th percentiles as a measure of the baseline or background conditions, and the 95th percentiles that are representative of the peak concentration levels. This study aims to characterise and quantify surface European ozone concentrations and trends and assess the impact of the changing anthropogenic emission tracers on the observed and modelled trends.

    Significant (p < 0.1 positive annual trends in ozone mean, 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 54 %, 52 % and 45 % of sites respectively (85 sites, 82 sites and 71 sites. Spatially, sites in Central and Northwestern Europe tend to display positive annual ozone trends in mean, 5th and 95th percentiles. Significant negative annual trends in ozone mean 5th and 95th percentiles are observed at 11 %, 12 % and 12 % of sites respectively (18 sites, 19 sites and 19 sites which tend to be located in the eastern and south-western extremities of Europe. European-averaged annual trends have been calculated from the 158 sites in this study. Overall there is a net positive annual trend in observed ozone mean (0.16 ± 0.02 ppbv yr−1 2σ error, 5th (0.13 ± 0.02 ppbv yr−1 and 95th (0.16 ± 0.03 ppbv yr−1 percentiles, representative of positive trends in mean, baseline and peak ozone. Assessing the sensitivity of the derived overall trends to the constituent years shows that the European heatwave year of 2003 has significant positive influence and 1998 the converse effect; demonstrating the masking effect of inter

  9. Booming local economy a key to whetting rural consumption—Empirical study based on the decomposition of rural household income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡跃洲

    2009-01-01

    Based on the decomposition of China’s rural household income,we made quantitative analyses of the factors affecting rural consumption by using co-integration and other econometric tools.By comparing the results with the ongoing economic stimulus package rolled out by the central government,we analyzed the effects of different policies on rural consumption.The empirical study and policy analysis show that:(1) income from household business operation, wages,and fiscal relief funds are the three main factors affecting rural household consumption;(2) the ongoing stimulus package,which includes both short-term measures like consumption subsidies and long-term policies aiming to increase rural household income and improve the rural consumption environment,are effective in promoting rural consumption;(3) in boosting rural consumption,emphasis should be put on various long-term policies.Fiscal expenditure should put more weight on consumption than on agriculture,forestry and irrigation;and(4) intra-county economies are crucial in kicking off rural consumption.Policies should be stressed for integrating rural consumption and the development of local economies.

  10. Rural electrification and energy poverty: Empirical evidences from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos; da Silva, Neilton Fidelis [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); International Virtual Institute of Global Change- IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on the reduction of energy poverty in Brazil through the analysis of 23,000 rural domiciles or rural properties between the years 2000 and 2004. The results indicate a fast change in the profile of energy consumption and a reduction of energy poverty. This new approach works as a complement, among other variables, to analyze and quantify the real economic, social and energy impacts in rural electrification programs, generally applied in developing countries. (author)

  11. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and

  12. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devadas M.B,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term development in its broadest sense in the context of India refers to rural development. Rural development has been viewed as an economic planned change to achieve desirable social goals in India since independence. Eapen (1988: 67, in his diagnosis and analysis opens up the Pandora of problems related to the inherent conflicts and contradiction between the state policy regarding electronic media and actual use for development. This study quantitatively analyses the role of television in igniting development among rural women. Thiruvarur, one of the most back ward district in Tamil Nadu is taken as the locale of the study. Hundred rural women samples are selected for the research. This research paper underscores that TV has profound impact on social, economic, cultural and political life of rural women

  13. Measuring participant rurality in Web-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay H Garth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based health behavior change programs can reach large groups of disparate participants and thus they provide promise of becoming important public health tools. Data on participant rurality can complement other demographic measures to deepen our understanding of the success of these programs. Specifically, analysis of participant rurality can inform recruitment and social marketing efforts, and facilitate the targeting and tailoring of program content. Rurality analysis can also help evaluate the effectiveness of interventions across population groupings. Methods We describe how the RUCAs (Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes methodology can be used to examine results from two Randomized Controlled Trials of Web-based tobacco cessation programs: the ChewFree.com project for smokeless tobacco cessation and the Smokers' Health Improvement Program (SHIP project for smoking cessation. Results Using RUCAs methodology helped to highlight the extent to which both Web-based interventions reached a substantial percentage of rural participants. The ChewFree program was found to have more rural participation which is consistent with the greater prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in rural settings as well as ChewFree's multifaceted recruitment program that specifically targeted rural settings. Conclusion Researchers of Web-based health behavior change programs targeted to the US should routinely include RUCAs as a part of analyzing participant demographics. Researchers in other countries should examine rurality indices germane to their country.

  14. Understanding Specific Contexts of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Rural South Africa: A Thematic Analysis of Digital Stories from a Community with High HIV Prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Treffry-Goatley

    Full Text Available Near-perfect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is required to achieve the best possible prevention and treatment outcomes. Yet, there have been particular concerns about the challenges of adherence among patients living in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of this study was to explore adherence in a low-resourced, rural community of high HIV prevalence in South Africa and to identify specific individual and structural factors that can either challenge or support adherence in this context. We applied digital stories as a qualitative research tool to gain insights into personal contexts of HIV and ART adherence. Through an inductive thematic analysis of twenty story texts, soundtracks and drawings, we explored experiences, understandings, and contexts of the participants and identified potential barriers and facilitators for those on lifelong treatment. We found that many of the stories reflected a growing confidence in the effectiveness of ART, which should be viewed as a key facilitator to successful adherence since this attitude can promote disclosure and boost access to social support. Nevertheless, stories also highlighted the complexity of the issues that individuals and households face as they deal with HIV and ART in this setting and it is clear that an overburdened local healthcare system has often struggled to meet the demands of a rapidly expanding epidemic and to provide the necessary medical and emotional support. Our analysis suggests several opportunities for further research and the design of novel health interventions to support optimal adherence. Firstly, future health promotion campaigns should encourage individuals to test together, or at least accompany each other for testing, to encourage social support from the outset. Additionally, home-based testing and ART club interventions might be recommended to make it easier for individuals to adhere to their treatment regimens and to

  15. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  16. 城乡建设用地空间格局分析——以沈阳市为例%Analysis of Spatial Pattern of Urban-Rural Construction Land:With Shenyang City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉斌; 李洪涛; 陆浩; 郭柏栋

    2011-01-01

    Based on the annual alteration survey data of land utilization status of Shenyang City in 2005. Employing the analysis of equal length and the analysis of equal area, this paper analyses the spatial pattern of construction land in urban-rural fringe areas of the city. The result indicates that, first, with the length increase, the area of urban-rural construction land reduces gradually and the urban-rural construction land assumes a mode of build-up effect development, and second, the improved method has higher precision and better conformity and is feasible and workable in practical use.%基于2005年沈阳市土地利用现状年度变更调查数据,利用等步长等距离缓冲区分析法和等步长等面积缓冲区分析法分析了沈阳市城乡结合部建设用地的空间格局.结果表明:(1)随着步长的增加城乡建设用地面积逐渐减少,城乡建设用地呈聚集效应发展;(2)改进方法精度更高,符合性更好,在实际应用中切实可行.

  17. Spatial Microsimulation for Rural Policy Analysis in Ireland: The Implications of CAP Reforms for the National Spatial Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, D.; Clarke, G. P.; Wiemers, E.

    2006-01-01

    Microsimulation attempts to describe economic and social events by modelling the behaviour of individual agents. These models have proved useful in evaluating the impact of policy changes at the micro level. Spatial microsimulation models contain geographic information and allow for a regional or local approach to policy analysis. This paper…

  18. Rural Literacy Issues in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.

    This paper reviews results of a questionnaire distributed to literacy workers in rural Alberta (Canada) to ascertain their views on rural literacy. The questionnaire was designed to identify: (1) distinctive features of the issue of adult illiteracy in rural areas; (2) the strengths of literacy efforts in rural Alberta; (3) the weaknesses of…

  19. Study on Rural Residential Land in Chizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lulu; HUANG; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of current situation and problems of rural residential land in Chizhou City, we offer rewarding thinking for improving the effective use of rural residential land and building a better countryside, in view of the characteristics of the topography and socio-economic development in different regions of this city.

  20. “国培计划”视角下乡村教师培训需求分析--以娄底市乡村教师培训为例%Analysis of Rural Teachers’ Training Needs Under Background of “National Training Program”-Case Study on Loudi Rural Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑾; 李国强; 贺文华

    2015-01-01

    A survey and analysis of the present situation of rural teachers in Loudi is conducted from the perspectives of their teaching ability, study methods, and professional development. The survey reveals rural teachers’ needs in terms of program ar-rangements, training schedule, training content, expert trainers, and training methods. The survey and analysis offers the follow-ing ideas on how to provide effective training for rural teachers:designing specialized training programs with training content and patterns suited to the professional development of rural elementary and secondary school teachers; building a well-qualified and well-structured team of trainers who are capable of promoting the professional development of rural teachers;constructing a training system based on the needs of rural teachers. To improve the effectiveness of the training programs, one should increase training ef-forts, expand the scope of training, set up flexible training schedules, design training plans specific to the needs of rural teachers, and strengthen team building for better trainers.%通过对娄底市乡村教师队伍的现状、教育教学现状、能力素养、学习方式、专业发展路径等方面进行调查分析,了解乡村教师在国培项目设置、培训时间、培训内容、专家团队、培训方式等方面的培训需求,提出有效开展乡村教师培训的基本思路:探索适应乡村教师专业发展的个性化培训方案,打造适合农村中小学教师的培训内容和特色培训方式;打造一支素质优良、结构合理的适应乡村教师专业发展的师资培训队伍;构建以培训需求为导向的乡村教师培训服务体系。要提高培训的实效性,真正做到为乡村教师的职业发展服务,应从以下几方面着力:加大乡村教师培训力度,扩大培训覆盖范围;灵活安排乡村教师培训时间;针对乡村教师的需求设计培训方案,满足教师的具体需求

  1. 'Luz para Todos' (Light for Everyone) program: the need for subsidized funding: ELEKTRO case study; Programa luz para todos todos: a necessidade do aporte de recursos subsidiados - estudo de caso ELEKTRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto [Secretaria de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CERESP), SP (Brazil); Betiol Junior, Genesio [Universidade Cidade de Sao Paulo (UNICID), Tatuape, SP (Brazil); Marques, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Guerra, Fernando Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)], email: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we have analysed the Luz Para Todos (Light For Everyone) program in the state of Sao Paulo. We studied the case of ELEKTRO and focused on cost reduction and the economical and financial feasibility of the program. We used the work and experience of the Comissao de Eletrificacao Rural do Estado de Sao Paulo - CERESP (Rural Electric Commission of the Sao Paulo estate) as the basis of this study, which has developed a tool based on the construction plans of companies and cooperatives. This tool aimed to reduce the project costs uses concepts of low cost materials and equipment as well as the concepts of project finance analysis. It considers the funding source, financial statements of the companies and the return of a project. The Light For Everyone project has a social objective to take electricity to rural regions. It fulfils the needs of low income population. The execution of this program requires the participation of a private player which is an electricity distribution company. The economical and financial feasibility of the project is favoured by governmental subsidies. This study shows the dimension of the return obtained by the private player (executing agent). (author)

  2. Informe rural 2006

    OpenAIRE

    César Falconi; Peter Pfaumann; Nicolás Mateo; Rocío González; Alejandra Palma; José Rente Nascimento; Mark D. Wenner; María Eugenia Kyburz

    2007-01-01

    Esta edición del Informe Rural contiene siete artículos: La influenza aviar y el sector avícola de América Latina, Biocombustibles y oportunidades para el desarrollo rural, Enfoques sectoriales amplios en desarrollo rural: ¿instrumento viable para mejorar el impacto de la cooperación internacional?, Financiamiento de las cadenas agroalimentarias de valor, Cómo mejorar el clima para los negocios forestales, Avances en el Fondo Regional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (FONTAGRO) y Financiamiento rur...

  3. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2016-01-01

    paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...... in a position at the very centre of a commodification of “the rural” and rural communities. The article therefore concludes with a discussion of currents trends in regional and rural development and the...

  4. Can Rural Employment Benefit from Changing Labor Skills in U.S. Processed Food Trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Gerald; Lee, Chinkook

    2002-01-01

    The 1990s saw a gain in rural food-processing employment, particularly meat packing and poultry processing, as the industry's demand for low-skilled workers increased. Analysis links the change in worker skills to international trade. While increased rural employment may seem beneficial, the jobs often do not appeal to rural domestic workers, and…

  5. Analysis and Countermeasures to Loneliness Survey of Rural Children%农村儿童孤独感现状调查及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金娥; 李月

    2011-01-01

    关于儿童孤独感的研究多以城市儿童为被试,对农村儿童关注较少。为了弥补这个研究的缺陷,选取了160名小学3-6年级的农村儿童为研究对象,采用Asher等1984年编制的《儿童孤独感量表》进行问卷调查,并对其孤独感特点进行分析。结果表明,农村儿童孤独感在不同年级、不同性别之间均存在显著差异。四年级儿童的孤独感最高,男生的孤独感显著高于女生。%The Loneliness of the past,most children were urban children as subjects,on the loneliness of rural children less attention.To compensate for the shortcomings of this study,this study of rural children 3-6 year study,1984 by Asher and other "compiled by loneliness scale" of the 160 survey of rural children,rural children in the loneliness of Investigation of characteristics.The results show that the loneliness of rural children in different grades and between genders were significantly different.

  6. Analysis of Rural Culture Service Methods in Information Society%信息社会中农村文化服务方式初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹; 伍艺

    2012-01-01

    对信息社会中农村文化服务方式,以及目前湖南农村文化建设与服务中存在的问题等进行了分析。以湖南图书馆为本省农村服务为例,充分发挥自身优势,借助各种力量加强农村信息文化服务与建设,促进全省农村信息服务事业的长足发展。%In this paper, the information society in the way of cultural services in rural areas, Hunan rural culture and the cur- rent problems with services such as analyzed, for example Library of Hunan, in Hunan province in rural services, its advantages, with a variety of forces to strengthen the construction of rural information and cultural services, Infor- mation services in rural areas to promote the cause of the province's rapid development.

  7. The impact of rural hospital closures on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Masatoshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent and long-term commuting is a requirement for dialysis patients. Accessibility thus affects their quality of lives. In this paper, a new model for accessibility measurement is proposed in which both geographic distance and facility capacity are taken into account. Simulation of closure of rural facilities and that of capacity transfer between urban and rural facilities are conducted to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on equity of accessibility among dialysis patients. Methods Post code information as of August 2011 of all the 7,374 patients certified by municipalities of Hiroshima prefecture as having first or third grade renal disability were collected. Information on post code and the maximum number of outpatients (capacity of all the 98 dialysis facilities were also collected. Using geographic information systems, patient commuting times were calculated in two models: one that takes into account road distance (distance model, and the other that takes into account both the road distance and facility capacity (capacity-distance model. Simulations of closures of rural and urban facilities were then conducted. Results The median commuting time among rural patients was more than twice as long as that among urban patients (15 versus 7 minutes, p  Conclusions Closures of dialysis facilities in rural areas have a substantially larger impact on equity of commuting times among dialysis patients than closures of urban facilities. The accessibility simulations using thecapacity-distance model will provide an analytic framework upon which rational resource distribution policies might be planned.

  8. 乡村旅游项目对欠发达地区的经济影响分析%Analysis of Rural Tourist Projects' Influence on Underdeveloped Areas' Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢小丽

    2015-01-01

    伴随世界旅游业的蓬勃发展,我国在旅游产业市场中逐步形成了多种多样的旅游形式.乡村旅游作为当下新兴的旅游方式,有着区别于传统旅游的独特优势和特点.对于我国欠发达地区来说,大力发展乡村旅游成为解决其贫困落后现状的最有效方式之一.乡村旅游业因其自身具备的综合性经济产业特征,可以带动欠发达地区连带的相关产业的兴起与发展,为欠发达地区的经济发展带来源源不断的生机与动力.因此,本文着重分析了新兴乡村旅游业对欠发达地区经济发展的重要性以及阻碍乡村旅游在欠发达地区发展的不利因素,讨论了乡村旅游业对经济欠发达地区产生的经济影响,以期为乡村旅游产业带领欠发达地区走向经济发展更高点提供参考.%With the prosperous development of world tourist industry, a variety of tourism items have gradually come into being in China's tourist industrial market. As an emerging travel way, rural tourism has its unique advantages and characteristics which are different from traditional tourism. With regard to underdeveloped areas, vigorously developing rural tourism proved to be one of the most efficient way to solve its current poverty and backward situation. Because of its own comprehensive economic industrial characteristics, the development of rural tourism can also drive the rise and development of related industries in underdeveloped areas, thus bringing perpetual vitality and impetus for the economic development of these areas. Therefore, the article put its emphasis on the analysis of the importance of the newly-developing rural tourism in the economic development of underdeveloped areas and the negative factors hindering its development in these areas, it also discusses rural tourism's economic impact on areas with underdeveloped economy, hoping to provide some reference for rural tourism in its guiding underdeveloped areas towards a higher

  9. Analysis of the Negative Impacts and Countermeasure of Clan Force on Rural Governance in Rural-urban Fringe Zone-based on the Investigation in Rural-urban Fringe Zones%宗族势力对城乡结合部乡村治理的负面影响及对策--基于对 S 省 W 村的调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正攀; 杨伟伟

    2015-01-01

    城镇化进程中,宗族势力已成为城乡结合部乡村治理过程中的重要阻力。如何消除宗族势力对城乡结合部乡村治理的负面影响,加强农村的基层民主建设,完善乡村治理结构,已成为社会管理的难点问题。基于对我国 S 省 W 村的实地调研,列举了宗族势力对城乡结合部乡村治理在负面影响方面的两大表现,分析了产生负面影响的原因,并提出了消除负面影响的对策建议。%In the process of urbanization,the clan forces have been an important resistance to the rural governance in ru-ral-urban fringe zones.It has been a serious problem to reduce the negative impacts,strengthen the construction of rural democracy at the grassroots level,and improve the rural governance structure.This paper expounds the two negative effects of the clan force on rural governance in rural-urban fringe zones and the reasons of the negative effects,and puts forwards the countermeasure and suggestions to reduce the negative effects in the end.

  10. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qi; Yang Chunyue; Li Juan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rela-tionships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and sustainable development in rural areas of China. The typical case study is done and 288 questionnaires are collected from five villages in Hebei and Guangxi provinces, China. The migration and remittance status, household income and sustainable devel-opment of rural areas are analyzed on the basis of questionnaires. Rural-urban migration is becoming a part of routine life in rural areas. And remittance is an important component in rural house-hold income. Rural-urban migration increases the arable land area per labor, which releases the tight human-land relationship in villages. In total, the migration increases the rural household in-come and accelerates the sustainable development of rural areas.

  11. Training resources and e-Government services for rural SMEs: the rural inclusion platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Maroudas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural Inclusion, a project supported by the Information and Communication Technologies Policy Support Programme of the European Commission, aims to adopt, adapt, and deploy a Web infrastructure, in rural settings, combining semantics with a collaborativetraining and networking approach, offering e-Government services that will be supported by a rigorous and reusable service process analysis and modeling, and facilitating the disambiguation of the small businesses needs and requirements when trying to carry outthe particular transactions. This paper, presents an overview of the architecture of RuralObservatory2.0 which will play the critical role of training content and eGovernment services repository of the overall Rural Inclusion platform.

  12. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  13. Rural Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  14. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  15. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the best treatment. Exploring High Infant and Maternal Mortality Rates in the Rural U.S. with Dr. Ali ... reasons behind the United States’ high infant and maternal mortality rates. A Professor of Global Health at the ...

  17. Rural Health Clinics (RHCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rural healthcare organizations attract healthcare providers by posting job opportunities online by state. Candidates who are interested in ... areas may register with 3RNet to search for job opportunities. The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) provides scholarships ...

  18. Prevention and Control of Adolescents’ Deviant Behavior in Rural Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,an analysis is made from the point of view of sociology on traditional modeling logic of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community,and maintenance and reproduction of this model.The traditional prevention and control model of adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is diversity-orderly pattern prevention and control system.This system is based on natural economy,especially on agricultural economy."Supervision by public opinion and moral imitation" is the basic operation logic of this system.It contains a compensation mechanism of "bringing up children for the purpose of being looked after in old age" and "favor returning".Then,deconstruction of traditional prevention and control model for adolescents’ deviant behavior in rural community is analyzed.Along with advance in rural modern democratic management and legal construction and growing of rural market economy,function of traditional diversity-orderly pattern of prevention and control of adolescents’ deviate behavior in rural community is weak and weak in prevention and control of modern rural adolescents’ deviant behavior.Finally,modeling ideas of new(coordinative) prevention and control of rural adolescents’ deviant behavior are put forward from four aspects,namely,democracy and legal system,community,family and various rural adolescent admittance organizations.

  19. The Role Peoples Participation in Rural Development: With Emphasis on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Saydaie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNowadays, rural cooperation in rural affairs and with more specialization view in rural development is theessential part for making plan in rural areas.We face with two procedures by reviewing the rural participationhistory in rural affairs. The first one, it had been the rural Tradition participation that contents of parlanceregulations and unwritten that has been done with social-economic motivations much more than others.Thesecond one, new participation which has statutory and regulars that make the people participation officialand lawful.This essay supposed to answer this question. Does any difference between the rural participation rate in pastand present times? In this survey, scholars are trying to evaluate the people participation in past and presenttime, and are trying to survey about the succession of tradition participation, and components of both. Bymeans of this, for making suitable time-table between these two samples, the Islamic Councils has beenmade and these two samples shall be compared. The research data which are based upon questionnaireinformation and output based upon 380 families and 30 rural samples in central part of Mamasani-NoorabadTwonship has been analyzed by presumption statistics.The results obtained from the analysis and examination of hypotheses show that there is no significantstatistical relationship with the probability of 95% between traditional participation and their newparticipation in Central Part of the Noorabad Mamasani Twonship, this difference is considerable in thetraditional and new participation senses.

  20. Analysis on the Construction of Rural Culture Hall in the New Period%新时期农村文化礼堂建设工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 华东杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the overall conditions of the construction of rural cultural hall in Chayuan Town,Ninghai County,Ningbo City,analyzes some problems existing in the construction of the rural cultural hall,and puts forward some corresponding suggestions and countermeasures for how to better construct the rural cultural hall.%介绍了宁波市宁海县茶院乡农村文化礼堂建设总体情况,分析了农村文化礼堂建设中存在的问题,并就新时期如何更好地建设农村文化礼堂提出了相应的建议与对策.

  1. The Analysis of the Game Played by Supplier of Rural Road%农村公路供给主体的博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨园; 牛跃平; 张玉

    2012-01-01

    农村公路的有效供给是新农村建设的一项重要内容,本文运用博弈论的方法分析了乡镇政府、村委会、村民之间在农村公路供给过程中策略的选择,最后基于博弈结果提出解决供给主体问题的方案和建议.%Effective supply of rural road is an important element of the new rural construction. In this paper, we use the method of game theory to analyze the choice of strategy in the rural road suppliment between the town government, village committee, villagers, finally, we give some plans and proposals to solve the main problem based on the outcome of the game.

  2. Analysis on the Marketing Strategies of Rural Tourism in Taizhou%泰州地区乡村旅游营销策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟桃

    2011-01-01

    According to the status of rural tourism in Taizhou, 4P theory was used to analyze a number of issues restricting the development of rural tourism in Taizhou, such as single tourism products, improper price, simple promotion means, narrow sales channels and so on. On this basis, some marketing strategies were put forward to develop rural tourism of Taizhou.%针对泰州地区乡村旅游的现状,运用4P理论分析了目前制约泰州地区乡村旅游发展的若干问题,如乡村旅游产品单一、价格定位不当、促销手段简单、销售渠道狭隘等,并且在此基础上有针对性地提出泰州地区乡村旅游发展的营销策略.

  3. Rural environmental pollution problems Analysis and Prevention%农村环境污染问题的分析及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣华

    2013-01-01

    本文主要阐述了目前农村环境存在的污染问题及其所带来的后果,分析了环境污染问题存在的原因,针对存在的问题,提出了农村环境防治的措施,指在为农村环境保护工作提供参考,为社会主义新农村建设提供一定的理论论据。%This paper describes the current rural environmental pollution problems and their consequences , analyzes the cause of environmental pollution problems ,the existing problems ,propose measures for prevention and control of the rural environment ,means for rural environmental protection work provide a reference for the construction of a new socialist countryside to provide a theoretical argument .

  4. PM2.5 chemical composition at a rural background site in Central Europe, including correlation and air mass back trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Karban, Jindřich; Chalupníčková, Eva; Havránek, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    PM2.5 mass concentrations and chemical compositions sampled over a 13-month period at a Central European rural background site (Košetice) are presented in this work. A comprehensive chemical analysis of PM2.5 was performed, which provided elemental composition (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Pb) and the concentration of water-soluble inorganic anions (SO42 -, NO3-. Cl-, NO2-, Br-, and H2PO4-) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +), elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and levoglucosan. Spearman correlation coefficients between individual chemical species and particle number concentrations were calculated for the following six size ranges: 10-25 nm (N10-25), 25-50 nm (N25-50), 50-80 nm (N50-80), 80-150 nm (N80-150), 150-300 nm (N150-300), and 300-800 nm (N300-800). Average concentrations of individual species were comparable with concentrations reported from similar sites across Central Europe. Organic matter (OM) accounted for 45% of the PM2.5 mass (calculated from OC by a factor of 1.6), while the second most common component were secondary aerosols (SO42 -: 19%, NO3-: 14%, NH4+: 10%), which accounted for 43% of the mass. Based on levoglucosan analysis, 31% of OM was attributed to emissions associated with biomass burning (OMBB). EC concentrations, determined using the EUSAAR_2 thermal optical protocol, contributed 4% to PM2.5 mass. A total of 1% of the mass was attributed to a mineral matter source, while the remaining 6% was from an undetermined mass. Seasonal variations showed highest concentrations of NO3- and OMBB in winter, nitrate share in spring, and an increase in percentage of SO42 - and mineral matter in summer. The largest seasonal variation was found for species associated with wood and coal combustion (levoglucosan, K+, Zn, Pb, As), which had clear maxima during winter. Correlation analysis of different size fraction particle number concentrations was used to distinguish the influence

  5. Analysis of the funds used during the three years of the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents general guidelines and a plan for financing the various activities of the RDP 2007-2013. An analysis of the use of financial resources under the priority axes of the activities forming the RDP 2007-2013 in the three years of the Programme. The source materials were Ministry of Agriculture Village and Development studies and reports. On the implementation of the RDP 2007-2013 Poland received financial support amounting to 17.2 billion Euros to June 2010 used 22.24% of the total budget. The largest share of financing by the action of axis 2 was related to the promotion and operation of the LFA areas Axis 1 Early retirement.

  6. A longitudinal process analysis of mother-child emotional relationships in a rural Appalachian European American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2012-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examines emotional relationships in 58 Appalachian mother-child dyads observed at home at 5 and 20 months. Between infancy and toddlerhood, 3 of 4 dimensions of dyadic emotional relationships were stable, and three remained continuous in their mean level. Increasing maternal age was associated with greater maternal sensitivity and structuring and with more responsive and involving children. Marital status and father presence in the home as well as maternal openness, parenting knowledge, investment, and satisfaction accounted for effects of maternal age on dyadic emotional relationships. This longitudinal process analysis provides unique insights into temporal dynamics of mother-child emotional relationships and their determinants in an underserved and underresearched US community. Implications for community-specific interventions are discussed.

  7. 我国城乡居民消费价格指数差异分析%An Analysis of CPI Differences between Urban and Rural in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾华祥

    2012-01-01

    During the current round of inflation,CPI rising higher in rural than in urban.This will not only take heavier burden to rural residents,but also obstruct the all-sidedly,harmonious and sus tainable development of national economy.The causes are the followings: first,according to the law of one price,there is a demand for rural price to accelerate convergence to urban price;second,the rural market itself is imperfection;third,rural market takes no benefit form government policies of fi nancial input and macro control.To improve the situation many measures should be implemented,such as financial investment,strategies of macro regulation and control,improvement of rural market system,and so on.%在刚刚过去的一轮通货膨胀中,农村的CPI涨幅持续高于城市。这种现象的存在不仅给农民带来更重的负担,也会阻碍国民经济的全面协调可持续发展。究其原因,一是根据一价法则,农村市场价格有向城市市场价格加速收敛的需要;二是农村市场自身不完善;三是政府的财政投入政策和宏观调控政策对农村市场不利。面对这种局面,要从财政投入、完善和规范农村市场制度以及调整宏观调控政策等方面入手解决问题。

  8. Analysis of the Rural Politics under Village Clan Culture’s Influence%村落家族文化影响下的乡村政治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 赵超

    2014-01-01

    There is still 50.32 percent of the population living in rural areas.The rural politics plays a very important role in the course of the rural development.But the village clan culture which has existed in our country for a few thousand years has a great effect on the rural politics,including the effect on the villager autonomy,political integration,political participation and the rule of law in the countryside.The development of the countryside needs good political environment, thus we should create good condition to dispel the village clan culture so that decrease its bad effect on the rural politics, at the same time,we should make use of its valuable parts to promote rural political development.%当前中国仍有50.32%的人口居住在农村,中国未来的发展很大程度上取决于农村的发展,乡村政治在乡村发展的过程中扮演着重要的角色。然而,乡村积淀了几千年的村落家族文化对乡村政治有深远的影响,表现在对村民自治、政治整合、政治参与以及乡村法治等方面。乡村的发展要有良好的政治环境,要创造有利的条件促进村落家族文化的消解,减少它对乡村政治的负面影响,合理利用其有价值的部分来促进乡村政治的发展。

  9. Rural road maintenance management

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    1999-01-01

    This manual summarizes relevant Cambodian government policies regarding rural road maintenance. Chapter 2 defines the various components of road maintenance and describes an effective strategy and organization which addresses the maintenance requirements of rural roads in Cambodia. Chapter 3 is a brief description of the planning, implementation and reporting cycle required in an effective road maintenance management system. Chapter 4 summarizes the contracts management procedures, and finall...

  10. Analysis on Grey Relation between Urban and Rural Financial Development and Gini Coefficient in China%中国城乡金融发展与基尼系数的灰色关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 谢小璐

    2013-01-01

    The paper uses six indicators to reflect urban and rural financial development level of China.Then it uses the grey relational analysis model to analyze the impacts of financial development in urban and rural areas on Gini coefficient from 2003 to 2011.The results show that financial structure,the efficiency of financial intermediation,input-output ratio of fixed asset and financial industry labor have the greatest influences on Gini coefficient.Finally,it puts forward the financial measures to reduce the income gap between urban and rural residents.%用6个指标反映中国城乡金融发展水平,并利用灰色关联分析模型,分析2003-2011年中国城乡金融发展对基尼系数的影响.研究结果显示:金融结构、金融中介效率、固定资产投入产出比和金融行业劳动力对基尼系数的影响最大.最后提出缩短城乡居民收入差距的金融对策.

  11. The Path Selection for Rural Youth of Less Developed Areas to Breakthrough“Low-Lock”in Division of Knowledge---Based on the Investigation and Analysis of Rural Youth Learning Psychology Demand In Zhanjiang%欠发达地区农村青年突破知识分工“低端锁定”的路径选择--基于湛江农村青年学习心理需求的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全丽萍; 李飞星

    2014-01-01

    新农村青年是未来社会主义新农村建设的主力军,其学习需求是新农村建设的知识动力。针对经济欠发达的湛江市农村青年学习需求心理状况进行专题调查,通过对问卷的整理和分析,掌握了湛江农村青年的生存现状,在深入分析湛江农村青年学习、就业现状与心理需求情况下,由点及面地推导当前农村青年对学习、就业的需求,对教育的渴求趋势,提出“依托成人职业教育培训机构发展农村教育、建立健全就业信息服务网络、构建学习型新农村”的发展路径,以推动新农村建设,同时助力农村青年继续教育事业的发展。%New rural youth is the main force and knowledge dynamic of new socialist countryside construction in future.A thematic survey of underdeveloped rural youth learning and mental needs state in Zhanjiang,through the collation and analysis of questionnaires,mastered the survival status of rural youth in Zhanjiang.And then,in-depth analysis of rural youth to learn,employment situation and psychological needs of the situation,deduced from the point and the surface of the current learning needs of rural youth,employment,education craving trend,put forward a development path that“relying on adult vocational education and training institutions to develop rural education , establish and improve the employment information service network,build learning new rural”to promote new rural construction,and help rural youth to continue the development of education.

  12. 福建农村青年电商创业的现状分析%The Analysis of the Fujian Rural Youths Electronic Business Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴南

    2016-01-01

    电子商务进农村,拓展了农村新的就业机会,开辟了农村创业渠道,增强了农村的吸引力,为劳动力逆向流动创造了条件。福建农村青年返乡创业,作为电子商务创业带头人,成为农村电子商务发展的重要推动力量,并作为新农村建设的生力军备受瞩目。福建农村返乡青年电商创业仍存在一些困难问题,必须解决发展不平衡、微小电商融资难、农村电子商务物流成本高利润空间小以及农业生产标准化、品牌化、产业化滞后等问题,只有这样才有利于农村青年电商创业,农村电子商务的发展才有坚实的基础。%When electronic business goes into rural areas,it will create new jobs and increase the way which rural youths can create new business,it also will boost rural attraction and provide the condition which will cause that labors flow into rural areas.Fujian rural youths go back to country and create the new business,if the youths who become the electronic business foregoer,they will improve the electronic business development in rural areas and they also will become to the fresh force when building new village.There are some problems when rural youths create new electronic business.So,if the government wants to create a good entrepreneurship environment for the rural youths,they need to keep develop balance,provide enough funds to small business,find the way to reduce physical distribution costs and increase its profits,and improve product’s standardization,brand and industrialization.

  13. 新疆农村公共产品投资绩效分析%The Analysis of Performance of Rural Public Investment in Xinjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓玲

    2012-01-01

    运用计量经济模型,以新疆省为例来分析农村公共产品投资绩效.结果表明:新疆农村公共投资与农村经济存在显著正相关,农村公共投入每增加1元,将带动农业总产值增加0.322元;同时相关统计数据表明新疆农村公共产品投资在社会绩效方面也呈正效应,且贡献率不断提高,新疆各类公共产品投资不仅有效促进农村经济的发展,而且极大推动了农民的生产生活水平.最后提出推动公共产品供给的均等化、构建多元化投资体系等建议.%With the increasing public investment in rural areas, the clear understanding of investment performance was a good way to supply reliable and reasonable evidence to the governments, investing decision. The performance of public investment in rural areas were divided into economic performance and social performance. This paper employs an econometric model and takes Xinjiang Province as an example to analyze the performance of rural public investment. The results showed that public investment and the rural investment have a significant positive correlation; with rural public investment increased by 1 yuan, the agricultural value will increase to 0.322 yuan; The relevant statistics showed that rural public investment also has a positive effect with social performance and the contribution greatly increased. Public investment greatly improved economic growth and people, living standard in rural areas. At last, give suggestions such as promoting equalization of public goods supply in urban and rural areas, establishing multi-type of investment system.

  14. 城乡公交服务均等化内涵分析%Connotation Analysis of Urban and Rural Transit Service Equalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓红; 过秀成

    2016-01-01

    It's a key to achieve the equalization of urban and rural transit service for promoting the integration of urban and rural areas. The different characteristics between urban transit and rural transit were analyzed, and then the transit service process and development restricts were showed. Based on the fairness and efficiency principles in urban and rural bus services, the benefits between the passengers and operator must be coordinated, the process and result equalization were realized. The connotation and content of equalization of urban and rural transit service was defined in this paper, which included the service resource supply equalization, service infrastructure development equalization, passenger service chance equalization, and service result equalization. Equalization was not exactly the same, but it was relative the same. The equalization standards and objectives were different within different development stages integrated urban and rural areas at different regions. The government would be the main body to realize the urban and rural bus service equalization, who would give policy guarantee, push facilities construction, organize management to promote the integration of urban and rural areas.%实现城乡公交服务均等化是推进城乡统筹发展的关键.论文分析城市地区与农村地区公交服务需求的不同,明确城乡公交服务过程及发展制约.考虑城乡公交服务公平、效率原则,需协调好乘客、企业、政府相关利益,实现过程与结果的均等化.从服务过程环节角度,提出城乡公交服务均等化具体内容:资源供给均等化、设施发展均等化、服务机会均等化、服务结果均等化.均等化不是绝对相同,而是相对的一致性,城乡统筹不同发展阶段、不同区域有不同的均等化标准和目标.实现城乡公交服务均等化需要政府管理部门为主体,通过立法政策保障、设施建设、组织管理技术支撑等措施有效推进城乡统筹发展.

  15. producto turismo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca García Henche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural lleva un largo periodo establecido en Europa, pero en los últimos años crece su importancia ya que supone un nuevo producto turístico y una fuente de ingresos para la economía rural. Actualmente, los turistas buscan experiencias distintas al tradicional turismo de sol y playa, prefieren un turismo más individualizado y flexible, buscan nuevas formas de alojamiento y muestran un interés creciente por el contacto con la naturaleza. La oferta turística rural ha de adaptarse a las exigencias de esta demanda, lo que implica más flexibilidad y alojamientos y pueblos adaptados a las necesidades emergentes. Se ha de definir el turismo rural como una alternativa de adaptación a los cambios en las necesidades de los consumidores. El presente documento muestra los componentes del turismo rural. Los recursos turísticos son la materia prima, a la que se ha de añadir los servicios. Estos servicios pueden ser básicos o complementarios. Además de los servicios hay que añadir las actividades complementarias e infraestructuras No hay duda de que el turismo rural puede beneficiarse de la aplicación del marketing. El marketing implica entender qué es lo que los consumidores desean y crear productos para satisfacer sus necesidades, además de comercializar el producto correctamente.

  16. Iron deficiency and acute seizures: results from children living in rural Kenya and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Idro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports on whether iron deficiency changes susceptibility to seizures. We examined the hypothesis that iron deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute seizures in children in a malaria endemic area. METHODS: We recruited 133 children, aged 3-156 months, who presented to a district hospital on the Kenyan coast with acute seizures and frequency-matched these to children of similar ages but without seizures. We defined iron deficiency according to the presence of malarial infection and evidence of inflammation. In patients with malaria, we defined iron deficiency as plasma ferritin<30 µg/ml if plasma C-reactive protein (CRP was<50 mg/ml or ferritin<273 µg/ml if CRP≥50 mg/ml, and in those without malaria, as ferritin<12 µg/ml if CRP<10 mg/ml or ferritin<30 µg/ml if CRP≥10 mg/ml. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies published in English between January 1966 and December 2009 and available through PUBMED that have examined the relationship between iron deficiency and febrile seizures in children. RESULTS: In our Kenyan case control study, cases and controls were similar, except more cases reported past seizures. Malaria was associated with two-thirds of all seizures. Eighty one (30.5% children had iron deficiency. Iron deficiency was neither associated with an increased risk of acute seizures (45/133[33.8%] cases were iron deficient compared to 36/133[27.1%] controls, p = 0.230 nor status epilepticus and it did not affect seizure semiology. Similar results were obtained when children with malaria, known to cause acute symptomatic seizures in addition to febrile seizures were excluded. However, in a meta-analysis that combined all eight case-control studies that have examined the association between iron deficiency and acute/febrile seizures to-date, iron deficiency, described in 310/1,018(30.5% cases and in 230/1,049(21.9% controls, was associated with a

  17. Simple Analysis on Rural Logistics Development under the New Era%新时代农村物流发展浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威威

    2014-01-01

    In the report at the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China ,the term of “urbanization”appears frequently;during comprehensive construction of new -type urbanization , the most arduous task lies in rural economic development.The Central Committee of the Party and the State Council guide the overall situation of economic and social development with the scientific development perspective.They have proposed the important strategy of building a new socialist countryside.Except economic development ,China ’ s national economy also develops gradually and the fundamental objective of affluent society has been preliminarily realized.However , with further development of economy , the structure of rural market system gradually presents some drawbacks that should be solved urgently.The core of rural market system is the supply of rural means of production and rural consumer goods as well as marketing of agricultural products .It is the material base to guarantee rural logistics& economic development as well as the life of urban and rural residents .Under the new era of e -commerce development ,there are still many problems in development and operation of rural logistics , and rural logistics system structure should be improved continuously ,so as to promote development of rural logistics and rural economy.%十八大报告中,“城镇化”一词高频出现,在全面打造新型的城镇化中,最艰巨的任务还是在农村的经济发展上。党中央、国务院以科学发展观统领经济社会发展全局,提出建设社会主义新农村的重大战略,在经济发展的同时,我国国民经济逐步发展,现已初步实现了小康社会的基本目标,但随着经济的进一步发展,农村市场体系的结构逐渐显现出弊端,急需快速解决。农村市场体系的核心是农村生产资料和农村日用消费品供应以及农产品销售,它是保证农村物流经济发展和城乡居民生活

  18. 基于利益趋向的农村居民点整治分析%Analysis of rural residential land consolidation based on willingness classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高阳; 张凤荣; 郝晋珉; 张佰林; 朱凤凯; 曲衍波

    2016-01-01

    As an effective measure, rural residential land consolidation can not only intensify the rural residential land use, but also relieve the contradiction of urban and rural land use. We used the geological data and economic social materials gotten by GIS spatial techniques, global observation and interviews, and made empirical researches in Wuxiang County, Shanxi Province. Firstly, divide the type of rural residential land consolidation. As the diversity in terrain, economy and population structure, the rural settlements were different. This study chose 8 factors in 3 aspects, and used them to classify the settlements into 4 types, which were geological disaster type, urban development type, natural recession type and internal development type. It was very meaningful to divide villages of the study area into respective rural residential land consolidation types, because it not only helped us find out the current situation of the overall rural residential land utilization, but also coordinated the consolidation potential of individual village. So the division of rural residential land consolidation types was the basis for other researches of rural residential land consolidation. Then, establish the game theory model about consolidation willingness between local government and village collective, and use it to analyze the feasibility of different rural residential land consolidation types. As the administrator of the region, the government wanted to improve the living condition of peasants and raise the level of economic development through rural residential land consolidation. Also, villagers were the immediate stakeholders of rural settlement, so they had rights to determine whether the land is consolidated or not. With the property of public welfare, the local government had the leading role in rural residential land consolidation, so this game model was the dynamic game of complete information, which meant the local government took action first. The strategies of

  19. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Rural Sustainable Development is a very important topic under the European Union policy, and it is currently promoted through the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development 2014–2020. This fund is managed at sub-regional level by the Community-Led Local Development approach that involves...... Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...

  20. Research on Rural Consumer Demand in Hebei Province Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析的河北省农村消费需求研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠子; 赵邦宏; 玄永生

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the time sequence data concerning influencing factors of rural consumer demand in Hebei Province from 2000 to 2010, this paper uses the principal component analysis method in multiplex econometric statistical analysis, constructs the principal component of con sumer demand in Hebei Province, conducts regression on the dependent variable of consumer spending per capita in Hebei Province and the prin cipal component of consumer demand so as to get principal component regression, and then conducts quantitative and qualitative analysis on the principal component. The results show that total output value per capita (yuan), employment rate, and income gap, are correlative with rural residents' consumer demand in Hebei Province positively; consumer price index, upbringing ratio of children, and one-year interest rate are cor relative with rural residents' consumer demand in Hebei Province negatively; the ratio of supporting the elderly and medical care spending per capita are correlative with rural residents' consumer demand in Hebei Province positively. The corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to promote residents' consumer demand in Hebei Province as follows; develop county economy in Hebei Province and increase rural residents' consumer demand; use industry to support agriculture and coordinate urban-rural development; improve rural medical care and health system and resolve actual difficulties of the masses.%选取2000~2010年河北省农村消费需求影响因素的时序数据,运用了计量经济学多元统计分析中的主成分分析法,构造出影响河北省消费需求的主成分,然后与因变量河北省人均消费支出进行回归,进而得到主成分回归,并对主成分进行了定量和定性分析.结果表明,人均生产总值、就业率、收入差距与河北省农村居民消费需求呈正相关;消费价格指数、少年儿童抚养比、一年期利率与河北省农村居民消费需求呈

  1. The Optimization Analysis of Rural Housing Block Wall Material Based on DEA%基于DEA的农房适用墙体砌块材料优选分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 翟树栋; 刘宁; 王旭明

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the economy input,technology output and environment quantification of block wall materials of rural housing using DEA model, this research aims to choose the optimal block wall materials of rural housing to improve the quality of the building. This research puts forward a set of comprehensive evaluation index system based on the analysis of all the factors of reasonable block wall materials of rural housing, and builds a model of selecting the reasonable block wall materials of rural housing based on DEA. The research then uses the model to evaluate five kinds of representative block wall materials of rural housing and it has been proved by examples that the model is effective on selecting block wall materials of rural housing. DEA provides accurate and reasonable theoretical basis for the selection and promotion of reasonable block wall materials of rural housing. The evaluation results show that DEA can objectively evaluate the feasibility and rationality in the process of selecting reasonable block wall materials of rural housing,provide data support for decision process and make the work of decision making more simple and clear.%目的 利用数据包络分析模型对农房适用墙体砌块材料指标中经济性的投入、技术性输出、环境的定量问题进行有效性评价,选出最优的农房适用墙体砌块材料,提高农房建筑整体质量.方法 综合分析了农房适用墙体砌块材料各影响因素,提出了一套综合评价指标体系,构建了基于数据包络分析的农房适用墙体砌块材料选择模型.将该模型用于五种具有代表性农房适用墙体砌块材料的评价.结果 通过实例证明了该模型在农房适用墙体砌块材料选择方面的有效性.数据包络分析为新型农房适用墙体砌块材料的选择、推广提供了准确、合理的理论依据.结论 评价结果表明,数据包络分析法能够客观评价农房适用墙体砌块材料优选中的可行性和合

  2. Analysis on Rural Elites'Organization Willingness of Forest Carbon Sequestration Projects and its Influencing Factors%农村精英森林碳汇项目组织意愿及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 庄天慧; 曾维忠

    2016-01-01

    以精英理论和社会交换理论为基础,分析可能影响农村精英森林碳汇项目组织意愿的因素,并利用四川省森林碳汇优先发展区273位农村精英的调查数据,采用二元 Logistic 回归模型进行实证验证。研究表明,现阶段农村精英组织森林碳汇项目的意愿不太强烈,年龄、是否从事(过)林业相关工作、家庭收入主要来源、对森林碳汇项目的收益认知、对项目建设的难易认知、与村民的关系、对国家森林碳汇政策的认知、精英类别等因素显著影响农村精英的组织意愿。提出为年轻农村精英投身森林碳汇事业提供制度安排,培育体制外精英群体,为农村精英提供森林碳汇项目技术指导,加大森林碳汇政策在农村精英群体中的宣传力度等提升农村精英组织意愿、促进森林碳汇项目可持续发展的对策建议。%Based on the elite theory and social exchange theory,this paper analyzes the factors that may affect the rural elites'organization willingness of forest carbon sequestration projects,then uses the survey data of 273 elites in priority de-velopment areas of forest carbon sequestration projects of rural areas of Sichuan province to validate the theoretical analysis results by using binary logistic regression model.Studies have shown that the rural elites'organization willingness of forest carbon sequestration projects are less intense at this stage.Age,whether engaged /engaging in forestry -related work,the main source of household income,revenue recognition of forest carbon sequestration projects,the difficulty recognition of forest carbon sequestration projects,the relationship with the villagers,awareness of national forest carbon sequestration policy and elite category significantly affect the organization willingness of the rural elites.We proposed to provide institu-tional arrangements for young rural elites to join the cause of forest carbon sinks

  3. 苏南新农村广场文化建设探析——基于常熟市海虞镇的活动实践%the analysis of the construction of new rural areas and new rural areas plaza——based of the practising activities in Haiyu town Changshu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许钰晨

    2012-01-01

    新农村广场文化活动以其开放性大、参与性强等特点逐步成为群众文化建设的拳头产品,在新农村文化建设中发挥重要的作用。文章基于常熟市海虞镇的广场文化活动实践,通过分析活动的特色和经验,对今后的活动进行探索和展望。从而对苏南地区新农村文化建设中广场文化建设部分作一些微观探析,也为其他地区的广场文化建设提供一些有益的借鉴。%Cultural activities in rural areas has become a mass culture of competitive products for its openness,participation,and other characteristics.It plays an important role in the construction of new rural culture.Article is based on the series of the square culture activities in the town of Changshu Haiyu.Make an exploration and prospect for the activities in the future by analyzing the characteristics and experience of the activities.Thus the southern region of rural culture in the Square,a new culture partly for some of the micro-analysis,but also for cultural development in other parts of the square to provide some useful lessons.

  4. Workforce issues in rural surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynge, Dana Christian; Larson, Eric H

    2009-12-01

    Almost one quarter of America's population and one third of its landmass are defined as rural and served by approximately 20% of the nation's general surgeons. General surgeons are the backbone of the rural health workforce. There is significant maldistribution of general surgeons across regions and different types of rural areas. Rural areas have markedly fewer surgeons per population than the national average. The demography of the rural general surgery workforce differs substantially from the urban general surgery workforce, raising concerns about the extent to which general surgical services can be maintained in rural areas of the United States.

  5. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO,) and particulate sulfate (SO42-) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CASTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimat...

  6. 浅析我国农村基础设施建设融资问题%Analysis of Financing Problems in Rural Infrastructure Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蒙娣; 王震

    2011-01-01

    农村基础设施建设融资体制是影响农村基础设施建设的重要因素之一,本文主要介绍了美国、日本、韩国的农村基础设施建设发展的情况,分析这些国家农村基础设施建设融资方法,同时结合我国目前农村基础设施建设的现状和不足,研究适合我国市场经济发展的农村基础设施建设融资体制,使其在我国今后经济发展中发挥重要作用.%The construction financing system of rural infrastructure is an important factor on the construction of rural infrastructure. The paper describes the development of rural infrastructure in United States, Japan, Korea and analyzes their financing measures. It also analyzes current development and weakness of China rural infrastructure construction. It finds the financing system suits to China market economy, which plays important role in the future economic development.

  7. 农村消费需求的制约因素分析%Analysis of Restraint Factors on Rural Consumer Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练绪宁

    2014-01-01

    It is important to expand rural consumer demand in promoting economic growth. The increasing farmers' income, the unsound market order and guarantee system, as well as the consumer credit constraint restrict the development of rural consumer demand. Therefore, we should enhance rural income, accelerate infrastructure con-struction, improve the market system and guarantee the system and popularize rural credits to expand consumer de-mand and promote the sustained and stable development in the economy in China.%扩大农村消费需求是推动经济增长的重要环节,但农民增收难度大、市场秩序和保障制度不健全、消费信贷约束等因素制约着我国农村消费需求发展。需要通过提高农村收入、加快基础设施建设、完善市场体系和保障制度、普及农村信贷等途径扩大我国农村消费需求,促进我国经济持续稳定发展。

  8. Nutrient budgets, soil fertility management and livelihood analysis in Northeast Thailand: a basis for integrated rural development strategies in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoud, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:  Rainfed lowland rice-based systems, Northeast Thailand, nutrient balance analyses, sustainability assessment, sustainable natural resource management, integrated rural development strategies, livelihood

  9. 中国农村养老服务体系构建的困境分析%Analysis of Predicament of Rural Old -age Caring Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧

    2016-01-01

    随着城镇化进程的加快,农村原有的生活面貌发生了重大变化,本文通过对农村居民生活现状的分析,指出了家庭养老、个人养老、社区养老、机构养老以及新农保实施的现状和困境,并从制度保障、养老服务、资金来源等方面提出了构建农村养老服务体系的建议。%With the accelerated process of urbanization,the original life in rural areas has been dramatically changed.Through analyzing the current condition of the life in rural areas,this article is aimed to point out the predicament of family support,self support,community support,institutional care and the new rural social pension insurance system.It also provides a series of suggestions related to old -age services system in rural areas in terms of system guarantee,old -age care service and sources of funds.

  10. Urban and Rural Environmental Management Problems and Countermeasures Analysis%城乡环保管理存在的问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华军

    2015-01-01

    At present,China's urban and rural environmental problems existing in the management of major water pollution,air pollution,land pollution and noise pollution,etc.Solve the problem of urban and rural environmental management need to strengthen the legislation,law enforcement of environmental protection,enhance people's environmental protection consciousness,to scientific and reasonable to solve the problem of urban and rural environmental management,to create a good environment for development,to promote the rapid development of urban and rural economy.%当前,我国城乡环保管理工作中存在的问题主要有水污染、空气污染、土地污染及噪音污染等。解决我国城乡环保管理问题需要加强环保的立法执法工作,提高人们的环保意识,以科学合理地解决城乡环保管理问题,创造良好的发展环境,促进城乡经济的快速发展。

  11. 农村题材电视剧中大众文化分析%Analysis of Popular Culture in Rural Topic TV Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石正涛

    2013-01-01

    On today's television screen , rural themes TV series are more influential than historical drama , urban emotional teleplays , espionage drama and are more popular with TV viewers , esp . rural viewers because rural topic dramas contain mass culture factor . The author of this paper on explores popular culture factors in rural topic TV series .%在当今的电视屏幕上,农村题材电视剧之所以能够突破历史剧、都市情感剧、谍战剧的封锁,占据一席之地,受到城市受众和广大农民的喜爱,究其原因,是因为农村题材电视剧中包含的大众文化因子起到了非常重要的作用,主要探讨的是农村题材电视剧中大众文化的具体体现。

  12. Employee and Workplace Well-Being: A Multi-Level Analysis of Teacher Personality and Organizational Climate in Norwegian Teachers from Rural, Urban and City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richard Andrew; Machin, Michael Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Although teaching is frequently cited as a stressful profession, limited recent Norwegian data is available. This study addressed the extent to which organizational climate and individual and organizational well-being outcomes vary between schools in rural, urban, and city locations. Participants were predominantly female (68%), aged 45+ years…

  13. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  14. 农村旅游对新农村建设的作用及其发展对策分析%Effect of Rural Tourism on the New Rural Construction and the Analysis of its Development Countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柔

    2013-01-01

    U nder the situation of building a new socialist countryside, rural tourism in C hina has been devel-oping rapidly.O n one hand,w ith the im provem entoffarm ers'incom e,ruraltourism ushered in the construction of spiritualcivilization,and itplays an im portantand practicalrole in creating a prosperous,harm onious and civilized socialistnew countryside.O n the otherhand,ruraltourism isable to prom ote the protection and rationaluse ofre-sources in ruralareas,so as to achieve the goalofaccelerating the construction ofa new socialistcountryside de-signedly,scientifically and reasonably.D eveloping ruraltourism resources and protecting ruralecologicalenviron-m entisa m ain route forconstruction ofa new socialistcountryside,and italso m eetsthe needsofthe tim es.In this paper, the role, significance, problem s and solutions of rural tourism in building a new socialist countryside are discussed.%新农村建设的大环境下,我国农村旅游得到了迅速发展。一方面,农村旅游在提高农民收入的同时,也迎来了新农村的精神文明建设之风,为创建一个富裕、和谐、文明的社会主义新农村具有重要的现实意义;另一方面,农村旅游可以促进农村资源的合理利用和保护,从而达到有计划、科学、合理加快社会主义新农村建设的目的。开发农村旅游资源、保护农村生态环境是建设社会主义新农村的一个重要途径,也是时代发展的需要。本文针对社会主义新农村建设中农村旅游的作用,农村旅游的意义、存在的问题及解决的办法进行论述。

  15. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  16. Neurosurgery in rural Nigeria: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Komolafe, Edward Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Africa has very few neurosurgeons. These are almost exclusively in urban centers. Consequently, people in rural areas, most of the African population, have poor or no access to neurosurgical care. We have recently pioneered rural neurosurgery in Nigeria. Objectives: This report details our initial experiences and the profile of neurosurgical admissions in our center. Methods: A prospective observational study of all neurosurgical patients managed at a rural tertiary health institution in Nigeria from December 2010 to May 2012 was done. Simple descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: A total of 249 males (75.2%) and 82 females (24.8%) were managed. The median age was 37 years (range: Day of birth – 94 years). Trauma was the leading cause of presentation with 225 (68.0%) and 35 (10.6%) having sustained head and spinal injuries, respectively. Operative intervention was performed in 54 (16.3%). Twenty-four (7.2%) patients discharged against medical advice, mostly for economic reasons. Most patients (208, 63.4%) had satisfactory outcome while 30 (9.1%) died. Conclusion: Trauma is the leading cause of rural neurosurgical presentations. There is an urgent need to improve access to adequate neurosurgical care in the rural communities.

  17. 信息化促进重庆城乡生产要素优化配置的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis of Informationization Promoting Optimal Allocation between the Urban and Rural Production Factor in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭生顺; 程龙

    2014-01-01

    Through reading a lot of literature and collecting data based on comprehensive analysis,the paper analyzes the influence of information technology on promoting the optimal allocation of urban and rural areas production factors in Chongqing.Then combined with qualitative and quantitative analysis and learning from the specific mode of promoting production factors callocating in urban and rural areas at home and abroad,the paper continually takes the principal com-ponent analysis.Finally we pinpoint gradually the relationship between the informationization and the optimal allocation of the urban and rural production factors,and affirm the role of the informationization advanced in the optimal allocation of the various production factors in Chongqing.%在阅读大量的文献和收集处理相关数据的基础上,分析信息化对促进重庆城乡生产要素优化配置的影响。在借鉴国内国外促进城乡生产要素配置的具体模式和经验基础上,采取定性和定量分析结合,用主成分分析法分析信息化与重庆城乡生产要素优化配置之间的相互关系、作用,明确信息化的推进对各类生产要素优化配置的的影响。

  18. RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA - A MARKETING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică ŞTEFAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of national tourist brand is one of the priorities of the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism. The project on branding Romania is EU-funded, within the Regional Operational Program (ROP 2007-2013. Out of the different evaluation point of views - qualitative research in source markets and domestic market, project's team opinions, branding project research on the attractiveness / competitiveness, 6 tourism key product of Romanian tourism have been identified, one of them beeing Countryside &Rural Tourism. The paper aimed to present an analysis of the Countryside and rural tourism from a marketing perspective bearing in mind that, in order to reach the target set by the Romanian National Tourism Development Masterplan 2007-2026, of increasing the number of visitors at 9,7 milion in 2016, a marketing plan will be implemented. The average yearly growth of the arrivals number for the countryside and rural sector for 2011-2015 will be 25%.

  19. Analysis of China's Rural Supermarket Chain Logistics Distribution%探析我国农村连锁超市的物流配送

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史纪

    2011-01-01

    连锁经营配送已成为一种现代的流通经营方式和组织形式,也是现代经济发展新的增长点。然而农村连锁经营配送是一个相对于城市物流的概念,它服务于农业生产和农村居民生活的需要。我国农村连锁超市的配送市场才刚刚起步,连锁超市的配送在拓展农村市场中还不完善,仍存在很多的问题。文章针对当前农村连锁超市配送市场中存在的几个主要问题进行了分析,并探讨几条解决问题的途径。%Distribution of chain retail business to become a modern circulation mode of operation and organizational forms,also is the modern new growth point of economic development.However the rural distribution of chain retail business is a relative to the concept of city logistics,it serves for agricultural production and rural residents needs.China's rural supermarket chain distribution market has just started,supermarket chain distribution in expanding the rural market is not perfect,there are still many problems.The article in view of the current rural supermarket chain distribution market in the presence of some problems are analyzed,and to explore the ways to solve the problem.

  20. Institutional determiners of rural entrepreneurship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Usyuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The paper presents the research results that specify current institutional determinants in rural entrepreneurship development. The establishment of rural entrepreneurship is a key factor in rural economy revival, as well as, Ukrainian identity in particular. To reduce the impact of institutional barriers in business development, mandatory would be to consider the existing legal, economic, political, social canons, requirements and regulations. On the one hand, the components hereof will increase business efficiency, and on the other hand they will contribute to opportunistic behavior of economic agents when signing contracts or executing them. Therefore, coordination of external (formal institutions and internal (informal institutional elements will improve the conditions for entrepreneurship development and rise business economic efficiency in particular. The article is aimed at determining institutional impact on the development of rural entrepreneurship and justification of areas in order to overcome barriers of institutional character to form strategic goals of strengthening economic business performance. The results of the analysis. The paper highlights basic premise for creating institutional framework of rural entrepreneurship. It is proposed to consider institutional entrepreneurship environment in rural areas as a specific infrastructure designed to facilitate efficient operations, rapid product turnover, company positive image formation and innovation implementation in economic activity. The main problems of institutional environment in assessing rural entrepreneurship are associated with a limited amount of statistic information. The existing methods do not allow determining of entrepreneurship institutional determinants in rural areas or on that basis to justify innovative directions for each structure further operation. Therefore, the author proposes to use a method of constructing multicorrelation

  1. The Rural Elite and the Supply of Public Goods in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu-peng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of collective action and social capital theory,social capital is introduced into the game analysis of the supply of public goods between the rural elite and ordinary villagers.I establish the income model of public goods utility concerning the rural elite and ordinary villagers;research the incentive of social capital for the rural elite and villagers,and impact of social capital on the rural elite and villagers.Three inferences can be drawn from the model:the precondition for the elite to prompt the collective cooperation is having " good reputation" ;" good reputation" of the elite in the supply of public goods can abate farmers’ motive of " free rider" ;the role of the elite in organizing the supply of public goods can save the transaction costs in the process of collective action.Taking the case of Shunhe Village,Panyu District,Guangzhou City,I explain this model.Finally,some policy recommendations are put forth as follows:rebuilding the community credit;giving full play to the role of the rural elite in the supply of public goods in rural areas.

  2. Test analysis of winter indoor thermal environment of the rural houses in Southern Shannxi%陕南乡村民居冬季室内热环境测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱轶韵; 赵婧竹; 桑国臣; 赵钦

    2015-01-01

    Hanzhong in Southern Shaanxi is located in the climate changed belt of the north and south in China,falling into the hot-summer and cold winter place.The indoor thermal environ-ment of the typical earth and brick rural houses in Hanzhong is analyzed on the basis of the in-situ test to know the present situation of rural houses in winter.By measuring the in-situ test of mul-tiple parameters such as outdoor meteorological parameters and indoor temperature,relative hu-midity,thermal comfort situations and characteristics of typical residents in this region are ana-lyzed.The analysis results show that it is humidity and cold in winter apparently,the thermal environment in rural indoor houses is poor,and there are some differences of indoor thermal state features in two kind of rural houses,of which the indoor average temperature in the rural brick houses is slightly higher,while the indoor temperature stability in the rural earth houses is bet-ter.According to the analysis results of indoor and outdoor thermal environment and combined with the characteristics of the two rural houses,some appropriate improvement strategies for configuration of saving sources are put forward in this paper.%陕南汉中地处我国南北气候交接带,建筑气候属于夏热冬冷地区。为了解该地区乡村建筑冬季室内热环境现状,以当地典型传统生土民居和砖混民居为例,通过对冬季室外气象参数及室内空气温度、相对湿度等多项参数的现场测试,分析了陕南乡村民居的冬季室内热舒适状况与特点。分析结果表明:该地区冬季湿冷特征显著,乡村民居室内热环境较差,两种民居室内热状况特点有所差异,其中砖混民居室内平均温度略高,而生土民居室内温度稳定性较好。本文根据室内外热环境分析结果,结合两类民居建筑构造特征,提出了适宜的节能构造改进策略。

  3. Rural Science Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intress, C. [New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.

  4. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  5. Analysis on the acceptance of the incentive policies for rural health workers in Pudong New Area%浦东新区医务人员对农村卫生人才激励政策认同度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆丽梅; 刘坤; 周徐红; 孙晓明; 王俐; 陈层层; 王欣国; 舒之群; 娄继权

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解上海市浦东新区推行农村卫生人才队伍建设改革后,社区医务人员的认同度。方法采用问卷调查方法,了解政策范围内的3295名社区卫生服务中心医务人员对人才激励政策的认同度等,采用χ2检验分析不同地区社区医务人员的认同度差异。结果80.0%以上的医务人员认为激励政策有助于提高自己的业务素质、医疗服务水平和对组织的承诺度,40.9%感觉自己的社会地位得到一定程度的提高,47.3%认为激励政策会帮助农村地区吸引和留住人才。偏远地区社区医务人员回答激励政策正向激励效果的比例,高于一般农村地区和城郊结合地区。结论农村卫生人才队伍建设改革政策对医务人员有激励作用,但激励效果存在明显的地区差异。%Objective To learn the acceptance of rural community health workers (CHWs ) following the reform of rural health workers′team building in Pudong New Area.Methods 3 295 CHWs were surveyed with questionnaire for their acceptance of the incentive policies,and chisquare test analysis was used to analyze the differences among CHWs in individual areas.Results Over 80.0% of the CHWs reported that they were motivated by the incentive policies to improve their professional competence, medical service and organizational commitment;40.9% of them reported that the policies improved their social status;and 47.3% of them believed the policies could promote the rural areas to attract and retain talents.When a comparison was made of CHWs′feedbacks on different aspects,significant differences indicated that the proportion of CHWs′positive attitudes was the highest at remote rural communities. Conclusions The rural health workers′team building reform could promote incentive on the CHWs,yet with obvious regional differences.

  6. 高考成绩的城乡差异及其发展趋势分析%Analysis of Urban-rural Differences and Development Trends on College Entrance Examination Scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金波; 杨军

    2015-01-01

    By taking samples from college entrance examination students in the past few years randomly, analysis has been done to find the differences and development trends on college entrance examination scores of urban and rural students. Data shows that urban students'performance is significantly better than rural students'in total scores, the proportion of above average score and concentration ratio of scores. Compared to the data before and after the new curriculum reform, the gap of Chinese subject between urban and rural regions has narrowed, while that of other subjects has no great change as well as total scores in Liberal Arts and Science. But after the new curriculum reform, the gap between urban and rural is widening and reaching the highest level in the past two years except Chinese which is relatively stable. Compared to the differences between urban and rural students, the Science students have greater differences than Arts students.%随机抽取历年高考学生样本,分析城乡学生在高考成绩上存在的差异及发展趋势.显示城镇学生在文(理)科总分,总分平均分以上的人数比例,分数的集中度等方面均明显高于农村学生;新课程改革前后的城乡差距除语文学科有所缩小外,其他学科和文(理)科总分的变化不明显,但新课程改革后的城乡差距除语文学科相对稳定外,其他学科均存在扩大的趋势,并且在近二年来达到了最高水平;相比于文科生的城乡差异,理科生的差异更大.

  7. CONVERGENCE OF REAL WAGES IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Adamczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the spatial diversity of rural areas. The aim of the article is to evaluate whether the process of convergence of real wages in rural areas in Poland can be observed. The author focuses on two concepts of convergence: absolute (unconditional beta convergence and sigma convergence. The analysis regards rural districts at NUTS-4 level for 2002–2014. It was stated that rural areas in Poland became similar (converge in terms of real wages what can help reducing the diff erences in living standard of inhabitants. An estimated regression function confi rms the existence of absolute beta convergence process. The growth rate of real wages was relatively higher in the districts with lower initial level. Moreover, the research carried out by the author indicates a decreasing dispersion of wages among rural districts. It shows the existence of sigma convergence process.

  8. Research on the Evaluation System for Rural Public Safety Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Jianxin; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The indicator evaluation system is introduced to the study of rural public safety planning in this article.By researching the current rural public safety planning and environmental carrying capacity,we select some carrying capacity indicators influencing the rural public safety,such as land,population,ecological environment,water resources,infrastructure,economy and society,to establish the environmental carrying capacity indicator system.We standardize the indicators,use gray correlation analysis method to determine the weight of indicators,and make DEA evaluation of the indicator system,to obtain the evaluation results as the basis for decision making in rural safety planning,and provide scientific and quantified technical support for rural public safety planning.

  9. Life satisfaction of older Chinese adults living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chi, Iris; Xu, Ling

    2013-06-01

    Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.

  10. Social Services Planning in Rural Areas: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarot S. Widyatmoko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the comprehensive and integrated rural development concept has been considered as the right approach in order to combat the root of rural poverty. By its main concern on area planning, i. e. the availability of planning apparatus at local (regional level, comprehensive local (rural resource analysis, and multi-disciplinary approach, it is expected that the weakneses of centralized planning which, among others, concentrates on economic growth can be reduced or even eliminated. This paper tries to explain the place of social service planning in the rural development concept above. The approach used is by discussing the place of service planning in the national development policies; collective decision making system, especially related to planning procedure and process; and social service problems in rural areas.

  11. Views from the Village: Photonovella with Women in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Heinonen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors provide an overview of the situation of women in rural China as a backdrop for the photonovella process and inquiry activities conducted by the first author in three rural sites in China. They describe the key themes identified through analysis of the narrative accounts and photographs presented by groups of rural women. The photonovella enabled rural women to select from their pictures several photos of significance to them to show and describe these to women from other villages and to the researcher. Concerns, interests, hardships, and achievements of the women related to their work, families, and communities were voiced as they showed their photos. This method, used in conjunction with other qualitative methods—including focus group interviews, village visits, and survey data—provided information that complemented and enriched our understanding of rural women's lives in China.

  12. 三峡库区农村发展系统评价与空间格局分析%Evaluation and spatial pattern analysis of rural development system in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭立; 刘邵权

    2013-01-01

    The systemic characteristic and spatial pattern of rural development are important basis for establishing mode of regional sustainable development. The evaluation system composed of 16 indicators which belong to social system, economic system and resource-environmental system is established to evaluate rural development status. At present, the study on regional rural development mainly focuses on spatial pattern, but the study on spatial correlation is seldom. The systemic characteristic and spatial pattern of rural development on regional scale (counties) in Three Gorges Reservoir Area were investigated using mean-squared deviation weight method, system coupling theory, exploratory spatial data analysis method (ESDA), variogram model and so on, and discipline of rural development via the master systemic status, the relationships of subsystems and spatial correlation of system were explored. Conclusions are drawn as follows:1) The rural development level in Three Gorges Reservoir Area is quite unbalanced, and the high-level counties in regional scale mainly locate in the area around Chongqing’s main urban area, the correspondingly low-level counties mainly locate in eastern Chongqing. The disparity of economic system among subsystems is the highest, followed by social system and resource-environmental system. 2) The overall level of coordination degree between subsystems is still low in Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Coordination degrees of 19 counties mainly are divided into four kinds, the moderate coordination, the mild coordination, the mild incoordination and the moderate incoordination, and there are no obvious differences among these counties. On regional scale, the counties with high-level coordination degree mainly locate in the north of Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and the correspondingly low-level counties mainly locate in the south. 3) The overall of rural development system and its subsystems (e.g. social system, economic system and resource

  13. Better constraints on sources of carbonaceous aerosols using a combined 14C – macro tracer analysis in a European rural background site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The source contributions to carbonaceous PM2.5 aerosol were investigated at a European background site at the edge of the Po Valley, in Northern Italy, during the period January–December 2007. Carbonaceous aerosol was described as the sum of eight source components: primary (1 and secondary (2 biomass burning organic carbon, biomass burning elemental carbon (3, primary (4 and secondary (5 fossil fuel burning organic carbon, fossil fuel burning elemental carbon (6, primary (7 and secondary (8 biogenic organic carbon. The concentration of each component was quantified using a set of macro tracers (organic carbon OC, elemental carbon EC, and levoglucosan, micro tracers (arabitol and mannitol, and 14C measurements. This was the first time that 14C measurements were performed on a long time series of data able to represent the entire annual cycle. This set of 6 tracers, together with assumed uncertainty ranges of the ratios of OC-to-EC, and the fraction of modern carbon in the 8 source categories, provides strong constraints to the source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol. The uncertainty of contributions was assessed with a Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC method accounting for the variability of OC and EC emission factors, and the uncertainty of reference fractions of modern carbon. During winter biomass burning composed 50% of the total carbon (TC concentration, while in summer secondary biogenic OC accounted for 45% of TC. The contribution of primary biogenic aerosol particles was negligible during the entire year. Moreover, aerosol associated with fossil fuel burning represented 26% and 43% of TC in winter and summer, respectively. The comparison of source apportionment results in different urban and rural areas showed that the sampling site was mainly affected by local aerosol sources during winter and regional air masses from the nearby Po Valley in summer. This observation was further confirmed by back-trajectory analysis applying the Potential

  14. Effects of salt substitute on pulse wave analysis among individuals at high cardiovascular risk in rural China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jihong; Jiang, Xiongjing; Li, Nicole; Yu, Xuequn; Perkovic, Vlado; Chen, Bailing; Zhao, Liancheng; Neal, Bruce; Wu, Yangfeng

    2009-04-01

    Reduced-sodium, increased-potassium salt substitutes lower blood pressure but may also have direct effects on vascular structure and arterial function. This study aimed to test the effects of long-term salt substitution on indices of these outcomes. The China Salt Substitute Study was a randomized, controlled trial designed to establish the effects of salt substitute (65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride, 10% magnesium sulfate) compared with regular salt (100% sodium chloride) on blood pressure among 600 high-risk individuals living in six rural areas in northern China over a 12-month intervention period. Data on central aortic blood pressure, aortic pressure augmentation (AUG), augmentation index (AIx), the differences of the peak of first and baseline waves (P(1)-P(0)) and pulse wave reflection time (RT) were collected at randomization and at the completion of follow-up in 187 participants using the Sphygmocor pulse wave analysis system. Mean baseline blood pressure was 150.1/91.4 mm Hg, mean age was 58.4 years, 41% were male and three quarters had a history of vascular disease. After 12 months of intervention, there were significant net reductions in peripheral (7.4 mm Hg, P=0.009) and central (6.9 mm Hg, P=0.011) systolic blood pressure levels and central pulse pressure (4.5 mm Hg, P=0.012) and correspondingly there was a significant net reduction in P(1)-P(0) (3.0 mm Hg, P=0.007), borderline significant net reduction in AUG (1.5 mm Hg, P=0.074) and significant net increase in RT (2.59 ms, P=0.001). There were no detectable reductions in peripheral (2.8 mm Hg, P=0.14) or central (2.4 mm Hg, P=0.13) diastolic blood pressure levels or AIx (0.06%, P=0.96). In conclusion, over the 12-month study period the salt substitute significantly reduced not only peripheral and central systolic blood pressure but also reduced arterial stiffness.

  15. Empirical analysis on the rural consumer behavior in China%我国农村居民消费行为的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强

    2011-01-01

    依据1978-2009年间农村居民消费与收入的样本数据,根据西方消费理论,建立计量经济模型,运用协整研究方法,对农民的消费行为进行了实证研究。研究表明,农民消费与收入之间存在长期均衡关系;农民短期消费易受冲击,表现出一定的非理性;农民的长、短期消费的乘数都较小,从而客观上形成农民消费对经济增长的贡献率较低的现实;关键是农民收入增长偏低。对此提出了让农民们也能体面地生活的政策建议。%According to the western consumption theory,based on the rural residents' consumption and income sample data from 1978 to 2009,established econometric model,used cointegration analysis method,this article makes an empirical research on the farmers' consumer behavior.It is found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between the farmers' consumption and income,and the short-term consumption of farmers is susceptible to be impacted and the farmers' short-term consumption shows a little irrational.It is found that the farmers' long-term consumption multiplier and short-term consumption multiplier is still small,thus in words of the farmer's consumption effect,there is objectively a low contribution on the economic growth..AS far as the amplitude,the growth of degree,and the increase speed of development is concerned,the net income of farmers cannot be comparable with the per capita GDP.The article proposes the policy recommendations that the farmers can also live honorably.

  16. 农村土地资产评估风险分析%Research on Risk Analysis of Rural Land Assets Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨夕; 邱道持; 蒋敏

    2015-01-01

    在文献梳理、实地调研的基础上,采用参与式农村评估法、头脑风暴法、德尔菲法进行风险诊断与识别,构建农村土地资产评估风险指标体系,通过模糊层次分析法评估风险因素对农村土地资产评估风险的贡献值,研究表明:①我国农村土地资产评估风险主要包括市场风险、政策风险、监管风险及技术风险;②市场风险(B1)对农村土地资产评估风险系统的贡献值最大,占整个风险体系的35.27%,其次为政策风险(28.54%)、监管风险(21.69%)、技术风险(14.50%).构建农村土地资产评估风险防范体系应当着力解决3个关键问题:统筹城乡发展,建立健全农村土地资产市场;完善政府职能,加强农村土地资产评估宏观调控;开展行业自律,提高农村土地资产评估服务水平.%Establishing an effective risk prevention and treatment mechanism by investigating the risk as‐sessment of rural land assets is an important measure to the improvement of the modern land market sys‐tem ,to the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of farmers ,and to the planning of urban and rural development as a whole .Based on the research methods of literature review and social survey ,the au‐thors of this paper employ PRA ,brainstorming and Delphi methods to diagnose and identify the risks ,and an evaluation index system is constructed .Then FA HP (fuzzy analytical hierarchy process) is used to measure up the importance of risk factors for rural land assets assessment of China .The results indicate that the risk of rural land assets assessment in China involves market risk ,policy risk ,supervision risk and technical risk ;that market risk is the maximum contributing factor to the system of rural land assets assessment ,accounting for 35.27% of the total ,while the contribution of policy risk ,supervision risk and technical risk is 28.54% ,21.69% and 14

  17. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra

  18. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providin gquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  19. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools

  20. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in