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Sample records for analysis dublin ireland

  1. A principal components analysis of the factors effecting personal exposure to air pollution in urban commuters in Dublin, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, Aonghus; Broderick, Brian M; Gill, Laurence W

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis was used to examine air pollution personal exposure data of four urban commuter transport modes for their interrelationships between pollutants and relationships with traffic and meteorological data. Air quality samples of PM2.5 and VOCs were recorded during peak traffic congestion for the car, bus, cyclist and pedestrian between January 2005 and June 2006 on a busy route in Dublin, Ireland. In total, 200 personal exposure samples were recorded each comprising 17 variables describing the personal exposure concentrations, meteorological conditions and traffic conditions. The data reduction technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to create weighted linear combinations of the data and these were subsequently examined for interrelationships between the many variables recorded. The results of the PCA found that personal exposure concentrations in non-motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by wind speed, whereas personal exposure concentrations in motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by traffic congestion. The findings of the investigation show that the most effective mechanisms of personal exposure reduction differ between motorised and non-motorised modes of commuter transport.

  2. Botulism in injecting drug users, Dublin, Ireland, November-December 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2009-01-08

    In November and December 2008, six cases of suspect wound botulism were reported in heroin injecting drug users, all residents in Dublin, Ireland. Patients were aged between 23-42 years of age; four cases were male; one patient died shortly after admission. The patients presented to four different hospitals across the city. Botulism in injecting drug users in Ireland was last reported in 2002.

  3. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. → Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. → Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. → Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  4. Seasonal and spatial distributions of tributyltin in surface sediment of the Tolka Estuary, Dublin, Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buggy, Conor J.; Tobin, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic pollution by tributyltin (TBT) is of concern because of its high toxicity to marine life. TBT loadings of estuarine sediments may remain elevated because of long flushing times in estuaries due to their enclosed physicality. The Tolka Estuary, Co. Dublin, Ireland, is a typical Irish urban estuary. It has a significant pollution loading. The results of 12 months' analysis of TBT spatial and temporal distributions in this estuary are presented in this paper. Data from a total of 10 sample points are presented. The concentrations of TBT in the sediment were analysed using differential pulse polarography. Significant seasonal and spatial trends in TBT distribution were observed over the 12-month period. TBT concentrations ranged from 0.1 ppb in winter to 8.6 ppb in summer with a 1.5 ppb average. Organic matter (OM) concentrations of sediment exhibited similar seasonal trends and a positive correlation between OM and TBT distributions was observed. - TBT concentrations varied with seasons and correlated well with organic matter

  5. Seasonal and spatial distributions of tributyltin in surface sediment of the Tolka Estuary, Dublin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggy, Conor J. [Department of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin (Ireland); Tobin, John M. [Department of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: john.tobin@dcu.ie

    2006-09-15

    Aquatic pollution by tributyltin (TBT) is of concern because of its high toxicity to marine life. TBT loadings of estuarine sediments may remain elevated because of long flushing times in estuaries due to their enclosed physicality. The Tolka Estuary, Co. Dublin, Ireland, is a typical Irish urban estuary. It has a significant pollution loading. The results of 12 months' analysis of TBT spatial and temporal distributions in this estuary are presented in this paper. Data from a total of 10 sample points are presented. The concentrations of TBT in the sediment were analysed using differential pulse polarography. Significant seasonal and spatial trends in TBT distribution were observed over the 12-month period. TBT concentrations ranged from 0.1 ppb in winter to 8.6 ppb in summer with a 1.5 ppb average. Organic matter (OM) concentrations of sediment exhibited similar seasonal trends and a positive correlation between OM and TBT distributions was observed. - TBT concentrations varied with seasons and correlated well with organic matter.

  6. A Feasibility Assessment of Photovoltaic Power Systems in Ireland; a Case Study for the Dublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionnuala Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the cleanest sources for producing renewable energy; however uptake on the Irish renewable energy market to date has been low. There is a lack of support for solar PV systems in Ireland; there is currently no solar PV energy feed-in-tariff as there are for other renewable energy systems in Ireland. Despite the current lack of support, the Government has indicated that support for the uptake of solar PV installations will be provided through the provision of a feed-in tariff in the future. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of installing PV systems under Irish climatic conditions at a location based in Dublin, Ireland, from a technical, environmental and economic point of view. This was achieved by carrying out a life cycle assessment of potential environmental impacts, and analysis of energy and economic payback times relating to the proposed PV system. Four possible renewable feed-in-tariffs (based on existing feed-in-tariffs for other renewable energy systems were considered to determine the effect of such tariffs on the overall economics of the proposed PV system. Results show that life cycle GHG emissions are 69 g CO2-eq per kWh generated by the system, significantly lower than the current electricity grid mix emissions of 469 g CO2-eq per kWh. It will take 5.23 years of operation of the solar plant to generate the same amount of energy (in terms of primary energy equivalent that was used to produce the system itself. The economic payback time varies from 19.3 and 34.4 years depending on the rate of renewable energy feed-in-tariff applied. The costs for the production of PV electricity in this study are higher than is usual in countries where the solar PV market is more developed, e.g., Germany, due to constraints with building integration and lack of experienced PV installers. As more PV is deployed, the Irish PV installer base will increase and ‘learning by doing’ effects

  7. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  8. Usage of unscheduled hospital care by homeless individuals in Dublin, Ireland: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Cheallaigh, Clíona; Cullivan, Sarah; Sears, Jess; Lawlee, Ann Marie; Browne, Joe; Kieran, Jennifer; Segurado, Ricardo; O'Carroll, Austin; O'Reilly, Fiona; Creagh, Donnacha; Bergin, Colm; Kenny, Rose Anne; Byrne, Declan

    2017-12-01

    Homeless people lack a secure, stable place to live and experience higher rates of serious illness than the housed population. Studies, mainly from the USA, have reported increased use of unscheduled healthcare by homeless individuals.We sought to compare the use of unscheduled emergency department (ED) and inpatient care between housed and homeless hospital patients in a high-income European setting in Dublin, Ireland. A large university teaching hospital serving the south inner city in Dublin, Ireland. Patient data are collected on an electronic patient record within the hospital. We carried out an observational cross-sectional study using data on all ED visits (n=47 174) and all unscheduled admissions under the general medical take (n=7031) in 2015. The address field of the hospital's electronic patient record was used to identify patients living in emergency accommodation or rough sleeping (hereafter referred to as homeless). Data on demographic details, length of stay and diagnoses were extracted. In comparison with housed individuals in the hospital catchment area, homeless individuals had higher rates of ED attendance (0.16 attendances per person/annum vs 3.0 attendances per person/annum, respectively) and inpatient bed days (0.3 vs 4.4 bed days/person/annum). The rate of leaving ED before assessment was higher in homeless individuals (40% of ED attendances vs 15% of ED attendances in housed individuals). The mean age of homeless medical inpatients was 44.19 years (95% CI 42.98 to 45.40), whereas that of housed patients was 61.20 years (95% CI 60.72 to 61.68). Homeless patients were more likely to terminate an inpatient admission against medical advice (15% of admissions vs 2% of admissions in homeless individuals). Homeless patients represent a significant proportion of ED attendees and medical inpatients. In contrast to housed patients, the bulk of usage of unscheduled care by homeless people occurs in individuals aged 25-65 years. © Article author

  9. How Urban Parks Offer Opportunities for Physical Activity in Dublin, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Burrows

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parks are an important part of the urban fabric of cities. They offer people the opportunity to connect with nature, engage in physical activity, find a haven away from the city noise, or spend time alone or with family and friends. This study examines the relative importance of park and park visit characteristics for 865 survey participants in Dublin, Ireland. The data is analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression model which can distinguish the relative importance of attributes. The model results demonstrate an improvement over proportional by chance accuracy, indicating that the model is useful. The results suggest that when and why individuals go to the park along with the proximity of their residence to the park influence visit frequency more than their age and gender and more than their impression of the sound levels in the park. The contribution of the results, in terms of their potential usefulness to planners, suggest that the priority should be on the provision of park space close to residential areas, so that individuals can engage in activities such as walking and relaxation, and that the quality of that space, in the context of noise levels at least, is less important.

  10. Attitudes and behaviour towards waste management in the Dublin, Ireland region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2010-10-01

    The hypothesis of this research was that attitudes about the management of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) are spatially variable, even within a city of modest (1.2 million) population. For a select number of representative electoral districts in the Dublin, Ireland region, residents were surveyed regarding attitudes towards waste management in general, and BMW management in particular. A total of 850 survey responses were collected. Door-to-door interviews produced 688 responses in the residential sector; these were supplemented by 162 responses to a web-based survey. The surveys revealed that the majority of households use local authority, rather than private, waste collection services (both are available). The majority of residents, regardless of the local authority in which they live, were satisfied with their waste management service. "Reducing the quantity of waste generated" was regarded the most important future issue for 28% of residential respondents. Statistical analyses of the survey responses showed that the local authority in which respondents resided significantly influenced most responses (including waste collection service used, waste service satisfaction and backyard composting activity). Many responses (including waste service satisfaction, waste management influences) were also significantly related to the respondents' personal characteristics (e.g., education level, type of accommodation, age, etc.). These statistical results proved the hypothesis of the research and demonstrated that waste management initiatives designed for one area of the city (or, indeed, for uniform application to the city as a whole) could ignore the needs of other areas. The survey responses suggest that targeted intervention strategies would lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterising the hydrothermal circulation patterns beneath thermal springs in the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, Ireland: a geophysical and geochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozár, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model of the sources, circulation pathways and temporal variations of two low-enthalpy thermal springs is derived from a multi-disciplinary approach. The springs are situated in the Carboniferous limestones of the Dublin Basin, in east-central Ireland. Kilbrook spring (Co. Kildare) has the highest recorded temperatures for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25.0 °C), and St. Gorman's Well (Co. Meath) has a complex and variable temperature profile (maximum of 21.8 °C). These temperatures are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5 - 10.5 °C), and represent a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys, time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, and hydrochemical analysis, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The hydrochemical analysis indicates that the thermal waters flow within the limestones of the Dublin Basin, and there is evidence that Kilbrook spring receives a contribution from deep-basinal fluids. The time-lapse temperature, electrical conductivity and water level records for St. Gorman's Well indicate a strongly non-linear response to recharge inputs to the system, suggestive of fluid flow in karst conduits. The 3-D electrical resistivity models of the subsurface revealed two types of geological structure beneath the springs; (1) Carboniferous normal faults, and (2) Cenozoic strike-slip faults. These structures are dissolutionally enhanced, particularly where they intersect. The karstification of these structures, which extend to depths of at least 500 m, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 240 and 1,000 m) within the Dublin

  12. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater process streams in Dublin, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Clair; Basha, Shaik; Morrissey, Anne; Tobin, John M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish baseline levels of pharmaceuticals in three wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) streams in the greater Dublin region to assess the removal efficiency of the selected WWTPs and to investigate the existence of any seasonal variability. Twenty compounds including several classes of antibiotics, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, and prescribed medications were selected for investigation using a combination of membrane filtration, solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Fourteen of the selected compounds were found in the samples. Increased effluent concentrations, compared to influent concentrations, for a number of compounds (carbamazepine, clotrimazole, propranolol, nimesulide, furosemide, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, metoprolol, and gemfibrozil) were observed. The detected concentrations were generally below toxicity levels and based on current knowledge are unlikely to pose any threat to aquatic species. Mefenamic acid concentrations detected in both Leixlip and Swords effluents may potentially exert ecotoxicological effects with maximum risk quotients (i.e., ratio of predicted exposure concentration to predicted no effect concentration) of 4.04 and 1.33, respectively.

  13. Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin: a 40-year history of Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shane

    2016-02-01

    To document the evolution over 40 years (from 1973 to 2013) of Coolmine Therapeutic Community (Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service) against a background of broader drug policy developments in the Republic of Ireland and elsewhere during this period. Data were gathered by means of archival research within Coolmine, complemented by semi-structured interviews with former clients, current and former Coolmine management and staff, and representatives of outsider stakeholder interests. Coolmines's history has three phases: (1) an early and uncontentious phase, in which external authorities provided financial support for Coolmine without questioning its work practices or outcomes; (2) a middle, controversial phase, in which Coolmine struggled for survival in an external policy environment now dominated by harm reduction strategies; and (3) a final phase in which, through the use of conventional corporate governance, Coolmine management sought to repair its damaged reputation by introducing evidence-based clinical practices. Coolmine Therapeutic Community was established when drug treatment services in Ireland were in their infancy, and its changing fortunes over subsequent decades reflected changing perceptions of what constitutes appropriate addiction treatment-and in particular the role to be played by former addicts within addiction treatment systems-as well as changing perceptions of funding relationships between statutory authorities and voluntary providers of health and social services. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: a combined measurement and modelling case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J; Gill, L W; McNabola, A

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: A combined measurement and modelling case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.; Gill, L.W.; McNabola, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. - Highlights: • Parked cars and LBWs were assessed as passive controls in an urban street canyon. • The calibrated model combined CFD

  16. The passive control of air pollution exposure in Dublin, Ireland: A combined measurement and modelling case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, J., E-mail: j.gallagher@bangor.ac.uk [School of Energy, Natural Resources and Geography, Bangor University (United Kingdom); Gill, L.W.; McNabola, A. [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the potential real world application of passive control systems to reduce personal pollutant exposure in an urban street canyon in Dublin, Ireland. The implementation of parked cars and/or low boundary walls as a passive control system has been shown to minimise personal exposure to pollutants on footpaths in previous investigations. However, previous research has been limited to generic numerical modelling studies. This study combines real-time traffic data, meteorological conditions and pollution concentrations, in a real world urban street canyon before and after the implementation of a passive control system. Using a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling this study assessed the potential impact of passive controls on personal exposure to nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the street canyon in winter conditions. A calibrated numerical model of the urban street canyon was developed, taking into account the variability in traffic and meteorological conditions. The modelling system combined the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations and a semi-empirical equation, and demonstrated a good agreement with measured field data collected in the street canyon. The results indicated that lane distribution, fleet composition and vehicular turbulence all affected pollutant dispersion, in addition to the canyon geometry and local meteorological conditions. The introduction of passive controls displayed mixed results for improvements in air quality on the footpaths for different wind and traffic conditions. Parked cars demonstrated the most comprehensive passive control system with average improvements in air quality of up to 15% on the footpaths. This study highlights the potential of passive controls in a real street canyon to increase dispersion and improve air quality at street level. - Highlights: • Parked cars and LBWs were assessed as passive controls in an urban street canyon. • The calibrated model combined CFD

  17. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; O' Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea

  18. Multiple‐locus variable‐number tandem repeat analysis of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, M. K.; Torpdahl, M.; Campos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella serovar Dublin causes disease in cattle and leads to considerable production losses. In humans, severe invasive disease and high mortality rates are reported. The presently available typing methods provide insufficient discrimination within Salm. Dublin for epidemiological investigatio...

  19. Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Giese, Coralie

    2015-10-08

    In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p = 0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe.

  20. Molecular characterization of varicella-zoster virus clinical isolates from 2006 to 2008 in a tertiary care hospital, Dublin, Ireland, using different genotyping methods.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roycroft, Emma

    2012-10-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a herpesvirus, is a ubiquitous organism that causes considerable morbidity worldwide and can cause severe complications on reactivation. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on 19 clinical VZV isolates (16 zoster and 3 varicella) found in Ireland, between December 2006 and November 2008, in order to determine whether previously reported viral heterogeneity was still present and whether viral recombination was evident. Open reading-frames (ORFs) from genes 1, 21, 50, and 54, were sequenced. Clades 1, 2, 3, and 5 were identified. Four putative recombinant isolates were detected (three clade 3\\/1 and one clade 5\\/3\\/1). Further sequencing and examination of ORF 22 and 21\\/50, did not elucidate the putative recombinant genotypes further. These two previously published genotyping schemes were examined in light of the new consensus genotyping scheme proposed in 2010. Remarkable VZV heterogeneity remains prevalent in Ireland. This is the first evidence of putative VZV recombination found in Ireland.

  1. The Persistence of Sperm and the Development of Time Since Intercourse (TSI) Guidelines in Sexual Assault Cases at Forensic Science Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, David G; Domijan, Katarina; MacNeill, Sarah; Rizet, Damien; O'Connell, Declan; Ryan, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time. We show the AP reaction is an unsafe and an unreliable predictor of sperm on intimate swabs. We propose that TSI not AP informs precase assessment and the evaluative approach for sexual assault cases. To help inform an evaluative approach, TSI guidelines are presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Imagining Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buciek, Keld

    The capital of the former "Celtic Tiger", Dublin is read in the light of literary criticism and postcolonial theory, and it is argued that both colonial, nationalistic and modern urban ideologies has spatialized itself in the built environment. This paper is based on the assumption that urban...

  3. A comparison of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbon compositions of vehicle fuels and urban air in Dublin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, B M; Marnane, I S [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Hourly roadside hydrocarbon concentrations were measured over a six-week period at a heavily trafficked junction in Dublin city centre. Samples of ten typical leaded and unleaded petrol fuels used in Irish vehicles were also collected and their hydrocarbon compositions determined. The measured ambient hydrocarbon concentrations are presented, as are the properties of each of the analysed fuels. Comparison of the ambient hydrocarbon concentrations and the fuel hydrocarbon composition reveals a strong correlation for most hydrocarbons, except those compounds that were wholly combustion derived (i.e. not present in the fuel). Different characteristics were noted for aromatics, alkanes and alkenes. The comparison of roadside ambient air and fuel hydrocarbon content agrees well with other studies that have compared fuel content and exhaust composition. The relative impacts of exhaust and evaporative emissions on roadside hydrocarbon concentrations are apparent. (Author)

  4. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Photovoltaic System Design as Specifically Applied to Commercial Buildings in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Blackledge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the viability of installing photovoltaic (PV systems in existing commercial buildings in Dublin. Data collected from previously installed photovoltaic systems at the Dublin Institute of Technology was analysed in order to determine the potential solar resource available in Ireland. A 1.1 kWp photovoltaic system installed in Dublin can produce over 900 kWh of electricity in a given year depending on the available solar resource for that year. A feasibility study was conducted in Dublin city centre in order to evaluate the technical, financial and environmental aspects of integrating a PV system into an existing building. The intention is that the results from this work will help in demonstrating the benefits and challenges associated with installing PV systems in existing commercial buildings in Ireland.

  5. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts(trademark) Workshop September 27th-28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    An experts workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th-28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth - WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting (permitting) processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: (1) Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences; (2) Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of handing

  6. Characteristics of gram-negative urinary tract infections caused by extended spectrum beta lactamases: pivmecillinam as a treatment option within South Dublin, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardod O’Kelly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing and the therapeutic options are limited, especially in primary care. Recent indications have suggested pivmecillinam to be a suitable option. This pilot study aimed to assess the viability of pivmecillinam as a therapeutic option in a Dublin cohort of mixed community and healthcare origin. Methods A prospective measurement of mean and fractional inhibitory concentrations of antibiotic use in 95 patients diagnosed with UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was carried out. 36 % patients were from general practice, 40 % were admitted to hospital within south Dublin, and 25 % samples arose from nursing homes. EUCAST breakpoints were used to determine if an isolate was sensitive or resistant to antibiotic agents. Results Sixty-nine percent of patients (N = 66 with urinary ESBL isolates were female. The mean age of females was 66 years compared with a mean age of 74 years for males. Thirty-six percent of isolates originated from primary care, hospital inpatients (26 %, and nursing homes (24 %. The vast majority of ESBL isolates were E. coli (80 %. The E tests for mecillinam and co-amoxiclav had concentration ranges from 0.16 mg/L up to 256 mg/L. The mean inhibitory concentration (MIC of mecillinam ranged from 0.25 to 256 mg/L, while co-amoxiclav MICs ranged from 6 to 256 mg/L. The percentage of isolates resistant to mecillinam and co-amoxiclav was found to be 5.26 and 94.74 % respectively. Conclusions This is the first study exploring the use of pivmecillinam in an Irish cohort and has demonstrated that its use in conjunction with or without co-amoxiclav is an appropriate and useful treatment for urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing organisms.

  7. Imported childhood malaria: the Dublin experience, 1999-2006.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy, T R

    2009-09-01

    Imported childhood malaria has never been studied in Ireland. We aimed to document the incidence and species of malaria in children presenting to paediatric hospitals in Dublin and to examine management and outcome measures.

  8. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  9. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    , proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction......-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable...

  10. 76 FR 22804 - Technical Amendment to List of CBP Preclearance Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...] Technical Amendment to List of CBP Preclearance Offices in Foreign Countries: Addition of Dublin, Ireland... Border Protection (CBP) has added a preclearance station in Dublin, Ireland. CBP officers at preclearance... agriculture laws, as well as other laws enforced by CBP at the U.S. border. Such inspections and examinations...

  11. Ireland's contribution to orthopaedic literature: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C; O Sullivan, P; Bilal, M; Walsh, A

    2013-10-01

    Bibliometric analysis of scientific performance within a country or speciality, facilitate the recognition of factors that may further enhance research activity and performance. Our aim was to illicit the current state of Irelands orthopaedic research output in terms of quantity and quality. We performed a retrospective bibliometric analysis of all Irish orthopaedic publications over the past 5 years, in the top 20 peer-reviewed orthopaedic journals. Utilising the MEDLINE database, each journal was evaluated for articles that were published over the study period. Reviews, editorials, reports and letters were excluded. Each article abstract was analysed for research content, and country of origin. A nation's mean IF was defined by multiplying each journal's IF by the number of articles. Publications per million (PmP) was calculated by dividing the total number of publications by the population of each country. We analysed a total of 25,595 article abstracts. Ireland contributed 109 articles in total (0.42% of all articles), however ranking according to population per million was 10th worldwide. Ireland ranked 18th worldwide in relation to mean impact factor, which was 2.91 over the study period. Ireland published in 16 of the top 20 journals, 9 of these were of European origin, and 1 of the top 5 was of American origin. In total, 61 Irish articles were assignable to clinical orthopaedic units. Clinical based studies (randomised controlled trials, observational, and epidemiology/bibliometric articles) and research based studies (In vivo, In vitro, and biomechanical) numbered 76 (69.7%) and 33 (30.2%) articles, respectively. This study provides a novel overview of current Irish orthopaedic related research, and how our standards translate to the worldwide orthopaedic community. In order to maintain our publication productivity, academic research should continue to be encouraged at post graduate level. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE DATA OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE FUNCTIONAL POWER IN IRELAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gataullina, K.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization processes put a number of regional languages on the verge of extinction, therefore, they have raised awareness of protecting and maintaining the minority languages among a great number of foreign and Russian scholars. The paper deals with Irish that is under protection of the European Charter for regional and Minority Languages in UK and is an official language of Ireland. The research is aimed at comparing the Irish language position in both regions: Ireland and Northern Ireland. Reviewing the quantitative data in the regions under the study allows us to see clearly the language situation, monitor development, and relying on the achieved results, assess the current state and predict the future of Irish in both regions. The research results are considered to be of practical use for further language planning, improving the efficiency of language policies.

  13. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  14. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  15. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  16. The Emergence, Development and Influence of French Haute Cuisine on Public Dining in Dublin Restaurants 1900-2000: an Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín

    2009-01-01

    The words Dublin or Ireland do not immediately come to mind when haute cuisine is mentioned. However, two leading French chefs, the brothers Francois and Michel Jammet, opened a restaurant in Dublin in 1901 which, up until its closure in 1967, remained one of the best restaurants serving haute cuisine in the world (Mac Con Iomaire 2005a; Mac Con Iomaire 2006). Haute cuisine was served in many Dublin hotels, clubs and restaurants during the twentieth century and came under similar influences a...

  17. Iodine intake in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.A.; Hetherton, A.M.; O'Carroll, D.; Smith, D.F.; O'Halloran, M.J.; O'Donovan, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A study of urinary iodine excretion and thyroid gland uptake of radioactive iodine 131 I was undertaken in the Dublin area with a view to providing data on the current iodine status in Ireland. A mean urinary iodine excretion of 118±82μg/gram creatinine (Median 96) obtained from 821 subjects attending general hospital outpatient clinics in the Dublin area in 1987, while excluding severe iodine deficiency in this particular cohort, obscured the fact that 250 (30%) had iodine excretion values ≤70 μ/g creatinine, a value approximating to the minimum daily iodine requirement. The results provide sufficient evidence of sporadic iodine deficiency to justify a more widespread study of the iodine status of the Irish population with a view to making recommendations on the possible need for iodine prophylaxis

  18. Trends in air pollution in Ireland : A decomposition analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the emissions to air of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ammonia in Ireland are analysed with a logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition for the period of 1990-2009. Emissions fell for four of the five pollutants, with ammonia being

  19. The most crabbed of all earthly music: the performance of Bach's vocal music in Dublin in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Barra

    2004-01-01

    When the 'Crucifixus' from Bach's Mass in B minor was performed for the first time in Ireland, by the University of Dublin Choral Society in May 1865, the Dublin Daily Express described it as 'this most crabbed of all earthly music'.

  20. Ireland's recent contribution to the radiological literature; a bibliometric analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Redmond, CE

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyse all articles published by Irish radiology departments in the medical literature since the year 2000. The PubMed database was searched to identify and review all articles published by radiologists based in the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland. Citation counts were then obtained and the top ten most cited articles were identified. There were 781 articles published during the study period. Of these, 558 (71%) were published in radiology journals and the remaining 223 (29%) were published in general medical journals. Abdominal radiology was the most represented sub-specialty (33% of all articles). There was a general trend of increased publications per year. Only 75 (9.6%) of articles were collaborative efforts by more than one radiology department. Irish radiology departments have a considerable research output and this has increased since the year 2000. More collaborative research between Irish radiology departments is encouraged

  1. Identification and analysis of needs: the situation in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper I commence by outlining the arrangements for controlling and regulating the use of sources of ionizing radiation in Ireland. I then go on to describe the type and scope of training of various categories of personnel who are occupationally exposed. In doing so, I have distinguished between training received as part of general education and training programmes for different trades and professions and training given in dedicated courses. I have highlighted some of the shortcomings in training which, from the standpoint of the regulatory authority, have been noted and made suggestions as to how these might be remedied. I also briefly discuss the implications that the absence of a nuclear power facility in Ireland has for training

  2. The Dublin Declaration on Maternal Health Care and Anti-Abortion Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Dublin Declaration on Maternal Healthcare—issued by self-declared pro-life activists in Ireland in 2012—states unequivocally that abortion is never medically necessary, even to save the life of a pregnant woman. This article examines the influence of the Dublin Declaration on abortion politics in Latin America, especially El Salvador and Chile, where it has recently been used in pro-life organizing to cast doubt on the notion that legalizing abortion will reduce maternal mortality. Its framers argue that legalizing abortion will not improve maternal mortality rates, but reproductive rights advocates respond that the Dublin Declaration is junk science designed to preserve the world’s most restrictive abortion laws. Analyzing the strategy and impact of the Dublin Declaration brings to light one of the tactics used in anti-abortion organizing. PMID:28630540

  3. Empirical water depth predictions in Dublin Bay based on satellite EO multispectral imagery and multibeam data using spatially weighted geographical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, Xavier; Harris, Paul; Caloca, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and expensive environment within which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods. Dangers and limited swath coverage make some of these areas unfeasible to survey using ship borne systems, and turbidity can preclude marine LIDAR. As a result, an extensive part of the coastline worldwide remains completely unmapped. Satellite EO multispectral data, after processing, allows timely, cost efficient and quality controlled information to be used for planning, monitoring, and regulating coastal environments. It has the potential to deliver repetitive derivation of medium resolution bathymetry, coastal water properties and seafloor characteristics in shallow waters. Over the last 30 years satellite passive imaging methods for bathymetry extraction, implementing analytical or empirical methods, have had a limited success predicting water depths. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to varying depths. They can provide acceptable results up to 20 m but become less accurate in deeper waters. The study area is located in the inner part of Dublin Bay, on the East coast of Ireland. The region investigated is a C-shaped inlet covering an area of 10 km long and 5 km wide with water depths ranging from 0 to 10 m. The methodology employed on this research uses a ratio of reflectance from SPOT 5 satellite bands, differing to standard linear transform algorithms. High accuracy water depths were derived using multibeam data. The final empirical model uses spatially weighted geographical tools to retrieve predicted depths. The results of this paper confirm that SPOT satellite scenes are suitable to predict depths using empirical models in very shallow embayments. Spatial regression models show better adjustments in the predictions over non-spatial models. The spatial regression equation used provides realistic results down to 6 m below the water surface, with

  4. The North American coach tourist to Ireland: a factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Marie; Deegan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the most significant travel behaviours and characteristics of North American coach tourists visiting Ireland. The data, identifying travel behaviours and characteristics, such as travel constraints, motivation, activities, accommodation attributes, life focus and personality traits was elucidated from questionnaires (n = 741) distributed to North American coach tourists that visited Ireland between June 2007 and March 2008. Factor analysis, which is ...

  5. Glebe House Nursing Home, Kilternan Care Centre, Glebe Road, Kilternan, Dublin 18.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2009-01-08

    In November and December 2008, six cases of suspect wound botulism were reported in heroin injecting drug users, all residents in Dublin, Ireland. Patients were aged between 23-42 years of age; four cases were male; one patient died shortly after admission. The patients presented to four different hospitals across the city. Botulism in injecting drug users in Ireland was last reported in 2002.

  6. Introducing LIR (Lithotheque Ireland, a reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Driscoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The LIR (Lithotheque Ireland reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland began in 2013, and is based on the geological prospection from two projects. The first (2013-2015 focused attention primarily on Carboniferous cherts from the northwest of Ireland, collecting 405 samples. The second (2015-2017 is currently collecting samples of the Cretaceous flint primarily from in situ contexts in the northeast of Ireland, but also includes beach surveys of Cretaceous flint from around the island; the first phase of geological prospection in Autumn 2015 collected 239 samples, with the geological prospection continuing in 2016. Therefore, to date the collection contains over 600 hand samples of chert and flint, along with a small number of other materials (siliceous limestone, tuff, mudstone. The physical reference collection is housed at the UCD School of Archaeology, University College Dublin and contains the geological hand samples along with the various thin sections of the samples that are used for petrographic analysis. The physical collection is complemented by an online database that is to be used alongside the physical collection, or can be used as a stand-alone resource. This paper provides an overview of the database’s metadata and the processes of data entry and editing, to serve as a reference point for the database and the fieldwork undertaken to date, and to serve as a template for other researchers undertaking similar work on lithic reference collections.

  7. Time-to-event analysis of predictors for recovery from Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2002 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin infections reduce gross margins and compromise animal health and welfare in dairy cattle herds. Despite on-going control efforts in several countries the duration and risk factors of a persistent infection have been difficult to study due to a lack of suitable data. This study...

  8. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  9. Phenylketonuria mutation analysis in Northern Ireland: A rapid stepwise approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschocke, J.; Graham, C.A.; Nevin, N.C. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast (Australia)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    We present a multistep approach for the rapid analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations. In the first step, three common mutations and a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) system are rapidly analyzed with a fluorescent multiplex assay. In the second step, minihaplotypes combining STR and VNTR data are used to determine rare mutations likely to be present in an investigated patient, which are then confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. The remaining mutations are analyzed with denaturant gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The first two steps together identify both mutations in 90%-95% of PKU patients, and results can be obtained within 2 d. We have investigated 121 Northern Irish families with hyperphenylalaninemia, including virtually all patients born since 1972, and have found 34 different mutations on 241 of the 242 mutant alleles. Three mutations (R408W, 165T, and F39L) account for 57.5% of mutations, while 14 mutations occur with a frequency of 1%-6%. The present analysis system is efficient and inexpensive and is particularly well suited to routine mutation analysis in a diagnostic setting. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. A budget impact analysis of natalizumab use in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, A

    2011-10-20

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is the commonest cause of disability in young Irish adults. Natalizumab reduces disability progression in those patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who are suitable for it. First line disease modifying therapies are given in the community and are paid for by the hi-tech drug scheme. Natalizumab is given in hospital and is paid for from the hospital\\'s budget. Access to natalizumab has been problematic in some Irish hospitals. A budget impact analysis was performed to look at the overall cost to the Health Service Executive of giving natalizumab. METHODS: A budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Health Service Executive comparing the use of natalizumab with first line disease modifying therapies for 2009-2011. RESULTS: The study showed that currently, the use of natalizumab is likely to be cost saving to the Health Service Executive overall, because some of the costs for natalizumab are borne by private insurers, whereas, all of the costs of disease modifying therapies are borne by the Health Service Executive. CONCLUSIONS: Although the use of natalizumab is cost saving, current funding arrangements in the Health Service Executive do not allow for the transfer of money saved from drugs paid for in the hi-tech scheme, to hospitals who are supplying alternative treatments.

  11. Energy Security Analysis: The case of constrained oil supply for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, James; Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Bazilian, Morgan; Gallachóir, Brian Ó

    2014-01-01

    Ireland imports 88% of its energy requirements. Oil makes up 59% of total final energy consumption (TFC). Import dependency, low fuel diversity and volatile prices leave Ireland vulnerable in terms of energy security. This work models energy security scenarios for Ireland using long term macroeconomic forecasts to 2050, with oil production and price scenarios from the International Monetary Fund, within the Irish TIMES energy systems model. The analysis focuses on developing a least cost optimum energy system for Ireland under scenarios of constrained oil supply (0.8% annual import growth, and –2% annual import decline) and subsequent sustained long term price shocks to oil and gas imports. The results point to gas becoming the dominant fuel source for Ireland, at 54% total final energy consumption in 2020, supplanting oil from reference projections of 57% to 10.8% TFC. In 2012, the cost of net oil imports stood at €3.6 billion (2.26% GDP). The modelled high oil and gas price scenarios show an additional annual cost in comparison to a reference of between €2.9bn and €7.5bn by 2020 (1.9–4.9% of GDP) to choose to develop a least cost energy system. Investment and ramifications for energy security are discussed. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security within a techno-economic model of Ireland to 2050. • We impose scenarios constraints of volume and price derived from IMF forecasting. • Continued high oil prices lead to natural gas supplanting oil at 54% TFC by 2020. • Declining oil production induces additional energy system costs of 7.9% GDP by 2020. • High oil and gas prices are likely to strain existing Irish gas import infrastructure

  12. Simulating Climate Change in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P.; Lynch, P.

    2012-04-01

    At the Meteorology & Climate Centre at University College Dublin, we are using the CLM-Community's COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model (RCM) and the WRF RCM (developed at NCAR) to simulate the climate of Ireland at high spatial resolution. To address the issue of model uncertainty, a Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) approach is used. The ensemble method uses different RCMs, driven by several Global Climate Models (GCMs), to simulate climate change. Through the MME approach, the uncertainty in the RCM projections is quantified, enabling us to estimate the probability density function of predicted changes, and providing a measure of confidence in the predictions. The RCMs were validated by performing a 20-year simulation of the Irish climate (1981-2000), driven by ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis data, and comparing the output to observations. Results confirm that the output of the RCMs exhibit reasonable and realistic features as documented in the historical data record. Projections for the future Irish climate were generated by downscaling the Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5 GCM, the UK Met Office HadGEM2-ES GCM and the CGCM3.1 GCM from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling. Simulations were run for a reference period 1961-2000 and future period 2021-2060. The future climate was simulated using the A1B, A2, B1, RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results for the downscaled simulations show a substantial overall increase in precipitation and wind speed for the future winter months and a decrease during the summer months. The predicted annual change in temperature is approximately 1.1°C over Ireland. To date, all RCM projections are in general agreement, thus increasing our confidence in the robustness of the results.

  13. Debt Development in Ireland and Spain: the Same or Different? Pre- and Post-crisis Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Ptak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the development of general government debt in two Eurozone countries: Ireland and Spain that suffered from serious imbalance in public finance during the last crisis. Prior to the crisis, both economies were developing well against the background of the whole Eurozone and had a relatively good situation in public finance. The genesis of the crisis was also quite similar in these two countries. The similarity of factors influencing the crisis and the pre-crisis high development of both economies were among the reasons for selection of these two countries to be compared. Thus, the article focuses on the outbreak of the crisis and the fiscal consolidation period of 2008-2015, however the pre-crisis analysis is also provided. The debt sustainability analysis carried out in the article shows the possibility of growing out of debt in both countries depending on the macroeconomic circumstances. Both Ireland and Spain have been aiming to achieve a primary surplus. Besides the similarity of pre-crisis conditions, in this respect, the progress was highly noticeable, especially in Ireland, where it resulted from a fiscal consolidation but also a high real GDP dynamics that supported the process. Due to this, Ireland has already managed to lower the debt-to- -GDP ratio and put it on a downward path. Spain, on the contrary, has recorded a high debt-to-GDP ratio which is still on the upward path and is forecasted to continue until 2016.

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on the use of pig meat inspection as a health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Boyle, L; Teixeira, D L; O'Connell, N E; Hawe, M; Hanlon, A

    2016-01-01

    A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a strategic management tool applied to policy planning and decision-making. This short report presents the results of a SWOT analysis, carried out with n  = 16 stakeholders i) involved in the pig industry in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, and ii) in general animal welfare and food safety policy areas. As part of a larger study called PIGWELFIND, the analysis sought to explore the potential development of pig meat inspection as an animal welfare and diagnostic tool. The final SWOT framework comprised two strengths, three opportunities, six weaknesses, and five threats. Issues around relationships and communication between producers and their veterinary practitioner, processors and producers were common to both the strengths and weakness clusters. Practical challenges within the processing plant were also named. Overall, the SWOT framework complements results reported in Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016) regarding problematic issues within the current system of information feedback on meat inspection especially within the Republic of Ireland, and the wider challenges of communication and problems of distrust. The results of the SWOT analysis support the conclusions from Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016), that trust between all stakeholders across the supply chain will be essential for the development of an effective environment in which to realise the full diagnostic potential of MI data. Further stakeholder engagement could seek to apply the findings of the SWOT analysis to a policy Delphi methodology, as used elsewhere.

  15. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. 113.123... Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella dublin which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of...

  16. Dublin Traitors” or “Gallants of Dublin” The Argentine Newspapers and the Easter Rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Galazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Rising was a turning point in contemporary Irish history. Although it lasted for a few days, from Monday 24 to Saturday 29 April, 1916, it had great impact in Ireland itself, and it also aroused considerable interest in many other countries, particularly in those with a significant Irish community, as in the case of Argentina. The aim of this paper is to study the way in which the contemporary Argentine graphic media (published in Spanish and in English presented and commented about the events that took place in Dublin. While it will try to contribute to the knowledge of the global echoes of the Easter Rising, this analysis will seek to help in a better understanding of the ideas of the English-speaking groups in Argentina, and particularly of the Irish community in that country, a group formed mainly by Argentine-born people of Irish descent.

  17. The Role of Women in Music in Nineteenth-Century Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    During the nineteenth century the position of women in music grew throughout Europe, and Ireland was no exception. In Dublin, women went from participating in the city's musical culture as performers to participating as teachers, composers, organisers, performers and writers. In the first half of the century, private music teachers such as Mrs Allen represented women's first steps into promoting Irish music. With the re-organisation of the Royal Irish Academy of Music in 185...

  18. ENTERPRISE IRELAND: Design for Competitive Advantage Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A stimulating conference bringing together world leading experts on design to address the importance of brand development strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, specialised in the creation of brand development strategies for Enterprise Ireland’s Design Unit. Peter was responsible for the design and development of the the brand identity for the Enterprise Ireland Design for Competitive Advantage Conference in Dublin.

  19. Criminal Courts of Justice, Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tooth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.

  20. Case study feasibility analysis of the Pelamis wave energy convertor in Ireland, Portugal and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, G.J.; Alcorn, R.; Lewis, T.

    2010-01-01

    The performance and economic viability of the Pelamis wave energy converter (WEC) has been investigated over a 20 year project time period using 2007 wave energy data from various global locations: Ireland, Portugal, USA and Canada. Previous reports assessing the Pelamis quote a disparate range of financial returns for the Pelamis, necessitating a comparative standardised assessment of wave energy economic indicators. An Excel model (NAVITAS) was created for this purpose which estimated the annual energy output of Pelamis for each location using wave height (H s ) and period (T z ) data, and produced financial results dependant on various input parameters. The economic indicators used for the analysis were cost of electricity (COE), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR), modelled at a tariff rate of EUR0.20/kWh. Analysis of the wave energy data showed that the highest annual energy output (AEO) and capacity for the Pelamis was the Irish site, as expected. Portugal returned lower AOE similar to the lesser North American sites. Monthly energy output was highest in the winter, and was particularly evident in the Irish location. Moreover, the difference between the winter wave energy input and the Pelamis energy output for Ireland was also significant as indicated by the capture width, suggesting that Pelamis design was not efficiently capturing all the wave energy states present during that period. Modelling of COE for the various case study locations showed large variation in returns, depending on the number of WEC modelled and the initial cost input and learning curve. COE was highest when modelling single WEC in comparison to multiples, as well as when using 2004 initial costs in comparison to 2008 costs (at which time price of materials peaked). Ireland returned the lowest COE of EUR0.05/kWh modelling over 100 WEC at 2004 cost of materials, and EUR0.15/kWh at 2008 prices. Although favourable COE were recorded from some of the modelled scenarios

  1. Health aspects of air pollution in Dublin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevany, J; Rooney, M; Kennedy, J

    1975-01-01

    A study of the relationship between air pollution and specific health indicators in Dublin from 1970 to 1973 was undertaken using partial correlation analysis. Smoke and sulfur dioxide, accepted as indicators of general pollution conditions, were measured in the study. The indicators of health were deaths and hospital admissions of elderly and chronically ill people due to cardiovascular and respiratory illness, other than influenza and tonsillitis. Because temperature is also known to affect cardiovascular and respiratory illness, maximum daily temperature was chosen as the controlled weather variable. Mortality for cardiovascular disease was significantly correlated with SO/sub 2/ levels within the same 24 hr. Ischemic heart disease was the major component of this correlation. There is a progressive positive correlation at increasing threshold levels. These correlations were not sustained with a lag period of two days nor in relation to smoke indicators at any lag period or threshold level. Mortality for respiratory disease was less consistently associated with air pollution than cardiovascular disease. Levels of SO/sub 2/ up to 75 micrograms/cu m did not produce any significant response in terms of mortality. From 100 micrograms/cu m upwards there is a strong correlation with details from acute respiratory disease, principally acute bronchitis. At 150 micrograms/cu m threshold there is also a strong correlation with deaths from chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. No significant correlations existed for smoke at any threshold or lag period. Implications for community health are discussed.

  2. The Medieval Dublin Project: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall O'hOisin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Medieval Dublin Project. It covers the development and release of the DVD ‘Medieval Dublin: From Vikings to Tudors (Schools Edition,’ and outlines the major virtual and interactive features developed for that release. The paper also covers the collaboration that took place between the DVD development team and the academic community and discusses the ways in which 3D visualisations, timelines, interactivity and character-based storytelling were used to present Dublin’s archaeological heritage in an engaging and interesting way

  3. An economic cost analysis of emergency department key performance indicators in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda; Jones, Cheryl; McCabe, Aileen; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Wakai, Abel

    2017-06-01

    High quality data is fundamental to using key performance indicators (KPIs) for performance monitoring. However, the resources required to collect high quality data are often significant and should usually be targeted at high priority areas. As part of a study of 11 emergency department (ED) KPIs in Ireland, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the relative cost of collecting the additional minimum data set (MDS) elements for those 11 KPIs. An economic cost analysis focused on 12 EDs in the Republic of Ireland. The resource use data were obtained using two separate focus group interviews. The number of available MDS elements was obtained from a sample of 100 patient records per KPI per participating ED. Unit costs for all resource use were taken at the midpoint of the relevant staff salary scales. An ED would need to spend an estimated additional &OV0556;3561 per month on average to capture all the MDS elements relevant to the 11 KPIs investigated. The additional cost ranges from 14.8 to 39.2%; this range is 13.9-32.3% for small EDs, whereas the range for medium EDs is 11.7-40%. Regional EDs have a higher additional estimated cost to capture all the relevant MDS elements (&OV0556;3907), compared with urban EDs (&OV0556;3353). The additional cost of data collection, contingent on that already collected, required to capture all the relevant MDS elements for the KPIs examined, ranges from 14.8 to 39.2% per KPI, with variation identified between regional and urban hospitals.

  4. Formal Food-related Networks in Ireland: A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Henchion

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Strategic networking is of crucial importance for innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs as it enables these companies access external resources and overcome internal constraints. However, SMEs often lack the skills and competencies to engage in and benefit from networks. Consequently SMEs often fail in establishing strategic and efficient networks. To date, there is limited guidance available on the optimal design of such networks. Furthermore, limited guidance is available on the number of networks, and level of engagement therein, that companies should be involved with. Using case studies across a range of formal networks within the food sector in Ireland, insights into the success factors and barriers to network learning are presented, which provide a foundation for such guidelines. Three case studies were selected for analysis in Ireland. Up to ten in-depth interviews were scheduled with the network managers and key informants from the triple helix (i.e. policy, research and industry sectors within each formal network. Initially, interviewees were identified as a result of a review of secondary sources and personal knowledge of the authors. The snowball sampling technique was then employed to identify additional interviewees within each network. The findings from this study revealed that some formal networks had a strong institutional influence, including significant financial inputs, whilst others had bottom-up origins. Many networks had strong levels of interaction prior to formalisation, which provided solid trust-based foundations. Innovation and/or learning were not the expressed objectives of all networks at the outset. However, interviewees across all three networks felt that positive impacts had been achieved in these areas. Whilst being involved in a broad network can provide access to a wider range of ideas, these case studies suggest that being involved in a smaller, dense network, with high levels of IP

  5. Exposure to hydrocarbon concentrations while commuting or exercising in Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Gill, L W; McKevitt, R J; Broderick, B

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, several studies have monitored the air pollution due to traffic in both urban and rural environments. However, few studies have attempted to quantify the relative exposure to traffic derived HC pollutants between different modes of commuter transport. In this study, the difference in pollution exposure between bus and cycling commuters on a route in Dublin was compared by sampling for five vehicle related hydrocarbons: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, ethane and ethylene. Samples were collected during both morning and afternoon rush hour periods using a fixed speed pump to gain representative concentrations across the whole journey. Journey times were also measured, as were typical breathing rates in order to calculate the overall dose of pollutant inhaled on the journey. Results clearly picked up significantly higher pollutant concentrations in the bus compared to cycling and also revealed elevated concentrations on the congested side of the road compared to the side moving against the traffic. However, when respiration rates and travel times were taken into account to reveal the mass of pollutants inhaled over the course of a journey, the pattern was reversed, showing slightly enhanced levels of hydrocarbons for the cyclist compared to the bus passenger. In addition, the concentrations of these compounds (excluding ethane), were ascertained at playing pitches in the vicinity of a heavily trafficked suburban motorway and in Dublin city centre. Although the concentrations were relatively low at all sites, when breathing rates were taken into consideration, the average inhaled weights of pollutants were, on occasion, higher than those average values observed for both bus and bicycle commuters.

  6. An Analysis of Gender Diversity in Urology in the UK and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, E M; Nason, G J; Manecksha, R P

    2017-12-18

    Traditionally, surgery and certain surgical sub-specialities in particular have been predominantly male orientated. In recent years, there has been an increased proportion of female medical graduates which will ultimately have an effect on speciality choices. The aim of this study was to assess the gender diversity among urologists in the UK and Ireland. The total number and gender breakdown of consultant urologists and trainees in the UK and Ireland was obtained from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) and the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) membership offices. The total number and gender breakdown of medical school entrants and graduates in 2015 was obtained from the six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland. There are a total of 1,012 consultant urologists in the UK and Ireland. In the UK, 141 (14.6%) are female compared to four (8.2%) in Ireland, p= 0.531. There was a significant increase in the number of females between consultant urologists and trainees in both the UK (p=0.0001) and Ireland (p=0.015). In recent years, there has been a significant change in the percentage of female trainees in the UK and Ireland (22.8% (n=75) in 2011 vs 31.7% (n=93) in 2014, p=0.019. Between the six medical schools in Ireland, there were significantly more female entrants (n=726, 56.5%) than female graduates (n=521, 51.2%) in 2015, p=0.013.There has been a significant shift in gender diversity in urology in the UK and Ireland. Efforts to increase diversity should be pursued to attract further trainees to urology.

  7. An Analysis of Gender Diversity in Urology in the UK and Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    E M O’Connor, E M

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally, surgery and certain surgical sub-specialities in particular have been predominantly male orientated. In recent years, there has been an increased proportion of female medical graduates which will ultimately have an effect on speciality choices. The aim of this study was to assess the gender diversity among urologists in the UK and Ireland. The total number and gender breakdown of consultant urologists and trainees in the UK and Ireland was obtained from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) and the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) membership offices. The total number and gender breakdown of medical school entrants and graduates in 2015 was obtained from the six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland. There are a total of 1,012 consultant urologists in the UK and Ireland. In the UK, 141 (14.6%) are female compared to four (8.2%) in Ireland, p= 0.531. There was a significant increase in the number of females between consultant urologists and trainees in both the UK (p=0.0001) and Ireland (p=0.015). In recent years, there has been a significant change in the percentage of female trainees in the UK and Ireland (22.8% (n=75) in 2011 vs 31.7% (n=93) in 2014, p=0.019. Between the six medical schools in Ireland, there were significantly more female entrants (n=726, 56.5%) than female graduates (n=521, 51.2%) in 2015, p=0.013.There has been a significant shift in gender diversity in urology in the UK and Ireland. Efforts to increase diversity should be pursued to attract further trainees to urology.

  8. The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland Simulation Training programme: a descriptive report and analysis of course participants' feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafferkey, Aine; Coyle, Elizabeth; Greaney, David; Harte, Sinead; Hayes, Niamh; Langdon, Miriam; Straub, Birgitt; Burlacu, Crina

    2018-03-20

    Simulation-based education is a modern training modality that allows healthcare professionals to develop knowledge and practice skills in a safe learning environment. The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland (CAI) was the first Irish postgraduate medical training body to introduce mandatory simulation training into its curriculum. Extensive quality assurance and improvement data has been collected on all simulation courses to date. Describe The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland Simulation Training (CAST) programme and report the analysis of course participants' feedback. A retrospective review of feedback forms from four simulation courses from March 2010 to August 2016 took place. Qualitative and quantitative data from 1069 participants who attended 112 courses was analysed. Feedback was overall very positive. Course content and delivery were deemed to be appropriate. Participants agreed that course participation would influence their future practice. A statistically significant difference (P simulation training in specialist anaesthesia training in Ireland.

  9. Bullying and Cyberbullying Studies in the School-Aged Population on the Island of Ireland: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna; O'Higgins Norman, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bullying research has gained a substantial amount of interest in recent years because of the implications for child and adolescent development. Aim and sample: We conducted a meta-analysis of traditional and cyberbullying studies in the Republic and North of Ireland to gain an understanding of prevalence rates and associated issues…

  10. Developing recommendations to improve the quality of diabetes care in Ireland: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Hugh, Sheena M; Perry, Ivan J; Bradley, Colin; Brugha, Ruairí

    2014-09-18

    In 2006, the Health Service Executive (HSE) in Ireland established an Expert Advisory Group (EAG) for Diabetes, to act as its main source of operational policy and strategic advice for this chronic condition. The process was heralded as the starting point for the development of formal chronic disease management programmes. Although recommendations were published in 2008, implementation did not proceed as expected. Our aim was to examine the development of recommendations by the EAG as an instrumental case study of the policy formulation process, in the context of a health system undergoing organisational and financial upheaval. This study uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Theory to examine the evolution of the EAG recommendations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 stakeholders from the advisory group. Interview data were supplemented with documentary analysis of published and unpublished documents. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the Kingdon model. In the problem stream, the prioritisation of diabetes within the policy arena was a gradual process resulting from an accumulation of evidence, international comparison, and experience. The policy stream was bolstered by group consensus rather than complete agreement on the best way to manage the condition. The EAG assumed the politics stream was also on course to converge with the other streams, as the group was established by the HSE, which had the remit for policy implementation. However, the politics stream did not converge due to waning support from health service management and changes to the organisational structure and financial capacity of the health system. These changes trumped the EAG process and the policy window remained closed, stalling implementation. Our results reflect the dynamic nature of the policy process and the importance of timing. The results highlight the limits of rational policy making in the face of organisational and fiscal upheaval

  11. Decomposition analysis of gas consumption in the residential sector in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogan, Fionn; Cahill, Caiman J.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    To-date, decomposition analysis has been widely used at the macro-economic level and for in-depth analyses of the industry and transport sectors; however, its application in the residential sector has been rare. This paper uses the Log-Mean Divisia Index I (LMDI-I) methodology to decompose gas consumption trends in the gas-connected residential sector in Ireland from 1990 to 2008, which despite an increasing number of energy efficiency policies, experienced total final consumption growth of 470%. The analysis decomposes this change in gas consumption into a number of effects, examining the impact over time of market factors such as a growing customer base, varying mix of dwelling types, changing share of vacant dwellings, changing size of new dwellings, the impact of building regulations policy and other factors such as the weather. The analysis finds the most significant effects are changing customer numbers and changing intensity; the analysis also quantifies the impact of building regulations and compares it with other effects such as changing size of new dwellings. By comparing the historical impact on gas consumption of policy factors and non-policy factors, this paper highlights the challenge for policy-makers in achieving overall energy consumption reduction. - Highlights: ► Contribution to a gap in the literature with a residential sector decomposition analysis of gas TFC. ► Activity effect had the largest impact and was cumulatively the best explainer of total TFC change. ► Intensity effect was the second biggest effect with a 19% share of total TFC change. ► In line with rising surface temperatures, the weather effect is declining over time. ► Building regulations are having a diminishing impact but are being negated by larger dwellings.

  12. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  13. Health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin. Clinical records of all 150 new prostitutes who attended a drop-in clinic for prostitutes in Dublin city during the period 1991-1997 were reviewed. Variables examined included: age, use of injectable drugs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, hepatitis B and C status, presence of sexually transmitted disease (STD), cervical cytology. Results showed the mean age of the women was 32 years. Among those tested, 2.5% were HIV positive, 5% were hepatitis B positive, 8% were hepatitis C positive and 25% had an STD. Almost 8% were injecting drug users (IDU) with higher prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B and C compared with non-IDU (P < 0.001). The clinic has been successful in providing a health-care facility for the specific health needs of this patient cohort.

  14. Diageo's 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' Campaign in Ireland: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Durand, Mary Alison; Knai, Cécile; Davoren, Martin; Perry, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded 'responsible drinking' campaign ("Stop out of Control Drinking", or SOOCD) in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i) alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii) possible solutions. Documentary analysis of SOOCD campaign material. This includes newspaper articles (n = 9), media interviews (n = 11), Facebook posts (n = 92), and Tweets (n = 340) produced by the campaign and by board members. All material was coded inductively, and a thematic analysis undertaken, with codes aggregated into sub-themes. The SOOCD campaign utilises vague or self-defined concepts of 'out of control' and 'moderate' drinking, tending to present alcohol problems as behavioural rather than health issues. These are also unquantified with respect to actual drinking levels. It emphasises alcohol-related antisocial behaviour among young people, particularly young women. In discussing solutions to alcohol-related problems, it focuses on public opinion rather than on scientific evidence, and on educational approaches and information provision, misrepresenting these as effective. "Moderate drinking" is presented as a behavioural issue ("negative drinking behaviours"), rather than as a health issue. The 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' campaign frames alcohol problems and solutions in ways unfavourable to public health, and closely reflects other Diageo Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activity, as well as alcohol and tobacco industry strategies more generally. This framing, and in particular the framing of alcohol harms as a behavioural issue, with the implication that consumption should be guided only by self-defined limits, may not have been recognised by all

  15. Diageo's 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' Campaign in Ireland: An Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Petticrew

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded 'responsible drinking' campaign ("Stop out of Control Drinking", or SOOCD in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii possible solutions.Documentary analysis of SOOCD campaign material. This includes newspaper articles (n = 9, media interviews (n = 11, Facebook posts (n = 92, and Tweets (n = 340 produced by the campaign and by board members. All material was coded inductively, and a thematic analysis undertaken, with codes aggregated into sub-themes.The SOOCD campaign utilises vague or self-defined concepts of 'out of control' and 'moderate' drinking, tending to present alcohol problems as behavioural rather than health issues. These are also unquantified with respect to actual drinking levels. It emphasises alcohol-related antisocial behaviour among young people, particularly young women. In discussing solutions to alcohol-related problems, it focuses on public opinion rather than on scientific evidence, and on educational approaches and information provision, misrepresenting these as effective. "Moderate drinking" is presented as a behavioural issue ("negative drinking behaviours", rather than as a health issue.The 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' campaign frames alcohol problems and solutions in ways unfavourable to public health, and closely reflects other Diageo Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR activity, as well as alcohol and tobacco industry strategies more generally. This framing, and in particular the framing of alcohol harms as a behavioural issue, with the implication that consumption should be guided only by self-defined limits, may not have been recognised by

  16. Transport planning in Dublin and Edinburgh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, W.J.; O' Mahoney, M.M. [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    1999-08-01

    Dublin and Edinburgh are cities of broadly comparable size, form, history and function. Both face similar transport and related problems. In the mid-to-late twentieth century, their policies in these areas have been similar in some respects but differed markedly in others. This paper establishes similarities in form and function between the cities and outlines and reviews the past four decades or so of transport planning in both cases. Notable areas of contrast are identified and are reviewed in greater depth, special attention being given to areas where Edinburgh's experience relates to current debates in Dublin. The principal areas examined include the comparison between light rail transit (LRT) and busways, underground operation of LRT in city centres, the structure of public consultation processes, the differences between strategic studies recommending a single strategy and those offering a choice, and road pricing as a restraint strategy. Finally, conclusions are drawn from this examination, particular attention being given to areas where Edinburgh's experience might be of interest to Dublin. (author)

  17. Spatial analysis and risk mapping of Fasciola hepatica infection in dairy herds in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Selemetas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can cause marked economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Ireland using an in-house antibodydetection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay applied to bulk tank milk (BTM samples collected during the autumn of 2012. A total of 5,116 BTM samples were collected from 4,602 different herds, with 514 farmers submitting BTM samples in two consecutive months. Analysis of the BTM samples showed that 82% (n = 3,764 of the dairy herds had been exposed to Fasciola hepatica. A total of 108 variables, including averaged climatic data for the period 1981-2010 and contemporary meteorological data for the year 2012, such as soil, subsoil, land cover and habitat maps, were investigated for a possible role as predictor of fasciolosis. Using mainly climatic variables as the major predictors, a model of the predicted risk of fasciolosis was created by Random Forest modelling that had 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The most important predictors in descending order of importance were: average of annual total number of rain-days for the period 1981-2010, total rainfall during September, winter and autumn of 2012, average of annual total number of wet-days for the period 1981- 2010 and annual mean temperature of 2012. The findings of this study confirm the high prevalence of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds and suggest that specific weather and environmental risk factors support a robust and precise distribution model.

  18. A stochastic analysis of the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, Daragh; Breen, James P.; Thorne, Fiona; Wallace, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in biomass crops as an alternative farm activity. However farmer concerns about the production and financial risks associated with growing these crops may be impeding the actual rates of adoption. The uncertainty surrounding risky variables such as the costs of production, yield level, price per tonne and opportunity cost of land make it difficult to accurately calculate the returns to biomass crops. Their lengthy production lifespan may only serve to heighten the level of risk that affects key variables. A stochastic budgeting model is used to estimate distributions of returns from willow and miscanthus in Ireland. The opportunity cost of land is accounted for through the inclusion of the foregone returns from selected conventional agricultural activities. The impact on biomass returns of bioremediation is also examined. The Net Present Values (NPVs) of various biomass investment options are simulated to ascertain the full distribution of possible returns. The results of these simulations are then compared using their respective Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) and the investments are ranked using Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF). While the distributions of investment returns for miscanthus are wider than those of willow, implying greater risk, the distribution of willow returns is predominantly to the left of zero indicating that such an investment has an extremely high probability of generating a negative return. The results from the SERF analysis show that miscanthus generally has higher certainty equivalents (CEs), and therefore farmers would be more likely to invest in miscanthus rather than willow. -- Highlights: ► We develop a stochastic budgeting model to capture uncertainty in key variables. ► Farmers with higher levels of risk aversion would be unwilling to invest in biomass crops. ► Miscanthus has a greater probability of making a profit than willow. ► Bioremediation can help to offset

  19. Quantification of energy savings from Ireland's Home Energy Saving scheme. An ex post billing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, J.; Clancy, M.; Ni Hogain, S. [Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, Wilton Park House, Wilton Terrace, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-02-15

    This paper quantifies the energy savings realised by a sample of participants in the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland's Home Energy Saving (HES) residential retrofit scheme (currently branded as the Better Energy Homes scheme), through an ex post billing analysis. The billing data are used to evaluate: (1) the reduction in gas consumption of the sample between pre- (2008) and post- (2010) scheme participation when compared to the gas consumption of a control group, (2) an estimate of the shortfall when this result is compared to engineering-type ex ante savings estimates and (3) the degree to which these results may apply to the wider population. All dwellings in the study underwent energy efficiency improvements, including insulation upgrades (wall and/or roof), installation of high-efficiency boilers and/or improved heating controls, as part of the HES scheme. Metered gas use data for the 210 households were obtained from meter operators for a number of years preceding dwelling upgrades and for a post-intervention period of 1 year. Dwelling characteristics and some household behavioural data were obtained through a survey of the sample. The gas network operator provided anonymised data on gas usage for 640,000 customers collected over the same period as the HES sample. Dwelling type data provided with the population dataset enabled matching with the HES sample to increase the internal validity of the comparison between the control (matched population data) and the treatment (HES sample). Using a difference-in-difference methodology, the change in demand of the sample was compared with that of the matched population subset of gas-using customers in Ireland over the same time period. The mean reduction in gas demand as a result of energy efficiency upgrades for the HES sample is estimated as 21 % or 3,664{+-}603 kWh between 2008 and 2010. An ex ante estimate of average energy savings, based on engineering calculations (u value reductions and improved boiler

  20. St Mary's Hospital, Dublin Road, Drogheda, Louth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracey, Marsha L

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore risk factors for macro- and microvascular complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and over with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. Methods. Data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (2009-2011) was used in cross-sectional analysis. The presence of doctor diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors, and macro- and microvascular complications were determined by self-report. Gender-specific differences in risk factor prevalence were assessed with the chi-squared test. Binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore independent associations between established risk factors and diabetes-related complications. Results. Among 8175 respondents, 655 were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Older age, being male, a history of smoking, a lower level of physical activity, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol were independent predictors of macrovascular complications. Diabetes diagnosis of 10 or more years, a history of smoking, and a diagnosis of hypertension were associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications. Older age, third-level education, and a high level of physical activity were protective factors (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Early intervention to target modifiable risk factors is urgently needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity in the older population in Ireland.

  1. Spatial Reflexivity and Undergraduate Transitions in the Republic of Ireland after the Celtic Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, David; Growiec, Katarzyna; Smyth, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the geographical mobility intentions of students aged between 18 and 24 years in the Republic of Ireland after the end of the economic boom commonly referred to as the "Celtic Tiger". Focusing upon a sample of undergraduates in Dublin and Cork, the article looks at how many respondents intend to move abroad in the…

  2. The School-Based Lives of LGBT Youth in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygan, Finn

    2009-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The current study assessed the school-based experiences of twenty five (N = 25) participants in the BeLonG To LGBT youth group in Dublin city using a mixed design survey instrument. The majority (n = 19) of…

  3. An 11-year analysis of the prevalent uropathogens and the changing pattern of Escherichia coli antibiotic resistance in 38,530 community urinary tract infections, Dublin 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, I M; Manecksha, R P; McCullagh, E; Ahmad, S; O'Kelly, F; Flynn, R; McDermott, T E D; Murphy, P; Grainger, R; Fennell, J P; Thornhill, J A

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence-based empirical antibiotic prescribing, and a cutoff point of 20% has been suggested as the level of resistance at which an agent should no longer be used empirically. We sought to identify the changing incidence of causative uropathogens over an 11-year period. We also examined the trends in antibiotic resistance encountered in both the pooled urine samples and those where the causative organism was Escherichia coli. A retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial resistance within the positive community urine isolates over the 11-year period, 1999 to 2009, in a single Dublin teaching hospital was performed. In total 38,530 positive urine samples processed at our laboratory originated in the community of which 23,838 (56.7%) had E. coli as the infecting organism. The prevalence of E. coli has been increasing in recent years in community UTIs with 70.4% of UTIs in the community caused by E.coli in 2009. Ampicillin and trimethoprim were the least-active agents against E. coli with mean 11-year resistance rates of 60.8 and 31.5%, respectively. Significant trends of increasing resistance over the 11-year period were identified for trimethoprim, co-amoxyclav, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Ciprofloxacin remains a reasonable empirical antibiotic choice in this community with an 11-year resistance rate of 10.6%. Higher antibiotic resistance rates were identified in the male population and in children. Resistance rates to commonly prescribed antibiotics are increasing significantly. This data will enable evidence-based empirical prescribing which will ensure more effective treatment and lessen the emergence of resistant uropathogens in the community.

  4. Diageo's 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' Campaign in Ireland: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Durand, Mary Alison; Knai, Cécile; Davoren, Martin; Perry, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded ‘responsible drinking’ campaign (“Stop out of Control Drinking”, or SOOCD) in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i) alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii) possible solutions. Methods Documentary analysis of SOOCD campaign material. This includes newspaper articles (n = 9), media interviews (n = 11), Facebook posts (n = 92), and Tweets (n = 340) produced by the campaign and by board members. All material was coded inductively, and a thematic analysis undertaken, with codes aggregated into sub-themes. Results The SOOCD campaign utilises vague or self-defined concepts of ‘out of control’ and ‘moderate’ drinking, tending to present alcohol problems as behavioural rather than health issues. These are also unquantified with respect to actual drinking levels. It emphasises alcohol-related antisocial behaviour among young people, particularly young women. In discussing solutions to alcohol-related problems, it focuses on public opinion rather than on scientific evidence, and on educational approaches and information provision, misrepresenting these as effective. “Moderate drinking” is presented as a behavioural issue (“negative drinking behaviours”), rather than as a health issue. Conclusions The ‘Stop Out of Control Drinking’ campaign frames alcohol problems and solutions in ways unfavourable to public health, and closely reflects other Diageo Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activity, as well as alcohol and tobacco industry strategies more generally. This framing, and in particular the framing of alcohol harms as a behavioural issue, with the implication that consumption should be guided

  5. Lucas and patriotism in mid-eighteenth century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the extent to which Charles Lucas can be described as a typical patriot in mid-eighteenth century Ireland. The political ideas and practices of Irish patriots of the mid-eighteenth century belong to broad spectrum including opposition MPs, anti-Catholic rhetoricians and questioners of the usefulness of the penal laws, economic pamphleteers and individuals interested in recovering Ireland's history and antiquities. Lucas was significant in that he sometimes inhabited all of these political and cultural guises, but also mobilised the Dublin public in political campaigns and was striking in his voluminous output in newspapers and pamphlets.

  6. A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Wind Energy Penetration on Electricity Prices in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Flaherty, Micheál; Riordan, Niall; O'Neill, Noel; Ahern, Ciara

    2014-01-01

    The maturity of wind technology combined with availability of suitable sites means Ireland is on course to generate 40% of its electricity from the wind by 2020.This work sets out to quantify, to what degree, if any, increased wind penetration translates into reduced wholesale and retail prices for electricity. The consensus from the literature is that increasing wind penetration reduces wholesale electricity prices, but views vary as to what degree this translates into reduced retail prices ...

  7. Diageo's 'Stop Out of Control Drinking' Campaign in Ireland: An Analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Petticrew, Mark

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded \\'responsible drinking\\' campaign ("Stop out of Control Drinking", or SOOCD) in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i) alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii) possible solutions.

  8. Modeling salmonella Dublin into the dairy herd simulation model Simherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella Dublin in the dairy herd and effects of the infection and relevant control measures are currently being modeled into the dairy herd simulation model called Simherd. The aim is to compare the effects of different control strategies against Salmonella Dublin on both within...... of the simulations will therefore be used for decision support in the national surveillance and eradication program against Salmonella Dublin. Basic structures of the model are programmed and will be presented at the workshop. The model is in a phase of face-validation by a group of Salmonella......-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project Dublin on both within-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project is a part of a larger national project "Salmonella 2007 - 2011" with the main objective to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in Danish Dairy herds. Results...

  9. Poisonings and clinical toxicology: a template for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P

    2013-03-01

    Poisons information is accessed around the clock in the British Isles from six centres of which two are in Ireland at Dublin and Belfast accompanied by consultant toxicologist advisory service. The numbers of calls in Ireland are down to about 40 per day due to easy access to online data bases. Access to Toxbase, the clinical toxicology database of the National Poisons Information Service is available to National Health Service (NHS) health professionals and to Emergency Departments and Intensive Care units in the Republic of Ireland. There are 59 Toxbase users in the Republic of Ireland and 99 % of activity originates in Emergency Departments. All United States Poison Control Centres primarily use Poisindex which is a commercial database from Thomson Reuters.

  10. Trends in the Fractures and Fatalities of Farmyard Injuries in Ireland: A 10 year analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, MJ

    2017-01-01

    The farming and agricultural sector remains one of Ireland’s primary industries. Fatality rates remain higher than the European average. The aim of this study was to analyze the national trend in hospital in-patient admissions for farmyard related fractures and related fatalities in Ireland from 2005 to 2014. Relevant socioeconomic trends were used for comparison. There were 2,064 farm-related fractures and 187 fatalities recorded over the same period. Despite a decrease in incidence of farmyard fractures over 2005-2014, fatality rates have increased indicating the alarming continued occupational hazards and severity of sustained injuries.

  11. Developing recommendations to improve the quality of diabetes care in Ireland: a policy analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Hugh, Sheena M

    2014-09-01

    In 2006, the Health Service Executive (HSE) in Ireland established an Expert Advisory Group (EAG) for Diabetes, to act as its main source of operational policy and strategic advice for this chronic condition. The process was heralded as the starting point for the development of formal chronic disease management programmes. Although recommendations were published in 2008, implementation did not proceed as expected. Our aim was to examine the development of recommendations by the EAG as an instrumental case study of the policy formulation process, in the context of a health system undergoing organisational and financial upheaval.

  12. Penrose's Law in Ireland: an ecological analysis of psychiatric inpatients and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2007-02-01

    Penrose's Law states that as the number of psychiatric inpatients declines, the number of prisoners increases. We studied data from the annual census of psychiatric inpatients and prison statistics in Ireland. Between 1963 and 2003, the number of psychiatric inpatients decreased by 81.5% (a five-fold decrease) and the average number of prisoners increased by 494.8% (a five-fold increase) (Spearman's rho=-0.992, PIreland compared to England; this may relate to ecological study designs or differences in prison, health or re-institutionalisation practices.

  13. COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE BRIBERY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronting socially unacceptable activities, especially corruptive criminal acts, including bribing, makes an important issue of every regulated legal system. The crucial part of such policies are the criminal polices. In this paper, the author deals with the criminal legislation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, related to the matters of active bribing as one of the basic forms of corruptive behaviour. While comparing the way the penal system is regulated in the said country, the author comments basic similarities and differences of the passive bribing legal regulation in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Croatia.

  14. Ireland and Spain 1931-1933. Divergent Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Jaspe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the development of the fledgling diplomatic ties between the new Irish state and the recently established Spanish legation based in Dublin.  It will analyse the formal establishment of political, cultural and social links developed in contemporary times between the two old historical allies that had previously been limited to polite lip-service; conditioned, in part, as they were by  monarchical Madrid’s caution in regard to London and previous Spanish reluctance to engage with a rebellious state.  1931 signified a volte face in the relationship developing between Dublin and Madrid since the establishment of a Spanish consulate in Dublin in March 1924, facilitated by their commitment to the League of Nations, to which both were strongly committed in the 1920s.  This paper will illustrate how the declaration of the II Republic in Spain was a crossroads in the relationship between these two nations.  The roles of ‘rebel’ and ‘traditionalist’ state had been instantly switched.  The Church and much of the new political elite in Ireland viewed republican reforms in Spain with ever growing and public distaste creating conflict among Irish republicanism, post-independence.  The main Spanish republican representative in Ireland in this 1931-33 period, Emilio Sanz y Tovar, became very sensitive to these schisms as he tried to cement political and socio-economic ties with his Irish hosts.

  15. Network analysis of the Viking Age in Ireland as portrayed in Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yose, Joseph; Kenna, Ralph; MacCarron, Máirín; MacCarron, Pádraig

    2018-01-01

    Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh ('The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill') is a medieval Irish text, telling how an army under the leadership of Brian Boru challenged Viking invaders and their allies in Ireland, culminating with the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. Brian's victory is widely remembered for breaking Viking power in Ireland, although much modern scholarship disputes traditional perceptions. Instead of an international conflict between Irish and Viking, interpretations based on revisionist scholarship consider it a domestic feud or civil war. Counter-revisionists challenge this view and a long-standing and lively debate continues. Here, we introduce quantitative measures to the discussions. We present statistical analyses of network data embedded in the text to position its sets of interactions on a spectrum from the domestic to the international. This delivers a picture that lies between antipodal traditional and revisionist extremes; hostilities recorded in the text are mostly between Irish and Viking-but internal conflict forms a significant proportion of the negative interactions too.

  16. Suicide in Northern Ireland: An Analysis of Gender Differences in Demographic, Psychological, and Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Corry, Colette; McFeeters, Danielle; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding death by suicide can give us insight into the factors affecting suicide risk in particular regions. This study examined gender and circumstances surrounding death by suicide in Northern Ireland from 2005 to 2011. The study analyzed 1,671 suicides (77% male and 23% female cases) using information contained from the coroner's files on suicides and undetermined deaths. Hanging was the most common method and more than one third of the deceased had prior suicide attempts. There was evidence of alcohol use in 41% of the cases. Only, 61% of cases had recorded adverse events; most had multiple and complex combinations of experiences. Relationship and interpersonal difficulties were the most common category of adverse event (40.3%). However, illness and bereavement, employment /financial crisis, and health problems were also common. One third of those who died by suicide were employed, compared with 50.3% who were not in employment. Just over half (50.1%) were known to have a mental health disorder. The results provide the first profile of deaths by suicide in Northern Ireland. They highlight the need to target people who have difficult life experiences in suicide prevention work, notably men, people with employment, financial and relationship crises, and those with mental disorders.

  17. The cost of chronic pain: an analysis of a regional pain management service in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda; Finn, David P; O'Gorman, David; Ruane, Nancy; McGuire, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to collect data on the direct and indirect economic cost of chronic pain among patients attending a pain management clinic in Ireland. A tertiary pain management clinic serving a mixed urban and rural area in the West of Ireland. Data were collected from 100 patients using the Client Services Receipt Inventory and focused on direct and indirect costs of chronic pain. Patients were questioned about health service utilization, payment methods, and relevant sociodemographics. Unit costs were multiplied by resource use data to obtain full costs. Cost drivers were then estimated. Our study showed a cost per patient of US$24,043 over a 12-month period. Over half of this was attributable to wage replacement costs and lost productivity in those unable to work because of pain. Hospital stays and outpatient hospital services were the main drivers for health care utilization costs, together accounting for 63% of the direct medical costs per study participant attending the pain clinic. The cost of chronic pain among intensive service users is significant, and when extrapolated to a population level, these costs represent a very substantial economic burden. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for hyperthyroidism in Irish cats from the greater Dublin area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Laura; Gallagher, Barbara A; Shiel, Robert E; Mooney, Carmel T

    2018-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is common in older cats. Prevalence varies geographically, but is anecdotally considered low in Ireland. The aim of this study was to document prevalence of hyperthyroidism in older cats in the greater Dublin area of Ireland and to assess environmental and clinical associations for development and identification of the disease. Primary-care veterinary practices were requested to select cats aged 10 years or older where blood sampling was being performed for health screening or clinical investigations. Surplus serum/plasma samples were submitted to University College Dublin Diagnostic Endocrine Laboratory for total thyroxine (T 4 ) measurement. Cats were classified as hyperthyroid, equivocal or euthyroid based on a total T 4 concentration (reference interval, 15-60 nmol/L), of >60 nmol/L, 30-60 nmol/L or hyperthyroidism were excluded. A questionnaire completed by the client and veterinarian detailing historical and physical information was also required. Associations between categorical variables were analysed by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio (OR) calculated. A P value of hyperthyroid, 54 (10.6%) equivocal and 346 (68.2%) euthyroid. The presence of goitre ( P  weight loss ( P  hyperthyroidism. Cats with goitre were more likely to be diagnosed as hyperthyroid [OR 2.85, (95% CI 1.75-4.62] compared to those without. However, goitre was only palpated in 40 of 102 (39.2%) hyperthyroid cats. Increasing age was the only significant ( P  hyperthyroidism. A relationship between hyperthyroidism and sex, breed, lifestyle, parasite control, vaccination status or feeding habits was not identified. Hyperthyroidism is not uncommon in Irish cats. Age was the only significant risk factor for its development. The high proportion of hyperthyroid cats without palpable goitre (> 60%) may reflect failure to detect goitre and account for the perceived low prevalence of this condition in Ireland.

  19. Detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of liver fluke exposure risk in Ireland using spatial cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; de Waal, Theo

    2015-04-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples from 4365 dairy farms were collected throughout Ireland. Using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA, the analysis of BTM samples showed that 83% (n=3602) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistic identified 74 high-risk and 130 low-risk significant (Pclimatic variables (monthly and seasonal mean rainfall and temperatures, total wet days and rain days) and environmental datasets (soil types, enhanced vegetation index and normalised difference vegetation index) were used to investigate dissimilarities in the exposure to liver fluke between clusters. Rainfall, total wet days and rain days, and soil type were the significant classes of climatic and environmental variables explaining the differences between significant clusters. A discriminant function analysis was used to predict the exposure risk to liver fluke using 80% of data for modelling and the remaining subset of 20% for post hoc model validation. The most significant predictors of the model risk function were total rainfall in August and September and total wet days. The risk model presented 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity and an accuracy of 95% correctly classified cases. A risk map of exposure to liver fluke was constructed with higher probability of exposure in western and north-western regions. The results of this study identified differences between clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland regarding climatic and environmental variables and detected significant predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Older people--recipients but also providers of informal care: an analysis among community samples in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGee, Hannah M

    2008-09-01

    Data on both the provision and receipt of informal care among populations of older adults are limited. Patterns of both informal care provided and received by older adults in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI) were evaluated. A cross-sectional community-based population survey was conducted. Randomly selected older people (aged 65+, n = 2033, mean age (standard deviation): 74.1 years (6.8), 43% men, 68% response rate) provided information on the provision and receipt of care, its location, and the person(s) who provided the care. Twelve per cent of the sample (251\\/2033) identified themselves as informal caregivers (8% RoI and 17% NI). Caregivers were more likely to be women, married, have less education and have less functional impairment. Forty-nine per cent (1033\\/2033, 49% RoI and 48% NI) reported receiving some form of care in the past year. Care recipients were more likely to be older, married, have more functional impairment, and poorer self-rated health. Receiving regular informal care (help at least once a week) from a non-resident relative was the most common form of help received [28% overall (578\\/2033); 27% RoI and 30% NI]. Five per cent (n = 102\\/2033) of the sample reported both providing and receiving informal care. Levels of informal care provided by community-dwelling older adults were notably higher than reported in single-item national census questions. The balance of formal and informal health and social care will become increasingly important as populations age. It is essential, therefore, to evaluate factors facilitating or impeding informal care delivery.

  1. The Great Recession and the Health of Young Children: A Fixed Effects Analysis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Erica; Layte, Richard; McCrory, Cathal; Panico, Lidia; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-01-12

    Economic recessions have been linked to adult health, but few studies have examined how recessions influence the health of young children. This study examines the impact of life transitions linked to the financial crisis in Ireland on the health of young children. Data came from the Growing Up in Ireland Infant Cohort Study (n = 11,134), which assessed children before (2008), during (2011), and after (2013) the recession and incorporated questions on the impacts of the financial crisis on families. Using fixed effects models to control for confounding, we found that a reduction in welfare benefits during the recession was associated with a significant increase in the risk of asthma (β = 0.0136, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.0062, 0.0328) and atopy (β = 0.0161, 95% CI: 0.0026, 0.0297). While parental job loss was not associated with child health, a reduction in working hours was associated with increased reports of fair or poor child health (β = 0.0235, 95% CI: 0.0041, 0.0429), as were difficulties affording basics (β = 0.0193, 95% CI: 0.0005, 0.0381). Results suggest that failing to protect vulnerable families and children during economic recessions may have long-lasting implications for child health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Organizing Capacities and Union Priorities in the Hotelsector in Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Cecilie Bergene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we draw international comparisons between industrial relations regimes in the hotel sector and compare relevant trade union experiences in the selected metropolitan areas of Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto. We ask how union strategies differ in these different hotel markets, and how strategic choices at a local level relate to industrial relations models, regulatory change, and corporate restructuring in the hotel market. The study is based on interviews with union representatives and key informants in Norway, Ireland, and Canada. The main argument we make is that the reorientation of union priorities and the willingness to engage in innovative strategies that has characterized hotel unionism in Toronto and Dublin is not detectable in the case of Oslo. This might be a result of the relatively strong position Norwegian trade unions have in national industrial relations, but can at the same time leave local hotel unions vulnerable as they are facing low unionization levels and corporate restructuring which they are unable to tackle effectively.

  3. Forty Years of Salmonella enterica Dublin in People

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-05

    Dr. Reid Harvey, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses Salmonella enterica Dublin in People.  Created: 10/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/5/2017.

  4. The sports and exercise life-course: a survival analysis of recall data from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lunn, Peter D

    2010-03-01

    Recall data from a representative sample of 3080 adults in Ireland in 2003 is used to investigate transitions into and out of regular participation in sports and exercise--an important contributor to overall physical activity. The method produces a continuous picture of participation across the life-course, allowing key transition periods in the life-course to be identified and the determinants of transitions to be analysed with multivariate models. Late adolescence emerges as an important period, when many people drop out from team sports, especially females. Participation in adulthood mostly involves taking up individual sports and exercise activities. The likelihood of making this transition is strongly associated with socio-economic status. Transitions in activity during adulthood do not display significant sex differences, suggesting that the gender gap for involvement in sports and exercise has its roots in childhood. The method also allows age and cohort effects to be distinguished, revealing higher participation among more recent cohorts. The findings must be interpreted carefully, since they are reliant on the accuracy of personal recall. Yet they have implications for how physical activity policy applies over the life-course, suggesting possible returns to targeting lower socio-economic groups in early adulthood, to offering a broader range of activities to young females, and to researching and promoting those activities most likely to be of interest to current young adults as they age.

  5. Long term performance analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic system in Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondol, Jayanta Deb; Yohanis, Yigzaw; Smyth, Mervyn; Norton, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a 13 kW p roof mounted, grid connected photovoltaic system in Northern Ireland over a period of three years has been analysed on hourly, daily and monthly bases. The derived parameters included reference yield, array yield, final yield, array capture losses, system losses, PV and inverter efficiencies and performance ratio. The effects of insolation and inverter operation on the system performance were investigated. The monthly average daily PV, system and inverter efficiencies varied from 4.5% to 9.2%, 3.6% to 7.8% and 50% to 87%, respectively. The annual average PV, system and inverter efficiencies were 7.6%, 6.4% and 75%, respectively. The monthly average daily DC and AC performance ratios ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 and 0.29 to 0.66, respectively. The annual average monthly AC performance ratios for the three years were 0.60, 0.61 and 0.62, respectively. The performance of this system is compared with that of other representative systems internationally

  6. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cavan, Dublin, Louth, Monaghan and Wicklow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.T.; Mackin, G.M.; Fennell, S.G.; Madden, J.S.; McGarry, A.T.; Colgan, P.A.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the first results of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in counties Cavan, Dublin, Louth, Monaghan and Wicklow ranged from 69 to 138 Bq/m 3 with individual values as high as 1000 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings

  7. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensman, Ella; Bennardi, Marco; Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-01-01

    Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson's χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies.

  9. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Arensman

    Full Text Available Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide.The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012 occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county. Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson's χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed.Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%, which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively. Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%. Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups.Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies.

  10. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. Methods The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007–2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A comparison was made between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics of the deceased, methods of suicide, history of alcohol and drug abuse, and findings from toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples taken at post mortem were included. Pearson’s χ2 tests and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Alcohol and/or drugs were detected through toxicological analysis for the majority of the total sample (79.5%), which did not differentiate between 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old individuals (74.1% and 86.2% respectively). Compared to 25-34-year-old individuals, 15-24-year-old individuals were more likely to engage in suicide by hanging (88.5%). Younger individuals were less likely to die by intentional drug overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning compared to older individuals. Younger individuals who died between Saturday and Monday were more likely to have had alcohol before dying. Substance abuse histories were similar in the two age groups. Conclusion Based on this research it is recommended that strategies to reduce substance abuse be applied among 25-34-year-old individuals at risk of suicide. The wide use of hanging in young people should be taken into consideration for future means restriction strategies. PMID:27898722

  11. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction across Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Lin, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Huang, R. J. J.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    A national wide characterization of PM1 was studied for the first time using a high-time resolution Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and Aethalometer in Ireland during the heating season. Dublin, the capital of Ireland, is the most polluted area with an average PM1 of 7.6 μg/m3, with frequent occurrence of peak concentration over 200 μg/m3 primarily due to solid fuels burning, while Mace Head, in the west coast, is least polluted with an average PM1 of 0.8 μg/m3 due to the distance from the emission sources. The organic aerosol is the most dominant species across Ireland, contributing 65%, 58%, 32%, 33% to total PM1 mass in Dublin, Birr, Carnsore Point, and Mace Head, respectively. Birr, a small town in the midland of Ireland, has comparable PM1 levels (4.8 μg/m3) and similar chemical compositions with that in Dublin. Carnsore Point, on the southeast coast, has similar composition with that at Mace Head, but nearly 3 times the levels of PM1 mass due to its relative closeness to other European countries. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the multi-linear engine (ME-2) was performed on the organic matrix to quantify the contribution of factor candidates. Peat burning was found to be the dominant factor across Ireland, contributing more than 40% of the total organic mass in Dublin and Birr while OOA is dominant at rural Carnsore Point and Mace Head. Possible geographic origins of PM1 species and organic factors using polar plots were explored. The findings of solid fuels burning (primarily peat burning) driving the pollution episodes suggest an elimination or controlled emission of solid fuels burning would reduce PM1 by at least 50%.

  12. Woman-centred care during pregnancy and birth in Ireland: thematic analysis of women's and clinicians' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Devane, Declan; Houghton, Catherine; Grealish, Annmarie; Tully, Agnes; Smith, Valerie

    2017-09-25

    Recent policy and service provision recommends a woman-centred approach to maternity care. Midwife-led models of care are seen as one important strategy for enhancing women's choice; a core element of woman-centred care. In the Republic of Ireland, an obstetric consultant-led, midwife-managed service model currently predominates and there is limited exploration of the concept of women centred care from the perspectives of those directly involved; that is, women, midwives, general practitioners and obstetricians. This study considers women's and clinicians' views, experiences and perspectives of woman-centred maternity care in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative design. Participants (n = 31) were purposively sampled from two geographically distinct maternity units. Interviews were face-to-face or over the telephone, one-to-one or focus groups. A thematic analysis of the interview data was performed. Five major themes representing women's and clinicians' views, experiences and perspectives of women-centred care emerged from the data. These were Protecting Normality, Education and Decision Making, Continuity, Empowerment for Women-Centred Care and Building Capacity for Women-Centred Care. Within these major themes, sub-themes emerged that reflect key elements of women-centred care. These were respect, partnership in decision making, information sharing, educational impact, continuity of service, staff continuity and availability, genuine choice, promoting women's autonomy, individualized care, staff competency and practice organization. Women centred-care, as perceived by participants in this study, is not routinely provided in Ireland and women subscribe to the dominant culture that views safety as paramount. Women-centred care can best be facilitated through continuity of carer and in particular through midwife led models of care; however, there is potential to provide women-centred care within existing labour wards in terms of consistency of care, education of

  13. Matrix revolutions? An analysis of party organization and ICT use by political parties in the Republic of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, M.; Sudulich, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the characteristics of political parties' websites in the Republic of Ireland and seeks to evaluate whether parties' organizational structures influence the manner in which they present themselves online. Ireland has been chosen as a research environment because there is

  14. Case of coccidioidomycosis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Patrick Thomas; Deegan, Alexander P; McDonnell, Timothy J

    2016-08-11

    Coccidioidal infection is a well-recognised cause of pulmonary disease in certain parts of the south-western USA, Central and South America; however, it is rarely encountered elsewhere in the world. We describe the case of a previously healthy man presenting to a Dublin hospital with fever, dry cough and chest pain, following a visit to the western USA. Despite treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials, the patient developed progressive bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and a large pleural effusion. After extensive investigations including CT, bronchoscopy and pleural fluid analysis, a diagnosis of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis was made. Following the initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient made a full recovery. This case was of interest due to the rarity of the disease outside its areas of endemicity and the unusual findings associated with its diagnosis. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Dublin and Irish politics in the age of Charles Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J

    2015-09-01

    In addition to his contributions to medicine, Charles Lucas had a long career in politics, starting in the 1740s as a guild representative on the lower house of Dublin corporation, and culminating in his election to the Irish House of Commons in 1761. By examining the background in Dublin and Irish politics, this paper explores Lucas' impact on the electorate, and how it was that he was able to win a parliamentary seat in Dublin and retain it for a decade while he campaigned in support of a range of important Patriot issues. Lucas had none of the qualifications that would normally be required for a successful politician. His father held some land, but as a younger son who had to make a living, Charles was apprenticed to a Dublin apothecary. Nor did he have the political connections that might have compensated for a lack of land, wealth, or status. But Lucas possessed other advantages, notably an education that enabled him to read the city's medieval charters, identifying areas where the Dublin freemen had lost 'ancient rights', and some experience of publishing, so that he could appeal to the electorate. Lucas' remarkable political success stemmed from both local circumstances and his own personal qualities.

  16. Investigating traffic light violations by cyclists in Dublin City Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This research examines the behaviour of cyclists in Dublin City with specific regard to red light running. A number of specific research questions are raised by this study. These questions address the impact of different infrastructure types on red light running, as well as the behavioural patterns and demographics of offending cyclists. Two data collection methods were used to gather information on cyclists in Dublin City - an observational survey and an online questionnaire. The observational surveys examined cyclist compliance with different traffic signal systems and the impact of on-road and off-road cycle infrastructure. An online questionnaire was used to get direct feedback from cyclists in Dublin City on the reasons (if any) they decide to commit infringement at traffic lights. With the recent growth of cycling in Dublin City (as well as many other international cities) it is vital to accommodate and manage this growing demand by ensuring the safety and road discipline of cyclists. The next few years will be crucial for the continued development of cycling in Dublin, particularly due to the increasing investment by transport planners in cycle infrastructure. It is therefore important to identify now the main factors which influence cyclist's decisions to break red lights in order to guide local traffic authorities in their efforts to reduce such transgressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…

  18. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-First Century Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current…

  19. Quantitative trace analysis of polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in ambient air samples from Mace Head (Ireland): A method intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; Barber, Jonathan L.; Jones, Kevin C.; Temme, Christian

    A method intercomparison study of analytical methods for the determination of neutral, volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) was carried out in March, 2006. Environmental air samples were collected in triplicate at the European background site Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland, a site dominated by 'clean' westerly winds coming across the Atlantic. Extraction and analysis were performed at two laboratories active in PFAS research using their in-house methods. Airborne polyfluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorooctane sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs) as well as additional polyfluorinated compounds were investigated. Different native and isotope-labelled internal standards (IS) were applied at various steps in the analytical procedure to evaluate the different quantification strategies. Field blanks revealed no major blank problems. European background concentrations observed at Mace Head were found to be in a similar range to Arctic data reported in the literature. Due to trace-levels at the remote site, only FTOH data sets were complete and could therefore be compared between the laboratories. Additionally, FOSEs could partly be included. Data comparison revealed that despite the challenges inherent in analysis of airborne PFAS and the low concentrations, all methods applied in this study obtained similar results. However, application of isotope-labelled IS early in the analytical procedure leads to more precise results and is therefore recommended.

  20. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems at Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were characterized in the City of Waynesboro area in Burke County, Georgia, based on geophysical and drillers’ logs, flowmeter surveys, a 24-houraquifer test, and the collection and chemical analysis of water samples in a newly constructed well. At the test site, the Dublin aquifer system consists of interlayered sands and clays between depths of 396 and 691 feet, and the Midville aquifer system consists of a sandy clay layer overlying a sand and gravel layer between depths of 728 and 936 feet. The new well was constructed with three screened intervals in the Dublin aquifer system and four screened intervals in the Midville aquifer system. Wellbore-flowmeter testing at a pumping rate of 1,000 gallons per minute indicated that 52.2 percent of the total flow was from the shallower Dublin aquifer system with the remaining 47.8 percent from the deeper Midville aquifer system. The lower part of the lower Midville aquifer (900 to 930 feet deep), contributed only 0.1 percent of the total flow. Hydraulic properties of the two aquifer systems were estimated using data from two wellbore-flowmeter surveys and a 24-hour aquifer test. Estimated values of transmissivity for the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were 2,000 and 1,000 feet squared per day, respectively. The upper and lower Dublin aquifers have a combined thickness of about 150 feet and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Dublin aquifer system averages 10 feet per day. The upper Midville aquifer, lower Midville confining unit, and lower Midville aquifer have a combined thickness of about 210 feet, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Midville aquifer system averages 6 feet per day. Storage coefficient of the Dublin aquifer system, computed using the Theis method on water-level data from one observation well, was estimated to be 0.0003. With a thickness of about 150 feet, the specific storage of the Dublin aquifer

  1. Comparative Embodied Energy Analysis of a Steel and Concrete Structural System in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaye, Adolf; Duffy, Aidan; Basu, Biswajit

    2007-01-01

    Engineering building design focuses on optimising operational energy use and ignores the energy required to procure and construct a building. This energy, termed ‘embodied energy’, can be very significant when compared to operational energy. Therefore, it is important to minimise the embodied in buildings; this must be done at the design stage. This paper presents a comparative embodied energy analysis of two structural design solutions for a modern office building: one in concrete and one in...

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by L'Arche Ireland, Dublin 13

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Liam G

    2014-07-01

    Physical inactivity is a major, potentially modifiable, risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Effective, simple, and generalisable interventions that will increase physical activity in populations are needed.

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by L'Arche Ireland, Dublin 13

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, MI

    2017-04-01

    Evidence based guidelines are effective in reducing incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) which is associated with morbidly, mortality and economic burden. This study aimed to identify the proportion of inpatients who had a VTE risk assessment (RA) performed and who received thromboprophylaxis (TP), in Cork University Hospital. There was no structured RA tool at the time; information was obtained from medical and drug charts to ascertain if a RA was performed. Patients were then RA by researchers and stratified as per NICE guidelines and the proportion who received TP was calculated. One thousand and nineteen inpatients were screened. Risk was documented in 24% of cases. TP was prescribed in 43.2% of inpatients. Following application of a RA tool >80% were at high risk of VTE with low risk of bleeding with TP prescription in 46.3% of inpatients. A national collaborative effort should be encouraged to develop a standardized approach for safe RA of inpatients and prescription of TP for prevention of HAT

  4. Suicide among Young People and Adults in Ireland: Method Characteristics, Toxicological Analysis and Substance Abuse Histories Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Arensman, Ella; Bennardi, Marco; Larkin, Celine; Wall, Amanda; McAuliffe, Carmel; McCarthy, Jacklyn; Williamson, Eileen; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. Methods: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007–2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals. A compariso...

  5. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-first Century Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin CAHILL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current government policy statements on education. It utilises Stephen Ball’s policy analysis tools of policy as text, policy as discourse and policy effects to examine the social, cultural and political constructs of policy and legislation influencing social class inequality in education in Ireland (Ball, 1993. The focus is upon the refusal to name social class as a significant issue despite the weight of evidence showing the key influence class position and access to economic and cultural resources has on one’s educational opportunities, experiences and outcomes. The approach taken here is discursive in the sense that the documents are the data and the findings are infused with detailed theoretical discussion of contemporary issues around inequality in education in Ireland. The analysis finds that the absence of social class in official policy and legislative discourses is indicative of a growing neoliberalisation of education policy in Ireland where increased foci on international comparisons and a consumer-driven philosophy of educational provision militate against equality for students from lower socio-economic groups.

  6. Bullying and cyberbullying studies in the school-aged population on the island of Ireland: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna; O'Higgins Norman, James

    2017-12-01

    Bullying research has gained a substantial amount of interest in recent years because of the implications for child and adolescent development. We conducted a meta-analysis of traditional and cyberbullying studies in the Republic and North of Ireland to gain an understanding of prevalence rates and associated issues (particularly psychological correlates and intervention strategies) among young people (primary and secondary school students). Four electronic databases were searched (PsychArticles, ERIC, PsychInfo and Education Research Complete) for studies of traditional bullying and cyberbullying behaviours (perpetrators, victims or both) published between January 1997 and April 2016. A final sample of 39 articles fit our selection criteria. CMA software was used to estimate a pooled prevalence rate for traditional/cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A systematic review on the psychological impacts for all types of bullying and previously used interventions in an Irish setting is also provided. The results demonstrate the influence moderating factors (e.g., assessment tools, answer scale, time frame) have on reported prevalence rates. These results are discussed in light of current studies, and points for future research are considered. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Krypton-85 and other airborne radioactivity measurements throughout Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Murray, M.; Wong, J.; Sequeira, S.; Long, S.C.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    In compliance with articles 35 and 36 of the EURATOM Treaty, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertakes a comprehensive programme of radioactivity monitoring in the Irish terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The RPII monitors airborne radioactivity concentrations at ten stations throughout Ireland, of which, nine are equipped with low volume particulate samplers and one, in Dublin, with a high volume particulate sampler. The low volume particulate samples are assessed for total beta activity and high volume samples for gamma emitting radionuclides such as caesium-137 and beryllium-7. In addition, air sampled at the RPII laboratory in Dublin, is monitored for krypton-85, a radioactive noble gas, released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Since the inception of the krypton measurements in 1993 a trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations has been observed. The results of the krypton-85 monitoring, as well as the airborne radioactivity concentration measurements, will be presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

  9. Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities…

  10. Migrants' access to healthcare services within the European Union: a content analysis of policy documents in Ireland, Portugal and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Céline; Pilot, Eva; Diaz, Esperanza; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-06-15

    The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge healthcare systems if not addressed. In this context, this study aims at reviewing the policy framework for migrants' access to healthcare in Spain, Portugal and Ireland, countries with a long history of immigration, to identify lessons to be learned for policies on migrants' health. A content analysis of official policy documents was undertaken and the conceptual framework developed by Mladowsky was adapted to classify the actions indicated in the policies. The content analysis revealed that the policy aim for all three analysed countries is the improvement of the health status of the immigrant population based on equity and equality principles. The main strategies are the adaptation of services through actions targeting patients and providers, such as the implementation of cultural mediators and trainings for health professionals. The three countries propose a great range of policies aiming at improving access to healthcare services for immigrants that can inspire other European countries currently welcoming refugees. Developing inclusive policies, however does not necessarily mean they will be implemented or felt on the ground. Inclusive policies are indeed under threat due to the economic and social crises and due to the respective nationalistic attitudes towards integration. The European Union is challenged to take a more proactive leadership and ensure that countries effectively implement inclusive actions to improve migrant's access to health services.

  11. Woman-centred care during pregnancy and birth in Ireland: thematic analysis of women's and clinicians' experiences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hunter, Andrew

    2017-09-25

    Recent policy and service provision recommends a woman-centred approach to maternity care. Midwife-led models of care are seen as one important strategy for enhancing women\\'s choice; a core element of woman-centred care. In the Republic of Ireland, an obstetric consultant-led, midwife-managed service model currently predominates and there is limited exploration of the concept of women centred care from the perspectives of those directly involved; that is, women, midwives, general practitioners and obstetricians. This study considers women\\'s and clinicians\\' views, experiences and perspectives of woman-centred maternity care in Ireland.

  12. Marian House, Holy Faith Convent, Glasnevin, Dublin 11.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, L.

    2010-04-01

    Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and has a prevalence of 25 per 100,000. We suspect this is higher than presently seen in the Republic of Ireland. We aimed to calculate the Irish prevalence of Narcolepsy and to examine current management practices. We conducted an online survey of respiratory physicians, neurologists, paediatric neurologists, and psychiatrists with an interest in sleep disorders (73% response rate). Of this group, a total of 16 physicians managed 180 patients prior to January 2009. A clinical diagnosis alone was reached in 67 (41%) patients, the remainder by polysomnography or multiple sleep latency testing. No patients were diagnosed by cerebro-spinal fluid analysis of hypocretin levels. While 70 (42%) patients received modafanil, only 7 (4%) were treated with sodium oxybate. Even allowing for missing data it is apparent that Narcolepsy is hugely under-diagnosed in Ireland, however, current practises adhere with new international guidelines.

  13. Do perinatal and early life exposures influence the risk of malignant melanoma? A Northern Ireland birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, M A; Black, C; Murray, L J; Cardwell, C R; Gavin, A T; Cantwell, M M

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine, early life and maternal exposures may have important consequences for cancer development in later life. The aim of this study was to examine perinatal and birth characteristics with respect to Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) risk. The Northern Ireland Child Health System database was used to examine gestational age adjusted birth weight, infant feeding practices, parental age and socioeconomic factors at birth in relation to CMM risk amongst 447,663 infants delivered between January 1971 and December 1986. Follow-up of histologically verified CMM cases was undertaken from the beginning of 1993 to 31st December 2007. Multivariable adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CMM risk. A total of 276 CMM cases and 440,336 controls contributed to the final analysis. In reference to normal (gestational age-adjusted) weight babies, those heaviest at birth were twice as likely to develop CMM OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1). Inverse associations with CMM risk were observed with younger (birth and both a higher birth order and greater household density OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-0.99) and OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.30-1.0) respectively. This large study of early onset melanoma supports a positive association with higher birth weight (imperatively gestational age adjusted) and CMM risk which may be related to factors which drive intrauterine foetal growth. Strong inverse associations observed with higher birth order and household density suggest that early-life immune modulation may confer protection; findings which warrant further investigation in prospective analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beneavin House, Beneavin Road, Glasnevin, Dublin 11.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P

    2014-11-01

    This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.

  15. "Give Them Time" -- An Analysis of School Readiness in Ireland's Early Education System: A Steiner Waldorf Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Doireann; Angus, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a Steiner Waldorf Perspective to School Readiness and applies that international ideology to educational practice and curriculum policy in modern Ireland. The case for a later school start is championed with strong arguments underpinning the reasons why a later start is better in the long run for children's formal learning…

  16. From Dialogue to Governance: A Critical Analysis of the School Completion Programme in the Republic of Ireland 2002 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Kenna, Declan; Mooney Simmie, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    The School Completion Programme (SCP) was first established in Ireland in 2002 with what appeared to resemble a "bottom up" model of support. The programme was based on authentic effort at partnership with schools, parents and relevant agencies through local management committees and enjoyed a fair share of autonomy in how they would…

  17. Harriet Martineau and Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Brian; Hill, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The Victorian sociologist-novelist Harriet Martineau visited Ireland on two different occasions, first in 1832 and again, twenty years later, in 1852, just six years after the Great Famine of 1846, when the country was still very much visibly affected by that event. Her latter journey covered some 1,200 miles and encompassed all four provinces that make up the island of Ireland, north and south. Martineau was not the first foreign visitor to nineteenth century Ireland, of co...

  18. Constructing Web subject gateways using Dublin Core, the Resource Description Framework and Topic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Tramullas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Specialised subject gateways have become an essential tool for locating and accessing digital information resources, with the added value of organisation and previous evaluation catering for the needs of the varying communities using these. Within the framework of a research project on the subject, a software tool has been developed that enables subject gateways to be developed and managed. Method. General guidelines for the work were established which set out the main principles for the technical aspects of the application, on one hand, and on aspects of the treatment and management of information, on the other. All this has been integrated into a prototype model for developing software tools. Analysis. The needs analysis established the conditions to be fulfilled by the application. A detailed study of the available options for the treatment of information on metadata proved that the best option was to use the Dublin Core, and that the metadata set should be included, in turn, in RDF tags, or in tags based on XML. Results. The project has resulted in the development of two versions of an application called Potnia (versions 1 and 2, which fulfil the requirements set out in the main principles, and which have been tested by users in real application environments. Conclusion. The tagging layout found to be the best, and the one used by the writers, is based on integrating the Dublin Core metadata set within the Topic Maps paradigm, formatted in XTM.

  19. African Journals Online: Ireland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  20. Comparison of Road Safety Behaviour of Rented Dublin Bike Users With That of Owner Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Deegan, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Cycling is a unique way of travelling and exercising. The Irish Heart Foundation recommends thirty minutes of exercise most days in the week to maintain a healthy heart (IHF, 2008). The introduction of the Dublin-bike scheme by Dublin city Council in connection with JCDecaux on the 13th of September 2009 has encouraged and allowed more people to cycle around the city of Dublin. Since their introduction, Dublin-bikes have grown rapidly in popularity. By the 31st of December 2009 24,016 people ...

  1. Multiple sclerosis prevalence in Ireland: relationship to vitamin D status and HLA genotype.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and latitude may be due to both genetic and environmental factors. The hypothesis that, in Ireland, MS prevalence is increasing and that north-south differences relate to variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels was tested in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients and matched control subjects were identified in counties Donegal, Wexford and South Dublin through multiple sources. Prevalence was determined. Blood samples were taken for serum 25(OH)D and serum intact parathyroid hormone measurement, and DNA was extracted. RESULTS: Prevalence in 2007 was significantly greater in Donegal (northwest) (290.3\\/105, 95% CI 262.3 to 321.7) compared with 2001 (184.6\\/105; 162 to 209.5). In Wexford (southeast), there was a non-significant increase in prevalence in 2007 compared with 2001. Prevalence was significantly higher in Donegal than in Wexford (144.8\\/105; 126.7 to 167.8, p<0.0001) and South Dublin (127.8\\/105; 111.3 to 148.2, p<0.0001). Overall, mean 25(OH)D levels were low and did not differ between patients (38.6 nmol\\/l) and controls (36.4 nmol\\/l) However, significantly more patients than controls had 25(OH)D levels <25 nmol\\/l (deficiency) (p=0.004). Levels of 25(OH)D (mean 50.74 nmol\\/l) were significantly higher in South Dublin (area with lowest prevalence) (p<0.0001) than in Donegal or Wexford. HLA DRB1*15 occurred most frequently in Donegal (greatest MS prevalence) and least frequently in South Dublin. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is common in Ireland. Latitudinal variation in MS probably relates to an interaction between genetic factors and environment (25(OH)D levels), and MS risk may be modified by vitamin D in genetically susceptible individuals.

  2. Occupational stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, K; McDonald, N

    2015-04-01

    Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions

  3. Cuisine Ireland 'APP'

    OpenAIRE

    Seberry, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Description Cuisine Ireland contains 15 samplerecipes from renowned Irish chef and author Dermot Seberry. Taking you to the heart of ancient Ireland, from the most northern beauty of the Mourne & Cooley peninsula along the magnificent east coastline and across to the Boyne Valley, the focus of this app is on the very best the region has to offer food tourists and local chefs. This app was developed as a companion piece to Dermot’s new book “Ireland, A Culinary Journey of the North East”. T...

  4. Bringing a few new dimensions to physics - We live in a three- dimensional world - or do we? We may need as many as 11 dimensions to explain experimental findings, according to a Science Week Ireland presentation

    CERN Multimedia

    Ahlstrom, D

    2002-01-01

    Prof Werner Nahm, of the School of Theoretical Physics, last night delivered talk at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies entitled, 'Hidden Dimensions'. It was one of a series offered by the Institute as part of Science Week Ireland (1 page).

  5. ‘Fortress Europe’: Compliance of the Dublin II Regulation with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Lenart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Dublin II Regulation, a cornerstone of the emerging Common European Asylum System, has been gravely criticised, especially in context of the living conditions and general situation of asylum seekers in Greece. The main concerns regard the potential noncompliance of the Dublin II Regulation with the European Convention on Human Rights ('ECHR', particularly with Article 3 - the prohibition of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment. This article examines the competing views in this respect. It analyses the relationship between EU law and the ECHR, protection of rights of refugees under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and main deficiencies of the Dublin II Regulation. The analysis starts with the non-equivalent protection of asylum seekers throughout the EU and finishes with the very limited definition of a family member and case law relevant to the principle of non-refoulement. This article concludes that the Dublin II Regulation per se cannot be deemed noncompliant with the ECHR. However, it emphasises the urgent need to change relevant legal provisions, or at least enforcement, and proposes possible solutions therein.

  6. An exploration of the knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding among a sample of Chinese mothers in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zhou, Qianling

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73), some misconceptions (e.g. \\'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold\\') and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers\\' figure) existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004). Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73), more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P < 0.05), and weaker cultural beliefs (P < 0.05) were less likely to breastfeed. Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary\\/secondary level of education. Mothers\\' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.

  7. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  8. New Apprenticeships in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Deegan, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Short Abstract: There are twenty-seven statutory Apprenticeships in Ireland. The Department of Education and Skills has a strategy to develop over a hundred new Apprenticeships. This paper addresses the steps being taken to develop these programmes and to encourage stakeholders to engage with Apprenticeship as a mode of education. Full Abstract: There are twenty-seven statutory Apprenticeships in Ireland. The Department of Education and Skills has a strategy to develop over a hundred...

  9. 'Any style but gothic': Building a home for the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, H

    2016-06-01

    On 15 July 1864 the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland held its first business meeting in its newly built home at 6 Kildare Street, Dublin. Although the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland had been in existence for over 200 years this was the first occasion that a College meeting had been held in a building owned by the College. This paper looks at the history behind the construction of a home for the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. It will examine why it took over 200 years for the Physicians to find a permanent home, how they ended up with the building they did, and what they borrowed from the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh in the process.

  10. The invasome of Salmonella Dublin as revealed by whole genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Manal; Le Hello, Simon; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a zoonotic infection that can be transmitted from cattle to humans through consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. Outbreaks of human infections by S. Dublin have been reported in several countries including high-income countries. A high proportio...

  11. Spatial surveillance during control of infectious diseases – Salmonella Dublin in Denmark 2002-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is the most commonly isolated Salmonella serotype in Danish cattle and leads to economic and welfare losses in infected herds. Furthermore, it leads to high mortality in human cases. A national surveillance program for Salmonella Dublin was initiated in Denmark in October 2002. ...

  12. Coming to Journalism: A Comparative Case Study of Postgraduate Students in Dublin and Amman

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Neil; Knowlton, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pilot study of postgraduate journalism students in Dublin and Amman. The study compared professional outlooks and social characteristics of students in both contexts and examined institutional settings. The study finds that journalism students in Dublin and Amman have very similar views on the profession,…

  13. Impact of the smoking ban on the volume of bar sales in Ireland: evidence from time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Normand, Charles

    2012-05-01

    This paper is the first to estimate the economic impact of a comprehensive smoking ban in all enclosed public places of work, on bars in Ireland. The demand in bars, represented by a monthly index of sales volume, is explained by relative prices in bars, prices of alcohol sold in off-licences and the aggregate retail sales (ARS) as a proxy for general economic activity and incomes. The smoking ban is included into the model as a step dummy and the modelling is done using ARIMAX strategy. The results show a reduction in the volume of sales in bars by -4.6% (p<0.01) following the ban. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Genetic diversity, anti-microbial resistance, plasmid profile and frequency of the Vi antigen in Salmonella Dublin strains isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, F P; Frazão, M R; Rodrigues, D P; Costa, R G; Casas, M R T; Fernandes, S A; Falcão, J P; Campioni, F

    2018-02-01

    Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the diversity of these strains as well as to ascertain possible differences between strains isolated from humans and animals. Moreover, the presence of the capsular antigen Vi and the plasmid profile was characterized in addition to the anti-microbial resistance against 15 drugs. For this reason, 113 S. Dublin strains isolated between 1983 and 2016 from humans (83) and animals (30) in Brazil were typed by PFGE and MLVA. The presence of the capsular antigen Vi was verified by PCR, and the phenotypic expression of the capsular antigen was determined serologically. Also, a plasmid analysis for each strain was carried out. The strains studied were divided into 35 different PFGE types and 89 MLVA-types with a similarity of ≥80% and ≥17.5%, respectively. The plasmid sizes found ranged from 2 to >150 kb and none of the strains studied presented the capsular antigen Vi. Resistance or intermediate resistance was found in 23 strains (20.3%) that were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, nalidixic acid, piperacillin, streptomycin and/or tetracycline. The majority of the S. Dublin strains studied and isolated over a 33-year period may descend from a common subtype that has been contaminating humans and animals in Brazil and able to cause invasive disease even in the absence of the capsular antigen. The higher diversity of resistance phenotypes in human isolates, as compared with animal strains, may be a reflection of the different anti-microbial treatments used to control S. Dublin infections in humans in Brazil. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. IRETHERM: Multidimensional geophysical modeling of the southern margin of the Dublin Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Pasquali, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Multi-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) modelling of data from the Newcastle area west of Dublin, acquired as part of the geothermal potential of Ireland (IRETHERM) project, is presented. The Newcastle area, situated on the southern margin of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (>30 ° C/km) in the exploratory boreholes drilled by GT Energy. The MT soundings were carried out in the highly urbanized Dublin suburb and are heavily noise-contaminated and distorted due to EM noise from nearby industry and the DC tram system (LUAS). We obtained reliable and interpretable MT impedance and geomagnetic transfer functions at most sites by processing the 'quietest' 4-hour night time subsets of data using several robust codes and the ELICIT method. Tensor decomposition was applied at each site to ascertain if the data are suitable for 2-D modelling and to determine the appropriate geoelectric strike direction. The obtained 2-D models underwent examination using a new stability technique, and the final two 2-D profiles with reliability estimations, expressed through conductance and resistivity, were derived. 3-D models, including all usable MT data in the Newcastle area, have also been determined with and without resistivity constrains for shallow structures from resistivity measurements in one of the boreholes (borehole NGE1). The 3-D models exhibit structures with higher conductivity in comparison to the 2-D models, with similarly resistive background rocks. The shallow conductive structures, to a depth of 1 km, have north-south elongations correlated with the surface traces of faults that are perpendicular to the regional Blackrock to Newcastle Fault (BNF). Deeper structures become more oriented to a regional geoelectric strike similar to 2-D regional strike. To obtain superior characterization of the thermal transport properties of the investigated area, we used porosity and resistivity data from borehole NGE1 to estimate relation between

  16. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  17. The penalty points system in Ireland - Does it remain effective 14 years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, C; Donnelly, M

    2017-05-23

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the leading cause of trauma related mortality in Ireland. The penalty points system (PPS) was introduced in Ireland in 2002 to incentivise safer driving and reduce injury. Its early effect was studied previously 1 which concluded that there was a slight reduction in RTA related femoral shaft fractures (a sensitive indicator of high energy trauma) and a dramatic reduction in RTA related discharges. We hypothesized that over the following 14 years, the penalty points system might lose its effectiveness. Data was again collected from the same HIPE departments from six Dublin teaching hospitals and also University Hospital Waterford (to represent both an urban and a more rural population cohort respectively) examining RTA related femoral shaft fractures over an identical 6 month period (October-April). RTA related discharge data over an identical 6 month period was again acquired and analysed from Beaumont Hospital, Dublin (identical data source to previous study). These results were compared with the identical 6 month period in 2001/02 & 2002/03 (October-April). The total number of RTA related femoral shaft fracture discharges in Dublin decreased from 16 post introduction of PPS in the 2002/03 6-month period to 7 in 2015/16 6-month period. The number remained the same in the Waterford region (n = 5). The total RTA related discharges in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin decreased from 70 post PPS introduction to 57 in the 2015/16 6-month period. This represents an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 discharges (vs 6.9 post introduction) which was a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.014). The mean length of stay for these patients reduced from 13 to 7.7 days. There were consistent reductions in head injury (major & minor), lower limb fracture and facial fracture since the introduction of the PPS. The upper limb, pelvic/acetabular and thoracic injuries remained largely unchanged. Whilst RTA related spinal and abdominal injuries decreased

  18. Globalising Dublin: indicators of an urban society in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh M. Moore

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation – political, economic or cultural - is controlled from, but is simultaneously shaping, urban places. Much of the recent research on globalisation and urban transformati-on has focused on the emergence of an international urban system. Within this system, the role and place of Dublin has been highly contested. This is due in part to the unique way in which the city has attempted to re-position itself within a global framework, but is also due to the difficulty in defining what actually constitutes a world city. Friedmann (1986 argues that one of the key characteristics of these places is that they become destination points for both domestic and international migrants, while Sassen (1991 argues that they are typified by significant socio-spatial polarisation. This paper examines some of the ways in which Dublin, a former peripheral city in global terms, is becoming increasingly embedded in the global urban system. It highlights how the city is beginning to exemplify many of the eco-nomic, social and cultural characteristics associated with ‘world cities’ and discusses a suitable framework for understanding this transition.

  19. Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M; Magette, W L

    2009-04-01

    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies, leading to policy and practice alterations as a function of demographic changes and development. The household prediction technique gave a more accurate overall estimate of household waste generation than did the social class technique. Both techniques produced estimates that differed from the reported local authority data; however, given that local authority reported figures for the region are below the national average, with some of the waste generated from apartment complexes being reported as commercial waste, predictions arising from this research are believed to be closer to actual waste generation than a comparison to reported data would suggest. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations. Although focusing on waste in the Dublin region

  20. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  1. The Effects of Living in Segregated vs. Mixed Areas in Northern Ireland: A Simultaneous Analysis of Contact and Threat Effects in the Context of Micro-Level Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Hughes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consequences of living in segregated and mixed neighbourhoods on ingroup bias and offensive action tendencies, taking into consideration the role of intergroup experiences and perceived threat. Using adult data from a cross-sectional survey in Belfast, Northern Ireland, we tested a model that examined the relationship between living in segregated (N = 396 and mixed (N = 562 neighbourhoods and positive contact, exposure to violence, perceived threat and outgroup orientations. Our results show that living in mixed neighbourhoods was associated with lower ingroup bias and reduced offensive action tendencies. These effects were partially mediated by positive contact. However, our analysis also shows that respondents living in mixed neighbourhoods report higher exposure to political violence and higher perceived threat to physical safety. These findings demonstrate the importance of examining both social experience and threat perceptions when testing the relationship between social environment and prejudice.

  2. [Primary care in Ireland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring smoking, mental health and smoking-related disease in a nationally representative sample of older adults in Ireland - A retrospective secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Annette; Strawbridge, Judith D; Clancy, Luke; Doyle, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death among individuals with mental health difficulties (MHD). The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of smoking on the physical health of older adults with MHD in Ireland and to explore the extent to which smoking mediated or moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related diseases. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 8175 community-dwelling adults aged 50 and over from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was undertaken. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between MHD, smoking (current/past/never) and smoking-related diseases (respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, smoking-related cancers). A number of variables were employed to identify individuals with MHD, including prescribed medication, self-reported diagnoses and self-report scales. MHD was associated with current (RRRs ranging from 1.84 [1.50 to 2.26] to 4.31 [2.47 to 7.53]) and former (RRRs ranging from 1.26 [1.05 to 1.52] to 1.99 [1.19 to 3.33]) smoking and also associated with the presence of smoking-related disease (ORs ranging from 1.24 [1.01 to 1.51] to 1.62 [1.00 to 2.62]). Smoking did not mediate and rarely moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related disease. Older adults in Ireland with MHD are more likely to smoke than those without such difficulties. They also experience higher rates of smoking-related disease, although smoking had no mediating and no consistent moderating role in these analyses. Findings underscore the need for attention to the physical health of those with MHD including support in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Hans Henrich; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel...

  5. Pregnancy in women with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, M

    2011-06-01

    The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) reported outcomes of pregnancies in women with pre-gestational diabetes (PGDM) in the UK (n = 3,733). This study aimed to compare CEMACH outcomes with PGDM pregnancies in Dublin.

  6. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities’ libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries’ Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. Results: The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). Conclusion: It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers

  7. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities' libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries' Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers to achieve faster and more accurate information resources

  8. Comparative Literature in Ireland and Worldwide – An Interview with Professor Declan Kiberd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pushkarevskaya Naughton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Professor Declan Kiberd is Chair of Anglo-Irish Literature and Drama at University College Dublin, where he has taught for many years after having taught at the University of Kent at Canterbury and Trinity College Dublin. He is a director of the Abbey Theatre. He has been Parnell Fellow at Magdalene College Cambridge, and a visiting professor at Duke University and the Sorbonne. He has also been Director of the Yeats International Summer School (1985-7, Patron of the Dublin Shaw Society (1995-2000, a columnist with The Irish Times (1985-7 and The Irish Press (1987-93, the presenter of the RTÉ Arts programme, Exhibit A(1984-6, and a regular essayist and reviewer in The Irish Times, TLS,London Review of Books and The New York Times. Professor Kiberd is the author of many books including his seminal Inventing Ireland: The Literature of the Modern Nation (1995, Irish Classics (2000, and The Irish Writer and the World (2005, as well as Ulysses and Us, published just this year, and he was also the editor of the Penguin edition of theAnnotated Students’ Ulysses (1992. He is one of the most important voices in Irish Studies. Beyond that, he is also a prominent public intellectual, and he continues to be an inspirational figure for generations of students. In this interview, we discussed the relevance of the comparative approach to Irish Studies and the future of Comparative Literature in Ireland and worldwide.

  9. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Kilbrook spring is a thermal spring in east-central Ireland. The temperatures in the spring are the highest recorded for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25 °C). The temperature is elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5-10.5 °C), and represents a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon an audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) survey, and hydrochemical analysis including time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity model of the subsurface at Kilbrook spring was obtained by the inversion of AMT impedances and vertical magnetic transfer functions. The model is interpreted alongside high resolution temperature and electrical conductivity measurements, and a previous hydrochemical analysis. The hydrochemical analysis and time-lapse measurements suggest that the thermal waters have a relatively stable temperature and major ion hydrochemistry, and flow within the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin at all times. The 3-D resistivity model of the subsurface reveals a prominent NNW aligned structure within a highly resistive limestone lithology that is interpreted as a dissolutionally enhanced strike-slip fault, of Cenozoic age. The karstification of this structure, which extends to depths of at least 500 m directly beneath the spring, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 560 and 1000 m) within the limestone succession of the Dublin Basin. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the winter thermal maximum and simultaneous increased discharge at Kilbrook spring is the result of rapid infiltration, heating and

  10. Multibeam collection for CV03_01: Multibeam data collected aboard Celtic Voyager from 2003-11-05 to 2003-12-03, Dublin Port, Ireland to Dublin Port, Ireland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Mullane, Monica, E-mail: Monica.omullane@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work/Fakulta Zdravotnictva a Socialnej Prace, Trnavska univerzita, Univerzitne namestie 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Quinlivan, Aodh, E-mail: A.quinlivan@ucc.ie [Department of Government, College of Business and Law, 2nd Floor O' Rahilly Building, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  12. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mullane, Monica; Quinlivan, Aodh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: ► We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ► The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. ► Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist approaches towards HIA.

  13. Learning Lessons from the Past: Legal Issues Arising from Ireland's Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Kilkelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inquiries have played an important role in telling the stories of children abused and neglected in Ireland in situations of family abuse, clerical abuse and institutional abuse. The inquiries – associated with the name of the chairperson (Ryan or by their geographical remit (Dublin, Ferns, Cloyne, Kilkenny and Roscommon – serve to vindicate the rights of the children affected and to identify the failure of the authorities to protect children from harm. They also make numerous recommendations as to how children’s treatment can be improved. Although each inquiry had varying terms of reference, scope and status, together they address a wide range of issues of both specific and general significance to the issue of child protection. Focus is clearly placed on how child protection practice can be improved but many of the inquiries also comment on the legal framework and make recommendations for the reform of various aspects of child protection law and policy. This paper argues that the legal implications of these inquiries can be reduced to three overarching issues: the legislative provision for the mandatory reporting of child abuse; the need for robust and effective inspection mechanisms to ensure the protection of children, and the issue of constitutional law reform. The analysis shows that these measures are neither straightforward nor a panacea to the intractable problem of providing effective protection to children from abuse. However, taken with the other recommendations identified in the child abuse reports, they represent the beginning of a lasting legacy for the victims of abuse so tragically failed by their families, by the state and by society at large.

  14. Constructing a Global Learning Partnership in Physiotherapy: An Ireland-Uganda Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cliona; Kazibwe, Herman; Whitehouse, Zillah; Blake, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between disability and poverty and it is acknowledged that until disability issues are addressed, the goal of poverty reduction in low-income countries is unlikely to be achieved. Despite the high prevalence of disability in developing countries, there remains a significant shortage of rehabilitation professionals as highlighted by the WHO report, Human resources for Health (2006). The purpose of this project was to develop a collaborative and sustainable partnership to strengthen educational and research capacity in global health, disability, and rehabilitation between two physiotherapy schools; University College Dublin, Ireland, and Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda. This article aims to describe the approach used and initial project outcomes. This project involved a bilateral visit to both institutions by two members of staff of respective physiotherapy programs. These visits entailed stakeholder meetings, clinical site visits, and workshops to identify the priorities for the partnership and shape the collaboration going forward. Appreciative inquiry methodology was used during the workshops and the four-dimensional framework for curriculum development was used to guide analysis and underpin findings. The key priorities identified were (i) development of joint global health learning initiative, (ii) to explore the possibility of postgraduate learning and research opportunities for Ugandan colleagues, and (iii) to develop joint clinical placements. The rationale and context and a plan of action is described. The project is ambitious and in order to be sustainable, the importance of long-term interinstitutional commitment and further funding cannot be ignored. This work provides a framework for other universities and institutions wishing to undertake similar activities. Such partnerships provide rich learning opportunities for students and health professionals and facilitate a deeper understanding of global health

  15. A Naturally Occurring Deletion in FliE from Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin Results in an Aflagellate Phenotype and Defective Proinflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez-Sanguiné, Adriana; Betancor, Laura; Martínez, Arací; D'Alessandro, Bruno; Iriarte, Andrés; Chabalgoity, José A; Yim, Lucía

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but is able to infect humans with high invasiveness. An acute inflammatory response at the intestine helps to prevent Salmonella dissemination to systemic sites. Flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated signaling through pattern recognition receptors. In a previous work, we reported a high frequency (11 out of 25) of S Dublin isolates lacking flagella in a collection obtained from humans and cattle. The aflagellate strains were impaired in their proinflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo The aim of this work was to elucidate the underlying cause of the absence of flagella in S Dublin isolates. We report here that class 3 flagellar genes are repressed in the human aflagellate isolates, due to impaired secretion of FliA anti-sigma factor FlgM. This phenotype is due to an in-frame 42-nucleotide deletion in the fliE gene, which codes for a protein located in the flagellar basal body. The deletion is predicted to produce a protein lacking amino acids 18 to 31. The aflagellate phenotype was highly stable; revertants were obtained only when fliA was artificially overexpressed combined with several successive passages in motility agar. DNA sequence analysis revealed that motile revertants resulted from duplications of DNA sequences in fliE adjacent to the deleted region. These duplications produced a FliE protein of similar length to the wild type and demonstrate that amino acids 18 to 31 of FliE are not essential. The same deletion was detected in S Dublin isolates obtained from cattle, indicating that this mutation circulates in nature. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  17. Radiation levels in milk and meat in Ireland after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, Kevin; Hannan, John

    1986-01-01

    The island of Ireland has no nuclear energy industry and national power requirements are met by a combination of peat, gas and imported oil. We are acutely conscious of the proximity of nuclear installations on the West Coast of Britain and much effort is expended on monitoring the marine environment, particularly seaweed, fish and sediment. The Nuclear Energy Board is a government appointed body charged with the responsibility of regulating the use of radioactive materials in Irish hospitals laboratories and industry and with monitoring the radioactivity of food and in the air. It is very well recognised in Ireland that our reputation for clean food is crucial for our economic development and recent events have ensured increased emphasis on food monitoring for levels of radioactivity. Since the Chernobyl accident and with increased awareness of the vulnerability of our agriculture industry to airborne contamination, the resources of the Nuclear Energy Board has been stretched to the limit and there is an increased level of co-operative work with the physics department of the universities. University College Dublin Physics Department have monitored the milk used in the greater Dublin area since Chernobyl and it's in this area I wish to report. The sampling techniques were based on a random sampling of milk over a wide area and a detailed sampling on a daily basis of milk from the University Farm which is situated about 12 kilometers from Dublin, and have continued to date. Results: In the random milk supply the level of I131 and Cs137 rose from a background level of approx. 2-3bq/litre to approx. 300 bq/litre shortly after the plume reached Ireland on May 2nd 1986. One sample with 400 bq/litre I131 was observed. These levels fell rapidly over the next 2 weeks and settled down to levels of about 10-20 bq/litre. On the University Farm there was a difference between the levels in the morning and evening milk production as illustrated, probably due to the time

  18. Some problems associated with the analysis and interpretation of mixed carbonate and quartz beach sands, illustrated by examples from North-West Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R. W. G.

    1982-09-01

    Mixes of carbonate and quartz sands, which are commonly encountered in Recent coastal sediments, require careful analysis if they are to be correctly interpreted. Grain-size data fall into multimodal or segmented zig-zag distributions which may require some kind of component separation if they are to be summarised by conventional statistics, and before they can be assigned to a particular hydrodynamic depositional process or environment. Unfortunately, separation techniques are only spasmodically applied, usually without due regard to the consequences. Such artificially filtered or truncated distributions are of little subsequent use. Using a range of samples from two beaches in NW Ireland, where carbonate proportions range from nearly zero to over sixty percent, the interrelationships of the two dominant components were examined. Where only a small carbonate proportion is incorporated into a large quartz one, predictable modifications of the size-curve are apparent. However, the components are more independent if mixtures are near equal. The occurrence of a number of distinctive combinations of simple straight lines and complex zig-zag curves probably reflects the relatively dynamic nature of the carbonate fraction.

  19. Cross-sectional Analysis of the Standards of Consent Applied to Anaesthesia in Ireland: Are Anaesthetists Aware of their Legal and Ethical Obligations?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-01

    Consent to a medical intervention has legally and ethically evolved to a process prioritising autonomy and patient-led decision-making. This cross-sectional analysis investigated Irish anaesthetists’ practices of taking consent. Following ethical approval, trainees and fellows of the College of Anaesthetists of Ireland were invited to participate in a 33 question online survey. One hundred and sixty responses (11.8%) were received, an equal number coming from consultants and trainees. The majority (93.7%) worked in a teaching hospital. Fifteen percent said their department had guidelines on obtaining consent for anaesthesia, but only 4.5% said their department used a separate consent form. Most (63.8%) do not usually document consent. A significant number rarely (21.8%) or never (27.8%) explained risks to patients. Lack of time was identified as the most frequent barrier (77.6%), with just under half first meeting the patient in the theatre holding-bay or the anaesthetic room. Forty-one percent felt the ultimate decision regarding which anaesthetic technique is employed should usually lie with the anaesthetist alone. These results suggest a wide variation in the practice of obtaining consent for anaesthesia. Less than half deemed their practice to be adequate in this regard, while 50% were concerned about litigation stemming from inadequate consent.

  20. Behavioral Health Risk Profiles of Undergraduate University Students in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: A Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Ssewanyana, Derrick; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Limited research has explored clustering of lifestyle behavioral risk factors (BRFs) among university students. This study aimed to explore clustering of BRFs, composition of clusters, and the association of the clusters with self-rated health and perceived academic performance. We assessed (BRFs), namely tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy nutrition, and inadequate sleep, using a self-administered general Student Health Survey among 3,706 undergraduates at seven UK universities. A two-step cluster analysis generated: Cluster 1 (the high physically active and health conscious) with very high health awareness/consciousness, good nutrition, and physical activity (PA), and relatively low alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use. Cluster 2 (the abstinent) had very low ATOD use, high health awareness, good nutrition, and medium high PA. Cluster 3 (the moderately health conscious) included the highest regard for healthy eating, second highest fruit/vegetable consumption, and moderately high ATOD use. Cluster 4 (the risk taking) showed the highest ATOD use, were the least health conscious, least fruit consuming, and attached the least importance on eating healthy. Compared to the healthy cluster (Cluster 1), students in other clusters had lower self-rated health, and particularly, students in the risk taking cluster (Cluster 4) reported lower academic performance. These associations were stronger for men than for women. Of the four clusters, Cluster 4 had the youngest students. Our results suggested that prevention among university students should address multiple BRFs simultaneously, with particular focus on the younger students.

  1. Behavioral Health Risk Profiles of Undergraduate University Students in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLimited research has explored clustering of lifestyle behavioral risk factors (BRFs among university students. This study aimed to explore clustering of BRFs, composition of clusters, and the association of the clusters with self-rated health and perceived academic performance.MethodWe assessed (BRFs, namely tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy nutrition, and inadequate sleep, using a self-administered general Student Health Survey among 3,706 undergraduates at seven UK universities.ResultsA two-step cluster analysis generated: Cluster 1 (the high physically active and health conscious with very high health awareness/consciousness, good nutrition, and physical activity (PA, and relatively low alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD use. Cluster 2 (the abstinent had very low ATOD use, high health awareness, good nutrition, and medium high PA. Cluster 3 (the moderately health conscious included the highest regard for healthy eating, second highest fruit/vegetable consumption, and moderately high ATOD use. Cluster 4 (the risk taking showed the highest ATOD use, were the least health conscious, least fruit consuming, and attached the least importance on eating healthy. Compared to the healthy cluster (Cluster 1, students in other clusters had lower self-rated health, and particularly, students in the risk taking cluster (Cluster 4 reported lower academic performance. These associations were stronger for men than for women. Of the four clusters, Cluster 4 had the youngest students.ConclusionOur results suggested that prevention among university students should address multiple BRFs simultaneously, with particular focus on the younger students.

  2. Salmonella Dublin i oksekød, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Hansen, Tina Beck

    Case-by-case overvågningen af dansk og udenlandsk fersk kød af kvæg ophørte ved årsskiftet til 2013 som følge af meget få fund. I 2012 blev der imidlertid påvist Salmonella i 14,3 % af de undersøgte partier af fersk dansk oksekød, mens man i samme periode ikke så den samme stigning i fund af...... Salmonella på slagterierne. Det er derfor muligt, at der er andre kilder til salmonellas forekomst i det ferske oksekød. En del oksekød opskæres typisk på andre virksomheder end på slagteriet, og krydskontaminering med Salmonella her kan derfor være en af årsagerne til det høje fund, da disse virksomheder...... typisk forarbejder store mængder dansk og udenlandsk kød i de samme produktionslinjer. Siden planlægningen af dette projekt er forekomsten af Salmonella Dublin faldet i oksekød, men projektet er blevet gennemført som oprindeligt planlagt. Formålet med dette projekt har været at afklare forekomsten af...

  3. The IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) - Information Meeting Dublin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khatibeh, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    IRRS is developed to help States evaluate the current status of compliance of their regulatory infrastructures for safety with IAEA Standards. This report discusses the function of IRRS missions as a tool for evaluating the regulatory structure for Member States. It was presented to RPII staff in a Powerpoint document in preparation for the IRRS Mission to Ireland in August 2015

  4. Santa Sabina House, Navan Road, Cabra, Dublin 7.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holland, Deirdre M

    2015-04-01

    Medication reconciliation is a basic principle of good medicines management. With the establishment of the National Acute Medicines Programme in Ireland, medication reconciliation has been mandated for all patients at all transitions of care. The clinical pharmacist is widely credited as the healthcare professional that plays the most critical role in the provision of medication reconciliation services.

  5. Brabazon House Nursing Home, 2 Gilford Road, Sandymount, Dublin 4.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Xiao, Liang

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of methadone treatment in Ireland and outline the rationale for designing an electronic health record (EHR) with extensibility, interoperability and decision support functionality. Incorporating several international standards, a conceptual model applying a problem orientated approach in a hierarchical structure has been proposed for building the EHR.

  6. Gascoigne House, 37/39 Cowper Road, Rathmines, Dublin 6.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    1986-01-01

    Please note that this handbook was written in the 1990s and information may have been superceded with more recent publications. Please check the Alzheimer\\'s Society of Ireland website for the most up to date versions of documents. This document is made available here for achival purposes.

  7. Cluster analysis of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster province of Ireland and detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-03-19

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a widespread parasitic disease in cattle farms. The aim of this study was to detect clusters of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster Province, Ireland and to identify significant climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk. In total, 1,292 dairy herds across Munster was sampled in September 2012 providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample. The analysis of samples by an in-house antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed that 65% of the dairy herds (n = 842) had been exposed to F. hepatica. Using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, 16 high-risk and 24 low-risk (P <0.01) clusters of fasciolosis were identified. The spatial distribution of high-risk clusters was more dispersed and mainly located in the northern and western regions of Munster compared to the low-risk clusters that were mostly concentrated in the southern and eastern regions. The most significant classes of variables that could reflect the difference between high-risk and low-risk clusters were the total number of wet-days and rain-days, rainfall, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperature and soil type. There was a bigger proportion of well-drained soils among the low-risk clusters, whereas poorly drained soils were more common among the high-risk clusters. These results stress the role of precipitation, grazing, temperature and drainage on the life cycle of F. hepatica in the temperate Irish climate. The findings of this study highlight the importance of cluster analysis for identifying significant differences in climatic and environmental variables between high-risk and low-risk clusters of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds.

  8. Cluster analysis of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster province of Ireland and detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Selemetas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a widespread parasitic disease in cattle farms. The aim of this study was to detect clusters of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster Province, Ireland and to identify significant climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk. In total, 1,292 dairy herds across Munster was sampled in September 2012 providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM sample. The analysis of samples by an in-house antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, showed that 65% of the dairy herds (n = 842 had been exposed to F. hepatica. Using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, 16 high-risk and 24 low-risk (P <0.01 clusters of fasciolosis were identified. The spatial distribution of high-risk clusters was more dispersed and mainly located in the northern and western regions of Munster compared to the low-risk clusters that were mostly concentrated in the southern and eastern regions. The most significant classes of variables that could reflect the difference between high-risk and low-risk clusters were the total number of wet-days and rain-days, rainfall, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, temperature and soil type. There was a bigger proportion of well-drained soils among the low-risk clusters, whereas poorly drained soils were more common among the high-risk clusters. These results stress the role of precipitation, grazing, temperature and drainage on the life cycle of F. hepatica in the temperate Irish climate. The findings of this study highlight the importance of cluster analysis for identifying significant differences in climatic and environmental variables between high-risk and low-risk clusters of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds.

  9. Family and Family Change in Ireland: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, John

    2012-01-01

    In Ireland, historically and in the current era, family has been a central concern for society and the State. This article provides a descriptive overview of family life in Ireland and of major family-related changes over the past 40 years. It presents a general framework of analysis within which these changes can be understood, considers the…

  10. La Verna Nursing Home, 30 Haddon Road, Clontarf, Dublin 3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    The report presents findings and recommendations from the largest survey of bereaved relatives undertaken by two adult acute hospitals in Ireland in conjunction with their academic partners TCD and UCD. The findings provide significant insight into the quality of care delivered at end of life from the perspective of bereaved relatives. This report will be of interest to all healthcare staff involved in improving end-of-life care in acute hospitals and other healthcare settings.

  11. Carechoice Malahide, Northern Cross, Malahide Road, Dublin 17.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    The report presents findings and recommendations from the largest survey of bereaved relatives undertaken by two adult acute hospitals in Ireland in conjunction with their academic partners TCD and UCD. The findings provide significant insight into the quality of care delivered at end of life from the perspective of bereaved relatives. This report will be of interest to all healthcare staff involved in improving end-of-life care in acute hospitals and other healthcare settings.

  12. The phenology of Rubus fruticosus in Ireland: herbarium specimens provide evidence for the response of phenophases to temperature, with implications for climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, E.; Proctor, H.; Jebb, M.; Sparks, T.; Donnelly, A.

    2012-11-01

    To date, phenological research has provided evidence that climate warming is impacting both animals and plants, evidenced by the altered timing of phenophases. Much of the evidence supporting these findings has been provided by analysis of historic records and present-day fieldwork; herbaria have been identified recently as an alternative source of phenological data. Here, we used Rubus specimens to evaluate herbaria as potential sources of phenological data for use in climate change research and to develop the methodology for using herbaria specimens in phenological studies. Data relevant to phenology (collection date) were recorded from the information cards of over 600 herbarium specimens at Ireland's National Herbarium in Dublin. Each specimen was assigned a score (0-5) corresponding to its phenophase. Temperature data for the study period (1852 - 2007) were obtained from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU); relationships between temperature and the dates of first flower, full flower, first fruit and full fruit were assessed using weighted linear regression. Of the five species of Rubus examined in this study, specimens of only one ( R. fruticosus) were sufficiently abundant to yield statistically significant relationships with temperature. The results revealed a trend towards earlier dates of first flower, full flower and first fruit phenophases with increasing temperature. Through its multi-phenophase approach, this research serves to extend the most recent work—which validated the use of herbaria through use of a single phenophase—to confirm herbarium-based research as a robust methodology for use in future phenological studies.

  13. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.

    2001-01-01

    -negative to test-positive in each area was correlated with the incidence of S. Dublin outbreaks in the corresponding county (r = 0.48, n = 19; P third test rounds was not constant (Pr \\t\\ = 0.0001). The study demonstrated that the probability...... of being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening...

  14. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  15. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  16. Digital Libraries and the Problem of Purpose [and] On DigiPaper and the Dissemination of Electronic Documents [and] DFAS: The Distributed Finding Aid Search System [and] Best Practices for Digital Archiving: An Information Life Cycle Approach [and] Mapping and Converting Essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: Towards an Alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse [and] Evaluating Website Modifications at the National Library of Medicine through Search Log analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David M.; Huttenlocher, Dan; Moll, Angela; Smith, MacKenzie; Hodge, Gail M.; Chandler, Adam; Foley, Dan; Hafez, Alaaeldin M.; Redalen, Aaron; Miller, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Includes six articles focusing on the purpose of digital public libraries; encoding electronic documents through compression techniques; a distributed finding aid server; digital archiving practices in the framework of information life cycle management; converting metadata into MARC format and Dublin Core formats; and evaluating Web sites through…

  17. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  18. An observational, retrospective, UK and Ireland audit of patient adherence to subcutaneous interferon beta-1a injections using the RebiSmart® injection device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Willis,1 Julie Webster,1 Anne Marie Larkin,2 Laura Parkes,31Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, United Kingdom; 2MySupport Nurse, Quintiles Ireland Ltd, Dublin, Ireland; 3Medical Affairs, Merck Serono Ltd, Feltham, United KingdomBackground: Poor adherence to disease-modifying drugs is associated with an increased risk of relapse in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, adherence is difficult to assess objectively. RebiSmart® (Merck Serono SA, Geneva, Switzerland, a device for subcutaneous (sc injection of interferon (IFN β-1a, features an electronic injection log that can assist in objective monitoring of adherence.Objective: To assess adherence to sc IFN β-1a injections using data from RebiSmart®.Methods: This was a single-group, observational, retrospective audit. Adherence data were collected from patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom and Ireland who had been prescribed sc IFN β-1a and had been using RebiSmart® for a minimum of 24 months.Results: In total, 225 patients were included in the full analysis set; 72% were in the United Kingdom, and 28% were in Ireland. Overall, the mean age was 44.1 years, and 73% were women. Patients received sc IFN β-1a 44 µg (68% or 22 µg (32% three times per week. Mean adherence over the course of 24 months was 95.0% (median, 99.4%, and similar values were observed across all periods. The proportion of patients with 80% or higher adherence was 92.0% at 12 months and 91.1% at 24 months.Conclusion: High adherence to sc IFN β-1a was observed across all patient groups using RebiSmart®, according to 2-year treatment adherence data. This may be partly attributed to the expert support patients received, supplemented by routine and regular contact from the MySupport patient-support program, as well as the self-motivation of patients who persisted with treatment for 2 or more years.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, support program, persistence, objective

  19. TLC City West, Cooldown Commons, Fortunestown Lane, Citywest, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cornally, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    The \\'Let Me Decide\\' Advance Care Planning (LMD-ACP) programme offers a structured approach to End-of-Life (EoL) care planning in long-term care for residents with and without capacity to complete an advance care directive\\/plan. The programme was implemented in three homes in the South of Ireland, with a view to improving quality of care at end of life. This paper will present an evaluation of the systematic implementation of the LMD-ACP programme in the homes.

  20. Sir Patrick Dun and the Complete School of Physic in eighteenth-century Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, S

    2015-03-01

    2013 is the tercentenary of the death of Sir Patrick Dun. When Dun died in 1713, he left the proceeds of his estate to enhance medical education in Dublin by funding chairs in medicine. He showed remarkable innovation, but it took 95 years, five Acts of Parliament, two House of Commons enquiries and a House of Lords enquiry before Dun's wishes were brought to fruition and systematic clinical education was available for Dublin medical students. The passage of the final School of Physic Act in 1800 insured that a hospital would open in his name and regular clinical education was provided. The physician, Richard Steevens, who died 3 years earlier in 1710, left the proceeds of his estate to found a hospital, which opened, in his name, in 1733. The contemporary primary sources have been analysed and material from relevant secondary sources has been included where appropriate. Dublin was the beneficiary of these bequests and if circumstances had been more favourable, and the proceeds had been used more efficiently at the start of the eighteenth-century, Dublin could well have rivalled Edinburgh as the seat of medical education in the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, it would fulfil that role and equal Edinburgh as one of the primary centres of medical education in Europe.

  1. Pilot Water Quality Monitoring Station in Dublin Bay : North Bank Station (NBMS), MATSIS Project Part I

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Garvan; Joyce, Eileen; Silke, Joe; O'Boyle, Shane; McGovern, Evin

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the pilot development of an autonomous monitoring station in Dublin Bay and validation of the system. It presents results from initial deployments. Sensors were deployed for testing, including an optical sensor for measuring nitrate and sensors for measurement of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and dissolved oxygen. Automated water samplers enabled periodic, remote triggered and event triggered sampling for nutrient and phytoplankton samples.

  2. Mapping and converting essential Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core: towards an alternative to the FGDC Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, A.; Foley, D.; Hafez, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise and address a number of issues related to the conversion of Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata into MARC21 and Dublin Core. We present an analysis of 466 FGDC metadata records housed in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) node of the FGDC Clearinghouse, with special emphasis on the length of fields and the total length of records in this set. One of our contributions is a 34 element crosswalk, a proposal that takes into consideration the constraints of the MARC21 standard as implemented in OCLC's World Cat and the realities of user behavior.

  3. Ferndene Nursing Home, Deansgrange Road, Blackrock, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flinn, Aisling

    2012-09-06

    AbstractBackgroundOverweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit.FindingsA retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females). Twenty-one children (26.9%) were overweight\\/obese: 14\\/21 parents (66.7%) thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit\\/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food.ConclusionsThis study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.

  4. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  5. Examples of studies of solar and lunar cycles carried out in Ireland in Neolithic times

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna McKenna-Lawlor, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Brứ na Bόinn (Newgrange) is the largest member of a group of Neolithic passage graves located in the Boyne Valley, Co. Meath, about 50 km from Dublin in Ireland. According to radio carbon dating, the monument was constructed between about 3200 and 3100 BC and it is thus s about five hundred years older than the current form of Stonehenge as well as older than the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. Also, it predates the Mycenaean culture of ancient Greece. At the Winter Solstice, the rising sun shines through an external architectural feature called the roof box and traverses a 19m long passage to illuminate an inner chamber decorated by an elegant triple spiral and other carvings. This illumination lasts for about 17 minutes. Today, first light enters about four minutes after sunrise, but calculations based on the precession of the Earth show that, 5,000 years ago, first light would have entered exactly at sunrise. The poster presents drawings of the geometrical alignment concerned and places the monument in the context of other Neolithic monuments in Ireland oriented to key dates in the solar calendar. Evidence for the existence in the Boyne Valley of an interest in lunar as well as in solar cycles is discussed and a carving of a lunar cycle, deemed to be the earliest to be identified without serious ambiguity in either Ireland or Britain, is illustrated and described.

  6. A national survey of memory clinics in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Suzanne; Pierce, Maria; Moore, Vanessa

    2014-04-01

    This national survey investigates the location, resourcing, staff composition, treatments, waiting time, and numbers of patients attending memory clinics (MCs) in the Republic of Ireland. It also explores Directors' attitudes to future service development including their views about the advantages and disadvantages of quality standards for MCs. An audio-taped telephone interview was conducted with the Directors. A total of 14 MCs were identified across the Republic of Ireland, ten of which are hospital-based and most of which offer diagnostic services and are located in Dublin. Nine MCs are medical consultant led and operate under the direction of either Old Age Psychiatrists or Geriatricians. Results show wide variation regarding the location, team size, service availability, and numbers of patients attending. The average number of patients attending in 2011 was 126. Only six clinics employ dedicated Allied Health Professionals. Less than half of the clinics are research active. Whilst most Directors welcomed the availability of national standards, several expressed concern that standards might, in the absence of funding, result in the closure of the most poorly resourced services. This survey provides valuable data on the main characteristics of all of the 14 MCs delivering services in the Republic of Ireland and raises critical and fundamental questions about the goals and outcomes of MC services. The survey data collected can be used by other countries for cross-national comparison.

  7. Looked after children in Dublin and their mental health needs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, F

    2011-04-01

    Children in care in Ireland have increased by 27% in the last decade. This population is recognized to be among the most vulnerable. This study aims to describe their placement histories, service use and mental health needs. Data was obtained on 174 children (56.5% of eligible sample) with a mean age of 10.83 (SD = 5.04). 114 (65.5%) were in care for three years or more. 29 (16.7%) did not have a SW and 49 (37.7%) had no GP 50 (28.7%) were attending CAMHS. Long term care, frequent placement changes and residential setting were significantly related with poorer outcomes and increased MH contact. Given the increase in numbers in care and the overall decrease in resource allocation to health and social care, individual care planning and prioritizing of resources are essential.

  8. Killiney Grove Nursing Home, Killiney Hill Road, Killiney, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-09-13

    AbstractBackgroundInstrumental deliveries are commonly performed in the United Kingdom and Ireland, with rates of 12 – 17% in most centres. Knowing the exact position of the fetal head is a pre-requisite for safe instrumental delivery. Traditionally, diagnosis of the fetal head position is made on transvaginal digital examination by delineating the suture lines of the fetal skull and the fontanelles. However, the accuracy of transvaginal digital examination can be unreliable and varies between 20% and 75%. Failure to identify the correct fetal head position increases the likelihood of failed instrumental delivery with the additional morbidity of sequential use of instruments or second stage caesarean section. The use of ultrasound in determining the position of the fetal head has been explored but is not part of routine clinical practice.Methods\\/DesignA multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in two large maternity units in Ireland with a combined annual birth rate of 13,500 deliveries. It will involve 450 nulliparous women undergoing instrumental delivery after 37 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be incorrect diagnosis of the fetal head position. A study involving 450 women will have 80% power to detect a 10% difference in the incidence of inaccurate diagnosis of the fetal head position with two-sided 5% alpha.DiscussionIt is both important and timely to evaluate the use of ultrasound to diagnose the fetal head position prior to instrumental delivery before routine use can be advocated. The overall aim is to reduce the incidence of incorrect diagnosis of the fetal head position prior to instrumental delivery and improve the safety of instrumental deliveries.Trial registrationCurrent Controlled Trials ISRCTN72230496

  9. Our Lady's Manor Nursing Home, Dublin Road, Edgeworthstown, Longford.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2012-01-01

    Stillbirth is fetal death after 20 weeks gestation1. There are a number of definitions and classifications. WHO defines a stillbirth as a baby BW ≥500g, ≥22 weeks gestation who died before or during birth. However for international comparisons it recommends that reporting be restricted to those with BW>1000g and gestation ≥28 weeks. In Ireland stillbirths must be registered, the definition being BW≥500g or having reached a gestational age ≥ 24 weeks. Stillbirth affects 1 in 160 pregnancies2 and numerically it equals the number of infant deaths in the first year of life. At the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy the baby weighs 1 Kg and the risk of stillbirth is 1- 2%. The possibility of a stillbirth increases with maturity throughout the third trimester and is 3 times greater at 40 weeks than at earlier gestational ages3. This is relevant for the 5-10% of pregnancies that continue ≥42 weeks. If managed expectantly one in 400 post-term pregnancies will end in a stillbirth. Since 2003 the stillbirth rate has remained static in the US at 3.0 stillbirths per 1000 births. Prior to 2003 the stillbirth rate had declined 1.4% annually while the infant mortality rate fell twice as fast at 2.8%. Globally there are 2.6 million stillbirths annually. In Ireland the stillbirth rate is 3.3 per 1000 births which equates to 230 deaths per year. Despite its frequent occurrence stillbirth has been a relatively neglected component of perinatal medicine. Because a definitive cause cannot be identified in many cases, counselling is very difficult. This lack of scientific causation data has resulted in professional fatalism towards the stillbirth problem.

  10. How Technology Can Improve the Efficiency of Excavator-Based Cable Harvesting for Potential Biomass Extraction—A Woody Productivity Resource and Cost Analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ger Devlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cable logging systems were reviewed to compare the efficiency of potential biomass extraction from remote forest sites in Ireland based on productive machine hour (PMH and unit cost of operation (€/m3. Three operational scenarios (SC were analysed where SC I was a three man crew operation (choker setter, the carriage operator and unhooking chokers. SC II was a variation of this with a two man crew operation. SC III was operating radio controlled chokers there was a two man crew (choker setter and carriage operator. The study aims to assess how operations in Ireland perform against previous known cable studies to determine whether the cost of timber extraction on remote forest sites inaccessible for mechanised felling, has a future given the increased demand for wood fibre in Ireland, both from the sawmilling industries and the wood for energy sector. The volume per PMH was recorded at 17.97 for SC I, 15.09 for SC II and 20.58 m3 for SC III. The difference in productivity versus SC III remote controlled chokers is 5.49 m3/PMH for SC II crew and 2.61 m3/PMH for SC I. The decrease in total volume extracted from SCs I and II versus SC III was recorded at 15.69 m3 (15% and 32.97 m3 (36% product respectively. In value terms, the unit cost (€/m3 varied from 6.29 (SC I to 6.43 (SC II to 4.57 (SC III. When looking at the production unit costs of normal wood energy supply chains in Ireland, the figures are similar ranging from 3.17 €/m3 to 8.01 €/m3. The value of the end product of course will always determine which market the eventually goes to but given that cable log wood fibre has been unthinned and unmaintained then the biomass sector may be an ever increasing demand point in the search for increased woody biomass given that the unit costs can be competitive with other wood energy supply chains.

  11. Restitution from public authorities in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Niamh

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the law of restitution from public authorities in Ireland. It operates on two levels. First, it is the first large scale research project on the law of restitution in Ireland. It also analyses the law of restitution in Ireland and considers how Ireland has integrated traditional principles of restitution that have been developed in other common law jurisdictions. Second, it examines the law of restitution as it applies to public authorities in Ireland. It considers the re...

  12. Association between acute statin therapy, survival, and improved functional outcome after ischemic stroke: the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-04-01

    Statins improve infarct volume and neurological outcome in animal stroke models. We investigated the relationship between statin therapy and ischemic stroke outcome in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.

  13. Kelvin and industry in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Bernard; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Kelvin was a great mathematician, theoretical and experimental physicist, and educator, founding the first physical laboratory. He worked tirelessly for the creation of a reproducible set of physical units, and he was also an experienced and enthusiastic sailor. All these talents were linked to his extensive technological work, of which the most important examples were the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the marine compass. In Ireland his most important contributions were the occulting nature of the Holywood lighthouse, and his connection with the Giant's Causeway tramway. Kelvin's work on cabling and national maritime projects may have stimulated his later strong support of the British Empire and opposition to Home Rule in Ireland.

  14. Using the ICF in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Anne

    2011-05-01

    This paper reflects on the use of ICF in Ireland, taking as a case study the experience of the first National Disability Survey (NDS). There were four clear effects in Ireland of using ICF as a framework for the NDS: a) that a broader range of people with disabilities was encompassed; b) that the environmental factors included from the ICF were comprehensive and policy relevant; c) that both barriers and facilitators were incorporated into the model; and d) that a focus on research ethics was encouraged. Some general conclusions regarding the benefits and limitations of ICF based on this experience are also drawn.

  15. Kelvin and industry in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, Bernard; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Kelvin was a great mathematician, theoretical and experimental physicist, and educator, founding the first physical laboratory. He worked tirelessly for the creation of a reproducible set of physical units, and he was also an experienced and enthusiastic sailor. All these talents were linked to his extensive technological work, of which the most important examples were the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the marine compass. In Ireland his most important contributions were the occulting nature of the Holywood lighthouse, and his connection with the Giant's Causeway tramway. Kelvin's work on cabling and national maritime projects may have stimulated his later strong support of the British Empire and opposition to Home Rule in Ireland.

  16. An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese.

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, H.; Cowden, J.; Jacob, M.; Rowe, B.; Roberts, D.; Bruce, J.; Mitchell, E.

    1992-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection occurred in England and Wales in October to December 1989. Forty-two people were affected, mainly adults, and most lived in south-east England. Microbiological and epidemiological investigations implicated an imported Irish soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese as the vehicle of infection. A case-control study showed a statistically significant association between infection and consumption of the suspect cheese (p = 0.001). Salmonella dublin was subse...

  17. Export marketing strategies for the Northern Ireland seed potato industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned primarily with the export marketing performance of the Northern Ireland seed potato industry. The Industry has shown a dramatic decline in exports over the past twenty years, and this thesis proposes strategies aimed at regaining, and maintaining, a competitive advantage for the industry in world markets. A comparative analysis is conducted of the strategic and organisational export capabilities of the Northern Ireland industry and its main compet...

  18. Security of supply in Ireland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazilian, Morgan; O'Leary, Fergal; O Gallachoir, Brian; Howley, Martin

    2006-12-01

    This is the second annual report on the title theme from SEI. Since SEI's initial security of supply publication there has been considerable attention paid to the security of supply aspects of energy policy worldwide. This reports updates and refines the metrics used to consider security of supply in Ireland. It also presents new analysis in three areas; the development of a supply/demand index, use of mean variance portfolio analysis for the electricity sector and a high oil price energy forecast scenario

  19. Aras Mhuire Community Nursing Unit, Dublin Road, Tuam, Galway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  20. FRBRizing an E-Library : Migrating from Dublin Core to FRBR and MODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Nelson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Western State College in Gunnison, Colorado developed an open-source eCataloger Framework, based on Dublin Core metadata, on Google's App Engine to manage and serve electronic resources to the library's patrons. Pressed to find new solutions for failing manual workflows for serials and government document resource management, the eCataloger Framework was extended to FRBR to automate and enhance serials management and government documents receiving. Based on successfully FRBRizing the eCataloger, Western State College converted their e-Library management from Dublin Core to FRBR and MODS. This paper examines the processes of each of these implementations using Python, AJAX, and jQuery, the details of the FRBR data model, including using FRBRoo, and the successful user interface supported by a FRBRized catalog.

  1. Growth inhibitory factors in bovine faeces impairs detection of Salmonella Dublin by conventional culture procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Nielsen, L.R.; Sørensen, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the relative importance of different biological and technical factors on the analytical sensitivity of conventional culture methods for detection of Salmonella Dublin in cattle faeces. Methods and Results: Faeces samples collected from six adult bovines from different salmonella...... novobiocin, followed by combinations of culture media (three types) and selective media (two types). The sensitivity of each combination and sources of variation in detection were determined by a generalized linear mixed model using a split-plot design. Conclusions: Biological factors, such as faecal origin...... and S. Dublin strain influenced the sensitivity more than technical factors. Overall, the modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV)-culture medium had the most reliable detection capability, whereas detection with selenite cystine broth and Mueller Kauffman tetrathionate broth combinations varied...

  2. Participatory methods for research prioritization in primary care: an analysis of the World Café approach in Ireland and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; Galvin, Rose; O'Sullivan, Madeleine; McInerney, Chris; Meagher, Eoghan; Burke, Daniel; LeMaster, Joseph W

    2017-06-01

    There are increasing imperatives for patients and members of the public to engage as partners in identifying health research priorities. The use of participatory methods to engage stakeholders in health care in research prioritization is not commonly reported. This article analyses the use of World Cafés as a participatory method for research prioritization with marginalized communities in Ireland and the USA. The principles of purposeful and snowball sampling were followed in both settings and a diverse range of community and health care stakeholders participated (n = 63 Ireland and n = 55 USA). The principles for a classic World Café were employed but there were novel features in each setting as well. Stewart et al.'s (Patients' and clinicians' research priorities. Health Expect 2011; 14: 439-48, conceptual framework for patient engagement was adapted and used to comparatively analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the World Cafés, focusing on agenda setting, engagement with research processes, interactional features and outputs. Design principles for World Cafés were found to align with high-quality patient engagement for research prioritization in both settings. They served to facilitate meaningful collaboration among stakeholder groups in research prioritization (research agenda setting) and explored research priorities (engagement with research). The café ambience, emphasis on hospitality and self-facilitation created an environment for dialogues within and across participating groups (interactional features). There was a commitment to follow-up actions with reference to possible subsequent research (outputs). The World Café is a valuable, participatory, flexible method that can be used with community and health care stakeholders for research prioritization with marginalized communities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Maternal and foetal outcomes among 4118 women with HIV infection treated with lopinavir/ritonavir during pregnancy: analysis of population-based surveillance data from the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tookey, Pat A; Thorne, Claire; van Wyk, Jean; Norton, Michael

    2016-02-04

    The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) conducts comprehensive population-based surveillance of pregnancies in women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom/Ireland. Use of antepartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and to treat maternal infection, if required, is standard practise in this population; lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is commonly used. The study objective was to examine the use of LPV/r among pregnant women with HIV infection to describe maternal and foetal outcomes. The NSHPC study collected maternal, perinatal and paediatric data through confidential and voluntary obstetric and paediatric reporting schemes. Pregnancies reported to the NSHPC by June 2013, due to deliver 2003-2012 and with LPV/r exposure were included in this analysis, using pregnancy as the unit of observation. Four thousand eight hundred sixty-four LPV/r-exposed pregnancies resulting in 4702 deliveries in 4118 women were identified. Maternal region of birth was primarily sub-Saharan Africa (77 %) or United Kingdom/Ireland (14 %). Median maternal age at conception was 30 years. LPV/r was initiated preconception in 980 (20 %) and postconception in 3884 (80 %) pregnancies; median duration of antepartum LPV/r exposure was 270 and 107 days, respectively. Viral load close to delivery was HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland who received LPV/r-containing ART regimens demonstrate that these regimens have a good safety profile and are effective for viral suppression during pregnancy, with associated low rates of MTCT.

  4. Natural radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Mcginnity, P.; Ciara, M. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (Ireland); Craig, M. [Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in collaboration with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) undertook a national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources for compliance with parameters set out in the European Communities Drinking Water Directive. The Directive outlines the minimum requirements for the quality of drinking water and water intended for human consumption. Over two hundred samples were screened for radioactivity. Where indicated, analysis for individual radionuclide activity was undertaken and the radiation dose arising calculated. Furthermore, samples were analysed for radon concentration. This survey is the first comprehensive national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland. Approximately 18 per cent of drinking water in Ireland originates from groundwater and springs with the remainder from surface water. Between 2007 and 2011, water samples from a representative network of groundwater sources were analysed and assessed for compliance with the radioactivity parameters set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The assessment was carried out using the methodology for screening drinking water set out by the WHO. For practical purposes the WHO recommended screening levels for drinking water below which no further action is required of 100 mBq/l for gross alpha activity and 1000 mBq/l for gross beta activity were applied. Of the 203 groundwater sources screened for gross alpha and gross beta all met the gross beta activity criteria of less than 1000 mBq/l and 175 supplies had gross alpha activity concentrations of less than 100 mBq/l. For these sources no further analysis was required. The remaining 28 sources required further (radionuclide-specific) analysis from an alpha activity perspective. Results on ranges and distributions of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater as well as ingestion doses estimated for consumers of these water supplies will be presented. Document available in abstract

  5. Modelling the wind climate of Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, H.P.; Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    The wind climate of Ireland has been calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The climatology is represented by 65 frequency classes of geostrophic wind that were selected as equiangular direction sectors and speed intervals with equal frequency in a sector. The results...... are compared with data from the European Wind Atlas which have been analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program, WA(S)P. The prediction of the areas of higher wind power is fair. Stations with low power are overpredicted....

  6. MhicMathúna v Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This is a feminist re-imagining of the Supreme Court decision MhicMathúna v Ireland [1995] 1 I.R. 454. The actual Supreme Court decision in this case continues to have a profound impact upon how the Irish superior courts view constitutional socio-economic rights claims. This feminist judgment seeks to re-situate the legal analysis of constitutionalised socio-economic rights claims. However, this, as is seen from the feminist judgment, has not been an easy task. The plaintiffs' in this case at...

  7. Kelvin and industry in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Bernard [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Whitaker, Andrew, E-mail: b.crossland@qub.ac.u, E-mail: a.whitaker@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-01

    Kelvin was a great mathematician, theoretical and experimental physicist, and educator, founding the first physical laboratory. He worked tirelessly for the creation of a reproducible set of physical units, and he was also an experienced and enthusiastic sailor. All these talents were linked to his extensive technological work, of which the most important examples were the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the marine compass. In Ireland his most important contributions were the occulting nature of the Holywood lighthouse, and his connection with the Giant's Causeway tramway. Kelvin's work on cabling and national maritime projects may have stimulated his later strong support of the British Empire and opposition to Home Rule in Ireland.

  8. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Dublin 20

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barragry, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    General Practice Co-Operatives provide most out of hours care in communities in Ireland. Limited data exists on patient complaints. This study reports on complaints at Kildare and West Wicklow Doctors on Call (\\'K Doc\\'), a GP Co-Operative in Ireland, examining the impact of a formal risk reduction strategy implemented (2010-2013). The aim of the study was to determine if it was possible to reduce the rate of written complaints per 1000 consultations through a formal approach encompassing evaluation of complaints, improved communication in relation to complaints, and more direct use of insights gained from complaints analysis in continuing professional development at the Co-Operative.

  9. Emotional insecurity in the family and community and youth delinquency in Northern Ireland: a person-oriented analysis across five waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Over one billion children are exposed worldwide to political violence and armed conflict. Currently, conclusions about bases for adjustment problems are qualified by limited longitudinal research from a process-oriented, social-ecological perspective. In this study, we examined a theoretically-based model for the impact of multiple levels of the social ecology (family, community) on adolescent delinquency. Specifically, this study explored the impact of children's emotional insecurity about both the family and community on youth delinquency in Northern Ireland. Methods In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 999 mother–child dyads in Belfast (482 boys, 517 girls), drawn from socially-deprived, ethnically-homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 and were 12.18 (SD = 1.82) years old on average at Time 1. Findings The longitudinal analyses were conducted in hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), allowing for the modeling of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Intraindividual trajectories of emotional insecurity about the family related to children's delinquency. Greater insecurity about the community worsened the impact of family conflict on youth's insecurity about the family, consistent with the notion that youth's insecurity about the community sensitizes them to exposure to family conflict in the home. Conclusions The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about family and community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being, including reduced risk for delinquency. PMID:25981614

  10. Emotional insecurity in the family and community and youth delinquency in Northern Ireland: a person-oriented analysis across five waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion children are exposed worldwide to political violence and armed conflict. Currently, conclusions about bases for adjustment problems are qualified by limited longitudinal research from a process-oriented, social-ecological perspective. In this study, we examined a theoretically-based model for the impact of multiple levels of the social ecology (family, community) on adolescent delinquency. Specifically, this study explored the impact of children's emotional insecurity about both the family and community on youth delinquency in Northern Ireland. In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast (482 boys, 517 girls), drawn from socially-deprived, ethnically-homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 and were 12.18 (SD = 1.82) years old on average at Time 1. The longitudinal analyses were conducted in hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), allowing for the modeling of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Intraindividual trajectories of emotional insecurity about the family related to children's delinquency. Greater insecurity about the community worsened the impact of family conflict on youth's insecurity about the family, consistent with the notion that youth's insecurity about the community sensitizes them to exposure to family conflict in the home. The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about family and community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being, including reduced risk for delinquency. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Histopathology case definition of naturally acquired Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin infection in young Holstein cattle in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Heidi L; Thompson, Belinda; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin ( Salmonella Dublin) is a host-adapted bacterium that causes high morbidity and mortality in dairy cattle worldwide. A retrospective search of archives at the New York Animal Health Diagnostic Center revealed 57 culture-confirmed Salmonella Dublin cases from New York and Pennsylvania in which detailed histology of multiple tissues was available. Tissues routinely submitted by referring veterinarians for histologic evaluation included sections of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Of the 57 S almonella Dublin-positive cases, all were Holstein breed, 53 were female (93%), and 49 (86%) were 90% (45 of 49) of lungs, 90% (28 of 31) of livers, 50% (11 of 22) of spleens, and 62% (18 of 29) of lymph nodes examined had moderate-to-severe inflammation with or without necrosis. Inconstant lesions were seen in 48% (10 of 21) of hearts examined, and consisted of variable inflammatory infiltrates and rare areas of necrosis. We propose a histopathology case definition of Salmonella Dublin in cattle that includes a combination of pulmonary alveolar capillary neutrophilia with or without hepatocellular necrosis and paratyphoid granulomas, splenitis, and lymphadenitis. These findings will assist in the development of improved protocols for the diagnosis of infectious diseases of dairy cattle.

  12. Abortion debates in Finland and the Republic of Ireland: textual analysis of experiential thinking and argumentation in parliamentary and layperson discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Paakkonen, Tommi; Ryökäs, Esko; Nieminen, Petteri

    2017-12-02

    The ethical discussion about abortion has been polarized in Finland and the Republic of Ireland, two European countries with very different abortion legislation (liberal vs. highly restrictive). The aim of the present study was to analyze experiential thinking patterns and argumentative strategies in political and layperson debates regarding induced abortion. The content of Finnish and Irish texts (n = 493), consisting of transcripts of parliamentary debates and online texts, such as blogs, was analyzed systematically. The texts were investigated for the aspects of experiential thinking, for selected argumentative moves and for any differences in the prevalence of these features between countries or between political vs. layperson debates. The Finnish and Irish discussions about induced abortion relied heavily on experiential thinking patterns and emotionally laden arguments instead of objective research data. This was evident in the very high prevalence of testimonials, narratives, loaded language and appeals to emotion in both political and layperson debates regardless of the country or the debater's position on abortion issue. Research data that did not support the position of the debater were relatively often omitted by confirmation bias. The Irish debaters appealed to popularity more often than the Finnish ones, while magical/religious thinking was mainly observed in the Finnish layperson discussion. The national history and the prevailing cultural and religious atmosphere of the two countries could explain these differences. The abortion debate mostly reinforces the opinions of one's peer group rather than convinces the opposite party to change their position. The stalemate and continuation of the same arguments being repeated could be associated with experiential thinking and emotional argumentative strategies in both political and layperson debates.

  13. Stress and stressors in the clinical environment: a comparative study of fourth-year student nurses and newly qualified general nurses in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Patricia; Matthews, Anne; Coyne, Imelda

    2013-03-01

    To measure and compare the perceived levels of job-related stress and stressors of newly qualified nurses and fourth-year student nurses in the clinical environment and to explore the participants' views on stress and stressors. Stress in the nursing workplace has significant consequences for the person, the patient and the organisation, such as psychological and physical health deterioration and impaired professional practice. To address this problem, stress and stressors need to be measured and identified. This study used a cross-sectional survey design and self-reporting questionnaires to measure and compare levels of stress in both groups. Convenience sampling involved all newly qualified nurses (n = 120) and fourth-year student nurses (n = 128) in Dublin North-East region in Ireland. The instrument used was 'The Nursing Stress Scale' (Gray-Toft & Anderson 1981, Journal of Behavioral Assessment 3, 11-23). Descriptive, qualitative analysis was conducted on an open-ended question. Data were obtained from newly qualified nurses (n = 31) and fourth-year student nurses (n = 40) in six acute hospital sites. Levels of perceived stress and stressors were high in both groups. Themes identified from the responses to the open question by both groups included excessive workload, difficult working relationships and unmet clinical learning needs. Student nurses also reported the combination of academic demands with clinical placement as a major stressor. There was no significant difference between each group. Stress continues to be a problem for nurses in the clinical setting. Excessive workload requires urgent attention by hospital managers in view of widespread retention difficulties. Themes identified could provide a framework for possible interventions for improving the clinical environment for nurses. These results can help stakeholders in nurse education and practice to develop interventions to reduce stress for both groups and to ease the transition from student to

  14. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious......Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd...

  15. Age-structured dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model of Salmonella Dublin infection within dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention...... of the six age-groups; 2) S. Dublin incidence and number of animals in each infection state; and 3) S. Dublin related morbidity and mortality in the acutely infected animals. The effects of introducing one infectious heifer on the risk of spread of S. Dublin within the herd and on the duration of infection...... and control of infection on its own. Herd size did not affect the probability of infection spread upon exposure, but the larger the herd the more important were management and housing practices that improve hygiene and reduce susceptibility to shorten durations of infection in the herd and to increase...

  16. Ethnopharmacology in Ireland: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Coady

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to extract information of the book Medicinal Plants in Folk Tradition: An Ethnobotany of Britain & Ireland published in 2004 by Allen and Hatfield, to give an overview of plants with medicinal potential and their applications. This study attempts to attest, observe and comment on the diversity of plants, as well as the accompanying information which inevitably is vital for the future development of herbal medicines for human therapy. Initially, the information in relation to medicinal plants in Ireland only was extracted from the above-mentioned book and organised in tables. Afterwards, it was analysed through the construction of maps and the positioning of each piece of information in specific geographical regions of the country. Its division into provinces was taken into consideration as well as into counties within the provinces. These maps and graphs illustrate the most predominantly reported botanical families identified and utilised (Asteraceae, Scrophulariaceae and Lamiaceae, and to the most frequently cited medicinal uses were attributed to topical applications. As a result we can see that the uses of traditional medicines vary among these different geographical areas of the country. Not only different uses were reported but also different plants used to treat the same condition, or different conditions treated with the same plant depending on the county. Various phytopharmaceuticals date back several decades and despite the existing evolving technology, without a doubt herbal medicines can and still do provide exceptional and efficacious outcomes like many of the conventional remedies available today.

  17. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage

  18. C2-C6 background hydrocarbon concentrations monitored at a roof top and green park site, in Dublin City centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Broderick, B M

    2007-09-01

    A 5 week monitoring campaign was carried out in Dublin City centre, to establish which site gave a more accurate background city centre estimation: a roof-top or green field site. This background represented a conservative estimate of HC exposure in Dublin City centre, useful for quantifying health effects related to this form of pollution and also for establishing a local background relative to the four surrounding main roads when the wind direction is travelling towards each road with the background receptor upwind. Over the entire monitoring campaign, the lowest concentrations and relative standard deviations were observed at the green field site, regardless of time of day or meteorological effects.

  19. Hamilton Park Care Facility, Balrothery, Balbriggan, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, Miriam

    2018-01-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a debilitating terminal condition. Informal caregivers are key figures in ALS care provision. The physical, psychological and emotional impact of providing care in the home requires appropriate assistance and support. The objective of this analysis is to explore the needs of informal ALS caregivers across the caregiving course.

  20. Elmhurst Nursing Home, Hampstead Avenue, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  1. A Survey entrepreneurship in Ireland 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Paula; O'Gorman, Colm

    2017-01-01

    A survey of entrepreneurship in Ireland, using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. Data is collected from a representative sample of 2,000 adults. Key findings include that Ireland had relatively high rates of entrepreneurship in 2016, as measured by the TEA index. The levels of entrepreneurship in Ireland have now returned to the levels observed pre-recession. In many developed European economies, such as France, Germany, Spain and Sweden rates of entrepreneurship are much lower tha...

  2. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  3. Spatial variation in general medical services income in dublin general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; O'Dowd, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The general medical services (GMS) scheme provides care free at the point of use for the 30% most economically deprived section of the population and the elderly. Almost all people of over-70-year olds are eligible for the GMS scheme potentially directing resources away from those most in need. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between practice GMS income and deprivation amongst Dublin-based general practitioners (GPs). The practice GMS income in Dublin was analysed in relation to practice characteristics including the number of GPs, catchment area population, proportion of over-70-year olds in the catchment area, catchment deprivation, number of GMS GPs within 2 km, and average GMS practice income within 2 km. Practice GMS income was highest in deprived areas but is also a valuable source of income in the least deprived areas. The capitation rate for over-70-year olds provides an incentive for GPs to locate in affluent areas and potentially directs resources away from those in greater need.

  4. Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in child vaccination: results from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Edel; Walsh, Brendan; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2014-06-05

    There is limited knowledge of the extent of or factors underlying inequalities in uptake of childhood vaccination in Ireland. This paper aims to measure and decompose socioeconomic inequalities in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis was performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of the carers of over 11,000 nine-month old babies collected in 2008 and 2009. Multivariate analysis was conducted to explore the child and parental factors, including socioeconomic factors that were associated with non-vaccination of children. A concentration index was calculated to measure inequality in childhood vaccination. Subsequent decomposition analysis identified key factors underpinning observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of vaccination (CI=-0.19) show a substantial pro-rich gradient. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that a substantial proportion of the inequality is explained by household level variables such as socioeconomic status, household structure, income and entitlement to publicly funded care (29.9%, 24% 30.6% and 12.9% respectively). Substantial differences are also observed between children of Irish mothers and immigrant mothers from developing countries. Vaccination was less likely in lower than in higher income households. Access to publicly funded services was an important factor in explaining inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of midwife-led and consultant-led care of healthy women at low risk of childbirth complications in the Republic of Ireland: a randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Begley, Cecily

    2011-10-29

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: No midwifery-led units existed in Ireland before 2004. The aim of this study was to compare midwife-led (MLU) versus consultant-led (CLU) care for healthy, pregnant women without risk factors for labour and delivery. METHODS: An unblinded, pragmatic randomised trial was designed, funded by the Health Service Executive (Dublin North-East). Following ethical approval, all women booking prior to 24 weeks of pregnancy at two maternity hospitals with 1,300-3,200 births annually in Ireland were assessed for trial eligibility.1,653 consenting women were centrally randomised on a 2:1 ratio to MLU or CLU care, (1101:552). \\'Intention-to-treat\\' analysis was used to compare 9 key neonatal and maternal outcomes. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between MLU and CLU in the seven key outcomes: caesarean birth (163 [14.8%] vs 84 [15.2%]; relative risk (RR) 0.97 [95% CI 0.76 to 1.24]), induction (248 [22.5%] vs 138 [25.0%]; RR 0.90 [0.75 to 1.08]), episiotomy (126 [11.4%] vs 68 [12.3%]; RR 0.93 [0.70 to 1.23]), instrumental birth (139 [12.6%] vs 79 [14.3%]; RR 0.88 [0.68 to 1.14]), Apgar scores <8 (10 [0.9%] vs 9 [1.6%]; RR 0.56 [0.23 to 1.36]), postpartum haemorrhage (144 [13.1%] vs 75 [13.6%]; RR 0.96 [0.74 to 1.25]); breastfeeding initiation (616 [55.9%] vs 317 [57.4%]; RR 0.97 [0.89 to 1.06]). MLU women were significantly less likely to have continuous electronic fetal monitoring (397 [36.1%] vs 313 [56.7%]; RR 0.64 [0.57 to 0.71]), or augmentation of labour (436 [39.6%] vs 314 [56.9%]; RR 0.50 [0.40 to 0.61]). CONCLUSIONS: Midwife-led care, as practised in this study, is as safe as consultant-led care and is associated with less intervention during labour and delivery. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14973283.

  6. Our Lady's Manor Nursing Home, Dublin Road, Edgeworthstown, Longford.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sen, Lin

    2011-06-03

    Abstract Background The chloroplast-localized ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco), the primary enzyme responsible for autotrophy, is instrumental in the continual adaptation of plants to variations in the concentrations of CO2. The large subunit (LSU) of Rubisco is encoded by the chloroplast rbcL gene. Although adaptive processes have been previously identified at this gene, characterizing the relationships between the mutational dynamics at the protein level may yield clues on the biological meaning of such adaptive processes. The role of such coevolutionary dynamics in the continual fine-tuning of RbcL remains obscure. Results We used the timescale and phylogenetic analyses to investigate and search for processes of adaptive evolution in rbcL gene in three gymnosperm families, namely Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae. To understand the relationships between regions identified as having evolved under adaptive evolution, we performed coevolutionary analyses using the software CAPS. Importantly, adaptive processes were identified at amino acid sites located on the contact regions among the Rubisco subunits and on the interface between Rubisco and its activase. Adaptive amino acid replacements at these regions may have optimized the holoenzyme activity. This hypothesis was pinpointed by evidence originated from our analysis of coevolution that supported the correlated evolution between Rubisco and its activase. Interestingly, the correlated adaptive processes between both these proteins have paralleled the geological variation history of the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Conclusions The gene rbcL has experienced bursts of adaptations in response to the changing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. These adaptations have emerged as a result of a continuous dynamic of mutations, many of which may have involved innovation of functional Rubisco features. Analysis of the protein structure and the functional implications of such

  7. Hamilton Park Care Facility, Balrothery, Balbriggan, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ingrand, Isabelle

    2012-04-30

    AbstractBackgroundSeveral studies have shown the influence of the perceptions of aging on the cognitive functioning and the mental and physical health of older people. These relationships have not to date been studied in France where validated instruments are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to validate a French-language version of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) in the French general population aged 65 and over. The secondary objective was to study the stability of the dimensions of this instrument among participants aged 55 to 64.MethodsThe study was proposed to the cohort of the Observatoire Régional du Vieillissement (OPREVI) (observatory of aging), located in a small town in Poitou-Charentes (western France). An anonymous questionnaire including the APQ was sent by mail to inhabitants aged 55 and over. The original English language APQ was described with adults aged 65 and older. It has 32 items distributed on 7 dimensions: timeline chronic and cyclical, positive and negative consequences, positive and negative control and emotional representations.Results656 adults participated in this survey (286 men, 370 women). Among those aged 65 and over (n = 394), the seven-factor structure estimated by confirmatory factor analysis was coherent with original findings. Internal consistency as evaluated by Cronbach alpha, was between 0.83 for consequences negative and 0.52 for control negative. Several dimensions were strongly correlated. Among participants aged 55 to 64 (n = 262), the same factorial model yielded an acceptable fit. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis concluded to approximate factorial invariance between the two age groups with a null delta in comparative fit index.ConclusionThis study among French people aged 65 and over, added further evidence of the multidimensional structure of the French version of the APQ which is superimposed to the dimensions of the original Irish version. The same factorial structure

  8. The Croft Nursing Home, 2 Goldenbridge Walk, Inchicore, Dublin 8.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OhEigeartaigh, Sean S

    2011-07-26

    Abstract Background In standard BLAST searches, no information other than the sequences of the query and the database entries is considered. However, in situations where two genes from different species have only borderline similarity in a BLAST search, the discovery that the genes are located within a region of conserved gene order (synteny) can provide additional evidence that they are orthologs. Thus, for interpreting borderline search results, it would be useful to know whether the syntenic context of a database hit is similar to that of the query. This principle has often been used in investigations of particular genes or genomic regions, but to our knowledge it has never been implemented systematically. Results We made use of the synteny information contained in the Yeast Gene Order Browser database for 11 yeast species to carry out a systematic search for protein-coding genes that were overlooked in the original annotations of one or more yeast genomes but which are syntenic with their orthologs. Such genes tend to have been overlooked because they are short, highly divergent, or contain introns. The key features of our software - called SearchDOGS - are that the database entries are classified into sets of genomic segments that are already known to be orthologous, and that very weak BLAST hits are retained for further analysis if their genomic location is similar to that of the query. Using SearchDOGS we identified 595 additional protein-coding genes among the 11 yeast species, including two new genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found additional genes for the mating pheromone a-factor in six species including Kluyveromyces lactis. Conclusions SearchDOGS has proven highly successful for identifying overlooked genes in the yeast genomes. We anticipate that our approach can be adapted for study of further groups of species, such as bacterial genomes. More generally, the concept of doing sequence similarity searches against databases to which external

  9. Use of IgG avidity ELISA to differentiate acute from persistent infection with Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.R.; Nielsen, L.R.; Lind, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether an immunoglobulin (Ig)G avidity ELISA can be used to differentiate between acute and persistent infection with Salmonella (S.) Dublin in cattle. To determine whether the IgG isotype, IgG(1) and IgG(2) responses in acute and persistent infections differ. Methods...

  10. Prevalence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke and their treatment among a cohort of stroke patients in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2000-10-01

    The majority of strokes are due to ischaemia. Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, hypertension and smoking. The incidence can be reduced by addressing these risk factors. This study examines the prevalence of risk factors and their treatment in a cohort of patients with ischaemic stroke registered on a Dublin stroke database.

  11. MacLiammóir's minstrel and Johnston's morality : cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beuken, Ruud

    This article explores how Micheál MacLiammóir and Denis Johnston attempted to perform cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre and thereby articulated their respective views on a colonial past that had to be reassessed anew, on the one hand, and a postcolonial future that

  12. Outcomes from the first mouth cancer awareness and clinical check-up day in the Dublin Dental University Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2012-04-01

    To increase public awareness about mouth cancer, the Dublin Dental University Hospital (DDUH) hosted an awareness day and free mouth check-up in September 2010. The messages of information, self-examination and risk management, and the importance of early detection, were available to all attendees. The role of general dental and medical practitioners in examination of the mouth was stressed.

  13. The first step towards a 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    , it is essential that Ireland begins to utilise its renewable resources more effectively. Therefore, this study presents the first step towards a 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland. The energy-system analysis tool used was EnergyPLAN, as it accounts for all sectors of the energy-system that need...

  14. Project Plan IRRS Ireland 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service, IRRS was established to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of national regulatory infrastructure for nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste and transport safety, and the security of radioactive sources, while recognising the ultimate responsibility of each Member State to ensure safety in these areas. The IRRS process sets out to accomplish this expressed purpose through consideration of both technical and policy issues of a regulatory nature against IAEA safety standards and, where appropriate, good practice elsewhere. The regulatory review process directly draws upon the wide-ranging international experience and expertise of IRRS review team members. Peer exchange on technical and policy issues gives insight into the efficiency and effectiveness of the legal and governmental framework and regulatory infrastructure for safety. Through this process, opportunities for improvement are explored and potential improvement strategies identified which may be shared with other States. IRRS missions provide an opportunity for sharing regulatory experiences, harmonising regulatory approaches among States, and creating mutual learning opportunities among regulators. IRRS discussions focus on issues arising from the State's self-assessment and the evaluation of technical areas and policy issues. There are binding legal requirements in both the Euratom Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Directives that the national regulatory framework, including the regulatory body, is subject to a periodic international peer review. In practice these peer reviews are organised by the IAEA through an agreement with the EU and comprise a detailed examination of national provisions against the IAEA's Safety Standards. Ireland applied for its peer review mission on the 28th September 2010 and in an exchange of letters, 2015 was agreed between the IAEA and Ireland with a follow up mission foreseen for 2018 Appendix 1

  15. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive probability values of serum agglutination test titres for the diagnosis of Salmonella Dublin culture-positive bovine abortion and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Miguel, C; Crilly, J; Grant, J; Mee, J F

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of maternal serology for the diagnosis of Salmonella Dublin bovine abortion and stillbirth. A retrospective, unmatched, case-control study was carried out using twenty year's data (1989-2009) from bovine foetal submissions to an Irish government veterinary laboratory. Cases (n = 214) were defined as submissions with a S. Dublin culture-positive foetus from a S. Dublin unvaccinated dam where results of maternal S. Dublin serology were available. Controls (n = 415) were defined as submissions where an alternative diagnosis other than S. Dublin was made in a foetus from an S. Dublin unvaccinated dam where the results of maternal S. Dublin serology were available. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data: the dichotomous dependent variable was the S. Dublin foetal culture result, and the independent variables were the maternal serum agglutination test (SAT) titre results. Salmonella serology correctly classified 87% of S. Dublin culture-positive foetuses at a predicted probability threshold of 0.44 (cut-off at which sensitivity and specificity are at a maximum, J = 0.67). The sensitivity of the SAT at the same threshold was 73.8% (95% CI: 67.4%-79.5%), and the specificity was 93.2% (95% CI: 90.3%-95.4%). The positive and negative predictive values were 84.9% (95% CI: 79.3%-88.6%) and 87.3% (95% CI: 83.5%-91.3%), respectively. This study illustrates that the use of predicted probability values, rather than the traditional arbitrary breakpoints of negative, inconclusive and positive, increases the diagnostic value of the maternal SAT. Veterinary laboratory diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners can recover from the test results, information previously categorized, particularly from those results declared to be inconclusive. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  17. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  18. The Future of Renewable Gas in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    An outline is given how grass and waste can be converted into natural gas and can then be used locally or piped into the national grid for distribution around Ireland. The report estimates that 7.5% of Ireland's natural gas demand could be met by renewable gas, the equivalent of heating 300,000 homes each year.

  19. Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) receives increasing attention in cattle production. It is host-adapted to cattle, and leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity, mortality and production losses in both newly and persistently infected herds. Cattle health promoting...... institutions in several countries are currently constructing active surveillance programmes or voluntary certification programmes, and encourage control and eradication of S. Dublin infected cattle herds. There is a need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of the infection at both animal and herd level...

  20. Work-related ill-health: Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Great Britain 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Noone, P; Bourke, J; Hayes, J; Turner, S; Agius, R

    2015-01-01

    Data on work-related ill-health (WRIH) in the Republic of Ireland is inconsistent. To compare the incidence of WRIH in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), Northern Ireland (NI) and Great Britain (GB) reported by clinical specialists in skin and respiratory medicine and by specialist occupational physicians (OPs). Analysis of data reported to three surveillance schemes in The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in ROI and corresponding UK schemes. Contact dermatitis was the most frequently reported skin disease in the three areas. Asthma was the most frequently-reported respiratory disease in the ROI, while asbestos-related cases predominate in GB and NI. Mental health disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders were reported most frequently by OPs. Annual average incidence rates for skin disease were 2 per 100000 employed (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-2.8) in the ROI and 7 per 100000 for GB (95% CI 4.8-9.4). Unadjusted incidence rates for respiratory disease were 1 (95% CI 0.3-1) and 8 (95% CI 6.1-10.7) per 100000 in the ROI and GB, respectively; adjusted for reporter non-response, these figures increased to 15 (95% CI 11.3-19.6) and 32 (95% CI 28.4-35.6) per 100000 respectively. This is the first paper to include THOR data on WRIH from the ROI, NI and GB. Consistent and dedicated data collection in the ROI via the THOR schemes is viable and important in the light of a deficit of occupational ill-health data. Sustained efforts to improve participation are underway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Analysis of phenotype, genotype and serotype distribution in erythromycin-resistant group B streptococci isolated from vaginal flora in Southern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, R A

    2010-02-01

    The screening of 2000 women of childbearing age in Cork between 2004 and 2006 produced 37 erythromycin-resistant group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates. PCR analysis was performed to determine the basis for erythromycin resistance. The ermTR gene was most frequently expressed (n = 19), followed by the ermB gene (n = 8). Four isolates harboured the mefA gene. Six isolates yielded no PCR products. Some phenotype-genotype correlation was observed. All isolates expressing the mefA gene displayed the M phenotype whilst all those expressing ermB displayed the constitutive macrolide resistance (cMLS(B)) phenotype. Of 19 isolates that expressed the ermTR gene, 16 displayed the inducible macrolide resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotype. Serotype analysis revealed that serotypes III and V predominated in these isolates. The identification of two erythromycin-resistant serotype VIII isolates among this collection represents the first reported finding of erythromycin resistance in this serotype. A single isolate was non-typable using two latex agglutination serotyping kits.

  2. The International Cytokine Conference (11th) Held in Dublin (Ireland) on September 20-24 2003 (European Cytokine Network, Volume 14, Number 3, September 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Fisiologia Celular UNAM, Mexico City/ Mexico specific marker of bacterial sepsis. Despite the increasing clinical importance of PCT the knowledge about its...about their function or scription factor NF-kappaB. Likewise, Varicella -zoster virus strongly mechanism of action. activates the AP- 1 components Jun and

  3. Multibeam collection for HLY05TE: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2005-09-29 to 2005-11-03, Tromso, Norway to Dublin, Ireland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. The health of hospitals and lessons from history: public health and sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Geraghty, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to examine, critically, 19th century hospital sanitary reform with reference to theories about infection and contagion. In the nineteenth century, measures to control epidemic diseases focused on providing clean water, removing waste and isolating infected cases. These measures were informed by the ideas of sanitary reformers like Chadwick and Nightingale, and hospitals were an important element of sanitary reform. Informed by the paradigmatic tradition of social history, the study design was a historical analysis of public health policy. Using the methods of historical research, documentary primary sources, including official reports and selected hospital archives and related secondary sources, were consulted. Emerging theories about infection were informing official bodies like the Board of Superintendence of Dublin Hospitals in their efforts to improve hospital sanitation. The Board secured important reforms in hospital sanitation, including the provision of technically efficient sanitary infrastructure. Public health measures to control epidemic infections are only as effective as the state of knowledge of infection and contagion and the infrastructure to support sanitary measures. Today, public mistrust about the safety of hospitals is reminiscent of that of 150 years ago, although the reasons are different and relate to a fear of contracting antimicrobial-resistant infections. A powerful historical lesson from this study is that resistance to new ideas can delay progress and improved sanitary standards can allay public mistrust. In reforming hospital sanitation, policies and regulations were established--including an inspection body to monitor and enforce standards--the benefits of which provide lessons that resonate today. Such practices, especially effective independent inspection, could be adapted for present-day contexts and re-instigated where they do not exist. History has much to offer contemporary policy development and practice reform and

  5. Mount Tabor Care Centre, Newgrove Avenue, Sandymount Green, Sandymount, Dublin 4.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    E M O’Connor, E M

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally, surgery and certain surgical sub-specialities in particular have been predominantly male orientated. In recent years, there has been an increased proportion of female medical graduates which will ultimately have an effect on speciality choices. The aim of this study was to assess the gender diversity among urologists in the UK and Ireland. The total number and gender breakdown of consultant urologists and trainees in the UK and Ireland was obtained from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) and the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) membership offices. The total number and gender breakdown of medical school entrants and graduates in 2015 was obtained from the six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland. There are a total of 1,012 consultant urologists in the UK and Ireland. In the UK, 141 (14.6%) are female compared to four (8.2%) in Ireland, p= 0.531. There was a significant increase in the number of females between consultant urologists and trainees in both the UK (p=0.0001) and Ireland (p=0.015). In recent years, there has been a significant change in the percentage of female trainees in the UK and Ireland (22.8% (n=75) in 2011 vs 31.7% (n=93) in 2014, p=0.019. Between the six medical schools in Ireland, there were significantly more female entrants (n=726, 56.5%) than female graduates (n=521, 51.2%) in 2015, p=0.013.There has been a significant shift in gender diversity in urology in the UK and Ireland. Efforts to increase diversity should be pursued to attract further trainees to urology.

  6. A primary care-based health needs assessment in inner city Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.

  7. Exploring the consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology education: benchmarking across Norway, Ireland and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrer, T; Evans, J L; Haugen, H K; Gorman, C; Kavanagh, Y; Cameron, A B

    2016-08-01

    Dental technology programmes of study must prepare students to practice in a broad range of contemporary workplaces. Currently, there is limited evidence to benchmark dental technology education - locally, nationally or internationally. This research aims to improve consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology qualifications across three countries. Data were accessed from open-source curriculum documents and five calibrated assessment items. Three institutions collaborated with Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway; Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; and Griffith University, Australia. From these, 29-44 students completed 174 assessments. The curricula reflect the community needs of each country and display common themes that underpin professional dental technology practice. Assessment results differed between institutions but no more than a normal distribution. Face-to-face assessment moderation was critical to achieve consistency. This collaborative research has led to the development of a set of guidelines for other dental technology education providers interested in developing or aligning courses internationally to enhance the portability of qualifications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: implications for clinicians and policymakers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-06-01

    This prospective Irish observational study examined maternal and infant nutritional supplement use. From an initial sample of 539 mothers recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin (during 2004-2006), 450 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only 200 women (44.4%) complied with peri-conceptional folic acid at the recommended time with strong social patterning associated with its uptake. Almost 10% of the sample (n = 44) consumed a combined multivitamin and mineral supplement during pregnancy. A vitamin D-containing supplement was provided to only 5 (1.1%) and 15 (3.3%) infants at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A national guideline that advises on adequate and safe use of both vitamin and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy with particular reference to vitamin A and D is warranted. Given the re-emergence of rickets in Ireland, and the reported morbidities associated with vitamin D insufficiency, promoting and monitoring compliance with 200 IU [5 microg] daily vitamin D supplements to all infants particularly those from higher risk groups from birth to 1 year, should be a public health priority.

  9. A comparison of contemporary and retrospective radon gas measurements in high radon dwellings in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Fenton, D.; Colgan, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little correlations has been found between contemporary radon gas measurements made in the past and retrospective radon gas measurements in Irish dwellings. This would suggest that these two techniques would result in two significantly different cumulative radon exposure estimates. Contemporary radon gas measurements made a few years apart in the same room of a dwelling were found to be significantly different. None of these differences could be explained by known changes to the rooms themselves., such ventilation or structural alterations to the room. This highlights the limitations of the contemporary radon gas measurements as a surrogate measurement for use in residential radon epidemiology. The contemporary radon gas measurements made by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) and University College of Dublin (U.C.D.) do not cover the same exposure period as the retrospective estimates and so the accuracy of the retrospective measurements cannot be demonstrated. A weak correlation can be seen between the retrospective radon gas estimates and a combination of the two contemporary radon gas estimates. It is not unreasonable to expect improvement in the correlation if further contemporary radon gas measurements were made in these rooms. (N.C.)

  10. Changing trend in congenital abdominal wall defects in Eastern region of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2002-09-01

    In the past six years, there have been reports from abroad of an unexplained rise in the birth prevalence rate of the congenital abdominal wall defect gastroschisis, while rates for the macroscopically similar anomaly omphalocoele have remained stable. The Dublin EUROCAT Registry of congenital anomalies monitors trends in the birth prevalence of birth defects in the eastern region of Ireland. We analysed births of children with omphalocoele and gastroschisis born in the period 1981-2000, with comparisons of a number of demographic and obstetric variables. During the 20 year period the birth prevalence rate for omphalocoele remained stable at 2.5\\/10,000 births, whereas the rate for gastroschisis increased significantly during the 1990s from 1.0\\/10,000 in 1991 to 4.9\\/10,000 in 2000. Most of the increase occurred among mothers under 25 years of age. Omphalocoele was associated with a relatively high proportion of other major congenital anomalies. This study showed that there has been an unexpected rise in the birth prevalence of gastroschisis in the region, similar to that experienced in other countries in the same time period and likely to have common aetiological features.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Catholic Institute for Deaf People, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coote, Susan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified

  12. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  13. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  14. Hospitalisations and costs relating to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-08

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are conditions for which the provision of timely and effective outpatient care can reduce the risks of hospitalisation by preventing, controlling or managing a chronic disease or condition. AIMS: The aims of this study were to report on ACSCs in Ireland, and to provide a baseline for future reference. METHODS: Using HIPE, via Health Atlas Ireland, inpatient discharges classified as ACSCs using definitions from the Victorian ACSC study were extracted for the years 2005-2008. Direct methods of standardisation allowed comparison of rates using the EU standard population as a comparison for national data, and national population as comparison for county data. Costs were estimated using diagnosis-related groups. RESULTS: The directly age-standardised discharge rate for ACSC-related discharges increased slightly, but non-significantly, from 15.40 per 1,000 population in 2005 to 15.75 per 1,000 population in 2008. The number of discharges increased (9.5%) from 63,619 in 2005 to 69,664 in 2008, with the estimated associated hospital costs increasing (31.5%) from 267.8 million in 2005 to 352.2 million in 2008. Across the country, there was considerable variation in the discharge rates for the Top-10 ACSCs for the years 2005-2008. Significantly lower rates of hospitalisation were observed in more urban areas including Cork, Dublin and Galway. The most common ACSC in 2008 was diabetes with complications (29.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The variation in rates observed indicates the scope of reducing hospitalisations and associated costs for ACSCs, across both adult\\'s and children\\'s services and particularly in relation to diabetes complications.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by ChildVision, Dublin 9

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to generate prioritised goals for oral health services for people with disabilities as a first step in meeting the need for evidence based oral health services for people with disabilities in Ireland.

  16. Do changing levels of maternal exercise during pregnancy affect neonatal adiposity? Secondary analysis of the babies after SCOPE: evaluating the longitudinal impact using neurological and nutritional endpoints (BASELINE) birth cohort (Cork, Ireland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; McCarthy, Fergus P; Khashan, Ali S; Murray, Deidre M; Kiely, Mairead; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Baker, Philip N; Kenny, Louise C

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether changing levels of exercise during pregnancy are related to altered neonatal adiposity. Secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study. Cork, Ireland. 1200 mother - infant pairs recruited as part of a prospective birth cohort, Babies After SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact Using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints (BASELINE). Neonatal adiposity was assessed within several days of birth using air displacement plethysmography (PEAPOD). Per cent body fat (BF%) as a continuous outcome and a pair of dichotomous variables; high or low adiposity, representing BF% >90th or <10th centile, respectively. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between exercise and the respective outcomes. Crude analysis revealed no association between a changing level of exercise (since becoming pregnant) at 15 weeks' gestation and any of the outcomes (BF%, low adiposity and high adiposity). At 20 weeks' gestation, analyses revealed that relative to women who do not change their exercise level up to 20 weeks, those women who decreased their exercise level were more likely to give birth to a neonate with adiposity above the 90th centile (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.46). This association was maintained after adjustment for putative confounders (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.47). We observed a possible critical period for the association between changing exercise levels and neonatal adiposity, with no association observed with exercise recall for the first 15 weeks of gestation, but an association with a decreasing level of exercise between 15 and 20 weeks. These results should be interpreted in line with the limitations of the study and further studies utilising objectively measured estimates of exercise are required in order to replicate these findings. NCT01498965. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  17. Comparação da eficiência dos caldos de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella Dublin Comparison of the efficiency of selective enrichment broths for Salmonella Dublin isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare three different selective enrichment broths: Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV, selenite cystine (SC and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate (MKT for Salmonella Dublin isolation from faecal samples of calf experimentally infected. The bacteriological procedure involved pre-enrichment stages in Hajna-GN broth (only for the samples inoculated in RV broth, selective enrichment, culture in modified brilliant green agar (BGA, presumptive biochemistry tests (using triple-sugar-iron agar and lysine-agar and slide agglutination test with poli-O and poli-H Salmonella antiserum. The effects of enrichment temperatures using RV broth were also evaluated (37ºC and 42ºC. SC broth was significantly more efficient in the isolation of Salmonella Dublin (P<0,05, whereas RV broth incubated at 42ºC had a lower efficiency in the microbiological isolation.

  18. Energy in Ireland: context, management and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the climatic change and the fossil fuels shortage, the Ireland defined a new energy policy. The priority is the energy supply security and the research programs present a great interest in the ocean energies, which represent an important source in Ireland. The report presents the context, the irish energy policy, the research programs on energy and the different actors of the domain. (A.L.B.)

  19. An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, H; Cowden, J; Jacob, M; Rowe, B; Roberts, D; Bruce, J; Mitchell, E

    1992-12-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection occurred in England and Wales in October to December 1989. Forty-two people were affected, mainly adults, and most lived in south-east England. Microbiological and epidemiological investigations implicated an imported Irish soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese as the vehicle of infection. A case-control study showed a statistically significant association between infection and consumption of the suspect cheese (p = 0.001). Salmonella dublin was subsequently isolated from cheeses obtained from the manufacturer's premises. Initial control measures included the withdrawal of the cheese from retail sale and a Food Hazard Warning to Environmental Health Departments, as well as a press release, from the Department of Health. Subsequently, a decision was taken by the manufacturer to pasteurize milk used in the production of cheese for the UK market and importation of the cheese resumed in June 1990.

  20. The bedrock electrical conductivity structure of Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, David

    2013-01-01

    An airborne geophysical survey of the whole of Northern Ireland has provided over 4.8 M estimates of the bedrock conductivity over the wide range of geological formations present. This study investigates how such data can be used to provide additional knowledge in relation to existing digital geological map information. A by-product of the analysis is a simplification of the spatially aggregated information obtained in such surveys. The methodology used is a GIS-based attribution of the condu...

  1. Censorship in the two Irelands 1922-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was based on archival research in the repositories named in the bibliography. This was supplemented by secondary sources where primary sources were inadequate or unavailable. Archival research has been supplemented by statistical analysis. In the case of film censorship this has been compiled from the Record of films Censored, the Film Censor’s Notebooks and the Reserve Books in the National Archives of Ireland. In the case of book censorship a database was prepared of all the ...

  2. Education, Training and the Role of Logistic Managers in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mangan, John; Gregory, Orla

    2001-01-01

    The paper is based on the analysis of the responses of a questionnaire survey of logistics managers working in manufacturing firms in Ireland. The objectives of the survey were to establish the educational and training needs of the practicing logistics manager. The questionnaire was designed to address issues including the various logistics practices undertaken by the respondents' company and the time spent by respondents on these activities; the skills currently required by logistics manager...

  3. Disability Awareness and University Staff Training in Ireland (Practice Brief)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Lisa; Ellis, Carol

    2015-01-01

    It is vital that all university staff have awareness of the difficulties that may be experienced by students with disabilities. Staff must be given the knowledge and resources to support these students effectively. University College Dublin (UCD) Access & Lifelong Learning has developed a communication and training strategy to improve…

  4. Supervised classification of continental shelf sediment off western Donegal, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, X.; Craven, K.; McCarron, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Managing human impacts on marine ecosystems requires natural regions to be identified and mapped over a range of hierarchically nested scales. In recent years (2000-present) the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland's Marine Resources programme (INFOMAR) (Geological Survey Ireland and Marine Institute collaborations) has provided unprecedented quantities of high quality data on Ireland's offshore territories. The increasing availability of large, detailed digital representations of these environments requires the application of objective and quantitative analyses. This study presents results of a new approach for sea floor sediment mapping based on an integrated analysis of INFOMAR multibeam bathymetric data (including the derivatives of slope and relative position), backscatter data (including derivatives of angular response analysis) and sediment groundtruthing over the continental shelf, west of Donegal. It applies a Geographic-Object-Based Image Analysis software package to provide a supervised classification of the surface sediment. This approach can provide a statistically robust, high resolution classification of the seafloor. Initial results display a differentiation of sediment classes and a reduction in artefacts from previously applied methodologies. These results indicate a methodology that could be used during physical habitat mapping and classification of marine environments.

  5. The Architect, the Planner and the Bishop: the Shapers of ‘Ordinary’ Dublin, 1940–60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rowley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the 1930s through the 1960s, Dublin’s development occurred at its periphery: wheels of narrow roadways punctuated by green spaces provided the low-density frameworks for terraced residential boxes surmounted by pitched roofs and fronted by pocket gardens. Vast structures of ecclesiastic authority, Catholic (determinedly revivalist church building and the suite of Catholic (tentatively modernist schools were presented as support structures for mass housing, thereby completing the image and experience of Dublin’s new mid-twentieth-century suburbs.Taking the 1950s genesis of one vast north Dublin neighbourhood, Raheny/Coolock, as a case study, this paper sets previously unexamined archive material from the local Catholic bishopric and Dublin Corporation alongside critical thinking about Irish Catholicism and postwar suburbia generally. Startling hand-drawn maps by local priests reveal how John Charles McQuaid, archbishop of Dublin from 1940–71, influenced Dublin’s planning processes and controlled the architectural flavour of swathes of developing parishes. This paper seeks to unpick the variously silent and active roles of the architect, the planning office, the patron and the user, in the making of the more recent, everyday built environment that is Irish suburbia.

  6. Comparative Study of Metadata Elements Used in the Website of Central Library of Universities Subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology with the Dublin Core Metadata Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Babaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been carried out with the aim of studying the web sites of central libraries of universities subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology usage of metadata elements and its comparison with Dublin Core standard elements. This study was a comparative survey, in which 40 websites of academic library by using Internet Explorer browser. Then the HTML pages of these websites were seen through the Source of View menu, and metadata elements of each websites were extracted and entered in the checklist. Then, with using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean analysis of data was discussed. Research findings showed that the reviewed websites did not use any Dublin Core metadata elements, general metadata Markup language used in design of all websites, the amount of metadata elements used in website, Central Library of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Iran Science and Industries with 57% in first ranked and Shahid Beheshti University with 49% in second ranked and the International University of Imam Khomeini with 40% was in third ranked. The approach to web designers was determined too that as follows: the content of source in first ranked and attention to physical appearance source in second ranked and also ownership of source in third position.

  7. Wicked Female Characters in Roddy Doyle’s “The Pram”: Revisiting Celtic and Polish Myths in the Context of Twenty-First Century Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gülüm Tekin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available “The Pram” is the only horror story in Roddy Doyle’s collection The Deportees and Other Stories (2007. It is also unique in terms of its approach to Ireland’s multicultural scene in the twenty-first century. Doyle turns the other side of the coin and introduces a migrant caretaker (Alina, who loses her mind due to her employees’ (the O’Reilly family ill-treatment. As a reaction to their scornful attitude, Alina becomes a murderer. Set in the context of twenty-first century Dublin, “The Pram” contains various references to Celtic and Polish mythological female figures (in particular, the Old Hag of Beara and Boginka, which strengthen the thrilling, mythical elements in the plot. This paper aims to examine the characters’ negative attitude towards migrants in Ireland in the light of the racist discourse present in the story. Also, I will focus on the story’s female characters and discuss the handicaps of being a female migrant in Ireland. The parallels between the mythical female figures and the protagonist Alina will be another point to be analyzed. The argument of this paper is that Doyle does not always portray the positive outcomes of a multicultural society. On the contrary, he conveys the perspective of the incoming migrant. “The Pram” stages the obstacles that a female outsider may experience in Ireland and her subsequent transformation as a result of the racism she encounters there.

  8. Personal and professional challenges of nurse prescribing in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrien, Barry

    This article presents the challenges regarding the development of a collaborative practice agreement in order to undertake nurse prescribing in an emergency department in a large teaching hospital. Nurse prescribing has been introduced quite recently in Ireland. Although there is a plethora of knowledge regarding the topic, there are many personal and professional challenges in relation to this emerging role. The nurse prescribing initiative in Ireland is continually developing and many nurses now have the authority to prescribe from almost the same range of medicines as doctors. Prescribing has the potential to improve job satisfaction, autonomy and ultimately improves patient outcomes. However, nurses need to be cognisant of the impact it can have on the dynamics of the healthcare team. An analysis of some complexities of nurse prescribing is given, in conjunction with reflective thoughts on a clinical incident in the area of morphine prescribing.

  9. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  10. Effect of air pollution control on mortality and hospital admissions in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Douglas W; Rich, David Q; Goodman, Patrick G; Clancy, Luke; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; George, Prethibha; Kotlov, Tania

    2013-07-01

    During the 1980s the Republic of Ireland experienced repeated severe pollution episodes. Domestic coal burning was a major source of this pollution. In 1990 the Irish government introduced a ban on the marketing, sale, and distribution of coal in Dublin. The ban was extended to Cork in 1995 and to 10 other communities in 1998 and 2000. We previously reported decreases in particulate black smoke (BS*) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations, measured as total gaseous acidity, in Dublin after the 1990 coal ban (Clancy et al. 2002). In the current study we explored and compared the effectiveness of the sequential 1990, 1995, and 1998 bans in reducing community air pollution and in improving public health. We compiled records of daily BS, total gaseous acidity (SO2), and counts of cause-specific deaths from 1981 to 2004 for Dublin County Borough (1990 ban), county Cork (1995 ban), and counties Limerick, Louth, Wexford, and Wicklow (1998 ban). We also compiled daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive diagnoses for Cork County Borough (1991 to 2004) and counties Limerick, Louth, Wexford, and Wicklow (1993 to 2004). We compared pre-ban and post-ban BS and SO2 concentrations for each city. Using interrupted time-series methods, we estimated the change in cause-specific, directly standardized mortality rates in each city or county after the corresponding local coal ban. We regressed weekly age- and sex-standardized mortality rates against an indicator of the post- versus pre-ban period, adjusting for influenza epidemics, weekly mean temperature, and a season smooth of the standardized mortality rates in Coastal counties presumably not affected by the bans. We compared these results with similar analyses in Midlands counties also presumably unaffected by the bans. We also estimated the change in cause-specific, directly standardized, weekly hospital admissions rates normalized for underreporting in each city or county after the 1995

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Dublin 16

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hunter, Andrew

    2017-09-25

    Recent policy and service provision recommends a woman-centred approach to maternity care. Midwife-led models of care are seen as one important strategy for enhancing women\\'s choice; a core element of woman-centred care. In the Republic of Ireland, an obstetric consultant-led, midwife-managed service model currently predominates and there is limited exploration of the concept of women centred care from the perspectives of those directly involved; that is, women, midwives, general practitioners and obstetricians. This study considers women\\'s and clinicians\\' views, experiences and perspectives of woman-centred maternity care in Ireland.

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. With Ireland's current 'trajectory' of renewable energy growth, it is likely to slightly fall short of its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy target. Ireland initiated a 'moratorium' on its REFIT (Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff) support scheme in December 2015, with the aim of introducing a revised scheme in 2017 in line with market developments. Grants and tax relief remain in place for renewable heat promotion. An Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) was introduced in 2014, which sets out Government policy in relation to the sustainable development of Ireland's abundant offshore renewable energy resource

  13. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  14. Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland: A New Digital Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Corey; Durham, Anthony; Gusev, Dmitri A.; Stafeyev, Sergey K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we expand application of our mathematical methods for translating ancient coordinates from the classical Geography by Claudius Ptolemy into modern coordinates from India and Arabia to Britain and Ireland, historically important islands on the periphery of the ancient Roman Empire. The methods include triangulation and flocking with subsequent Bayesian correction. The results of our work can be conveniently visualized in modern GIS tools, such as ArcGIS, QGIS, and Google Earth. The enhancements we have made include a novel technique for handling tentatively identified points. We compare the precision of reconstruction achieved for Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland with the precisions that we had computed earlier for his India before the Ganges and three provinces of Arabia. We also provide improved validation and comparison amongst the methods applied. We compare our results with the prior work, while utilizing knowledge from such important ancient sources as the Antonine Itinerary, Tabula Peutingeriana, and the Ravenna Cosmography. The new digital reconstruction of Claudius Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland presented in this paper, along with the accompanying linguistic analysis of ancient toponyms, contributes to improvement of understanding of our cultural cartographic heritage by making it easier to study the ancient world using the popular and accessible GIS programs.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 11

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu, Ozotu Rosemary

    2016-08-01

    This mixed method research explores unprofessional behaviour experienced by clinical Medical students, during clinical training in Ireland; with a view to obtaining learning points that inform future design of modules on Professionalism. It also looks at the impact of these on students and the relationship between gender\\/ethnicity and students’ experiences of these behaviours.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Margaret's Centre, Dublin 4

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holland, Deirdre M

    2015-04-01

    Medication reconciliation is a basic principle of good medicines management. With the establishment of the National Acute Medicines Programme in Ireland, medication reconciliation has been mandated for all patients at all transitions of care. The clinical pharmacist is widely credited as the healthcare professional that plays the most critical role in the provision of medication reconciliation services.

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 13

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, D

    2014-03-09

    In 2006, the Buttimer report highlighted the paucity of demographic data on those applying for and entering postgraduate medical education and training (PGMET) in Ireland. Today, concerns that there is an "exodus" of graduates of Irish medical schools are at the forefront of national discussion, however, published data on PGMET remains inadequate.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Autism Spectrum Disorder Initiatives, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I

    2017-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  19. Supporting Parental Involvement in Children's Early Learning: Lessons from Community Childcare Centres in Dublin's Docklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Michelle; Kerrins, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Recently in Ireland attention has been placed on the importance of parental involvement in early childhood care and education settings as seen in the Síolta Quality Standards and Aistear Curriculum Framework. Yet there is little Irish empirical evidence on parental involvement in childcare settings; on the involvement models being used, or on the…

  20. The Intra Industry Trade between Portugal European Union, Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland, Portugal-Greece and Portugal-Netherlands - a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis (1996 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Horácio Faustino; Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2005-01-01

    PortugalÂ’s main trade partners have been Spain, Germany and France. In this paper we analyse the intra industry trade in the manufacturing industry between Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland and Portugal-Greece. We also present the results of intra industry trade (IIT) between Portugal and the European Union. The innovation, technological progress, human capital, and scale economies are some of the explicative variables of the intra industry trade phenomena. ...

  1. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H

    1995-10-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  2. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  3. Entrepreneurship Education: Ireland's Solution to Economic Regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John; Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2012-01-01

    The significance of entrepreneurship has come into sharper focus as enterprise and innovation are being flagged as solutions to regenerate the Irish economy. The Irish Innovation Task Force believes that Ireland could become an "innovation hub", attracting foreign risk capital and international and indigenous entrepreneurs to start and…

  4. Climate change: potential implications for Ireland's biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison

    2018-03-01

    A national biodiversity and climate change adaptation plan is being developed for Ireland by the Department of Communications, Climate Action, and Environment. In order to inform such a plan, it was necessary to review and synthesize some of the recent literature pertaining to the impact of climate change on biodiversity in Ireland. Published research on this topic fell within three broad categories: (i) changes in the timing of life-cycle events (phenology) of plants, birds, and insects; (ii) changes in the geographic range of some bird species; and (iii) changes in the suitable climatic zones of key habitats and species. The synthesis revealed evidence of (i) a trend towards earlier spring activity of plants, birds, and insects which may result in a change in ecosystem function; (ii) an increase in the number of bird species; and (iii) both increases and decreases in the suitable climatic area of key habitats and species, all of which are expected to impact Ireland's future biodiversity. This process identified data gaps and limitations in available information both of which could be used to inform a focused research strategy. In addition, it raises awareness of the potential implications of climate change for biodiversity in Ireland and elsewhere and demonstrates the need for biodiversity conservation plans to factor climate change into future designs.

  5. IRELAND'S SOUTH AFRICAN WAR 1899–1902

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luke

    of modern research and the continued focus on the role of Irish Nationalism, the ... The absence of innovation amongst higher-ranked officers added to ... Chief, General Sir Redvers Buller, relieved the British garrison 118 days later. In ..... Yeomanry by aiding its organisation in Ireland, providing financial assistance to.

  6. Nursing care after death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-30

    Essential facts According to the Registrar General Annual Report published in August 2016 there were 15,548 deaths in Northern Ireland in 2015, with almost two thirds being of people aged 75 or more. Almost half (48%) occurred in NHS hospitals, with a further 20% in other hospitals or nursing homes.

  7. Cancer mortality in Ireland, 1976-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.; Herity, B.; Moriarty, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    This volume brings together in easily accessible form up-to-date mortality statistics for cancer for the Republic of Ireland. Because of small numbers in many of the malignant neoplasms studied rates and standardised mortality ratios have been calculated for the 11 year period 1976-86. Basic data only is presented, based on cancer type, location, sex and age group

  8. Many Voices: Building a Biblioblogosphere in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Michelle; Kouker, Alexander; O'Connor, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Blogging has been associated with the Library and Information Science (LIS) community for some time now. Libfocus.com is an online blog that was founded in 2011. Its goal was to create a communal communication space for LIS professionals in Ireland and beyond, to share and discuss issues and ideas. The content of the blog is curated by an…

  9. Postgraduate training in Ireland: expectations and experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, D

    2014-01-05

    Postgraduate medical training in Ireland has been compared unfavourably with training abroad and blamed for an "exodus" of graduates of Irish medical schools. Exploration of features of a good training environment and development of tools to measure it have been the focus of much published research. There have been no Irish studies examining training environment using such validated tools.

  10. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  11. A profile of physiotherapy supply in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighan, James; Walsh, Brendan; Smith, Samantha; Wren, Maev-Ann; Barron, Steve; Morgenroth, Edgar

    2018-04-13

    The lack of information on public and private physiotherapy supply in Ireland makes current and future resource allocation decisions difficult. This paper estimates the supply of physiotherapists in Ireland and profiles physiotherapists across acute and non-acute sectors, and across public and private practice. It examines geographic variation in physiotherapist supply, examining the implications of controlling for healthcare need. Physiotherapist headcounts are estimated using Health Service Personnel Census (HSPC) and Irish Society of Chartered Physiotherapists (ISCP) Register data. Headcounts are converted to whole-time equivalents (WTEs) using the HSPC and a survey of ISCP members to account for full- and part-time working practices. Non-acute supply per 10,000 population in each county is estimated to examine geographic inequalities and the raw population is adjusted in turn for a range of need indicators. An estimated 3172 physiotherapists were practising in Ireland in 2015; 6.8 physiotherapists per 10,000, providing an estimated 2620 WTEs. Females accounted for 74% of supply. Supply was greater in the non-acute sector; 1774 WTEs versus 846 WTEs in the acute sector. Physiotherapists in the acute sector were located mainly in publicly financed institutions (89%) with an even public/private split observed in the non-acute sector. Non-acute physiotherapist supply is unequally distributed across Ireland (Gini coefficient = 0.12; 95% CI 0.08-0.15), and inequalities remain after controlling for variations in healthcare needs across counties. The supply of physiotherapists in Ireland is 30% lower than the EU-28 average. Substantial inequality in the distribution of physiotherapists across counties is observed.

  12. Estudo de correspondência de elementos metadados: DUBLIN CORE e MARC 21 Study of the correspondence of metadata elements: DUBLIN CORE and MARC 21 p. 20-38

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Dores Rosa Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia da informação tem possibilitado o desenvolvimento de aplicações e metodologias de tratamento descritivo, como é o caso dos padrões de metadados, permitindo novas abordagens práticas para a organização da informação, principalmente em meio eletrônico. A adoção de padrão de metadados propicia a interoperabilidade entre aplicações e o compartilhamento de dados entre sistemas. Baseado nesse pressuposto, foi realizado um estudo da correspondência entre o padrão Dublin Core e o Formato MARC 21, visando fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento de ferramentas de conversão de dados oriundos da catalogação. A maximização de esforços na integração e intercâmbio de dados, bem como a sistematização das relações entre esses padrões, propiciam o reuso de conjuntos de metadados na mesma organização. Palavras-chave Dublin Core; Formato MARC 21; Metadados; Interoperabilidade; Catalogação de recursos eletrônicos; Agência de informação Embrapa Abstract The information technology has been making possible the development of applications and methodologies of material descriptive treatment, as it is the case of the metadata standards, allowing new practical approaches for the organization of the information, mainly in electronic means. The adoption of metadata standard propitiates the interoperability between applications and sharing of data among systems. Based on that presupposition, a study of the correspondence was accomplished between the Dublin Core standard and the MARC 21 format, seeking to supply subsidies for the development of data conversion tools originating from of the cataloguing. The maximization of efforts in the integration and exchange of data, as well as the systemization of the relationships among those standards propitiate the reuse of metadata sets in the same organization. Key words Dublin Core; MARC 21 format; Metadata; Interoperability; Cataloguing of electronic resources; Embrapa

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Dublin 15

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Xiao, Liang

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background In this paper, we give an overview of methadone treatment in Ireland and outline the rationale for designing an electronic health record (EHR) with extensibility, interoperability and decision support functionality. Incorporating several international standards, a conceptual model applying a problem orientated approach in a hierarchical structure has been proposed for building the EHR. Methods A set of archetypes has been designed in line with the current best practice and clinical guidelines which guide the information-gathering process. A web-based data entry system has been implemented, incorporating elements of the paper-based prescription form, while at the same time facilitating the decision support function. Results The use of archetypes was found to capture the ever changing requirements in the healthcare domain and externalises them in constrained data structures. The solution is extensible enabling the EHR to cover medicine management in general as per the programme of the HRB Centre for Primary Care Research. Conclusions The data collected via this Irish system can be aggregated into a larger dataset, if necessary, for analysis and evidence-gathering, since we adopted the openEHR standard. It will be later extended to include the functionalities of prescribing drugs other than methadone along with the research agenda at the HRB Centre for Primary Care Research in Ireland.

  14. Overseas nurse recruitment: Ireland as an illustration of the dynamic nature of nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Niamh; Brugha, Ruairí; McGee, Hannah

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Ireland's recent experience of overseas nurse recruitment. Ireland began actively recruiting nurses from overseas in 2000 and has recruited almost 10,000 nurses, primarily from India and the Philippines since that time. This paper takes a timely look at the Irish experience to date. It reviews the literature on the supply and demand factors that determine the need for, and the international migration of, nurses and presents working visa and nurse registration statistics. This enables the authors to quantify and discuss the trends and scale of recent nurse migration to Ireland from outside the European Union (EU). The paper discusses the data essential for national workforce planning and highlights the deficiencies in the Irish data currently available for that purpose. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of Ireland's heavy reliance on overseas nurse recruitment.

  15. 18 May 2012 - University College Dublin Vice-President and Director of Research D. Fitzgerald signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers and Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    accompanied by: Prof. Padraig Dunne, Head of the School of Physics, UCD Prof. Marc Shapira, Hematologist and CERN users: Prof. Martin Grunewald, CMS Collaboration, Team Leader, University College Dublin Prof. Ronan McNulty, LHCb Collaboration, Team Leader, University College Dublin

  16. The Homolog of the Gene bstA of the BTP1 Phage from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ST313 Is an Antivirulence Gene in Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Espinel, Irene Cartas; Spiegelhauer, Malene Roed

    2018-01-01

    -pathogen interaction in S. Dublin, a mutant where this gene was deleted (S. Dublin ΔbstA) and a mutant which was further genetically complemented with bstA (S. Dublin 3246-C) were constructed and tested in models of in vitro and in vivo infection as well as during growth competition assays in M9 medium, Luria...... macrophages and higher net replication within human THP-1 cells. Furthermore, during mouse infections, S. Dublin ΔbstA was more virulent than the wild type following a single intraperitoneal infection and showed an increased competitive index during competitive infection assays. Deletion of bstA did...... not affect either the amount of cytokines released by THP-1 macrophages or the cytotoxicity toward these cells. The histology of the livers and spleens of mice infected with the wild-type strain and the S. Dublin ΔbstA mutant revealed similar levels of inflammation between the two groups. The gene...

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Catholic Institute for Deaf People, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Manus, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of physical disability in children but its impact on quality of life is not well understood. This study examined participation in everyday activities among children without CP and children with mild, moderate and severe impairment due to CP. We then examined ten domains of quality of life in children with CP and investigated whether participation in everyday activities was associated with improved quality of life independent of gender, age and level of impairment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 8-12 years based on two questionnaires, frequency of participation (FPQ) and KIDSCREEN, completed by parents of 98 children on the South of Ireland Cerebral Palsy Register (response rate = 82%) and parents of 448 children attending two Cork city schools (response rate = 69%) who completed one questionnaire (FPQ). Multiple linear regression was used: firstly to estimate the effect of severity of CP on participation in everyday activities independent of age and gender and secondly we estimated the effect of participation on quality of life independent of age gender and level of impairment. RESULTS: Participation in 11 of the 14 everyday activities examined varied across the children without CP and the children with varying severity of CP. In general, increased impairment decreased participation. Independent of age and gender, there was a highly significant decrease in overall participation with a fall of -6.0 (95% CI = -6.9 to -5.2) with each increasing level of impairment. The children with CP generally had high quality of life. Increased impairment was associated with diminished quality of life in just two domains - Physical well-being and Social support and peers. Overall participation in everyday activities was significantly associated with quality of life in 3 of the 10 domains (Physical well-being, Social support and peers & Moods and emotions) in analysis adjusted for gender age and

  18. ‘Old Ireland and Himself’: William Orpen and the Conflicts of Irish Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Foster

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Irish painter William Orpen (1878-1931, defined here as Ireland’s most ‘Spanish’ painter, was out of fashion for fifty years after his death; but he has recently been dramatically revalued, with his works fetching huge prices in salerooms and an unprecedentedly large exhibition of his work being mounted in London and subsequently Dublin. Best known for his Edwardian portraits and his devastating paintings of the First World War, he also produced a series of allegorical paintings of his native Ireland. These are discussed in this article, and linked to his admiration for J.M.Synge, his dislike of clericalism and repression in Irish life, and his celebration of sensuality. The same themes lie behind ‘Homage to Manet’, a celebrated group portrait which includes the Irish novelist George Moore and the art collector Hugh Lane —a close friend of Orpen’s. Orpen knew other figures of the cultural Revival, and his relation to them is discussed; as is the conflict of identity he experienced (like other middle-class Irish Protestants when the radicalisation of Irish politics and the outbreak of the First World War put a new strain on the allegiances of people who had previously thought of themselves as both ‘British’ and ‘Irish’. After the trauma of the War, and Irish separation, Orpen opted for Britain; but, it is argued, he was closer to elements of the Irish cultural revival, and more involved with Irish politics and Irish history, than is usually accepted.

  19. Material and Intangible Interventions as future-making heritage at Kilmainham Gaol, Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Using archaeological studies of political imprisonment in Ireland as a focus this paper will argue that understandings and material interventions at Kilmainham Gaol is central to our understandings of evolving identity and memory in post-partition Ireland for a number of reasons. This historic...... prison and its material form is not only an ‘icon’ of historical struggle, where archaeological methodologies and theories can help to uncover the past realities of imprisonment, it is also a highly political place of the present where conflict endures regarding who continues to ‘win’ the peace...... in the realm of public memory. This paper argues that archaeological approaches to a transitional heritage site are ideally placed to illuminate not only experiences of the functional past but also their evolving relationships to the contemporary society as a form of future-making....

  20. Raheny House Nursing Home, Raheny House, 476 Howth Road, Raheny, Dublin 5.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Kieran

    2015-04-18

    More people die in hospital than in any other setting which is why it is important to study the outcomes of hospital care at end of life. This study analyses what influenced outcomes in a sample of patients who died in hospital in Ireland in 2008\\/9. The study was undertaken as part of the Irish Hospice Foundation\\'s Hospice Friendly Hospitals Programme (2007-2012).

  1. Snakes or Ladders? Evaluating a LibGuides pilot at University College Dublin Library

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Michelle; Pan, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Online subject guides are commonly used by libraries to provide information support to students. LibGuides (a cloud-based commercial product launched in 2007) represent one of the latest incarnations of the traditional subject guide or portal, and are widely used across American academic libraries. In Ireland however, library subject guides of entirely local design and hosted on a local web server still dominate. This paper outlines the project management process involved in implementing a Li...

  2. An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Fenton, D.

    2011-01-01

    In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Dept. of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy. (authors)

  3. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  4. The Catholic Church and revolution in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Ó hAdhmaill, Féilim

    2013-01-01

    Despite the involvement of radical socialists like James Connolly and the Irish Citizen Army in the 1916 Rising and the unanimous passing of the Democratic Programme (a socialist manifesto for the new Government) by the First Dáil in 1919, the Irish state has since its inception exhibited a highly conservative approach to social and economic policy, and politics generally in Ireland, North or South, have never faced a serious challenge from those seeking radical change. Several factors have p...

  5. Care of epidermolysis bullosa in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Rosemarie

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the medical care of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) have led to the development of National Service Centers for EB in many countries worldwide. The exemplary model of care to children and adults with EB in the United Kingdom, combined with the knowledge that people with EB were travelling to the United Kingdom for treatment, encouraged the development of the Irish national service. Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association of Ireland, founded in 1988 played a pivotal role in this development.

  6. Enterprise Ireland: Student Creativity Day Design Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Peter Dee - Strategic Design & Marketing Consultant, was responsible for the design and development of the brand identity for the Enterprise Ireland Student Creativity Day which was used on business cards, letterhead, appliction forms, information literature, large format posters, t-shirts and website. Competing in multi-disciplinary teams, students provided an innovative & creative solution to an exacting design brief. The design brief reflected the following themes: interface, learning, sci...

  7. Microseism Source Distribution Observed from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Donne, Sarah; Le Pape, Florian; Möllhoff, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Ocean generated microseisms (OGM) are recorded globally with similar spectral features observed everywhere. The generation mechanism for OGM and their subsequent propagation to continental regions has led to their use as a proxy for sea-state characteristics. Also many modern seismological methods make use of OGM signals. For example, the Earth's crust and upper mantle can be imaged using ``ambient noise tomography``. For many of these methods an understanding of the source distribution is necessary to properly interpret the results. OGM recorded on near coastal seismometers are known to be related to the local ocean wavefield. However, contributions from more distant sources may also be present. This is significant for studies attempting to use OGM as a proxy for sea-state characteristics such as significant wave height. Ireland has a highly energetic ocean wave climate and is close to one of the major source regions for OGM. This provides an ideal location to study an OGM source region in detail. Here we present the source distribution observed from seismic arrays in Ireland. The region is shown to consist of several individual source areas. These source areas show some frequency dependence and generally occur at or near the continental shelf edge. We also show some preliminary results from an off-shore OBS network to the North-West of Ireland. The OBS network includes instruments on either side of the shelf and should help interpret the array observations.

  8. National survey of MRSA: Ireland, 1995.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Z

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain an indication of the size of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) problem in Ireland prior to introducing national MRSA control guidelines. A survey of all microbiology laboratories in Ireland was carried out over two weeks in Spring 1995. For patients from whom MRSA was isolated during the study period standard demographic and clinical data were requested and period prevalence\\/1000 discharges was calculated. All 45 microbiology laboratories surveyed responded. MRSA was isolated from 448 patients during the two-week period. The period prevalence of MRSA was 16.5\\/1000 discharges. Males aged > or = 65 had the highest rate (50\\/1000 discharges). Half of all isolates were from patients in surgical or medical wards, but 4% were from community-based sources such as GPs, nursing homes and hospices. Thirty-two percent of MRSA patients were infected rather than colonized. MRSA is clearly a significant problem in Ireland. While it is largely a hospital problem at present, the increasing trend towards day procedures and shorter hospital stay means that infection will increase in the community.

  9. Migrants and racial minorities in the labour market in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Cantillon, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This report analyses the situation of migrant workers and ethnic minorities in Ireland over the post-economic boom period. From the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced extraordinary economic growth and this brought with it an unprecedented increase in the migrant population. As a result of the economic crisis, the total number of migrants coming to Ireland has fallen dramatically. However, despite this situation, Ireland is likely to remain a multicultural society and ethnic diver...

  10. Benchmarking care for very low birthweight infants in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, B P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Benchmarking is that process through which best practice is identified and continuous quality improvement pursued through comparison and sharing. The Vermont Oxford Neonatal Network (VON) is the largest international external reference centre for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. This report from 2004-7 compares survival and morbidity throughout Ireland and benchmarks these results against VON. METHODS: A standardised VON database for VLBW infants was created in 14 participating centres across Ireland and Northern Ireland. RESULTS: Data on 716 babies were submitted in 2004, increasing to 796 babies in 2007, with centres caring for from 10 to 120 VLBW infants per year. In 2007, mortality rates in VLBW infants varied from 4% to 19%. Standardised mortality ratios indicate that the number of deaths observed was not significantly different from the number expected, based on the characteristics of infants treated. There was no difference in the incidence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage between all-Ireland and VON groups (5% vs 6%, respectively). All-Ireland rates for chronic lung disease (CLD; 15-21%) remained lower than rates seen in the VON group (24-28%). The rates of late onset nosocomial infection in the all-Ireland group (25-26%) remained double those in the VON group (12-13%). DISCUSSION: This is the first all-Ireland international benchmarking report in any medical specialty. Survival, severe intraventricular haemorrhage and CLD compare favourably with international standards, but rates of nosocomial infection in neonatal units are concerning. Benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning neonatal intensive care service provision.

  11. Entrepreneurship in Ireland 2012: global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Paula; O'Gorman, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Report on entrepreneurship in Ireland in the year 2012. Data used is the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data for Ireland and selected comparative countries. The report profiles entrepreneurs, reports on the rate of entrepreneurship in Ireland, discusses female entrepreneurship, and positions these results in the context of Irish entrepreneurship policy.

  12. Termination of pregnancy as emergency obstetric care: the interpretation of Catholic health policy and the consequences for pregnant women: an analysis of the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland and similar cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berer, Marge

    2013-05-01

    Issues arising from the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland in October 2012 include the question of whether it is unethical to refuse to terminate a non-viable pregnancy when the woman's life may be at risk. In Catholic maternity services, this decision intersects with health professionals' interpretation of Catholic health policy on treatment of miscarriage as well as the law on abortion. This paper explores how these issues came together around Savita's death and the consequences for pregnant women and maternity services worldwide. It discusses cases not only in Ireland but also the Americas. Many of the events presented are recent, and most of the sources are media and individual reports. However, there is a very worrying common thread across countries and continents. If further research unearths more cases like Savita's, any Catholic health professionals and/or hospitals refusing to terminate a pregnancy as emergency obstetric care should be stripped of their right to provide maternity services. In some countries these are the main or only existing maternity services. Even so, governments should refuse to fund these services, and either replace them with non-religious services or require that non-religious staff are available at all times specifically to take charge of such cases to prevent unnecessary deaths. At issue is whether a woman's life comes first or not at all. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiplex PCR to determine Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing otitis media in the Republic of Ireland with further characterisation of antimicrobial susceptibilities and genotypes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vickers, I

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the serotypes, genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing otitis media (OM) in children in Dublin, Ireland. S. pneumoniae isolates (n = 28) from spontaneously discharging OM were studied. Serotyping was performed using a previously undescribed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) scheme in combination with serological methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. Fourteen different S. pneumoniae serotypes were identified. The five most common serotypes were 3, 19F, 19A, 14 and 6A, which accounted for 68% of all infections. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) provided potential coverages of 43%, 46% and 86%, respectively. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin was evident for 25% of isolates and was associated with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F and 9V. A total of 21 different sequence types (STs) were identified. Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones or their variants represented 54% (15\\/28) of all isolates. Continued monitoring and characterisation of S. pneumoniae causing OM in Ireland is warranted in order to guide future vaccine and treatment policies.

  14. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latimer, Karen

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales.

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities, operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 16

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fawsitt, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Elective repeat caesarean delivery (ERCD) rates have been increasing worldwide, thus prompting obstetric discourse on the risks and benefits for the mother and infant. Yet, these increasing rates also have major economic implications for the health care system. Given the dearth of information on the cost-effectiveness related to mode of delivery, the aim of this paper was to perform an economic evaluation on the costs and short-term maternal health consequences associated with a trial of labour after one previous caesarean delivery compared with ERCD for low risk women in Ireland.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 17

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-14

    Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods\\/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in relation to scale

  17. Ashford House Nursing Home, 6 Tivoli Terrace East, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Mir, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The demand for paediatric orthopaedic care is growing, and providing the service required is an increasingly challenging task. Physiotherapist-led triage clinics are utilised in adult orthopaedics to enable the provision of care to patients who may not require a surgical consult. The Physiotherapy Orthopaedic Triage Clinic (POTC) was established in Our Lady\\'s Children\\'s Hospital Crumlin in response to increasing demands on the paediatric orthopaedic service. The clinic is run by physiotherapists working in an advanced practice role (APP), and is the first paediatric clinic of its type and scale in the Republic of Ireland.

  18. MacLiammóir’s Minstrel and Johnston’s Morality: Cultural Memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuken, R.H. van den

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how Micheál MacLiammóir and Denis Johnston attempted to perform cultural memories of the Easter Rising at the Dublin Gate Theatre and thereby articulated their respective views on a colonial past that had to be reassessed anew, on the one hand, and a postcolonial future that

  19. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the recA gene and discrimination of the three isolates of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolated from seagulls (Larus spp.) in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Tai, K; Moore, J E; Millar, B C; Murayama, O

    2004-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing after TA cloning of the amplicon of the almost-full length recA gene from three strains of UPTC (A1, A2, and A3) isolated from seagulls in Northern Ireland, the phenotypical and genotypical characteristics of which have been demonstrated to be indistinguishable, clarified nucleotide differences at three nucleotide positions among the three strains. In conclusion, the nucleotide sequences of the recA gene were found to discriminate among the three strains of UPTC, A1, A2, and A3, which are indistinguishable phenotypically and genotypically. Thus, the present study strongly suggests that nucleotide sequence data of the amplicon of a suitable gene or region could aid in discriminating among isolates of the UPTC group, which are indistinguishable phenotypically and genotypically. Copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  20. Energy in Ireland: context, strategy and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present day situation of sudden awareness about climatic change and announced fossil fuels shortage, Ireland has defined a new strategy for its energy future. Context: Ireland is strongly dependent of oil and gas imports which increase regularly to meet the demand. A small part of the electricity consumed is imported from Ulster. The share of renewable energies remains weak but is increasing significantly. Therefore, from 1990 to 2006, the proportion of renewable energies increased from 1.9% (mainly of hydroelectric origin) to 4.5%. Wind power represents now the main renewable energy source. The transportation sector is the most energy consuming and the biggest source of greenhouse gases. Strategy: the Irish policy is driven by pluri-annual strategic plans which define the objectives and means. Priority is given to the security of supplies at affordable prices: 8.5 billion euros will be invested during the 2007-2013 era for the modernization of existing energy infrastructures and companies, and in a lesser extent for the development of renewable energy sources. During this period, 415 million euros more will be devoted to the research, development and demonstration (RD and D) of new energy solutions. Research: in 2005 the energy RD and D expenses reached 12.8 million euros shared between 54% for R and D and 46% for demonstration projects. Half of the financing is given to higher education schools and is devoted to energy saving purposes (33%) and to renewable energies (29%, mainly wind power and biomass). Academic research gives a particular attention to ocean energy which represents an important potential resource in Ireland and which has already led to the creation of innovative companies. The integration of renewable energy sources to the power grid and the stability of supplies are also the object of active researches. (J.S.)

  1. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  2. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  3. Country policy profile - Ireland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Ireland, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in-tariff scheme (REFIT). There is also a tax relief scheme for corporate investments in projects generating electricity from renewable sources (solar, wind, biomass, and hydro). Renewable Energy sources for heating purposes have two main support schemes: a grant to homeowners for the installation of solar thermal installations and a tax return to Irish companies of 100% of the purchase value of certain energy efficient equipment. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  4. Country policy profile - Ireland. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Ireland, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in-tariff scheme (REFIT). There is also a tax relief scheme for corporate investments in projects generating electricity from renewable sources (solar, wind, biomass, and hydro). Renewable Energy sources for heating purposes have two main support schemes: a grant to homeowners for the installation of solar thermal installations and a tax return to Irish companies of 100% of the purchase value of certain energy efficient equipment. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  5. The Coming Out Experience in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The following thesis will tackle research into the coming out experience in Ireland and the affects of such experience. Such a topic is of importance to social care workers as the LGBT community are more likely to experience stress, depression, suicide ideation and drug use. The research reviewed was divided up into the following themes, in order to answer the research question; ‘age of realisation versus age of coming out, the ‘LGBT stereotype’, ‘experience of homophobia, the ‘acceptance ...

  6. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Sunbeam House Services Ltd, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bushe, Chris J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gain is commonly observed during psychotropic treatments for chronic forms of severe mental illness and is most rapid during the early treatment phases. All formats of behavioural weight intervention programmes have suggested that weight gain can be prevented or reversed in some patients. There is no data on these programmes in acutely unwell inpatients whom may be the major beneficiaries. METHODS: A modular behavioural intervention programme (Solutions for Wellness) used in SMI outpatients since 2002 in Ireland has been adapted for inpatient use. Preliminary data is reported from 5 centres in Ireland. RESULTS: In 47 inpatients the mean weight change was +0.26 kg (SD 2.02) with a median change of 0 kg. Mean follow-up was 23.7 (SD 21.6) days, and median 14 days (range 6-98 days). There was no difference in mean weight change in those patients involved for > 35 days compared with < 35 days (+0.26 kg; 0.25 kg; p = 0.5). Weight loss or maintenance was seen in 70% of patients. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data are supportive of the concept that acutely unwell inpatients with SMI may engage with a behavioural weight programme. Weight change observed contrasts with the significant weight gain often seen in most subjects. Further clinical trials are warranted.

  8. An evaluation of the range and availability of intensive smoking cessation services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Currie, LM

    2009-06-27

    BACKGROUND: A review of smoking cessation (SC) services in Ireland is a necessary step in improving service planning and provision. AIMS: To assess the range and availability of intensive SC services in Ireland in 2006. METHODS: A survey of SC service providers in Ireland was conducted. Descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.3% (63\\/73). All service providers surveyed are employing evidence-based interventions; the most common form of support is individual counselling with initial sessions averaging 40 min and weekly review sessions 20 min in duration. Reaching the recommended target of treating 5.0% of smokers does not seem feasible given the current distribution of resources and there appears to be regional differences in resource allocation. CONCLUSIONS: While intensive SC services are available in all four Health Service Executive Areas, it would appear that there is little uniformity or consistency countrywide in the scope and structure of these services.

  9. Solar Image Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, J

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

  10. Radioactivity in Northern Ireland soils - December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.W.K.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the survey was to establish the radionuclide content of permanent pasture soils. The extent of contamination from the Chernobyl accident was also studied with the use of Cs-134 as an indicator of Chernobyl fallout. A preliminary radiological assessment was performed by referring to the generalised derived limits. Results of the grassland grid survey show that Chernobyl-derived radiocaesium was widely spread throughout Northern Ireland with the exception of the East Coast where the deposition was more localised reflecting the showery-rainfall pattern on the 3rd May 1986. Accumulation of Chernobyl material showed a high correlation with rainfall on that day, which resulted in a substantial increase in Cs-137 levels compared to estimated pre-Chernobyl concentrations in many areas. The main areas affected lay in a band across the country from the North East to the South with a smaller incursion to the North. The plutonium content in soils from Northern Ireland arising from nuclear weapons fallout was similar to levels found in other surveys completed in Great Britain before Chernobyl. (author)

  11. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin 4, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  12. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger

    2009-01-01

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

  13. ‘Dance Your Sorrow Away!’ : Spirituality, Community and Wellbeing in Christ Apostolic Church, Dublin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Uberoi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Christ Apostolic Church (CAC is a Pentecostal and African Initiated Church that emerged from the Yoruba Aládǔrà movement of early twentieth-century Nigeria. In this article I unpack the concept of ‘dancing away sorrow’, one of the distinctive rituals that members of CAC Dublin have brought with them from Nigeria. I explore members’ beliefs about wellbeing and its links with spirituality and community, and examine how music and dance help to facilitate connections with God and fellow worshipers. While the practice offers positive benefits to first generation migrants, it highlights the dissonance perceived by the second generation between Yoruba and Irish culture.

  14. A cluster of Legionnaires' disease and associated Pontiac fever morbidity in office workers, Dublin, June-July 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    In June and July 2008, two office workers were admitted to a Dublin hospital with Legionnaires\\' disease. Investigations showed that cooling towers in the basement car park were the most likely source of infection. However, positive results from cooling tower samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not correlate with subsequent culture results. Also, many employees reported Pontiac fever-like morbidity following notification of the second case of Legionnaires\\' disease. In total, 54 employees attended their general practitioner or emergency department with symptoms of Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever. However, all laboratory tests for Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever were negative. In this investigation, email was used extensively for active case finding and provision of time information to employees and medical colleagues. We recommend clarification of the role of PCR in the diagnosis of legionellosis and also advocate for a specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of the milder form of legionellosis as in Pontiac fever.

  15. Transport Improvements and Impacts on Land Use Dynamics and Economic Development: Evidence for the Dublin-Belfast Corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Brendan; Foley, Walter; Shahumyan, Harutyun

    2016-01-01

    Transport infrastructure improvements are frequently dealt without adequate consideration of land use management issues. Theoretically this would not appear to be consistent with urban economic theory which prioritises the critical role that transportation plays in all urban economic spatial land...... and planning systems need to be better aligned. In this paper we examine policy evolution and recent policy outcomes and trends in the Belfast-Dublin corridor in light of the major infrastructure investment which occurred based upon official data within the time period mid 1990s (when many investments...... commenced) to 2012 (completion and use of those investments). It will investigate recent trends in terms of emerging economic development patterns since the creation of the M1 motorway and improved rail links. The research will incorporate spatial analytic modelling of current and future development trends...

  16. Aclare House Nursing Home, 4 - 5 Tivoli Terrace South, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  17. The first step towards a 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Leahy, M.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 Ireland supplied 96% of the total energy demand with fossil fuels (7% domestic and 89% imported) and 3% with renewable energy, even though there are enough renewable resources to supply all the energy required. As energy prices increase and the effects of global warming worsen, it is essential that Ireland begins to utilise its renewable resources more effectively. Therefore, this study presents the first step towards a 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland. The energy-system analysis tool used was EnergyPLAN, as it accounts for all sectors of the energy-system that need to be considered when integrating large penetrations of renewable energy: the electricity, heat, and transport sectors. Initially, a reference model of the existing Irish energy-system was constructed, and subsequently three different 100% renewable energy-systems were created with each focusing on a different resource: biomass, hydrogen, and electricity. These energy-systems were compared so that the benefits from each could be used to create an 'optimum' scenario called combination. Although the results illustrate a potential 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland, they have been obtained based on numerous assumptions. Therefore, these will need to be improved in the future before a serious roadmap can be defined for Ireland's renewable energy transition. (author)

  18. Audit of the Health Service Executive orthodontic referral pathway between 2009 and 2011 in the Dublin Mid-Leinster region.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wolstencroft, Simon

    2014-03-21

    An audit was undertaken in 2009 to determine the success of the new national orthodontic referral protocol introduced to the Health Service Executive (HSE) in 2007 and operated in the Dublin Mid-Leinster HSE region. It was repeated in 2011 to determine if the HSE austerity measures have had a bearing on the orthodontic service performance in the Dublin Mid-Leinster HSE region. The audit also measured the success of referring practitioners in identifying the correct Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) classification of the patient. In the 2011 audit, the figures were broken down to identify the occlusal variables that caused dental practitioners most difficulties in identification. The audit demonstrates a good referral to assessment timeframe in 2009 (85-80% compliance for IOTN 5 and 4 within three to six months, respectively), which deteriorates significantly in 2011 (26-4% for IOTN 5 and 4 within three to six months, respectively). The ability of dentists to identify the correct IOTN classification was better in 2009 (60% correct) compared to 2011 (51% correct), but both figures fell below the audit standard of 75% of referrals with correct IOTN classifications. The IOTN occlusal dental health components most readily identified by referring practitioners and meeting audit standards were 5a (overjet >9mm), 5i (impacted teeth) and 5h (extensive hypodontia). The remaining occlusal dental health components in the HSE IOTN fell below the audit standard. The audit clearly identifies a requirement for a continued educational effort to maintain the HSE IOTN skill base in primary care, and a need for additional resources to manage the demand for orthodontic assessments.

  19. Measured performance of a 1.72 kW rooftop grid connected photovoltaic system in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayompe, L.M.; Duffy, A.; McCormack, S.J.; Conlon, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from monitoring a 1.72 kW p photovoltaic system installed on a flat roof of a 12 m high building in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53.4 o N and longitude 6.3 o E). The system was monitored between November 2008 and October 2009 and all the electricity generated was fed into the low voltage supply to the building. Monthly average daily and annual performance parameters of the PV system evaluated include: final yield, reference yield, array yield, system losses, array capture losses, cell temperature losses, PV module efficiency, system efficiency, inverter efficiency, performance ratio and capacity factor. The maximum solar radiation, ambient temperature and PV module temperature recorded were 1241 W/m 2 in March, 29.5 o C and 46.9 o C in June respectively. The annual total energy generated was 885.1 kW h/kW p while the annual average daily final yield, reference yield and array yield were 2.41 kW h/kW p /day, 2.85 kW h/kW p /day and 2.62 kW h/kW p /day respectively. The annual average daily PV module efficiency, system efficiency and inverter efficiency were 14.9%, 12.6% and 89.2% respectively while the annual average daily performance ratio and capacity factor were 81.5% and 10.1% respectively. The annual average daily system losses, capture losses and cell temperature losses were 0.23 h/day, 0.22 h/day and 0.00 h/day respectively. Comparison of this system with other systems in different locations showed that the system had the highest annual average daily PV module efficiency, system efficiency and performance ratio of 14.9%, 12.6% and 81.5% respectively. The PV system's annual average daily final yield of 2.4 kW h/kW p /day is higher than those reported in Germany, Poland and Northern Ireland. It is comparable to results from some parts of Spain but it is lower than the reported yields in most parts of Italy and Spain. Despite low insolation levels, high average wind speeds and low ambient temperature improve Ireland

  20. United Kingdom Ireland coal ports directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The directory gives details of ports at 65 locations in the UK and Ireland. For each port, the directory lists the name of the terminal; the name, address, contact name and numbers of the terminal owner and of the terminal operator; and the name and telephone/fax numbers of ship's agents. It also give details, for each terminal, where available, of tidal rise, access routes, vessel maxima, working hours, coal traders and handlers, discharge facilities, daily discharge rate, coal loading facilities, daily loading rate, stocking area dimensions and capacity, stocking area facilities and inland transport infrastructure. Research for the directory was undertaken by S. Fazal and C. Measham of Sheffield Hallam University, Business School.

  1. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available.

  2. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehanni, M

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2\\/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8\\/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children\\'s health.

  3. Societal costs of multiple sclerosis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Peter; O'Boyle, Derek; Larkin, Aidan; McGuigan, Christopher; O'Rourke, Killian

    2018-05-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Ireland, and estimates the associated direct, indirect, and intangible costs to society based on a large nationally representative sample. A questionnaire was developed to capture the demographics, disease characteristics, healthcare use, informal care, employment, and wellbeing. Referencing international studies, standardized survey instruments were included (e.g. CSRI, MFIS-5, EQ-5D) or adapted (EDSS) for inclusion in an online survey platform. Recruitment was directed at people with MS via the MS Society mailing list and social media platforms, as well as in traditional media. The economic costing was primarily conducted using a 'bottom-up' methodology, and national estimates were achieved using 'prevalence-based' extrapolation. A total of 594 people completed the survey in full. The sample had geographic, disease, and demographic characteristics indicating good representativeness. At an individual level, average societal cost was estimated at €47,683; the average annual costs for those with mild, moderate, and severe MS were calculated as €34,942, €57,857, and €100,554, respectively. For a total Irish MS population of 9,000, the total societal costs of MS amounted to €429m. Direct costs accounted for just 30% of the total societal costs, indirect costs amounted to 50% of the total, and intangible or QoL costs represented 20%. The societal cost associated with a relapse in the sample is estimated as €2,438. The findings highlight that up to 70% of the total costs associated with MS are not routinely counted. These "hidden" costs are higher in Ireland than the rest of Europe, due in part to significantly lower levels of workforce participation, a higher likelihood of permanent workforce withdrawal, and higher levels of informal care needs. The relationship between disease progression and costs emphasize the societal importance of managing and slowing the progression of the illness.

  4. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanni, M; Cullen, A; Kiberd, B; McDonnell, M; O'Regan, M; Matthews, T

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children's health.

  5. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Susan C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960 players completed questionnaires (72% response rate. Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2. Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90% were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31% of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3% reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking. Of those who (self completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7% had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6% of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.02, p Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen reported high rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  6. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement.

  7. "Managed competition" for Ireland? The single versus multiple payer debate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mikkers, Misja

    2014-09-01

    A persistent feature of international health policy debate is whether a single-payer or multiple-payer system can offer superior performance. In Ireland, a major reform proposal is the introduction of \\'managed competition\\' based on the recent reforms in the Netherlands, which would replace many functions of Ireland\\'s public payer with a system of competing health insurers from 2016. This article debates whether Ireland meets the preconditions for effective managed competition, and whether the government should implement the reform according to its stated timeline. We support our arguments by discussing the functioning of the Dutch and Irish systems.

  8. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  9. World-Ecology and Ireland: The Neoliberal Ecological Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharae Deckard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Celtic Tiger, the socio-economic particularity of neoliberal capitalism in its Irish manifestation has increasingly been critiqued, but little attention has been paid to neoliberalism as ecology within Ireland. This article conducts an exploratory survey of the characteristics of the Irish neoliberal ecological regime during and after the Celtic Tiger, identifying the opening of new commodity frontiers (such as fracking, water, agro-biotechnology, and biopharma constituted in the neoliberal drive to appropriate and financialize nature. I argue for the usefulness of applying not only the tools of world-systems analysis, but also Jason W. Moore’s world-ecological paradigm, to analysis of Ireland as a semi-periphery. What is crucial to a macro-ecological understanding of Ireland’s role in the neoliberal regime of the world-ecology is the inextricability of its financial role as a tax haven and secrecy jurisdiction zone from its environmental function as a semi-peripheral pollution and water haven. We can adapt Jason W. Moore’s slogan that “Wall Street…becomes a way of organizing all of nature, characterized by the financialization of any income-generating activity” (Moore 2011b: 39 to say that to say that the “IFSC is a way of organizing nature,” with pernicious consequences for water, energy, and food systems in Ireland. Financial service centers and pharmaceutical factories, plantations and cattle ranches, tax havens and pollution havens, empires and common markets are all forms of environment-making that constellate human relations and extra-human processes into new ecological regimes. More expansive, dialectical understandings of “ecology” as comprising the whole of socio-ecological relations within the capitalist world-ecology—from farming to pharma to financialization—are crucial to forming configurations of knowledge able not only to take account of Ireland’s role in the environmental

  10. Superior Educational Attainment and Strategies of Land Inheritance in Post-Famine Ireland: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillas, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    To date no major study exists on the impact of the Great Famine on patterns of participation in superior education in Ireland, or on the impact of superior education on the life courses and inheritance potential of boys from small farming families. This paper provides a historical analysis and interpretation of patterns of participation in…

  11. Winning the Future: An Investigation into the Creativity Capacity across the Levels of Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the creativity capacity across the levels of education in Ireland, involving 702 participants. Creative capacity was investigated through a comparative analysis of creativity quotient (CQ). A divergent thinking task comprising the "how many uses" activity was assessed using the criteria for determining CQ;…

  12. Supporting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Higher Education in Ireland. OECD Skills Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report presents evidence-based analysis on Ireland's higher education transformation process towards an innovative, interconnected and multidisciplinary entrepreneurial system, designed to empower its students and staff to demonstrate enterprise, innovation and creativity in teaching, research and societal engagement. Using the OECD-European…

  13. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  14. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Karen; Lawton, Aoife

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  15. Renewables integration, flexibility measures and operational tools for the Ireland and Northern Ireland power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Damian; Power, Michael; O'Malley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Ireland and Northern Ireland power system is pursuing ambitious renewable energy (mainly wind generation) targets for 2020. A range of system-wide initiatives are being developed as part of the DS3 (Delivering a Secure, Sustainable Electricity System) programme, and, in particular, a bespoke suite of ancillary services incentivising fast frequency response, dynamic reactive power and ramping margin, and other, (future) system needs. With approximately half of the wind generation connected at distribution level, network development at both distribution and transmission levels is a key challenge for both the transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO): a wide range of technical options are being examined, including under-grounding, HVDC connection and series compensation, supported by a public and stakeholder engagement programme. The experience gained is highlighted, while also indicating solutions and strategies which have been proposed, and ongoing challenges for the future. (Authors)

  16. Passing through - reasons why migrant doctors in Ireland plan to stay, return home or migrate onwards to new destination countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugha, Ruairí; McAleese, Sara; Dicker, Pat; Tyrrell, Ella; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Humphries, Niamh

    2016-06-30

    International recruitment is a common strategy used by high-income countries to meet their medical workforce needs. Ireland, despite training sufficient doctors to meet its internal demand, continues to be heavily dependent on foreign-trained doctors, many of whom may migrate onwards to new destination countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure and analyse the factors associated with the migratory intentions of foreign doctors in Ireland. A total of 366 non-European nationals registered as medical doctors in Ireland completed an online survey assessing their reasons for migrating to Ireland, their experiences whilst working and living in Ireland, and their future plans. Factors associated with future plans - whether to remain in Ireland, return home or migrate to a new destination country - were tested by bivariate and multivariate analyses, including discriminant analysis. Of the 345 foreign doctors who responded to the question regarding their future plans, 16 % of whom were Irish-trained, 30 % planned to remain in Ireland, 23 % planned to return home and 47 % to migrate onwards. Country of origin, personal and professional reasons for migrating, experiences of training and supervision, opportunities for career progression, type of employment contract, citizenship status, and satisfaction with life in Ireland were all factors statistically significantly associated with the three migratory outcomes. Reported plans may not result in enacted emigration. However, the findings support a growing body of evidence highlighting dissatisfaction with current career opportunities, contributing to the emigration of Irish doctors and onward migration of foreign doctors. Implementation of the WHO Global Code, which requires member states to train and retain their own health workforce, could also help reduce onward migration of foreign doctors to new destination countries. Ireland has initiated the provision of tailored postgraduate training to doctors from

  17. The Castleisland radon Survey (Sw Ireland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, C. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); O' sullivan, F. [London Univ. College, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, London, (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In September 2003, following the identification of a house near Castleisland in County Kerry (Sw Ireland) with a seasonally adjusted annual average radon concentration of 49,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, the Radiological Protection of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) undertook to carry out a localised radon survey, the so-called 'Castleisland Radon Survey' (C.R.S.). The aim was to investigate the possibility that similarly extreme radon concentrations could be present in other houses in the surrounding area. A studied area of 400 km{sup 2} was designated around the town of Castleisland, divided in four 10 x 10 km{sup 2} grid squares, and all of the approximately 2,500 householders living in this area were invited to participate. Four hundred and eighteen householders responded to the invitation (17% response rate) but only 383 completed the survey. Fourteen percent of these 383 homes were found to have an annual average radon concentration above the Irish national Reference Level for domestic dwellings of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} while 2% were found to be above 800 Bq/m{sup 3}. An arithmetic mean of 147 Bq/m{sup 3} and a geometric mean of 70 Bq/m{sup 3} were calculated for the four studied grid squares. These can be compared with the respective values of 98 and 56 Bq/m3 calculated for the same area by the Irish National Radon Survey (N.R.S.). Similar trends are observed on a grid square by grid square basis where in one of them in particular, the C.R.S. allowed us to predict that 21% of all houses would have radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, against 6% predicted by the N.R.S.. This clearly indicates that the extent of the radon problem in the area has been underestimated by the N.R.S.. Two of the four grid squares investigated are currently designated as High Radon Areas (where 10% or more of all houses are predicted to exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}) based on the results from the N.R.S.. If one was to use predictions based on the results from the C.R.S., all four grid

  18. ‘Resurrecting Harry Clarke’: Breathing life into stained glass tourism in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Kiely

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, the exponential demand for ‘cultural/heritage’ tourism is increasingly being viewed by tourism stakeholders as an opportunity for value adding revenue generation, wherein both specialist and ‘media programmed’ tourists can seek out designated cultural attractions to satisfy their respective quests for authentic, and/or emotionally charged experiences. Indeed, this international ‘demand’ re-alignment is exemplified in the growth of churches and cathedrals who openly promote their artistic content as ‘must see attractions’. However, despite such utilitarian attractiveness, one wonders if the counter-influences of indifference, protectionism, or fear of heritage commodification, might act to scupper an opportunity to re-envision Harry Clarke’s iconic stained glass church windows as tourist attractions in Ireland? Born in Dublin in 1889, into a city consumed with the heady mix of Catholic Emancipation and artistic rebirth, Harry Clarke grew to pre-eminence among international stained glass artists at the turn of the twentieth century. Yet, despite being universally acclaimed as a master of stained glass creativity, his oeuvre, from a tourism perspective, has been sadly overlooked, with most promotion of Ireland’s twentieth century cultural renaissance being focused both on its literary giants (Joyce, Wilde, Swift, Beckett, Yeats and Stoker, and its traditional music culture. However, with the attendant economic spinoff offered by religious and cultural tourism growth, one wonders if the ubiquitous presence in Irish churches of Harry Clarke’s ecclesiastical stained glass windows might be re-imagined by core and peripheral stakeholders as marketable tourist attractions? Employing a qualitative methodology, involving semi structured interviews with key informants, this paper explores stakeholder awareness of Clarke’s significance as a potential tourist attractor, in addition to the appropriateness of promoting

  19. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne M

    2010-11-18

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 13

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, P

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 was a very rare cause of human illness in Ireland between 2000 and 2008, with only four human isolates from three patients being identified. Over a 19-month period between August 2009 and February 2011, 34 confirmed cases and one probable case of Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 were detected, all of which had an MLVA pattern 2-10-NA-12-212 or a closely related pattern. The epidemiological investigations strongly supported a linkbetween illness and exposure to duck eggs. Moreover, S. Typhimurium with an MLVA pattern indistinguishable (or closely related) to the isolates from human cases, was identified in 22 commercial and backyard duck flocks, twelve of which were linked with known human cases. A range of control measures were taken at farm level, and advice was provided to consumers on the hygienic handling and cooking of duck eggs. Although no definitive link was established with a concurrent duck egg-related outbreak of S. Typhimurium DT8 in the United Kingdom, it seems likely that the two events were related. It may be appropriate for other countries with a tradition of consuming duck eggs to consider the need for measures to reduce the risk of similar outbreaks.

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House - Dublin 5

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLoughlin, Kathleen

    2015-11-24

    For most people, home is the preferred place of care and death. Despite the development of specialist palliative care and primary care models of community based service delivery, people who are dying, and their families\\/carers, can experience isolation, feel excluded from social circles and distanced from their communities. Loneliness and social isolation can have a detrimental impact on both health and quality of life. Internationally, models of social and practical support at the end of life are gaining momentum as a result of the Compassionate Communities movement. These models have not yet been subjected to rigorous evaluation. The aims of the study described in this protocol are: (1) to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of The Good Neighbour Partnership (GNP), a new volunteer-led model of social and practical care\\/support for community dwelling adults in Ireland who are living with advanced life-limiting illness; and (2) to pilot the method for a Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT).

  2. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland Strategic Plan 2008 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The RPII recognises that Ireland is now entering a time of transition and change, with many uncertain variables in economic and environmental issues emerging. Against this background, this strategy document seeks to ensure that the high level of radiation protection that already exists in Ireland is sustained and built upon over the next three years

  3. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  4. Ireland's South African War 1899–1902 | Diver | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dearth in research is perhaps due to Irish Nationalist historiography and sensitivity during the twentieth century, which has arguably distorted our perspective of Ireland's shared history with the British Empire. Therefore, it is the purpose of this article to present an alternative Ireland, which has largely been ignored, ...

  5. A structured approach to control of Salmonella Dublin in 10 Danish dairy herds based on risk scoring and test-and-manage procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    routes of infection; 4) interpretation of repeated testing of individual animals to detect high-risk animals for special hygienic management or culling; and 5) diagnostic testing of different age groups and bulk tank milk to evaluate progress of control over time. Serology, true prevalence estimates...... stock and adult cattle in 10 case herds that were followed for more than three years. The five steps in the structured approach were: 1) risk scoring to determine transmission routes within the herd and into the herd; 2) determining a plan of action; 3) performing management changes to close important...... and changes in herd classification in the Danish surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin were used to assess the progress in the herds during and after the control period. Effective control of Salmonella Dublin was achieved in all participating herds through management that focused on closing infection...

  6. Activity of antibodies against Salmonella dublin, Toxoplasma gondii, or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in sera after treatment with electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Lind, Peter; Preuss, T.

    1996-01-01

    was used as an estimate for the relative posttreatment activity. For a Toxoplasma gondii indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay as well as for a Salmonella dublin indirect ELISA, the posttreatment activity was more than 89% of the pretreatment activity when the samples...... of pretreatment activity were subject to a relatively greater decrease in activity than samples with a high level of pretreatment activity. The complement fixation assay was particularly sensitive to irradiation of serum. ft is concluded that serum samples retain sufficient activity by both methods of virus...... they were irradiated in the frozen state on dry ice but only 35% of their activity when they were irradiated in the liquid state at 0 degrees C. The patterns seen in an S. dublin blocking ELISA and an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae complement fixation assay differed in that samples with a low level...

  7. An audit of the quality of referral letters received by the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dublin Dental School and Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Justin

    2010-10-01

    One hundred consecutive referral letters, sent by dental practitioners to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, were audited in terms of quality. The audit was based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) recommendations of 1998. The audit demonstrated that in general referral letters required modification and did not give the clinician the required information. This paper sets out the results of the audit and suggests a template that should be used for future referrals.

  8. An audit of the quality of referral letters received by the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dublin Dental School and Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Justin

    2010-11-01

    One hundred consecutive referral letters, sent by dental practitioners to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dublin Dental School and Hospital, were audited in terms of quality. The audit was based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) recommendations of 1998. The audit demonstrated that in general referral letters required modification and did not give the clinician the required information. This paper sets out the results of the audit and suggests a template that should be used for future referrals.

  9. Nurse teacher stress in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P; Houghton, D M

    1993-08-01

    Occupational stress among a 60% sample of all nurse tutors in Northern Ireland was investigated by means of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory and a stress questionnaire. Seventy per cent of tutors judged themselves to be worse or much worse than usual on 45% of GHQ items. Significant levels of moderate and high burnout were discovered on the sub-scales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, with an almost unanimous (95%) report of high burnout arising out of feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. Male nurse tutors reported more frequent and more intense signs of burnout than their female counterparts at a statistically significant level of difference in emotional exhaustion (P = 0.028 and P = 0.003 respectively) and in depersonalization (P work stressor most commonly identified by tutors (72%) was that of experiencing too little time to perform their duties to their satisfaction. The most common request for help to alleviate workplace stress (61%) was for more support and appreciation from their seniors.

  10. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased. To determine the current prevalence in this region we studied anonymised serum samples submitted in 2015 for routine testing. We detected anti-HEV IgG in 16\\/198 (8%) individuals, highest rate in 40-59 year olds (43.8%). This is higher than reported for the same region in 1995 (0.4%) using a previous generation assay. This study provides evidence of HEV circulation in Ireland and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.

  11. Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

  12. CLP activities and control in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Walsh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10th December 2010 marked a new beginning for Regulation (EC no. 1272/2008 on the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP in Ireland with the start of its operational phase. It was on this date that the administrative and enforcement provisions for CLP were encompassed in the new Chemicals Amendment Act, 2010. In this Act, the Health and Safety Authority, known as the "the Authority" is named as Competent Authority (CA for CLP, along with the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, in respect of pesticides and plant protection products and the Beaumont Hospital Board with responsibility for receiving information relating to emergency health response. In practice, the Authority has been de facto CA for CLP since its publication on the 31st December 2008, given its role in existing classification and labelling regimes. This article focuses on the work undertaken by the Authority on CLP at a National, European and International level including its implementation, training, helpdesk, guidance, enforcement and awareness raising activities.

  13. Telemedicine services in the Republic of Ireland: an evolving policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; Murphy, Andrew William; Clerkin, Pauline

    2006-05-01

    The Republic of Ireland is characterised by few urban conurbations and a high rural population, including significant numbers of island dwellers. Information communication technologies (ICT), including telemedicine, present opportunities to address rural health-service delivery issues. As in other countries, the recent National Health Information Strategy is regarded as pivotal to the modernisation of the Irish health care system. There is, however, a dearth of research about telemedicine in Ireland. This paper reports, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic review of telemedicine in the two regional health boards in the Republic of Ireland. Details of 11 telemedicine services, all initiated by local policy, will be presented. Results of an interview study with service providers about their experiences of the practices and processes involved in telemedicine service delivery are also provided. The focus of our analysis is two-fold. We assess the resonance of these Irish data with the international literature with particular reference to a recently developed model for the normalisation of telemedicine. For the first time, this model which was developed in the United Kingdom is applied to a fresh set of empirical data in a different health care context. We then discuss a number of health information policy issues for Ireland and elsewhere arising from our analysis.

  14. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  15. Telephone survey of private patients' views on continuity of care and registration with general practice in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The desire of patients for personal continuity of care with a General Practitioner (GP) has been well documented, but not within non-registered private patients in Ireland. This study set out to examine the attitudes and reported behaviours of private fee-paying patients towards continuity of GP care and universal registration for patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of 400 randomly chosen fee-paying patients living within County Dublin. There is no formal system of registration with a GP for these patients. Main outcomes were attendance of respondents at primary health care facilities and their attitudes towards continuity of care and registration with a GP. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and using parametric and non-parametric tests of association. Pearson correlation was used to quantify the association between the described variables and attitudes towards continuity and registration with a GP. Variables showing significance at the 5% level were entered into multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: 97% of respondents had seen a GP in the previous 5 years. The mean number of visits to the GP for respondents was 2.3 per annum. 89% of respondents had a regular GP and the mean length of time with their GP was 15.6 years. 96% preferred their personal medical care to be provided within one general practice. 16% of respondents had consulted a GP outside of their own practice in the previous year. They were more likely to be female, commute a longer distance to work or have poorer health status. 81% considered it important to be officially registered with a GP practice of their choice. CONCLUSION: Both personal and longitudinal continuity of care with a GP are important to private patients. Respondents who chose to visit GPs other than their regular GP were not easily characterised in this study and individual circumstances may lead to this behaviour. There is strong support for a system of universal patient registration

  16. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Umme

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004/23/EC. To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225 in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004/23/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  17. Phoenix Park Community Nursing Units, St Mary's Hospital, Phoenix Park, Dublin 20.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Molly

    2010-05-25

    Abstract Background Sexual problems are common among people with coronary heart disease and can adversely affect patients\\' quality of life. GPs are ideally placed to deal with these problems. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to address sexual problems but little is known about what currently takes place in practice. The aim of this study was to examine GPs\\' self-reported behaviour and attitudes to discussing sexual problems with people with coronary heart disease. Method Design: A cross-sectional survey which administered 230 postal questionnaires to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were asked about current practice, knowledge, awareness and confidence in dealing with sexual problems, barriers to addressing sexual problems, and about improving services in this area. Results Responses were available for 61 GPs (27% response rate). Seventy percent of GPs reported that they rarely or never discussed sexual problems with coronary patients. While all GPs believed addressing sexual problems was important, many GPs reported lacking awareness, knowledge and confidence in addressing sexual problems. The main barriers were lack of time, feeling the patient wasn\\'t ready and lack of training in the area. GPs wanted more training and guidelines for practice. Conclusions There is currently no standardised protocol for GPs for dealing with sexual problems among coronary patients. Awareness of these issues appears to be low among GPs. Services could be improved by developing practice guidelines for brief, effective actions or assessments, providing training in the area and improving information resources and support services for referral.

  18. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  19. An examination of ethnic entrepreneurship in the Mid-West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Birdthistle, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis research was commissioned by Doras Luimní  with the aim of providing a micro and strategic analysis of ethnic entrepreneurs in the Midwest region of Ireland. A number of objectives were formed in order to answer this aim. The study examined two sets of entrepreneurs: those in the planning phase and those that have been established. Both established entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs in the planning phase were studied so as to provide a skill set analysi...

  20. EWTD compliance amongst Anaesthesia trainees in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohan, J; Moore, D

    2017-02-01

    The implications of the EWTD include a limit of 48 h working week and 11 consecutive hours rest every 24 h. This survey was designed to assess EWTD compliance over designated 1-week and 1-month periods amongst College of Anaesthesetists of Ireland (CAI) trainees and non-training Anaesthesia NCHDs. The two key elements of EWTD compliance were assessed; the compliance to a 48 h working week, and a minimizing of shift duration to 24 h. Existence of protected training time and teaching time were also assessed. This survey was completed by 191 Anaesthesia NCHDs, including 151 responses from CAI trainees; 75 % response rate from CAI trainees. 71 % of respondents worked in excess of 48 h. 37 % of respondents reported to have worked a shift >24 h duration. The average hours worked was 66 h (range 48.5-103 h). Our figures are a contrast to the reported figures in the HSE "Performance Assurance Report". 49 % of respondents reported a change in their working patterns to facilitate EWTD compliance. There appears to be a negative impact on training however, with 68 % respondents missing departmental teaching sessions and 30 % not receiving protected training time. 33 % of respondents were not in favour of full EWTD compliance. As work patterns change, it is vital to ensure that training is not compromised. Previous reports have recommended an increase in consultant numbers, which has yet to be achieved. This may provide a solution to allow service provision, NCHD training and EWTD compliance amongst NCHDs.

  1. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  2. The road to smoke-free legislation in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Laura M; Clancy, Luke

    2011-01-01

    To describe the process through which Ireland changed its policies towards smoking in work-places and distil lessons for others implementing or extending smoke-free laws. This analysis is informed by a review of secondary sources including a commissioned media analysis, documentary analysis and key informant interviews with policy actors who provide insight into the process of smoke-free policy development. The policy analysis techniques used include the development of a time-line for policy reform, stakeholder analysis, policy mapping techniques, impact analysis through use of secondary data and a review process. The policy analysis triangle, which highlights the importance of examining policy content, context, actors and processes, will be used as an analytical framework. The importance of the political, economic, social and cultural context emerged clearly. The interaction of the context with the policy process both in identification of need for policy and its formulation demonstrated the opportunity for advocates to exert influence at all points of the process. The campaign to support the legislation had the following characteristics: a sustained consistent simple health message, sustained political leadership/commitment, a strong coalition between the Health Alliance, the Office of Tobacco Control and the Department of Health and Children, with cross-party political support and trade union support. The public and the media support clearly defined the benefit of deliberate and consistent planning and organization of a communication strategy. The Irish smoke-free legislation was a success as a policy initiative because of timing, dedication, planning, implementation and the existence of strong leadership and a powerful convinced credible political champion. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. “Who am I? Well, I’m Irish anyway, that’s something.” Iris Murdoch and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Petris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter J. Conradi, a lifelong friend and biographer of Iris Murdoch,born in Dublin of Anglo-Irish parents, speaks of her attachment to/detachment from her country of origin as follows: “Her Irish connectionwas reflected in a lifetime’s intellectual and emotional engagement[that] – before her illness – transformed her from a romanticMarxist idealist to a hard-line Unionist and defender of the politicsof Ian Paisley” (Conradi 2001b. This article is an attempt to investigatepossible connections between Murdoch’s social, ethnic, andreligious background and her philosophy based on up-rooted androotedness and self-distancing (terms borrowed from Simone Weilpersonified in the characters of her numerous novels. Her only worksset in Ireland, namely the short story “Something Special” (1958,and the novels The Unicorn (1963 and The Red and the Green (1965,will be analysed and compared with the novels of another womanwriterfrom the same background, Jennifer Johnston, the doyen ofIrish writers, who has inherited and modified the same tradition inthe light of contemporary Irish history.

  4. Ireland or the Netherlands: Which country is more entrepreneurial?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Gorman, Colm; Diaz-Moriana, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    What country was ranked the most entrepreneurial of the EU-15 countries in 2005? Ireland. In 2005, Ireland ranked 1st of the EU-15 countries in terms of the rate of entrepreneurship. The Dutch ranked jointed 9th. Which of the EU-15 countries was the most entrepreneurial in 2012? The Netherlands. Since 2005, the rate of entrepreneurship in the Netherlands has increased. They now rank 1stof the EU-15 countries. Ireland’s rate of entrepreneurship has decreased. By 2012, Ireland ranked 9th of the...

  5. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Cheeverstown House Ltd, Dublin 6w

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Mary Rose

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All flour in the USA is fortified with folic acid at a level of 140 microg\\/100 g which is estimated to supply an extra 100 microg daily to the average diet. Some researchers have advocated that this be increased to double and even four times this amount. Based on previous research these higher levels are likely to lead to the appearance of unmetabolised vitamin in the circulation, which may have safety implications for sub-groups of the population. The UK and the Republic of Ireland will likely introduce mandatory fortification also in the next year or so. The aim of this study was to capture the short-term effect of folic acid fortification on unmetabolised folic acid in serum after chronic consumption of folic acid. METHODS: After pre-saturation with 400 microg folic acid supplements daily for 14-weeks, healthy folate replete adults (n = 20) consumed folic acid fortified bread, at three different levels (400 microg, 200 microg, 100 microg) over a period of one week each. The dose was administered in two-equal sized slices consumed at 09.00 hrs and 13.00 hrs. Serum samples for total folate and folic acid were collected at baseline, after 14-weeks of supplementation, and pre and post (at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours) each dose tested. RESULTS: Unmetabolised folic acid was detected after the 14-week supplementation period. Folic acid was not detected in either the 200 microg or 100 microg (current US regime) doses tested but was present at the highest level (400 microg) tested. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that persons exposed to the current US fortification programme supplying an average of 100 microg per day or less are unlikely to have unmetabolised folic acid in serum. It also seems that daily consumption of the higher level of 200 microg or less is unlikely to be problematic. Increasing the level however to 400 microg on the other hand is likely to lead to unmetabolised folic acid appearance.

  7. The bedrock electrical conductivity structure of Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, David

    2013-08-01

    An airborne geophysical survey of the whole of Northern Ireland has provided over 4.8 M estimates of the bedrock conductivity over the wide range of geological formations present. This study investigates how such data can be used to provide additional knowledge in relation to existing digital geological map information. A by-product of the analysis is a simplification of the spatially aggregated information obtained in such surveys. The methodology used is a GIS-based attribution of the conductivity estimates using a lithological classification of the bedrock formations. A 1:250k geological classification of the data is performed leading to a 56 unit lithological and geostatistical analysis of the conductivity information. The central moments (medians) of the classified data are used to provide a new digital bedrock conductivity map of Northern Ireland with values ranging from 0.32 to 41.36 mS m-1. This baseline map of conductivities displays a strong correspondence with an existing 4 quadrant, chrono-geological description of Northern Ireland. Once defined, the baseline conductivity map allows departures from the norm to be assessed across each specific lithological unit. Bulk electrical conductivity is controlled by a number of petrophysical parameters and it is their variation that is assessed by the procedures employed. The igneous rocks are found to display the largest variability in conductivity values and many of the statistical distributions are multi-modal. A sequence of low-value modes in these data are associated with intrusives within volcanic complexes. These and much older Neoproterzoic rocks appear to represent very low porosity formations that may be the product of rapid cooling during emplacement. By way of contrast, extensive flood basalts (the Antrim lavas) record a well-defined and much higher median value (12.24 mS m-1) although they display complex spatial behaviour in detail. Sedimentary rocks appear to follow the broad behaviours anticipated

  8. Gonad protection for the antero-posterior projection of the pelvis in diagnostic radiography in Dublin hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolan, Aoife; Brennan, Patrick C. E-mail: patrick.brennan@ucd.ie; Rainford, Louise A.; Healy, Jan

    2004-02-01

    Gonad shielding during diagnostic X-ray procedures is an effective way of reducing radiation dose to patients' reproductive organs and reduces the risk of genetic effects in future generations. The utilisation of gonad shielding, the availability of shields and the existence of written protocols for the use of radiation shielding for antero-posterior projections of the male and female pelvis were examined in four major Dublin hospitals. A retrospective study of 198 pelvic radiographs revealed that only 2% (n=4) of images had evidence of gonad shielding. All four images that demonstrated shielding showed that the shield was malpositioned with either important bony anatomy obscured or gonads not sufficiently protected. Some of the hospitals surveyed had inadequate supplies of gonad shields in the general radiography rooms and no written protocols were available. The results of this study indicate that patients in the hospitals investigated are receiving avoidable gonad irradiation due to the omission, or malpositioning of gonad shields during pelvis examinations. In line with recent EC recommendations appropriate shielding of the gonads during pelvis AP examinations should be encouraged.

  9. Gonad protection for the antero-posterior projection of the pelvis in diagnostic radiography in Dublin hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolan, Aoife; Brennan, Patrick C.; Rainford, Louise A.; Healy, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Gonad shielding during diagnostic X-ray procedures is an effective way of reducing radiation dose to patients' reproductive organs and reduces the risk of genetic effects in future generations. The utilisation of gonad shielding, the availability of shields and the existence of written protocols for the use of radiation shielding for antero-posterior projections of the male and female pelvis were examined in four major Dublin hospitals. A retrospective study of 198 pelvic radiographs revealed that only 2% (n=4) of images had evidence of gonad shielding. All four images that demonstrated shielding showed that the shield was malpositioned with either important bony anatomy obscured or gonads not sufficiently protected. Some of the hospitals surveyed had inadequate supplies of gonad shields in the general radiography rooms and no written protocols were available. The results of this study indicate that patients in the hospitals investigated are receiving avoidable gonad irradiation due to the omission, or malpositioning of gonad shields during pelvis examinations. In line with recent EC recommendations appropriate shielding of the gonads during pelvis AP examinations should be encouraged

  10. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochen; Sweeney, John

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between household space heating energy use and urban form (land use characteristics) for the Greater Dublin Region. The geographical distributions of household energy use are evaluated at the Enumeration Districts (ED) level based on the building thermal balance model. Moreover, it estimates the impact of possible factors on the household space heating consumption. Results illustrate that the distribution profile of dwellings is a significant factor related to overall heating energy demand and individual dwelling energy consumption for space heating. Residents living in compact dwellings with small floor areas consume less energy for space heating than residents living in dwellings with big floor areas. Moreover, domestic heating energy demand per household was also estimated for two extreme urban development scenarios: the compact city scenario and the dispersed scenario. The results illustrate that the compact city scenario is likely to decrease the domestic heating energy consumption per household by 16.2% compared with the dispersed city scenario. Correspondingly, the energy-related CO 2 emissions could be significantly decreased by compact city scenario compared with the dispersed city scenario. - Highlights: ► A method was developed to investigate urban form impacts on energy demand. ► This study estimates impacts of possible factors on the household energy consumption. ► Household heating energy demand is sensitive to dwelling distribution profile. ► The compact case could reduce domestic energy demand compared with the dispersed case.

  11. Analysis of the quality of the whole journey (door-to-door) passenger expierence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Tomas, M.D.; Gonzalez Viosca, E.

    2016-07-01

    European cities increasingly face problems caused by transport and traffic. A key factor for all transport operators is the quality of the passenger experience as this particularly, affects the uptake of the service. A comprehensive study (METPEX FP7 EU project - www.metpex.eu) developed by a consortium of 16 European partners has analysed the quality of the whole journey (door-to-door) passenger experience, including private or individual forms transport and attending to specific need of users’ groups. For this purpose, a tool with a technological basis was used to collect data from 8 trial cities: Bucharest (Romania), Coventry (United Kingdom), Dublin (Ireland), Grevena (Greece), Rome (Italy), Stockholm (Sweden), Valencia (Spain) and Vilnius (Lithuania); and five FIA motorist networks countries. For a correct evaluation of quality experience, it was deployed a subset of key variables derived from the comprehensive set of potential satisfaction factors that were studied for each pilot city. In this paper, results of the travel experience are showed, including analysis of variables affecting behavior and feelings of passengers. (Author)

  12. Caries status in 16 year-olds with varying exposure to water fluoridation in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, J

    2012-12-01

    Most of the Republic of Ireland\\'s public water supplies have been fluoridated since the mid-1960s while Northern Ireland has never been fluoridated, apart from some small short-lived schemes in east Ulster.

  13. Bilateral comparison of 10 V standards between the NSAI-NML (Ireland) and the BIPM, March to April 2011 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, O.; Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.b, a comparison of the 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Standards Authority of Ireland-National Metrology Laboratory (NSAI-NML), Dublin, Ireland, was carried out from March to April 2011. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B) were transported by freight to NSAI-NML. At NSAI-NML, the 10 V output EMF of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with a group of characterized Zener diode-based electronic voltage standards. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated before and after the measurements at NSAI-NML, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages on internal temperature and ambient pressure. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by NSAI-NML and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated expanded uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  14. Flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure in Cork, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruijn Karin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent flood events in Ireland and particularly in County Cork have caused significant disruption to health service provisions, interruption of water and power supplies, and damage to roads and other transportation infrastructure, affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people over a prolonged period of weeks. These events clearly reveal- the vulnerability of the critical infrastructure to flooding and the dependence of society on critical infrastructure. In order to reduce the flood vulnerability and increase the resilience of the critical infrastructure networks in the future, detailed evidence-based analysis and assessment is essential. To this end a case study has been carried out on Cork City which analyses this vulnerability as it was in 2009, and as it is currently, and identifies adaptation options to reduce the future vulnerability of critical infrastructure to flooding and to build a more resilient society. This paper describes the storyline approach and CIrcle tool and their application to Cork City which focused on the analysis of the flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure and the impacts of failure of the infrastructure for other critical functions and on society.

  15. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  16. The first prospective injury audit of League of Ireland footballers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Nigel; Jones, Ashley; Francis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Football has the highest sports participation (10.6%) in Ireland ahead of its Gaelic counterpart (3.9%). Research into injury incidence and patterns in Irish football is non-existent. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective injury audit of League of Ireland (semiprofessional) footballers during the 2014 season (8 months, 28 games). Methods A total of 140 semiprofessional League of Ireland footballers were prospectively followed between March and November 2014. Data were collected in accordance with the international consensus on football injury epidemiology. Results The injury rate was 9.2/1000 hour exposure to football (95% CI 6.2 to 12.9, pLeague of Ireland football is similar to that of European professional football, although the incidence of injury is higher. The incidence of injury is in line with that of Dutch amateur football. PMID:29071112

  17. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation in Ireland: A review of the process

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tilson, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacoeconomic assessment process in Ireland and to provide examples of recent appraisals and the subsequent impact on pricing and reimbursement decisions.\\r\

  18. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchi, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle...

  19. Involuntary psychiatric admission based on risk rather than need for treatment: report from the Dublin Involuntary Admission Study (DIAS).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, BD

    2018-04-01

    Involuntary psychiatric admission in Ireland is based on the presence of mental disorder plus serious risk to self\\/others and\\/or need for treatment. This study aimed to examine differences between use of risk and treatment criteria, about which very little is known.

  20. Ireland and immigration: explaining the absence of the far right

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the absence of far-right political formations in the history of the Republic of Ireland, especially in relation to immigration. I argue that the ‘mainstream’ nationalist parties have implemented a racialized governance of Ireland via the issue of citizenship (in the referendum of 2004). While hegemonic ideas on the racial purity of indigenous populations and the highly ambivalent attitudes and policies on immigration pursued over the last decade are characteristi...

  1. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  2. Estimating the economic cost of disability in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; Lyons, Seán

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the extra economic costs of disability seems a logical step towards alleviating elements of social exclusion for people with disabilities. This paper estimates the economic cost of disability in Ireland in terms of the additional spending needs that arise due to disability. It defines and estimates models of the private costs borne by families with individuals who have a disability in Ireland when compared to the wider population, both in general and by severity of illness. Our mod...

  3. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  4. Energy drinks available in Ireland: a description of caffeine and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaver, Laura; Gilpin, Susannah; Fernandes da Silva, Joana Caldeira; Buckley, Claire; Foley-Nolan, Cliodhna

    2017-06-01

    To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland. Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product. Descriptive analysis was performed. Seventy-eight products were identified on the island of Ireland (regular, n 59; diet/sugar-free/light, n 19). Caffeine and sugar content was in the range of 14-35 mg and 2·9-15·6 g per 100 ml, respectively. Mean caffeine content of 102·2 mg per serving represents 25·6 % of the maximum intake advised for adults by the European Food Safety Authority. Per serving, mean sugar content of regular energy drinks was 37 g. This exceeds WHO recommendations for maximum daily sugar intake of energy intake (25 g for adults consuming 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) diet). If displaying front-of-pack labelling, fifty-seven of the fifty-nine regular energy drinks would receive a Food Standards Agency 'red' colour-coded label for sugar. Energy drinks are freely available on the island of Ireland and all products surveyed can be defined as highly caffeinated products. This has potential health issues particularly for children and adolescents where safe limits of caffeine have not been determined. Energy drinks surveyed also contained high levels of sugar and could potentially contribute to weight gain and adverse dental health effects.

  5. High resolution seismic tomography imaging of Ireland with quarry blast data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroucau, P.; Lebedev, S.; Bean, C. J.; Grannell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Local earthquake tomography is a well established tool to image geological structure at depth. That technique, however, is difficult to apply in slowly deforming regions, where local earthquakes are typically rare and of small magnitude, resulting in sparse data sampling. The natural earthquake seismicity of Ireland is very low. That due to quarry and mining blasts, on the other hand, is high and homogeneously distributed. As a consequence, and thanks to the dense and nearly uniform coverage achieved in the past ten years by temporary and permanent broadband seismological stations, the quarry blasts offer an alternative approach for high resolution seismic imaging of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Ireland. We detected about 1,500 quarry blasts in Ireland and Northern Ireland between 2011 and 2014, for which we manually picked more than 15,000 P- and 20,000 S-wave first arrival times. The anthropogenic, explosive origin of those events was unambiguously assessed based on location, occurrence time and waveform characteristics. Here, we present a preliminary 3D tomographic model obtained from the inversion of 3,800 P-wave arrival times associated with a subset of 500 events observed in 2011, using FMTOMO tomographic code. Forward modeling is performed with the Fast Marching Method (FMM) and the inverse problem is solved iteratively using a gradient-based subspace inversion scheme after careful selection of damping and smoothing regularization parameters. The results illuminate the geological structure of Ireland from deposit to crustal scale in unprecedented detail, as demonstrated by sensitivity analysis, source relocation with the 3D velocity model and comparisons with surface geology.

  6. An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton-Warberg, M

    2017-11-21

    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. More recently, the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), at their marine research facility in Carna (CRS), has undertaken applied research on ballan wrasse and lumpsucker. Currently, CRS is providing lumpsucker juveniles and research and development for the Irish salmon industry with support from BIM (Ireland's Seafood Development Agency) and Marine Harvest Ireland. There is a large amount of research currently being carried out in this area in all countries that are utilizing cleaner fish technology. The current focus in Ireland is the development of a native lumpsucker broodstock to facilitate its sustainable production. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research, challenges and use of cleaner fish in Ireland. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ensemble of regional climate model projections for Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Paul; McGrath, Ray

    2016-04-01

    of over 35 days per year. Results show significant projected decreases in mean annual, spring and summer precipitation amounts by mid-century. The projected decreases are largest for summer, with "likely" reductions ranging from 0% to 20%. The frequencies of heavy precipitation events show notable increases (approximately 20%) during the winter and autumn months. The number of extended dry periods is projected to increase substantially during autumn and summer. Regional variations of projected precipitation change remain statistically elusive. The energy content of the wind is projected to significantly decrease for the future spring, summer and autumn months. Projected increases for winter were found to be statistically insignificant. The projected decreases were largest for summer, with "likely" values ranging from 3% to 15%. Results suggest that the tracks of intense storms are projected to extend further south over Ireland relative to those in the reference simulation. As extreme storm events are rare, the storm-tracking research needs to be extended. Future work will focus on analysing a larger ensemble, thus allowing a robust statistical analysis of extreme storm track projections.

  8. Dietary behaviour and health in Northern Ireland: an exploration of biochemical and haematological associations.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, M E; McClean, S I; Strain, J J; Thompson, K A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the relationships between dietary behaviour and biochemical and haematological measures. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional population study. SETTING--The study took place in the general community within Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS--522 randomly selected adults aged 18-64 years took part (65% of the eligible sample). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Four dietary behaviours were identified using principal components analysis from 7 d weighed dietary recor...

  9. Pure Indulgence : Ireland's Top Chefs and Cocktail Experts Reveal the Secrets of Creating with Baileys

    OpenAIRE

    R. & A. Bailey

    2000-01-01

    Published by A & A Farmar , Beech House, 18 Ranelagh Village, Dublin 6 in 2000. Recipes tested by Alacoque Meehan, photography by Walter Pfeiffer, Declan Shanahan & Brian Daly. Designed and set at Cobalt. Printed and bound by Betaprint. 142 p., col.ill.,24 cm. http://arrow.dit.ie/irckbooks/1060/thumbnail.jpg

  10. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zintl Annetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1 were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed.

  11. Courts, legislators and human embryo research: lessons from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binchy, William

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to the matter of human embryo research law plays a crucial role in its development by helping to set the boundaries of what may be done, the sanctions for acting outside those boundaries and the rights and responsibilities of key parties. Nevertheless, the philosophical challenges raised by human embryo research, even with the best will of all concerned, may prove too great for satisfactory resolution through the legal process. Taking as its focus the position of Ireland, this paper explores the distinctive constitutional approach taken on this issue and addresses the difficulty of translating sound philosophy into judicial decrees and the difficulty of establishing expert commissions to make law reform proposals on matters of profound normative controversy. It concludes that the Irish experience does have useful lessons for those in other countries who are concerned with the legal approach to research on human embryos and points to the desirability of a diversity of normative positions in order to enrich the quality of the analysis so as to encourage more informed debate in society.

  12. INFOMAR, Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme; Sharing Valuable Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M. T.; McGrath, F.; Cullen, S.; Verbruggen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Following the successful high-resolution deep-sea mapping carried out as part of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS), a strategic, long term programme was established: INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Ireland MArine Resources (INFOMAR). Funded by Ireland's Department of Communication, Climate Action and Environment, INFOMAR comprises a multi-platform approach to completing Ireland's marine mapping, and is a key action in the integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. Co-managed by Geological Survey Ireland and the Marine Institute, the programme has three work strands: Data Acquisition; Data Exchange and Integration; Value Added Exploitation.The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of geological, hydrographic, oceanographic, habitat and heritage datasets that underpin sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resources. INFOMAR operates a free data policy; data and outputs are delivered online through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of data and outputs are wide-ranging and multipurpose. In order to address the evolution and diversification of user requirements, further data product development is facilitated through the Value Added Exploitation strand.Ninety percent of Ireland's territory lies offshore. Therefore, strategic national seabed mapping continues to provide critical, high-resolution baseline datasets for numerous economic sectors and societal needs. From these we can glean important geodynamic knowledge of Ireland's vast maritime territory. INFOMAR remains aligned with national and European policies and directives. Exemplified by our commitment to EMODnet, a European Commission funded project that supports the collection, standardisation and sharing of available marine information, data and data products across all European Seas. As EMODnet Geology Minerals leaders we have developed a framework for mapping marine minerals. Furthermore, collaboration with the international research

  13. Impact of the river Liffey discharge on nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay (Irish Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, T. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature, salinity, nutrients (total oxidised nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH 4) and orthophosphate (PO 4)) and chlorophyll a were monitored in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay from June 2000 to June 2003. Four groups of sites were defined comprising the upper estuary (Gp. I), the outer estuary (Gp. III) with a small set (Gp. II) of sites between Groups I and III heavily influenced by the sewage treatment works outflow, and the Bay proper (Gp. IV). Riverine inputs of TON and PO 4 were calculated at an average of 826 t N y -1 and 31 t P y -1, respectively, and were largely controlled by flow rate. The sewage treatment works were identified as a major source of PO 4 and NH 4 to the system. Mixing in the upper estuary of nutrient limited saline waters with hypernutrified river water regularly (i.e. annually) produced relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll a (>10 mg chl a m -3), and also sporadic blooms with extremely high chlorophyll a values (max. 121.6 mg chl a m -3). These latter phytoplankton blooms occurred in high salinity waters and were due to mixing of nutrient limited saline waters and nutrient rich river waters. The mean annual flux of phytoplankton carbon from the river Liffey was calculated at 23.5 t C y -1, of which half was accumulated or remineralised in the estuary and did not enter the Bay. In the Bay proper (Gp. IV) summer nutrient concentrations dropped below detection limits, and chlorophyll a concentrations followed the classic pattern with a spring bloom maximum of 5.5 mg chl a m -3. This pattern in nutrients and chlorophyll a came from the advection of waters into the Bay from an offshore source. Overall while there was considerable evidence for eutrophication in the estuary, the bay itself showed little biological response to nutrient loading.

  14. Seroepidemiology and phylogenetic characterisation of measles virus in Ireland, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Riordan, Bernadette; Carr, Michael J; Connell, Jeff; Dunford, Linda; Hall, William W; Hassan, Jaythoon

    2014-08-01

    Ireland is classified as an area of high measles incidence. A World Health Organisation-European Region strategic plan exists for measles elimination by 2015. To retrospectively investigate measles outbreaks using all patient samples (sera and oral fluid) received for measles laboratory diagnosis and characterise the genetic diversity of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland. 704 cases of acute measles infection as determined by the presence of measles specific IgM in sera and oral fluids were confirmed at the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Measles positive samples (n=116) were examined by genotyping, sequence analysis and phylogenetic characterisation. Three measles outbreaks occurred over the study period: 2004, 2009/2010 and 2011. Measles IgM positivity ranged from 22-29% in outbreak years to 5-10% in the intervening years. Age profile analysis revealed that whereas individuals >10 years accounted for only 8% of cases in the 2004 outbreak, this increased to 33% and 29% in the 2009/2010 and 2011 outbreaks, respectively. The transmission and also importation events. Clade D viruses were exclusively found circulating in Ireland, with autochthonous transmission of diverse genotype D4 strains associated with large outbreaks across Europe. More recently, genotype D8 was identified and these were associated with importation events. This study provides a comprehensive genetic analysis of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland and discriminated between indigenous and imported viral strains. Notably, an increase in laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the greater than 10 years of age group was seen over the study period. This information is valuable to inform vaccination strategies with a focus on those populations who remain susceptible to measles infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Information Technology and Development Series. Volume 2. Informatics and Industrial Development. Proceedings of the International Conference on Policies for Information Processing for Developing Countries Held at Dublin, Ireland on 9-13 March 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    phenomenon that is less ,han 20) years old. In spite of its recent history, we still do not fulls understand the sociological. psychological and economic...important for us to become aware of and to try to understand the socio- psychological and economic significance of the technologies that underlie the...officies: D~ atar processing tee hrolog% has become ain indispenisable tool iii goserment otfice,, anid coiriseluert ’l\\ there has been a steady increase in

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries: Ireland 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Ireland's remarkable economic growth over the last 15 years had strong effects on the energy sector. Due to rapidly increasing demand, Ireland has become much more dependent on international energy markets than it was in the past. For Irish energy policy, 2007 marks the end of the transition in market liberalisation with the introduction of a unified national electricity market. In addition, the publication of a new energy policy should help to ensure future security of supply and bring environmental improvements of energy use. Ireland is highly dependent on oil and increasingly dependent on natural gas. The price of these two commodities has strongly increased recently, which results in a heavy burden for the Irish economy and a risk for energy security. The main alternative in the supply side is coal and peat, which causes greenhouse gas emissions to rise much faster than expected. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Ireland and suggests solutions, focussing on moving ahead with market reform and increasing the energy efficiency of the Irish economy. Establishing the 'all-island' electricity market will be of critical importance. Sharper focus on energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, but in particular in transport and buildings, must be a priority. Finally, to achieve its ambitious goals for renewables in energy supply, Ireland will have to provide ample resources for research and development, to allow technologies such as ocean power to move from the laboratory to the market. 23 figs., 26 tabs., 4 annexes

  17. Emergence of group B Streptococcus serotype IV in women of child-bearing age in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, R A

    2011-02-01

    This study determined the carriage rate and serotype distribution of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in women of child-bearing age in the southern region of Ireland. A total of 2000 vaginal swabs collected in two periods in 2004 and 2006 were examined and revealed a GBS carriage rate of 16·1%. Serotyping of isolates showed that serotypes Ia, II, III, IV, and V were the most prevalent. A high prevalence of serotype IV was found, increasing from 7·6% to 15·2% between 2004 and 2006. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis demonstrated considerable genetic heterogeneity in the serotype IV isolates. This serotype should be considered for inclusion in potential vaccines for use in Ireland.

  18. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be... that the cattle originated from a herd which is officially certified by the Republic of Ireland as a...

  19. Future energy and emissions policy scenarios in Ireland for private car transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a technological model of Ireland's future car stock to simulate the impact of a range of policy measures on the baseline trend in energy demand in the period to 2030. The policies and measures modelled comprise meeting deployment targets for electric vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles, an EU regulation for the improvement of vehicle efficiency, implementation of a national biofuel obligation, as well as several behavioural measures (encouraging modal shifting and reduced travel demand). The impact of the different measures simulated is measured in terms of their contribution to meeting Ireland's ambitious targets for energy savings, for renewable energy penetration and for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The results point to a possible improvement of 32% in car stock efficiency, the achievement of 7.8% renewable energy share of road and rail transport and a 22% reduction in non-ETS private car CO 2 emissions relative to 2009 levels. A scenario analysis on meeting the EV penetration target shows a significant range of CO 2 emissions reductions depending on the cars (and mileage) displaced and on the electricity generation portfolio. - Highlights: ► Private car policy scenarios for Ireland modelled. ► Impact of vehicle efficiency, fuel switching and behavioural measures evaluated. ► Highlights distance to EU non-ETS emissions and renewable energy targets. ► Analysis of EV target shows that GHG mitigation potential is very sensitive.

  20. Round one of the Adelaide and Meath Hospital/Trinity College Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme: programme report and analysis based on established international key performance indices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, D

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In Ireland, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men, after prostate cancer, and the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, after breast cancer. By 2020, the number of new cases diagnosed annually in Ireland is projected to have increased by 79% in men and 56% in women. Organised screening for CRC is already underway or is in the process of being rolled out in several European countries, either at a regional or national level. The Adelaide and Meath Hospital\\/ Trinity College Dublin Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme (TTC-CRC-SP) is Ireland\\'s first pilot population based bowel screening programme. METHOD: Based on a biennial test model the pilot aimed to assess the accuracy of FIT and to evaluate the whole programme based on established international key performance indices. RESULTS: To date 9,993 individuals aged 50-74 years have been invited to participate in the TTC-CRC-SP with over 5,000 FIT\\'s analysed. Overall uptake was 51% and FIT positivity was 10%. The programme has undertaken over 400 screening colonoscopies and detected 154 precancerous adenomas and 38 cancerous lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The first round of The Adelaide and Meath Hospital Tallaght\\/Trinity College Dublin Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme has been highly successful and confirmed that there is an advantage for FIT based two stage bowel cancer screening programmes.

  1. The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Cartwright, Laura; Corish, Clare; Sugrue, Sheila; Wood-Martin, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the body composition, nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and educational needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. Participants included 203 male rugby players age 15-18 yr competing at Senior School's Cup level in Leinster, Ireland. Estimation of body composition included measurement of height, weight, and percentage body fat (PBF; using bioelectrical impedance analysis, Tanita BC-418). Nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and education needs were assessed by questionnaire. The range of PBF was 5.1-25.3%. Sixty-eight percent of the players in this study had a healthy PBF (10-20%), 32 (22%) were classified as underweight (benefit from appropriate nutritional education.

  2. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  3. Invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland, 2001-2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó Maoldomhnaigh, Cilian

    2016-12-01

    In 1999, invasive meningococcal disease was hyperendemic in Ireland at 14.75\\/100 000 population, with 60% group B and 30% group C diseases. National sepsis guidelines and meningococcal C vaccines were introduced in 2000. Despite a spontaneous decline in group B infection, invasive meningococcal disease remains a leading cause of sepsis. This study characterises the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland since the introduction of meningococcal C vaccine and reviews its clinical presentation, hospital course and outcome in anticipation of meningococcal B vaccine introduction.

  4. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 13

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The evolution of high throughput technologies that measure gene expression levels has created a data base for inferring GRNs (a process also known as reverse engineering of GRNs). However, the nature of these data has made this process very difficult. At the moment, several methods of discovering qualitative causal relationships between genes with high accuracy from microarray data exist, but large scale quantitative analysis on real biological datasets cannot be performed, to date, as existing approaches are not suitable for real microarray data which are noisy and insufficient. RESULTS: This paper performs an analysis of several existing evolutionary algorithms for quantitative gene regulatory network modelling. The aim is to present the techniques used and offer a comprehensive comparison of approaches, under a common framework. Algorithms are applied to both synthetic and real gene expression data from DNA microarrays, and ability to reproduce biological behaviour, scalability and robustness to noise are assessed and compared. CONCLUSIONS: Presented is a comparison framework for assessment of evolutionary algorithms, used to infer gene regulatory networks. Promising methods are identified and a platform for development of appropriate model formalisms is established.

  6. Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrun, María V.; Soto, Lorena P.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Marti, Luis E.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

  7. The Role of Parental Expectations in Understanding Social and Academic Well-Being among Children with Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Selina; Maître, Bertrand; Watson, Dorothy; Banks, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on longitudinal data to examine the extent to which parents' educational expectations shape academic development and changes in self-concept among young people with different types of disability. The analysis is based on the "Growing Up in Ireland" longitudinal study, which tracked 7423 children between the primary to…

  8. The prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomas P

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and classically presents with early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common mutation presenting with clinical evidence is the Z mutation, while the S mutation is associated with a milder plasma deficiency. AATD is an under-diagnosed condition and the World Health Organisation recommends targeted detection programmes for AATD in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-responsive asthma, cryptogenic liver disease and first degree relatives of known AATD patients. Methods We present data from the first 3,000 individuals screened following ATS\\/ERS guidelines as part of the Irish National Targeted Detection Programme (INTDP). We also investigated a DNA collection of 1,100 individuals randomly sampled from the general population. Serum and DNA was collected from both groups and mutations in the SERPINA1 gene detected by phenotyping or genotyping. Results The Irish National Targeted Detection Programme identified 42 ZZ, 44 SZ, 14 SS, 430 MZ, 263 MS, 20 IX and 2 rare mutations. Analysis of 1,100 randomly selected individuals identified 113 MS, 46 MZ, 2 SS and 2 SZ genotypes. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that AATD in Ireland is more prevalent than previously estimated with Z and S allele frequencies among the highest in the world. Furthermore, our targeted detection programme enriched the population of those carrying the Z but not the S allele, suggesting the Z allele is more important in the pathogenesis of those conditions targeted by the detection programme.

  9. The prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomas P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and classically presents with early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common mutation presenting with clinical evidence is the Z mutation, while the S mutation is associated with a milder plasma deficiency. AATD is an under-diagnosed condition and the World Health Organisation recommends targeted detection programmes for AATD in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-responsive asthma, cryptogenic liver disease and first degree relatives of known AATD patients. METHODS: We present data from the first 3,000 individuals screened following ATS\\/ERS guidelines as part of the Irish National Targeted Detection Programme (INTDP). We also investigated a DNA collection of 1,100 individuals randomly sampled from the general population. Serum and DNA was collected from both groups and mutations in the SERPINA1 gene detected by phenotyping or genotyping. RESULTS: The Irish National Targeted Detection Programme identified 42 ZZ, 44 SZ, 14 SS, 430 MZ, 263 MS, 20 IX and 2 rare mutations. Analysis of 1,100 randomly selected individuals identified 113 MS, 46 MZ, 2 SS and 2 SZ genotypes. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that AATD in Ireland is more prevalent than previously estimated with Z and S allele frequencies among the highest in the world. Furthermore, our targeted detection programme enriched the population of those carrying the Z but not the S allele, suggesting the Z allele is more important in the pathogenesis of those conditions targeted by the detection programme.

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 3

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    This study explored registered psychiatric nurses\\' (RPNs\\') interactions and level of empathy towards service users with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A qualitative approach was used, and 17 RPNs were interviewed using a semistructured interview schedule incorporating the "staff-patient interaction response scale" (SPIRS). Four themes emerged following data analysis: "challenging and difficult," "manipulative, destructive and threatening behaviour," "preying on the vulnerable resulting in splitting staff and other service users," and "boundaries and structure." Additionally, low levels of empathy were evident in the majority of participants\\' responses to the SPIRS. The findings provide further insight on nurses\\' empathy responses and views on caring for service users with BPD and further evidence for the need for training and education for nurses in the care of service users diagnosed with BPD.

  11. Sickness certification difficulties in Ireland--a GP focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M; Thorley, K; Von Hout, M-C

    2013-07-01

    Sickness certification causes problems for general practitioners (GPs). Difficulty with the assessment of capacity to work, conflict with patients and other non-medical factors have been shown to influence GPs' decision-making. Inadequate leadership and management of certification issues add to GPs' difficulties. To explore problems associated with sickness certification, as part of a larger mixed method research project exploring GPs' experiences and perceptions of sickness certification in Ireland. A qualitative study in an urban region of Ireland. A focus group of four male and four female GPs explored problems encountered by GPs in certifying sickness absence. Thematic data analysis was used. Three major themes emerged: perception of the sickness certification system, organization of health care and cultural factors in sickness absence behaviour. Employment structures in public and private sectors and lack of communication with other health care providers and employers were identified as complicating sickness certification. GPs encounter a complexity of issues in sick certification and are dissatisfied with their role in certifying sickness absence. Our results open the debate for policy change and development in Ireland.

  12. Suboptimal lipid management before and after ischaemic stroke and TIA-the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Ní Chróinín, Chantelle; Akijian, Layan; Callaly, Elizabeth L; Hannon, Niamh; Kelly, Lisa; Marnane, Michael; Merwick, Áine; Sheehan, Órla; Horgan, Gillian; Duggan, Joseph; Kyne, Lorraine; Dolan, Eamon; Murphy, Seán; Williams, David; Kelly, Peter J

    2018-01-24

    Few population-based studies have assessed lipid adherence to international guidelines for primary and secondary prevention in stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients. This study aims to evaluate adherence to lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) guidelines amongst patients with ischaemic stroke/TIA. Using hot and cold pursuit methods from multiple hospital/community sources, all stroke and TIA cases in North Dublin City were prospectively ascertained over a 1-year period. Adherence to National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) III guidelines, before and after index ischaemic stroke/TIA, was assessed. Amongst 616 patients (428 ischaemic stroke, 188 TIA), total cholesterol was measured following the qualifying event in 76.5% (471/616) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in 60.1% (370/616). At initial stroke/TIA presentation, 54.1% (200/370) met NCEP III LDL goals. Compliance was associated with prior stroke (odds ratio [OR] 2.19, p = 0.02), diabetes (OR 1.91, p = 0.04), hypertension (OR 1.57, p = 0.03), atrial fibrillation (OR 1.78, p = 0.01), pre-event LLT (OR 2.85, p TIA onset, 32.7% (195/596) was on LLT. Nonetheless, LDL exceeded individual NCEP goal in 29.2% (56/192); 21.6% (53/245) warranting LLT was not on treatment prior to stroke/TIA onset. After index stroke/TIA, 75.9% (422/556) was on LLT; 15.3% (30/196) meeting NCEP III criteria was not prescribed a statin as recommended. By 2 years, actuarial survival was 72.8% and 11.9% (59/497) experienced stroke recurrence. No association was observed between initial post-event target adherence and 2-year outcomes. In this population-based study, LLT recommended by international guidelines was under-used, before and after index stroke/TIA. Strategies to improve adherence are needed.

  13. Radon Gas in Ireland Joint Position Statement by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the Health Service Executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part, A.M.; Colgan, P.A.; Fenton, D.; Kelly, I.; Long, S.; O'Mahony, M.; Pollard, D.

    2010-04-01

    This position statement is written by the Health Service Executive and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland with a view to forming and influencing policy in this area. It provides a summary of the health risks associated with radon exposure in Ireland and the steps that can be taken to reduce those risks. It outlines suggested ongoing work to reduce both the population dose from radon and the individual dose to those most at risk and considers future work needed to improve national policy to achieve these objectives

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Stewarts Care Limited, Dublin 20

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Setty, Yaki

    2011-09-30

    Abstract Background Neuronal migration, the process by which neurons migrate from their place of origin to their final position in the brain, is a central process for normal brain development and function. Advances in experimental techniques have revealed much about many of the molecular components involved in this process. Notwithstanding these advances, how the molecular machinery works together to govern the migration process has yet to be fully understood. Here we present a computational model of neuronal migration, in which four key molecular entities, Lis1, DCX, Reelin and GABA, form a molecular program that mediates the migration process. Results The model simulated the dynamic migration process, consistent with in-vivo observations of morphological, cellular and population-level phenomena. Specifically, the model reproduced migration phases, cellular dynamics and population distributions that concur with experimental observations in normal neuronal development. We tested the model under reduced activity of Lis1 and DCX and found an aberrant development similar to observations in Lis1 and DCX silencing expression experiments. Analysis of the model gave rise to unforeseen insights that could guide future experimental study. Specifically: (1) the model revealed the possibility that under conditions of Lis1 reduced expression, neurons experience an oscillatory neuron-glial association prior to the multipolar stage; and (2) we hypothesized that observed morphology variations in rats and mice may be explained by a single difference in the way that Lis1 and DCX stimulate bipolar motility. From this we make the following predictions: (1) under reduced Lis1 and enhanced DCX expression, we predict a reduced bipolar migration in rats, and (2) under enhanced DCX expression in mice we predict a normal or a higher bipolar migration. Conclusions We present here a system-wide computational model of neuronal migration that integrates theory and data within a precise

  15. 'What Difference Does it Make?: The Construction of Liminal Plurality in Northern Ireland'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    2009-01-01

    This article performs a cursory critical discourse analysis of the construction of ‘difference’ among the Northern Irish population in the constitutional policy proposals in Northern Ireland between 1973 and 1998. Central to interpreting conflict resolution in a divided society is an understanding...... of the predefinition of the nature of differences and divisions. It is my claim that a critical discourse analysis, which grapples specifically with the construction of ‘difference’, can help interpret the ongoing crisis in the Northern Irish peace process. In other words, it might help explicate the extent to which...

  16. The Language of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Gerry Adams vs. Ian Paisley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Grego

    2010-03-01

        The discourse analysis of the texts collected is supported by computer-aided analysis. Two aspects are being focussed on, in particular: 1 the use of same/different linguistic resources by the same orators to discuss same/different subjects over the years; and 2 the overall influence of language on politics, i.e. how words are used to exercise power.     It is hoped that the present study may help clarify aspects of the evolution of political discourse in Northern Ireland, in general, and of the argumentative skills and strategies of the above two politicians, in particular.

  17. AbbeyBreaffy Nursing Home, Dublin Road (N5), Castlebar, Mayo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2015-09-01

    Few case-finding instruments are available to community healthcare professionals. This review aims to identify short, valid instruments that detect older community-dwellers risk of four adverse outcomes: hospitalisation, functional-decline, institutionalisation and death. Data sources included PubMed and the Cochrane library. Data on outcome measures, patient and instrument characteristics, and trial quality (using the Quality In Prognosis Studies [QUIPS] tool), were double-extracted for derivation-validation studies in community-dwelling older adults (>50 years). Forty-six publications, representing 23 unique instruments, were included. Only five were externally validated. Mean patient age range was 64.2-84.6 years. Most instruments n=18, (78%) were derived in North America from secondary analysis of survey data. The majority n=12, (52%), measured more than one outcome with hospitalisation and the Probability of Repeated Admission score the most studied outcome and instrument respectively. All instruments incorporated multiple predictors. Activities of daily living n=16, (70%), was included most often. Accuracy varied according to instruments and outcomes; area under the curve of 0.60-0.73 for hospitalisation, 0.63-0.78 for functional decline, 0.70-0.74 for institutionalisation and 0.56-0.82 for death. The QUIPS tool showed that 5\\/23 instruments had low potential for bias across all domains. This review highlights the present need to develop short, reliable, valid instruments to case-find older adults at risk in the community.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Cheeverstown House Limited, Dublin 6w

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  20. Women and the Struggle for Daytime Adult Education in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Daytime adult education has emerged in Ireland in the form of voluntary, locally based groups of working class women providing education for themselves and others. A survey of 96 groups illuminated their struggles with finding suitable space, day care, and advertising. They thrive because of disenchantment with the content, scheduling, and form of…

  1. The customized fetal growth potential: a standard for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To identify maternal and pregnancy-related physiological and pathological variables associated with fetal growth and birthweight in Ireland and to develop customized birthweight centile charts for the Irish population that will aid in appropriate identification and selection of growth-restricted fetuses requiring increased antenatal surveillance.

  2. It's Not an Exact Science: Teaching Entrepreneurship in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the approach to embedding entrepreneurship within third level education in Northern Ireland by assessing the perceptions of lecturers and learners and monitoring the effectiveness of teaching methods. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys and focus groups were conducted with lecturers and learners…

  3. Ireland's pathway towards a 100% renewable energy-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Leahy, Martin; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Ireland has an abundant supply of renewable energy, a dangerous reliance on imported fossil fuels, as well as very demanding energy and CO2 targets to reach. All of these indicate that a major alternation to the current energy system is necessary, especially an increase in the utilisation of rene...

  4. Burnout among Accounting and Finance Academics in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir; Flood, Barbara; Murphy, Evelyn; Willis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of burnout experienced by accounting and finance academics in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data for this cross-sectional survey study were collected from 100 accounting and finance academics teaching in Irish third level institutions. Independent sample "t"-tests, one…

  5. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been…

  6. Survey of diagnostic radiology in the Republic of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; Howett, D.; Hone, C.; Mulholland, C.

    1988-03-01

    This survey examined a number of aspects of the practice of diagnostic radiology in Ireland. These included the frequency of examinations, the gonadal and active bone marrow doses to patients, the genetically significant dose, the standard of design of x-ray rooms and of performance of equipment, and an inventory of equipment currently in use (author)

  7. How Do Teachers in Ireland and England Conceptualise Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sheena; McPhillips, Therese; Doveston, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a comparative study using data from questionnaire surveys carried out in England (n = 57) and Ireland (n = 72). The researchers examine how teachers and teaching assistants who are currently teaching pupils with dyslexia in primary schools describe dyslexia and what may have influenced their conceptualisation.…

  8. Hearing Voices: Lessons from the History of Psychiatry in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2017-03-10

    The history of psychiatry is a history of therapeutic enthusiasm, with all of the triumph and tragedy, hubris and humility that such enthusiasm brings. During the 1800s and early 1900s, Ireland-s public asylums were routinely overcrowded, unhygienic and, quite commonly, fatal. The asylums became all-too-convenient options for a society with an apparently insatiable hunger for institutions, incarceration and control. The emergence of clinical professionals, both medical and nursing, was inevitably a factor in this complex mix, but the effects of any search for professional prestige were dwarfed by asylum doctors' clear outrage at what the asylum system became. There were powerful, non-medical, vested interests in keeping large asylums open. Irish society consistently failed to generate solutions to real human suffering (mental illness, disability, disease, poverty, ill fortune) other than the extraordinary network of institutions that characterised so much of Irish history: orphanages, industrial schools, reformatories, workhouses, laundries, borstals, prisons and asylums. As a result, Ireland's remarkable asylum system was primarily a social creation rather than a medical one. Notwithstanding this complex history, Ireland's mental health services have been transformed over the past five decades, although real challenges remain, especially in relation to the homeless mentally ill, the mentally ill in prison, and providing meaningful support to families.

  9. A Strategy for the Digital Content Industry in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is a real opportunity for Ireland to develop a significant strength in the digital content industries of the future and to develop strong digital content clusters of high-growth, high-value digital businesses. This report identifies five key target areas: e-Learning, Games, Business and Consumer Wireless Services, Digital Libraries, and Non-Media Digital Applications

  10. Reviving a Community, Modernizing an Industry: Ireland's Furniture College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Connemara, a rural region in Ireland, is characterized by high unemployment, high emigration, poor infrastructure, inadequate public services, and a low rate of transfer to third-level education. To address the situation, the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), joined forces with Connemara West (a community-owned development organization…

  11. Religious Education and the Law in Northern Ireland's Controlled Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the legislation under which religious education operates in Northern Ireland's schools. A brief historical sketch identifies the Irish Churches' interest in the educational debates of the 1920s and 1930s. The legislation that established religious education in the curriculum is traced from those debates to the present…

  12. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  13. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M P

    2012-02-03

    SETTING: The Southwest of Ireland (Counties Cork and Kerry) 1987-2000, average population 549,500. OBJECTIVE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant morbidity worldwide and the study of epidemiology and characteristics helps in their prevention and treatment. This study was performed to determine the incidence of NTM disease in comparison to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in Southwest Ireland, over the above time period. DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out in all human isolates of NTM, M. tuberculosis and M. bovis between 1987 and 2000, in the Southwest Region of Ireland. RESULTS: The mean incidence of NTM (0.4\\/100,000 population) has risen since 1995, principally of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC). The annual incidence of M. tuberculosis in humans over 14 years in the same region was 971\\/100,000 population with a significant reduction since 1994 and M. bovis remained constant at 0.5\\/100,000 population. CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of disease causing NTM noted in Southwest Ireland reflects global data and is surmised to be due to an ageing population, increased incidence related to chronic fibrotic lung disease, and environmental mycobacterial factors.

  14. The Changing Family in Northern Ireland: Young People and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Margaret I.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents in Northern Ireland to investigate their experiences with the divorce process and help provided by family, friends, and professionals. They considered the separation/divorce process long, frequently underpinned by acrimony and violence. Extended family and peers provided great support. Many teens used specialist counselors…

  15. Relationships of People with Learning Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…

  16. Logistic regression model for detecting radon prone areas in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elío, J; Crowley, Q; Scanlon, R; Hodgson, J; Long, S

    2017-12-01

    A new high spatial resolution radon risk map of Ireland has been developed, based on a combination of indoor radon measurements (n=31,910) and relevant geological information (i.e. Bedrock Geology, Quaternary Geology, soil permeability and aquifer type). Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of having an indoor radon concentration above the national reference level of 200Bqm -3 in Ireland. The four geological datasets evaluated were found to be statistically significant, and, based on combinations of these four variables, the predicted probabilities ranged from 0.57% to 75.5%. Results show that the Republic of Ireland may be divided in three main radon risk categories: High (HR), Medium (MR) and Low (LR). The probability of having an indoor radon concentration above 200Bqm -3 in each area was found to be 19%, 8% and 3%; respectively. In the Republic of Ireland, the population affected by radon concentrations above 200Bqm -3 is estimated at ca. 460k (about 10% of the total population). Of these, 57% (265k), 35% (160k) and 8% (35k) are in High, Medium and Low Risk Areas, respectively. Our results provide a high spatial resolution utility which permit customised radon-awareness information to be targeted at specific geographic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Stewarts Care Ltd, Dublin 20

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abel, Frida

    2011-04-14

    Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test). PCA clusters p1, p2, and p3 were found to correspond well to the postulated subtypes 1, 2A, and 2B, respectively. Remarkably, a fourth novel cluster was detected in all three independent data sets. This cluster comprised mainly 11q-deleted MNA-negative tumours with low expression of ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and\\/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher\\'s exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group\\'s specific characteristics.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Stewarts Care Ltd, Dublin 20

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    May, Carl R

    2011-09-30

    Abstract Background Normalization Process Theory (NPT) can be used to explain implementation processes in health care relating to new technologies and complex interventions. This paper describes the processes by which we developed a simplified version of NPT for use by clinicians, managers, and policy makers, and which could be embedded in a web-enabled toolkit and on-line users manual. Methods Between 2006 and 2010 we undertook four tasks. (i) We presented NPT to potential and actual users in multiple workshops, seminars, and presentations. (ii) Using what we discovered from these meetings, we decided to create a simplified set of statements and explanations expressing core constructs of the theory (iii) We circulated these statements to a criterion sample of 60 researchers, clinicians and others, using SurveyMonkey to collect qualitative textual data about their criticisms of the statements. (iv) We then reconstructed the statements and explanations to meet users\\' criticisms, embedded them in a web-enabled toolkit, and beta tested this \\'in the wild\\'. Results On-line data collection was effective: over a four week period 50\\/60 participants responded using SurveyMonkey (40\\/60) or direct phone and email contact (10\\/60). An additional nine responses were received from people who had been sent the SurveyMonkey form by other respondents. Beta testing of the web enabled toolkit produced 13 responses, from 327 visits to http:\\/\\/www.normalizationprocess.org. Qualitative analysis of both sets of responses showed a high level of support for the statements but also showed that some statements poorly expressed their underlying constructs or overlapped with others. These were rewritten to take account of users\\' criticisms and then embedded in a web-enabled toolkit. As a result we were able translate the core constructs into a simplified set of statements that could be utilized by non-experts. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through

  19. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  20. Mental health legislation and human rights in England, Wales and the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) published its Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation (Geneva: WHO) presenting a detailed statement of human rights issues which need to be addressed in national legislation relating to mental health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which revised mental health legislation in England, Wales (2007) and Ireland (2001) accords with these standards (excluding standards relating solely to children or mentally-ill offenders). Legislation in England and Wales meets 90 (54.2%) of the 166 WHO standards examined, while legislation in Ireland meets 80 standards (48.2%). Areas of high compliance include definitions of mental disorder, relatively robust procedures for involuntary admission and treatment (although provision of information remains suboptimal) and clarity regarding offences and penalties Areas of medium compliance relate to competence, capacity and consent (with a particular deficit in capacity legislation in Ireland), oversight and review (which exclude long-term voluntary patients and require more robust complaints procedures), and rules governing special treatments, seclusion and restraint. Areas of low compliance relate to promoting rights (impacting on other areas within legislation, such as information management), voluntary patients (especially non-protesting, incapacitated patients), protection of vulnerable groups and emergency treatment. The greatest single deficit in both jurisdictions relates to economic and social rights. There are four key areas in need of rectification and clarification in relation to mental health legislation in England, Wales and Ireland; these relate to (1) measures to protect and promote the rights of voluntary patients; (2) issues relating to competence, capacity and consent (especially in Ireland); (3) the role of "common law" in relation to mental health law (especially in England and Wales); and (4) the extent to which each jurisdiction

  1. Representação descritiva e temática de recursos de informação no sistema agência Embrapa: uso do padrão dublin core / Descriptive and thematic representation of electronic information of the Embrapa information agency: uses of the dublin core metadata standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Izabel Fugisawa Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo relata a experiência da Embrapa na utilização do padrão de metadados Dublin Core (DC na representação descritiva e temática de recursos de informação eletrônicos. É apresentada uma descrição sucinta de cada elemento metadado, incluindo sua definição, qualificadores e valor. A adoção do padrão Dublin Core teve sua origem no âmbito de um projeto de pesquisa dedicado à organização e tratamento da informação eletrônica produzida pela Empresa, cujo produto principal é o website “Agência de Informação Embrapa”. Duas ferramentas de software foram desenvolvidas para dar suporte à atividade de representação descritiva e temática. Uma ferramenta é dedicada às rotinas de inserção, alteração, exclusão e consulta de registros na base de dados. Regras mínimas de representação descritiva, baseadas na AACR2, foram adotadas no tratamento da informação. A segunda ferramenta apóia as atividades relativas ao controle de autoridades, palavras-chaves e categorias de assunto. A representação descritiva e temática de recursos de informação utilizando o padrão Dublin Core contribui para aumentar a precisão da informação, além de diminuir as ambigüidades e inconsistências, fatores críticos de qualidade na recuperação e acesso aos conteúdos desejados.

  2. Developing Agreed and Accepted Understandings of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Concepts among Members of an Innovative Spirituality Interest Group in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Timmins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Spirituality Interest Group (SIG was set up in in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of Ireland (ROI, in March 2013. This paper reports on some of the journey and requirements involved in developing the group. It highlights the essential work of establishing agreed understandings in an objective way in order for the group to move forward with action. These agreed understandings have contributed to the group’s success. Outlining the group’s journey in arriving at agreements may be of use to others considering creating similar groups. One key action taken to determine the suitability of the group’s aims and terms of reference was the distribution of a Survey Monkey to group members (n = 28 in 2014. One early meeting of the group discussed future goals and direction using the responses of this anonymous survey. This paper reports on the results of the survey regarding the establishment of the SIG and the development of a shared understanding of spiritual care among the members. There is consensus in the group that the spiritual care required by clients receiving healthcare ought to be an integrated effort across the healthcare team. However, there is an acceptance that spirituality and spiritual care are not always clearly understood concepts in practice. By developing shared or at least accepted understandings of spirituality and spiritual care, SIG hopes to be able to underpin both research and practice with solid foundational conceptual understanding, and in the process also to meet essential prerequisites for achieving the group’s aims.

  3. Restaurant Selection in Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to investigate the selection process used by consumers when choosing a restaurant to dine. This study examined literature on consumer behaviour, restaurant selection, and decision-making, underpinning the contention that service quality is linked to the consumer’s selection of a restaurant. It supports the utility theories that consumers buy bundles of attributes that simultaneously combined represent a certain level of service quality at a certain p...

  4. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  5. Dublin North City

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holt, Kathryn E

    2010-05-31

    Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, which remains an important public health issue in many developing countries. Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is an area of high incidence and the pediatric population appears to be at high risk of exposure and infection. Methods We recently defined the population structure of S. Typhi, using new sequencing technologies to identify nearly 2,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be used as unequivocal phylogenetic markers. Here we have used the GoldenGate (Illumina) platform to simultaneously type 1,500 of these SNPs in 62 S. Typhi isolates causing severe typhoid in children admitted to Patan Hospital in Kathmandu. Results Eight distinct S. Typhi haplotypes were identified during the 20-month study period, with 68% of isolates belonging to a subclone of the previously defined H58 S. Typhi. This subclone was closely associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, with all isolates from this group demonstrating a resistant phenotype and harbouring the same resistance-associated SNP in GyrA (Phe83). A secondary clone, comprising 19% of isolates, was observed only during the second half of the study. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of SNP typing for monitoring bacterial populations over a defined period in a single endemic setting. We provide evidence for genotype introduction and define a nalidixic acid resistant subclone of S. Typhi, which appears to be the dominant cause of severe pediatric typhoid in Kathmandu during the study period.

  6. Literary Voices in Dubliners

    OpenAIRE

    Duech, Lorie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Critics have already pointed out the importance of Joyce's use of quotation, allusion and parody, especially in his later work. The names of Flaubert, Oscar Wilde and Shakespeare have long been associated with Joyce's writing. This is the type of literary association that places Joyce within "tradition" and "the historical sense" which involves, as T.S. Eliot explains, "a perception, not only of the pastness of the past, but of its presence." Joyce's use of subtexts not only reveals his tende...

  7. Needs of informal caregivers across the caregiving course in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Sile; Corr, Bernie; Mays, Iain; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a debilitating terminal condition. Informal caregivers are key figures in ALS care provision. The physical, psychological and emotional impact of providing care in the home requires appropriate assistance and support. The objective of this analysis is to explore the needs of informal ALS caregivers across the caregiving course. Design In an open-ended question as part of a semistructured interview, caregivers were asked what would help them in their role. Interviews took place on three occasions at 4-month to 6-month intervals. Demographic, burden and quality of life data were collected, in addition to the open-ended responses. We carried out descriptive statistical analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative data. Setting and participants Home interviews at baseline (n=81) and on two further occasions (n=56, n=41) with informal caregivers of people with ALS attending the National ALS/MND Clinic at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Results The majority of caregivers were family members. Hours of care provided and caregiver burden increased across the interview series. Thematic analysis identified what would help them in their role, and needs related to external support and services, psychological-emotional factors, patient-related behaviours, a cure and ‘nothing’. Themes were interconnected and their prevalence varied across the interview time points. Conclusion This study has shown the consistency and adaptation in what caregivers identified as helpful in their role, across 12–18 months of a caregiving journey. Support needs are clearly defined, and change with time and the course of caregiving. Caregivers need support from family, friends and healthcare professionals in managing their tasks and the emotional demands of caregiving. Identifying the specific needs of informal caregivers should enable health professionals to provide tailored supportive interventions

  8. Measurement equivalence of the food related lifestyle instrument (FRL) in Ireland and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Sullivan, C.; Scholderer, Joachim; Cowan, Cathal

    2005-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument (FRL) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Representative consumer samples from the UK 1998 ( N = 1000) and Ireland 2001 (N = 1024) are compared using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest that, in all five FRL...... domains, the measurement characteristics of the survey instrument were completely invariant across the two cultures. No indication was found of any bias. Regarding future applications of the FRL, it can be concluded that the instrument has identical measurement characteristics when applied to consumer...

  9. Ireland – industrial competitiveness in a small open economy (NIRSA) Working Paper Series. No. 44

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, John; Barry, Frank; Van Egeraat, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The Irish economy has boomed in recent years based on a strategy of attracting FDI, and has become a model economy particularly for EU accession countries. This chapter sets out to provide a deeper understanding of Ireland’s success in the context of Porter’s Diamond Model of national competitiveness. A number of analyses have been done in Ireland on the relevance of Porter’s Diamond theory to national competitiveness. O’Connell, van Egeraat and Enright (1997) adopted a Porter Diamond analysi...

  10. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival in rural Northwest Ireland: 17 years' experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Masterson, Siobhán

    2011-05-01

    SAVES, the name used to describe a register of survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), was established in rural Northwest Ireland in 1992. From 1992 to 2008, 80 survivors were identified (population 239,000 (2006)). Most incidents were witnessed (69\\/70) and all were in shockable rhythm at the time of first rhythm analysis (66\\/66). Of 66 patients who could be traced, 46 were alive in December 2008. Average survival rates appeared to increase over the lifetime of the database. SAVES has also contributed to the development of a national OHCA register.

  11. The Public-Private Sector Pay Gap in Ireland: What Lies Beneath?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a sub-sectoral analysis of changes in the public-private sector pay gap in Ireland between 2003 and 2006. We find that between March 2003 and October 2006 the public sector pay premium increased from 14 to 26 per cent and that there was substantial variation between subsectors of the public service. Within the public service the premium in 2006 was highest in Education and Security Services and lowest in the Civil Service and Local Authorities. In the private sector the pa...

  12. Digital field mapping of the Dingle Peninsular, County Kerry, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David; Bense, Frithjof

    2014-05-01

    In September 2011, a team of eight students from the University of Göttingen digitally mapped seven 10 km2 adjoining areas on the western tip of the Dingle Peninsular in County Kerry, Ireland for their M.Sc. mapping projects. The students worked in pairs; each pair was equipped with an outdoor, waterproof, drop-proof touchscreen tablet running Windows and Midland Valley Exploration Ltd's Fieldmove software. They also used paper field-notebooks, cameras and hand compasses. The tablets have built-in GPS, two five-hour batteries, and displays that are designed to work even in bright sunlight. In preparation for the fieldwork, the topographic maps of the area (from 1890!) were scanned, geo-rectified and draped onto the DEM of the area using the Midland Valley's Move software. The geology of the Dingle Peninsular is complex; an inlier of Ordovician rocks that were deformed in the Caledonian Orogeny, are surrounded by Devonian Old Red Sandstone (ORS) units, which were syntectonically deposited as the whole area was folded during the Variscan Orogeny. Consequently the ORS units vary in thickness tremendously and facies often vary laterally. The ORS also contains many unconformities. The area is excellently exposed at the coastline, but it is poor inland because of glacial deposits. As a consequent the students required the software to record bedding planes, cleavages, fold axes and unconformities, as well as standard geological information. The work went well, despite the weather (the post tropical cyclone Katia!). It was far quicker to complete the map compared to working on a paper map, after the students had got used to the software and the tablet controls. The GPS in the tablet was deemed to be inaccurate and locations on the map were ascertained using standard techniques. It was also extremely useful to export tectonic data in the evening for stereonet projection analysis. Each 10 km2 area was mapped at 1:10000 in approx. 2 weeks. Because the tablet requires two

  13. On equilibrium real exchange rates in euro area: Special focus on behavioral equilibrium exchange rates in Ireland and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Klára Plecitá; Luboš Střelec

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with ...

  14. Detecting internet search activity for mouth cancer in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G; O'Rourke, C; Hogan, J; Fenton, J E

    2016-02-01

    Mouth Cancer Awareness Day in Ireland was launched in September 2010 by survivors of the disease to promote public awareness of suspicious signs of oral cancer and to provide free dental examinations. To find out whether its introduction had increased public interest in the disease, we used Google Trends to find out how often users in Ireland had searched for "oral cancer" and "mouth cancer" across all Google domains between January 2005 and December 2013. The number of internet searches for these cancers has increased significantly (p increase in public awareness of mouth cancer could result in earlier presentation and better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kim; Sammin, Donal; Harmeyer, Silke; Nath, Mintu; Livingstone, Morag; Longbottom, David

    2012-08-01

    Although few studies have investigated the prevalence of chlamydial infections in cattle, reported prevalence rates vary hugely. In order to assess the prevalence of this infection in cattle in Ireland, serum samples (100 herds, 20 samples/herd) collected for statutory screening for brucellosis were examined by soluble chlamydial antigen indirect ELISA. The assay detects antibodies to the two most common Chlamydiaceae spp. affecting cattle, namely Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum. A total of 95 samples from 57 herds were seropositive, representing an observed prevalence rate of 4.75%. The parametric bootstrap estimate of the mean disease prevalence in the population was 6.04% (95%, CI 4.70-7.50). The results suggest the prevalence of chlamydial infection is low in cattle in Ireland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mailhes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  17. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  18. Leptospirosis in Ireland: annual incidence and exposures associated with infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, P

    2013-08-05

    SUMMARY Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities. This paper reports both on the incidence of human leptospirosis in Ireland and on possible associated exposures, using leptospirosis case notification, enhanced surveillance, hospital discharge data and death registrations. Based on official notification data, there was a threefold increase in the reported incidence of leptospirosis in Ireland between 1995-1999 and 2004-2009, which appears partially to be due to improved reporting. The exposures most associated with infection were those involving contact with livestock or water-based recreational sports, in particular kayaking. Advice on prevention should continue to be targeted in the first instance at these groups. The variety of potential transmission routes reported should inform clinicians to consider leptospirosis in individuals with a compatible clinical profile who were not from occupational groups historically considered at risk.

  19. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge

    1993-01-01

    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...

  20. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland activities and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This brochure describes the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland's functions and responsibilities which relate principally to the monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and of radiation doses received by people occupationally or otherwise; regulation of the uses of ionising radiation in medicine, industry and elsewhere; assistance in developing national preparedness for response to a radiological emergency; and providing information and advice to government, other organisations and the general public on matters relating to ionising radiation. ills